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pediatric pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638248/evaluation-of-microorganisms-causing-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#1
Ayse Betul Ergul, Serife Cetin, Yasemin Ay Altintop, Sefika Elmas Bozdemir, Alper Ozcan, Umit Altug, Hasan Samsa, Yasemin Altuner Torun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify microorganisms causing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and also study the antibiotic resistance/susceptibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed microorganisms isolated from patients diagnosed with VAP in a pediatric intensive care unit between January 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: We included 44 patients diagnosed with VAP. The prevalence thereof was 8.6 patients per 1,000 ventilator days...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634021/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-and-health-outcomes-in-children-with-asthma
#2
Pamela R Wood, Jordan C Kampschmidt, Peter H Dube, Marianna P Cagle, Paola Chaparro, Norma S Ketchum, Thirumalai R Kannan, Harjinder Singh, Jay I Peters, Joel B Baseman, Edward G Brooks
BACKGROUND: Acute infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) have been associated with worsening asthma in children. Mp can be present in the respiratory tract for extended periods; it is unknown whether the long-term persistence of Mp in the respiratory tract affects long-term asthma control. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of Mp on asthma control. METHODS: We enrolled 31 pediatric subjects 3 to 10 years of age with persistent asthma who completed up to 8 visits over a 24-month period...
June 17, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632946/emerging-biomarkers-of-illness-severity-urinary-metabolites-associated-with-sepsis-and-necrotizing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#3
Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Samir S Shah, Richard Ruddy, Larisa Yeomans, Julie Trexel, Kathleen A Stringer
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the potential of metabolomics to identify novel biomarkers of illness severity in a child with fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). DESIGN: Case report with two control groups and a metabolomics analysis. PATIENTS: An infant with fatal MRSA pneumonia, four children with influenza pneumonia (pneumonia control group), and seven healthy children with no known infections (healthy control group)...
June 20, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632827/-occult-bacteremia-in-s%C3%A3-tero-del-r%C3%A3-o-hospital-experience-after-pneumococcal-conjugated-vaccine
#4
Isolda Budnik, Alejandra Sandoval, Alejandra Prado, Marcela Labbé, Anamaría Peña, Tamara Viviani
BACKGROUND: Occult bacteremia (OB) is one of the possible diagnoses of children younger than 3 years with fever without source in the emergency room. OBJECTIVE: describe OB in the era after introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in Chile. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective descriptive review of data of children with possible OB diagnosis, referred from the emergency department between 2010-2013. RESULTS: Possible OB was diagnosed on 391 patients...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626910/intravenous-and-intracavitary-use-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-the-evaluation-and-management-of-complicated-pediatric-pneumonia
#5
Annamaria Deganello, Vasileios Rafailidis, Maria E Sellars, Aikaterini Ntoulia, Kleanthi Kalogerakou, Gary Ruiz, David O Cosgrove, Paul S Sidhu
Pediatric pneumonia can be complicated by necrotizing pneumonia or a parapneumonic effusion either in the form of an empyema or a clear effusion. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography represent well-established modalities for evaluation of complicated pediatric pneumonia. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was recently introduced and is gaining increasing acceptance in pediatric imaging. In this case series, we present our initial experience with both intravenous and intracavitary use of CEUS in children with complicated pneumonia...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625198/determining-the-clinical-significance-of-errors-in-pediatric-radiograph-interpretation-between-emergency-physicians-and-radiologists
#6
Jonathan Taves, Steve Skitch, Rahim Valani
OBJECTIVES: Emergency physicians (EPs) interpret plain radiographs for management and disposition of patients. Radiologists subsequently conduct their own interpretations, which may differ. The purposes of this study were to review the rate and nature of discrepancies between radiographs interpreted by EPs and those of radiologists in the pediatric emergency department, and to determine their clinical significance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of discrepant radiology reports from a single-site pediatric emergency department from October 2012 to December 2014...
June 19, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619722/corticosteroid-therapy-during-acute-bronchiolitis-in-patients-who-later-develop-asthma
#7
Steven L Shein, Alexandre T Rotta, Richard Speicher, Katherine N Slain, Benjamin Gaston
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Meta-analyses show that corticosteroids are not effective in patients with bronchiolitis. However, risk factors for asthma such as eczema or familial atopy prompt some practitioners to prescribe corticosteroids for bronchiolitis. We assessed if corticosteroid prescription is associated with shorter hospitalization for bronchiolitis among patients who later develop asthma. METHODS: The Pediatric Health Information System database was interrogated for patients with bronchiolitis aged <2 years hospitalized between 2006 and 2015...
June 15, 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610670/lung-ultrasound-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-radiographically-confirmed-pneumonia-in-low-resource-settings
#8
Laura E Ellington, Robert H Gilman, Miguel A Chavez, Farhan Pervaiz, Julio Marin-Concha, Patricia Compen-Chang, Stefan Riedel, Shalim J Rodriguez, Charlotte Gaydos, Justin Hardick, James M Tielsch, Mark Steinhoff, Jane Benson, Evelyn A May, Dante Figueroa-Quintanilla, William Checkley
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide; however, its diagnosis can be challenging, especially in settings where skilled clinicians or standard imaging are unavailable. We sought to determine the diagnostic accuracy of lung ultrasound when compared to radiographically-confirmed clinical pediatric pneumonia. METHODS: Between January 2012 and September 2013, we consecutively enrolled children aged 2-59 months with primary respiratory complaints at the outpatient clinics, emergency department, and inpatient wards of the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño in Lima, Peru...
July 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607210/tachypnea-and-other-danger-signs-vs-pulse-oximetry-for-prediction-of-hypoxia-in-severe-pneumonia-very-severe-disease
#9
Varun Alwadhi, Pooja Dewan, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Dheeraj Shah, Piyush Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of respiratory rate and other clinical signs against pulse oximetry for predicting hypoxia in children with Severe pneumonia/Very severe disease as per integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness (IMNCI) classification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Pediatric emergency department of a tertiary-care hospital in Delhi, India. SUBJECTS: 112 hospitalized children (2 mo - 5 y) with Severe pneumonia/Very severe disease as per IMNCI classification...
June 4, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604773/surveillance-of-impact-of-pcv-10-vaccine-on-pneumococcal-meningitis-in-mozambique-2013-2015
#10
Aquino Albino Nhantumbo, Goitom Weldegebriel, Reggis Katsande, Linda de Gouveia, Charlotte Elizabeth Comé, Arlindo Zacarias Cuco, Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli, Cícero Dias, Juliana Caierão, Jason Mwenda Mathiu, Eduardo Samo Gudo
BACKGROUND: Vaccination using the 10-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-10) was introduced into the Extended Program on Immunization in Mozambique in March 2013, however its impact on pediatric pneumococcal meningitis is unknown. In this study, we assessed for the first time the impact of PCV10 on the burden of pneumococcal meningitis in children less than 5 years of age at the three largest hospitals in Mozambique. METHOD: Between March 2013 and December 2015, a total of 744 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from eligible children, of which 160 (21...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599967/challenging-surgical-dogma-in-the-management-of-proximal-esophageal-atresia-with-distal-tracheoesophageal-fistula-outcomes-from-the-midwest-pediatric-surgery-consortium
#11
Dave R Lal, Samir K Gadepalli, Cynthia D Downard, Daniel J Ostlie, Peter C Minneci, Ruth M Swedler, Thomas H Chelius, Laura Cassidy, Cooper T Rapp, Deborah Billmire, Steven Bruch, R Carland Burns, Katherine J Deans, Mary E Fallat, Jason D Fraser, Julia Grabowski, Ferdynand Hebel, Michael A Helmrath, Ronald B Hirschl, Rashmi Kabre, Jonathan Kohler, Matthew P Landman, Charles M Leys, Grace Z Mak, Jessica Raque, Beth Rymeski, Jacqueline M Saito, Shawn D St Peter, Daniel von Allmen, Brad W Warner, Thomas T Sato
PURPOSE: Perioperative management of infants with esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) is frequently based on surgeon experience and dogma rather than evidence-based guidelines. This study examines whether commonly perceived important aspects of practice affect outcome in a contemporary multi-institutional cohort of patients undergoing primary repair for the most common type of esophageal atresia anomaly, proximal EA with distal TEF. METHODS: The Midwest Pediatric Surgery Consortium conducted a multicenter, retrospective study examining selected outcomes on infants diagnosed with proximal EA with distal TEF who underwent primary repair over a 5-year period (2009-2014), with a minimum 1-year follow up, across 11 centers...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599698/implementation-of-ventilator-bundle-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-of-a-developing-country
#12
Anwarul Haque, Quratulain Riaz, Syed Asad Ali
The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of VAP(ventilator associated pneumonia) after strict implementation of ventilator bundle in PICU. Medical records of all children (age 1 month - 16 years) were retrospectively reviewed, who were on mechanical ventilation (MV) for more than 48 hours and received all key components of "ventilator bundle" from January 2012 to December 2014. Out of 1050, 565 (54%) patients were enrolled. The mean age was 4.02 SD 4.29 years and 62 (69%) were male. The indications of MV were respiratory illness (54%), neurological illness (31%), shock (9%), and postoperative care (6%)...
May 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591775/parainfluenza-virus-in-the-hospitalized-adult
#13
Elliott Russell, Michael G Ison
Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family. There are 4 serotypes that follow seasonal patterns with varying rates of infection for each serotype. PIV is an established cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric and immunocompromised populations, and its impact on the hospitalized adult is becoming more apparent with the increased use of multiplex molecular assays in the clinical setting. The clinical presentation of PIV in hospitalized adults varies widely, and includes URTIs, severe LRTIs, and exacerbations of underlying disease...
June 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589109/laryngo-tracheo-bronchial-foreign-bodies-in-children-clinical-presentations-and-complications
#14
Hazem-Saeed Amer, Mohammad-Waheed El-Anwar, Ashraf Raafat, Mohamed AlShawadfy, Ehab Sobhy, Samir-Attia Ahmed, Ahmed-Ma Maaty
INTRODUCTION: Foreign-body (FB) aspiration in the airway of children is a life-threatening clinical situation responsible for many deaths each year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the different clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis, types and complications of FB inhalation in the pediatric age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included patients who presented with a definitive or suspicious history of FB aspiration. Detailed data for each patient were recorded concerning the age, sex, nature and site of the FB, presenting symptoms and signs, and radiological findings...
May 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588119/high-flow-nasal-cannula-utilization-in-pediatric-critical-care
#15
Kristen D Coletti, Dayanand N Bagdure, Linda K Walker, Kenneth E Remy, Jason W Custer
BACKGROUND: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is increasingly utilized in pediatrics, delivering humidified air and oxygen for respiratory conditions causing hypoxia and distress. In the neonatal ICU, it has been associated with better tolerance, lower complications, and lower cost. Few data exist regarding indications for use and the epidemiology of disease/pathology that warrants HFNC in the pediatric ICU. METHODS: This study is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary children's hospital pediatric ICU and placed on HFNC from October 1, 2011 to October 31, 2013...
June 6, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586113/lung-consolidation-locations-for-optimal-lung-ultrasound-scanning-in-diagnosing-pediatric-pneumonia
#16
Brendan H A Milliner, James W Tsung
OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (US) has been shown to be accurate in diagnosing pneumonia in children. Evidence to inform an optimal scanning protocol is limited. Our objective is to describe an optimized lung US scanning protocol for pediatric pneumonia based on the anatomic location and transducer orientation. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data and images from 2 prospective lung US studies for the emergency department diagnosis of pneumonia in children (0-21 years)...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583371/bacterial-infections-after-pediatric-heart-transplantation-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes
#17
Christina A Rostad, Karla Wehrheim, James K Kirklin, David Naftel, Elizabeth Pruitt, Timothy M Hoffman, Thomas L'Ecuyer, Katie Berkowitz, William T Mahle, Janet N Scheel
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in heart transplant recipients. However, data describing the epidemiology and outcomes of these infections in children are limited. METHODS: We analyzed the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database of patients transplanted between 1993 and 2014 to determine the etiologies, risk factors and outcomes of children with bacterial infections post-heart transplantation. RESULTS: Of 4,458 primary transplants in the database, there were 4,815 infections that required hospitalization or intravenous therapy, 2,047 (42...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582882/pediatric-feeding-and-swallowing-rehabilitation-an-overview
#18
Lenie van den Engel-Hoek, Celia Harding, Marjo van Gerven, Helen Cockerill
Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575372/addressing-the-analytic-challenges-of-cross-sectional-pediatric-pneumonia-etiology-data
#19
Laura L Hammitt, Daniel R Feikin, J Anthony G Scott, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Maria Deloria Knoll
Despite tremendous advances in diagnostic laboratory technology, identifying the pathogen(s) causing pneumonia remains challenging because the infected lung tissue cannot usually be sampled for testing. Consequently, to obtain information about pneumonia etiology, clinicians and researchers test specimens distant to the site of infection. These tests may lack sensitivity (eg, blood culture, which is only positive in a small proportion of children with pneumonia) and/or specificity (eg, detection of pathogens in upper respiratory tract specimens, which may indicate asymptomatic carriage or a less severe syndrome, such as upper respiratory infection)...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575371/detection-of-pneumococcal-dna-in-blood-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-for-diagnosing-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-young-children-from-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Susan C Morpeth, Maria Deloria Knoll, J Anthony G Scott, Daniel E Park, Nora L Watson, Henry C Baggett, W Abdullah Brooks, Daniel R Feikin, Laura L Hammitt, Stephen R C Howie, Karen L Kotloff, Orin S Levine, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Donald M Thea, Peter V Adrian, Dilruba Ahmed, Martin Antonio, Charatdao Bunthi, Andrea N DeLuca, Amanda J Driscoll, Louis Peter Githua, Melissa M Higdon, Geoff Kahn, Angela Karani, Ruth A Karron, Geoffrey Kwenda, Sirirat Makprasert, Razib Mazumder, David P Moore, James Mwansa, Sammy Nyongesa, Christine Prosperi, Samba O Sow, Boubou Tamboura, Toni Whistler, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch
Background.: We investigated the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia among children from 7 low- and middle-income countries. Methods.: We tested blood by PCR for the pneumococcal autolysin gene in children aged 1-59 months in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. Children had World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia or were age-frequency-matched community controls...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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