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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931473/lung-ultrasound-in-diagnosing-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Daniele Orso, Alessio Ban, Nicola Guglielmo
PURPOSE: Pneumonia is the third leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age worldwide. In pediatrics, both the accuracy and safety of diagnostic tools are important. Lung ultrasound (LUS) could be a safe diagnostic tool for this reason. We searched in the literature for diagnostic studies about LUS to predict pneumonia in pediatric patients using systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2017 were searched...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920152/selective-management-of-multiple-bronchopleural-fistulae-in-a-pediatric-patient-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-multidisciplinary-approach
#2
Cory N Criss, Ryan Barbaro, Kristy Ann Bauman, Odetola Folafoluwa, Ranjith Vellody, Marcus D Jarboe
INTRODUCTION: This case highlights the successful utilization of a multidisciplinary approach to numerous bilateral bronchopleural fistulae (BPF) using minimally invasive techniques. In this study, we present a previously healthy 14-year-old male hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus coinfection complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, with significant lung tissue damage requiring prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912842/severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-children-admitted-to-pediatric-intensive-care
#3
Katie M Moynihan, Andrew Barlow, Clare Nourse, Claire Heney, Sanmarié Schlebusch, Luregn J Schlapbach
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and may cause life-threatening disease in children. We identified 30 (0.3%) confirmed M. pneumoniae cases by clinical and laboratory criteria in 11,526 PICU admissions. Outcomes were comparable to patients admitted with other infections (n=3,005, p>0.1). Our findings indicate that empiric antimicrobial coverage for M. pneumoniae infection in PICU is rarely needed.
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912700/pediatric-complicated-pneumonia-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-3-in-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccinees-portugal-2010-2015
#4
Catarina Silva-Costa, Maria João Brito, Marcos D Pinho, Ana Friães, Sandra I Aguiar, M Ramirez, Jose Melo-Cristino
Despite use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, incidence of pleural effusion and empyema (pediatric complicated pneumococcal pneumonia [PCPP]) is reportedly increasing globally. We cultured and performed PCR on 152 pleural fluid samples recovered from pediatric patients in Portugal during 2010-2015 to identify and serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae. We identified only 17 cases by culture, but molecular methods identified S. pneumoniae in 68% (92/135) of culture-negative samples. The most frequent serotypes were 3, 1, and 19A, together accounting for 62% (68/109) of cases...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905633/longer-duration-of-urinary-catheterization-increases-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-in-picu
#5
Kahoru Fukuoka, Mihoko Furuichi, Kenta Ito, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Ichiro Watanabe, Naoki Shimizu, Yuho Horikoshi
OBJECTIVES: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893805/vancomycin-monotherapy-may-be-insufficient-to-treat-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-coinfection-in-children-with-influenza-related-critical-illness
#6
Adrienne G Randolph, Ruifei Xu, Tanya Novak, Margaret M Newhams, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Scott L Weiss, Ronald C Sanders, Neal J Thomas, Mark W Hall, Keiko M Tarquinio, Natalie Cvijanovich, Rainer G Gedeit, Edward J Truemper, Barry Markovitz, Mary E Hartman, Kate G Ackerman, John S Giuliano, Steven L Shein, Kristin Moffitt
Background: Respiratory coinfection with influenza virus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia in children. Sporadic incidence precludes evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill children with influenza-MRSA respiratory coinfection and evaluated antibiotic use. Methods: We prospectively enrolled children (<18 years) with influenza infection and acute respiratory failure across 34 pediatric intensive care units Nov 2008 to May 2016...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891609/population-pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-solithromycin-following-intravenous-and-oral-administration-in-infants-children-and-adolescents
#7
Daniel Gonzalez, Laura P James, Amira Al-Uzri, Miroslava Bosheva, Felice C Adler-Shohet, Susan R Mendley, John S Bradley, Claudia Espinosa, Eva Tsonkova, Kathryn Moffett, Lucila Marquez, Kari A Simonsen, Stefan Stoilov, Felix Boakye-Agyeman, Theresa Jasion, Christoph P Hornik, Robert Hernandez, Daniel K Benjamin, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide antibiotic, which was under investigation for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). A phase 1 study was performed to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of solithromycin in children. Eighty-four subjects (median age 6 years [range 4 days - 17 years]) were administered intravenous (IV) or oral (capsules or suspension) solithromycin (IV 6-8 mg/kg; capsules/suspension 14-16 mg/kg on Day 1 and 7-15 mg/kg on Days 2-5). PK samples were collected after first and multi-dose administration...
June 11, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891404/influenza-associated-neurological-complications-during-2014-2017-in-taiwan
#8
Li-Wen Chen, Chao-Ku Teng, Yi-Shan Tsai, Jieh-Neng Wang, Yi-Fang Tu, Ching-Fen Shen, Ching-Chuan Liu
INTRODUCTION: Seasonal influenza-associated neurological complications had high mortality and morbidity rates in recent studies. We reported influenza-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy in children during 2014-2017 in Taiwan, focusing on neurological presentations, neuroimaging correlations, and critical care managements. MATERIALS/SUBJECTS: During January 1st 2014 to June 30th 2017, pediatric patients reported to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control surveillance system for severe complicated influenza infections in the hospital were retrospectively reviewed...
June 8, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886847/cytomegalovirus-reactivation-in-a-critically-ill-patient-a-case-report
#9
Demet Demirkol, Umay Kavgacı, Burcu Babaoğlu, Serhan Tanju, Banu Oflaz Sözmen, Suda Tekin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this case report is to discuss diagnostic workup and clinical management of cytomegalovirus reactivation in a critically ill immunocompetent pediatric patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old white boy who had no medical history presented with respiratory distress and fever. His Pediatric Risk of Mortality and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction scores were 20 and 11, respectively. Our preliminary diagnosis was multiple organ dysfunction secondary to sepsis...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879065/obstructive-bronchitis-and-recurrent-pneumonia-in-esophageal-achalasia-in-a-child-a-care-compliant-case-report
#10
Alexandr Evgen'evich Mashkov, Dmitrii Anatolèvich Pykchteev, Alexandr Viktorovic Sigachev, Andrei Viktorovich Bobylev, Johannes Michael Mayr
RATIONALE: Esophageal achalasia is characterized by impaired relaxation of the cardia and dilation of the intrathoracic part of the esophagus. We describe the late presentation of achalasia in an 11-year old girl. PATIENT CONCERNS: She suffered from recurrent pneumonia, obstructive bronchitis, and problems with swallowing solid food. Her family noted a wet pillow in the morning. DIAGNOSES: This case report describes the typical symptoms of achalasia in children in order to facilitate earlier diagnosis of this rare disease...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877982/evaluating-the-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-pediatric-surgical-risk-calculator-for-pediatric-craniosynostosis-surgery
#11
Nisha Gadgil, I-Wen Pan, Solomon Babalola, Sandi Lam
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) risk calculator was developed based on national data. There have been no studies assessing the risk calculator's performance in pediatric neurosurgery. The authors aimed to evaluate the predictions from the risk calculator compared to our single institution experience in craniosynostosis surgery. METHODS: Outcomes from craniosynostosis surgeries performed between 2012 and 2016 at our academic pediatric hospital were evaluated using the NSQIP-P risk calculator...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874388/laboratory-diagnosis-of-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infections-data-analysis-from-clinical-practice
#12
Francesca Montagnani, Barbara Rossetti, Alessandro Vannoni, Maria Grazia Cusi, Andrea De Luca
An etiological diagnosis of respiratory infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae is particularly challenging due to the lack of a definite standard test. This study aimed to analyse the correlation and combination of diagnostic results obtained from direct and indirect assays (Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA by PCR and serology) in use at a first level diagnostic laboratory. Samples from patients with respiratory infections tested for M. pneumoniae during routine clinical practice were retrospectively analysed...
June 6, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866884/dna-methylation-regulates-the-neonatal-cd4-t-cell-response-to-pneumonia-in-mice
#13
Sharon McGrath-Morrow, Roland Ndeh, Kathryn A Helmin, Shang-Yang Chen, Kishore R Anekalla, Hiam Abdala-Valencia, Franco R D'Alessio, J Michael Collaco, Benjamin D Singer
Pediatric acute lung injury, usually due to pneumonia, has a mortality rate of more than 20% and an incidence that rivals that of all childhood cancers combined. CD4+ T-cells coordinate the immune response to pneumonia but fail to function robustly among the very young, which have poor outcomes from lung infection. We hypothesized that DNA methylation represses a mature CD4+ T-cell transcriptional program in neonates with pneumonia. Here, we found that neonatal mice (3-4 days old) aspirated with Escherichia coli bacteria had a higher mortality rate than juvenile mice (11-14 days old)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866879/pentamidine-for-prophylaxis-against-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-pediatric-oncology-patients-receiving-immunosuppressive-chemotherapy
#14
Melissa Quinn, J T Fannin, Joseph Sciasci, Allison Bragg, Patrick K Campbell, Delia Carias, Kristine R Crews, David Gregornik, Sima Jeha, Gabriela Maron, Jennifer L Pauley, Hope D Swanson, Joshua Wolf, William Greene
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in children receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy. Without prophylaxis, up to 25% of pediatric oncology patients receiving chemotherapy will develop Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the preferred agent for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Pentamidine may be an acceptable alternative for pediatric patients unable to tolerate trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
June 4, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858291/-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Devlynne S Ondusko, Dawn Nolt
Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that can cause a variety of illnesses through suppurative or nonsuppurative (toxin-mediated) means. S aureus is a common cause of skin and skin structure infections as well as osteoarticular infections in the pediatric population. S aureus is also identified in cases of septicemia, infective endocarditis, pneumonia, ocular infections, and central nervous system infections. To design appropriate empirical therapy, pediatricians should be knowledgeable about the resistance patterns of S aureus in their communities, including methicillin and clindamycin resistance...
June 2018: Pediatrics in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850828/factors-associated-with-pneumonia-severity-in-children-a-systematic-review
#16
Preston Dean, Todd A Florin
Community-acquired pneumonia in children is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, data are limited in predicting which children will have negative outcomes, including clinical deterioration, severe disease, or development of complications. The Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (PIDS/IDSA) pediatric pneumonia guideline includes criteria that were modified from adult criteria and define pneumonia severity to assist with resource allocation and site-of-care decision-making...
May 30, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849503/isolation-and-antimicrobial-drug-susceptibility-pattern-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-pediatric-patients-with-otitis-media-in-selected-health-institutions-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-prospective-cross-sectional-study
#17
Tewodros Tesfa Hailegiyorgis, Wondemagegn Demsiss Sarhie, Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie
Background: Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and tympanic membrane, which often occurs after an acute upper respiratory tract infection. It is the most common episode of infection in children and the second most important cause of hearing loss affecting 1.23 billion people, thus ranked fifth global burden of disease with a higher incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the isolation rate of bacterial pathogens from pediatric patients with otitis media...
2018: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808135/uncommon-infections-in-children-suggest-underlying-immunodeficiency-a-case-of-infective-endocarditis-in-a-3-year-old-male
#18
Aisha Shakoor, Ahmed El-Isa, Elizabeth Kinsella, Ryan Halas, Andrey Leonov
Infective endocarditis (IE) results from bacterial or fungal infection and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several known risk factors exist for endocarditis, and 90% of pediatric cases have an underlying structural or congenital heart disease or prosthetic heart valve. Literature on IE in previously healthy children is relatively sparse, and the pathogenesis and underlying risk factors remain mostly unknown. Our patient was a 3-year-old male with a unique presentation of IE. His lack of structural and congenital risk factors for endocarditis prompted further workup, and labs were consistent with insufficient immunoglobulin, suggesting a primary immunodeficiency (PAD)...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803821/rise-of-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-clones-expressing-nonvaccine-serotypes-among-children-after-introduction-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-bulgaria
#19
L Setchanova, A Alexandrova, D Pencheva, I Sirakov, K Mihova, R Kaneva, I Mitov
OBJECTIVES: Conjugate vaccines have reduced pneumococcal disease, but nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs) are of concern, particularly if antibiotic-resistant. We evaluated retrospectively serotype-specific clonality of pediatric multidrug-resistant (MDR) invasive and noninvasive S. pneumoniae isolates collected after PCV10 introduction (2011-2017). METHODS: Capsular types, drug resistance patterns and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of the most common MDR S. pneumoniae serotypes sampled from children were determined...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799085/venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support-for-neonatal-and-pediatric-refractory-septic-shock-more-than-15-years-of-learning
#20
Anna Solé, Iolanda Jordan, Sara Bobillo, Julio Moreno, Monica Balaguer, Lluisa Hernández-Platero, Susana Segura, Francisco José Cambra, Elisabeth Esteban, Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul
The objective of the study was to report our institutional experience in the management of children and newborns with refractory septic shock who required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) treatment, and to identify patient-and infection-related factors associated with mortality. This is a retrospective case series in an intensive care unit of a tertiary pediatric center. Inclusion criteria were patients ≤ 18 years old who underwent a VA ECMO due to a refractory septic shock due to circulatory collapse...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
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