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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779024/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-metformin-to-treat-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease
#1
Stephen L Seliger, Kaleab Z Abebe, Kenneth R Hallows, Dana C Miskulin, Ronald D Perrone, Terry Watnick, Kyongtae Tae Bae
BACKGROUND: Metformin inhibits cyclic AMP generation and activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which inhibits the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin pathways. Together these effects may reduce cyst growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). METHODS: A phase II, double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial of 26 months duration. Participants will include nondiabetic adults (n = 96) aged 18-60 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥50 mL/min/1...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738843/transporter-dependent-cytotoxicity-of-antiviral-drugs-in-primary-cultures-of-human-proximal-tubular-cells
#2
Lawrence H Lash, Caroline A Lee, Clynn Wilker, Vishal Shah
The role of plasma membrane transporters in the nephrotoxicity of two antiretroviral drugs, cidofovir and tenofovir, was studied in primary cultures of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells. Cells were grown on Transwell filter inserts to maintain epithelial polarity and access to either the apical or basolateral plasma membrane. The function of relevant membrane transporters, organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1/3), P-glycoprotein (multidrug resistance protein-1; P-gp or MDR1), and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), was validated by measurements of apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical fluxes of furosemide, digoxin, and metformin, respectively...
May 5, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716795/metformin-prevents-the-development-of-severe-chronic-kidney-disease-and-its-associated-mineral-and-bone-disorder
#3
Ellen Neven, Benjamin Vervaet, Kerstin Brand, Ulrike Gottwald-Hostalek, Britt Opdebeeck, Annelies De Maré, Anja Verhulst, Jean-Daniel Lalau, Said Kamel, Marc E De Broe, Patrick C D'Haese
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes dysregulation of mineral metabolism, vascular calcification and renal osteodystrophy, an entity called 'CKD-Mineral and Bone Disorder' (CKD-MBD). Here we determine whether metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, exerts favorable effects on progressive, severe CKD and concomitant mineral metabolism disturbances. Rats with CKD-MBD, induced by a 0.25% adenine diet for eight weeks, were treated with 200 mg/kg/day metformin or vehicle from one week after CKD induction onward. Severe, stable CKD along with marked hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia developed in these rats which led to arterial calcification and high bone turnover disease...
April 28, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706470/impact-of-sex-and-glucose-lowering-treatments-on-hypoglycaemic-symptoms-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-the-french-chronic-kidney-disease-renal-epidemiology-and-information-network-ckd-rein-study
#4
B Balkau, M Metzger, F Andreelli, L Frimat, E Speyer, C Combe, M Laville, C Jacquelinet, S Briançon, C Ayav, Z Massy, R L Pisoni, B Stengel, D Fouque
AIM: To describe current practices of glucose-lowering treatments in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD), the associated glucose control and hypoglycaemic symptoms, with an emphasis on sex differences. METHODS: Among the 3033 patients with CKD stages 3-5 recruited into the French CKD-REIN study, 645 men and 288 women had type 2 diabetes and were treated by glucose-lowering drugs. RESULTS: Overall, 31% were treated only with insulin, 28% with combinations of insulin and another drug, 42% with non-insulin glucose-lowering drugs...
April 6, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670330/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-as-an-adjuvant-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-ineffectively-managed-with-metformin-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Tavga Ahmed Aziz, Saad Abdulrahman Hussain, Taha Othman Mahwi, Zheen Aorahman Ahmed, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Abdullah Rasedee
Background and aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major diseases confronting the health care systems. In diabetes mellitus (DM), combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications has been shown to be more effective than metformin (Met) alone in glycemic control. This study determined the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as an adjuvant to Met in patients with uncontrolled T2DM. Subjects and methods: Sixty T2DM patients were recruited in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and multicenter trial...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667921/glycemic-control-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-across-stages-of-renal-impairment-information-for-primary-care-providers
#6
Lili Tong, Sharon Adler
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and elevates individuals' risk for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in T2DM. Achieving and maintaining tight glycemic control is key to preventing development or progression of CKD; however, improving glycemic control may be limited by effects of renal impairment on the efficacy and safety of T2DM treatments, necessitating dosing adjustments and careful evaluation of contraindications...
April 18, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628139/drug-repurposing-in-kidney-disease
#7
REVIEW
Usha Panchapakesan, Carol Pollock
Drug repurposing, is the re-tasking of known medications for new clinical indications. Advantages, compared to de novo drug development, include reduced cost and time to market plus the added benefit of a known pharmacokinetic and safety profiles. Suitable drug candidates are identified through serendipitous observations, data mining, or increased understanding of disease mechanisms. This review highlights drugs suited for repurposing in kidney disease. The main cause of mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease is cardiovascular disease...
April 6, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619563/post-transplantation-diabetes-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-an-update-on-management-and-prevention
#8
Caterina Conte, Antonio Secchi
Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) may severely impact both short- and long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients in terms of graft and patient survival. However, PTDM often goes undiagnosed is underestimated or poorly managed. A diagnosis of PTDM should be delayed until the patient is on stable maintenance doses of immunosuppressive drugs, with stable kidney graft function and in the absence of acute infections. Risk factors for PTDM should be assessed during the pre-transplant evaluation period, in order to reduce the likelihood of developing diabetes...
April 4, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611727/dose-adjustment-of-metformin-and-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitors-in-diabetic-patients-with-renal-dysfunction
#9
Cheli Melzer-Cohen, Avraham Karasik, Philipp J Leuschner, Joseph Azuri, Varda Shalev, Gabriel Chodick
OBJECTIVES: This analysis of real-world data aimed to (a) determine the proportion of Type II diabetes (T2DM) patients treated with metformin or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) that require dose adjustment or therapy discontinuation due to chronic kidney disease (CKD), and (b) to assess the time required to dose adjustment from the time of worsening of CKD. METHODS: In this retrospective study, two study populations were defined in a large healthcare organization...
April 3, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611351/effects-of-sildenafil-metformin-and-simvastatin-on-adh-independent-urine-concentration-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
Anneke P Bech, Jack F M Wetzels, Tom Nijenhuis
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disorder characterized by resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), resulting in a decrease in the capacity of the kidney to concentrate the urine. NDI can be inherited or acquired due to, for example, chronic lithium therapy. Current treatment options are limited to attempts to lower urine output by a low-solute diet and the use of diuretics or anti-inflammatory drugs. These measures are only partially effective. Recent reports suggested that sildenafil, metformin, and simvastatin might improve ADH-independent urine concentration...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609531/metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-a-case-series-of-28-patients-treated-with-sustained-low-efficiency-dialysis-sled-and-long-term-follow-up
#11
Andrea Angioi, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Maura Conti, Gianfranco Pili, Alice Atzeni, Valeria Matta, Riccardo Cao, Matteo Floris, Marco Songini, Maria Franca Mulas, Mitchell Rosner, Antonello Pani
BACKGROUND: Metformin associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a well-known serious side effect of biguanides. However, the best treatment strategy remains a matter of debate. In the last 14 years, we observed a significant increase in hospitalizations for MALA to our Center. We report the outcomes of our clinical and therapeutic approach. METHODS: This is a single-center case series. Twenty-eight patients affected with MALA and acute kidney failure admitted between January 2000 and September 2014 were included...
April 2, 2018: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559406/working-party-approved-by-the-french-society-of-anaesthesia-and-intensive-care-medicine-sfar-and-the-french-society-for-the-study-of-diabetes-sfd
#12
Gaëlle Cheisson, Sophie Jacqueminet, Emmanuel Cosson, Carole Ichai, Anne-Marie Leguerrier, Bogdan Nicolescu-Catargi, Alexandre Ouattara, Igor Tauveron, Paul Valensi, Dan Benhamou
In diabetic patients undergoing surgery, we recommend assessing glycaemic control preoperatively by assessing glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and recent capillary blood sugar (glucose) levels, and to adjust any treatments accordingly before surgery, paying particular attention to specific complications of diabetes. Gastroparesis creates a risk of stasis and aspiration of gastric content at induction of anaesthesia requiring the use of a rapid sequence induction technique. Cardiac involvement can be divided into several types...
March 17, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555255/punica-granatum-improves-renal-function-in-gentamicin-induced-nephropathy-in-rats-via-attenuation-of-oxidative-stress
#13
Snehal N Mestry, Nitin B Gawali, Sarayu A Pai, Malvika S Gursahani, Jayesh B Dhodi, Renuka Munshi, Archana R Juvekar
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin is widely used as an antibiotic for the treatment of gram negative infections. Evidences indicates that oxidative stress is involved in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. In Ayurvedic medicine, Punica granatum Linn. is considered as 'a pharmacy unto itself". It has been claimed in traditional literature, to treat various kidney ailments due to its antioxidant potential. OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible mechanism of action of methanolic extract of P...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550637/resveratrol-regulates-hyperglycemia-induced-modulations-in-experimental-diabetic-animal-model
#14
Kanwal Rehman, Kiran Saeed, Syeda Mehak Munawar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that is associated with variable degrees of glucose intolerance, impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic potentials of resveratrol (RSV) alone and/or in combination with vitamin-E (Vit-E) against hyperglycemia-induced modulations using experimentally alloxan-induced diabetic animal model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes mellitus in white albino rats and metformin (MF) was used as standard anti-diabetic drug to compare the therapeutic potentials of RSV (alone and/or with Vit-E) by estimating the effect of treatment on glycemia, insulin resistance, liver and kidney function biomarkers, anti-oxidant status, and serum levels of calcium and magnesium...
June 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542325/metformin-modifies-glutamine-metabolism-in-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#15
Antonio Gil-Gomez, Ana Isabel Gómez-Sotelo, Isidora Ranchal, Ángela Rojas, Marta García-Valdecasas, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Javier Ampuero, Manuel Romero Gómez
AIM: to analyze the effect of metformin on ammonia production derived from glutamine metabolism in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: twenty male Wistar rats were studied for 28 days after a porto-caval anastomosis (n = 16) or a sham operation (n = 4). Porto-caval shunted animals were randomized into two groups (n = 8) and either received 30 mg/kg/day of metformin for two weeks or were control animals. Plasma ammonia concentration, Gls gene expression and K-type glutaminase activity were measured in the small intestine, muscle and kidney...
March 15, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532078/comparison-of-surgical-and-medical-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes-in-severely-obese-adolescents
#16
Thomas H Inge, Lori M Laffel, Todd M Jenkins, Marsha D Marcus, Natasha I Leibel, Mary L Brandt, Morey Haymond, Elaine M Urbina, Lawrence M Dolan, Philip S Zeitler
Importance: Because of the substantial increase in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in the pediatric population and the medical complications of this condition, therapies are urgently needed that will achieve better glycemic control than standard medical management. Objective: To compare glycemic control in cohorts of severely obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes undergoing medical and surgical interventions. Design, Setting, and Participants: A secondary analysis of data collected by the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) and Treatment Options of Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) consortia was performed...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510178/metformin-increases-urinary-sodium-excretion-by-reducing-phosphorylation-of-the-sodium-chloride-cotransporter
#17
Hiroko Hashimoto, Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Kiyoshi Isobe, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Kouhei Yamamoto, Takuya Fujimaru, Fumiaki Ando, Takayasu Mori, Tomokazu Okado, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Eisei Sohara
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is widely used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have reported that treatment with metformin not only improved blood glucose levels but also reduced blood pressure. However, it remains unclear how metformin reduces blood pressure. We hypothesized that metformin affects sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. METHODS: Urinary sodium excretion and expression of renal sodium transporters were examined in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice with acute and chronic treatment of metformin...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501767/centella-asiatica-ameliorates-diabetes-induced-stress-in-rat-tissues-via-influences-on-antioxidants-and-inflammatory-cytokines
#18
Bubuya Masola, Oluwafemi O Oguntibeju, Ayodeji B Oyenihi
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Family: Apiaceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to elevate mood, improve memory, treat wounds and manage kidney-related ailments in African traditional medicine practice. This study evaluated the potential benefits of C. asiatica (CA) on diabetes-induced stress in kidney and brain of rats. Following the induction of diabetes mellitus (DM), rats were orally treated with vehicle, CA or Metformin daily for 14 days. After treatment, renal and brain levels of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 were assessed...
May 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480578/houttuynia-cordata-extract-increased-systemic-exposure-and-liver-concentrations-of-metformin-through-octs-and-mates-in-rats
#19
Byoung Hoon You, Young-Won Chin, Hojun Kim, Han Seok Choi, Young Hee Choi
The synergistic activity of Houttuynia cordata ethanol extract (HCT) and metformin combination in diabetic rats has been previously reported, but the fundamental causes remain unsolved. Organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) transport metformin to the liver and kidneys. Therefore, pharmacological activity and systemic exposure of metformin in HCT-metformin combination were determined from pharmacokinetic change and glucose-lowering activity using in vitro HEK-293 cells expressing human OCTs or human MATEs and in vivo rats...
February 26, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467030/drug-discontinuation-before-contrast-procedures-and-the-effect-on-acute-kidney-injury-and-other-clinical-outcomes-a-systematic-review-protocol
#20
Swapnil Hiremath, Jeanne Françoise Kayibanda, Benjamin J W Chow, Dean Fergusson, Greg A Knoll, Wael Shabana, Brianna Lahey, Olivia McBride, Alexandra Davis, Ayub Akbari
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is defined as worsening of renal function after the administration of iodinated contrast material. In patients with cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and/or diabetes, renin-angiotensin system blockers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, and metformin can increase the risk of CI-AKI when undergoing contrast imaging. Despite CI-AKI being the leading iatrogenic cause of acute kidney injury, there is a lack of sufficient scientific evidence supporting which drugs should be stopped, when they should be stopped, and when they should be resumed...
February 21, 2018: Systematic Reviews
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