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Marcelo A Barria, Andrew Lee, Alison Je Green, Richard Knight, Mark W Head
Human prion diseases constitute a group of infectious and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders associated with misfolding of the prion protein. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a zoonotic prion disease linked to oral exposure to the infectious agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. The most recent case of definite vCJD was heterozygous (MV) at polymorphic codon 129 of the prion protein gene PRNP while all of the previous 177 definite or probable vCJD cases who underwent genetic analysis were methionine homozygous (MM)...
April 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Omolola C Betiku, Carl J Yeoman, T Gibson Gaylord, Benjamin Americus, Sarah Olivo, Glenn C Duff, Wendy M Sealey
A two-phase feeding study evaluating performance of rainbow trout and comparing luminal and mucosal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bacterial community compositions when fed two alternative protein diets in two rearing systems was conducted. Alternative protein diets (animal protein and plant protein diets) balanced with crystalline amino acids: lysine, methionine and threonine or unbalanced, were fed to rainbow trout in two separate water systems (recirculating (RR) and flow-through (FF)) for a period of 16 weeks...
2018: PloS One
Kaja Plucińska, Steven W Barger
This editorial highlights an article by McKee and colleagues in the current issue of Journal of Neurochemistry, in which the authors report epigenetic changes linked to one-carbon metabolism in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of murine offspring from dams fed high-fat diet to mimic maternal obesity. The group found that high-fat diet feeding in utero increases weight gain in offspring and dynamically alters DNA methylation in the PFC of male but not female brains. These epigenetic marks were associated with a shift in brain one-carbon metabolism (folate and methionine) intermediates and were normalized by early-life methyl-donor supplementation in a sex-specific manner...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Kazuki Tanifuji, Chi Chung Lee, Nathaniel S Sickerman, Kazuyuki Tatsumi, Yasuhiro Ohki, Yilin Hu, Markus W Ribbe
The M-cluster is the [(homocitrate)MoFe7 S9 C] active site of nitrogenase that is derived from an 8Fe core assembled viacoupling and rearrangement of two [Fe4 S4 ] clusters concomitant with the insertion of an interstitial carbon and a 'ninth sulfur'. Combining synthetic [Fe4 S4 ] clusters with an assembly protein template, here we show that sulfite can give rise to the ninth sulfur that is incorporated in the catalytically important belt region of the cofactor after the radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent carbide insertion and the concurrent 8Fe-core rearrangement have already taken place...
April 16, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Xuchen Hu, Yuxia Wang, Li Gao, Wenxin Jiang, Wenzhen Lin, Chenguang Niu, Keyong Yuan, Rui Ma, Zhengwei Huang
The luxS gene is present in a wide range of bacteria and is involved in many cellular processes. LuxS mutation can cause autoinducer(AI)-2 deficiency and methyl metabolism disorder. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that, in addition to AI-2-mediated quorum sensing (QS), methyl metabolism plays an important role in LuxS regulation in Streptococcus mutans . The sahH gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was amplified and introduced into the S. mutans luxS -null strain to complement the methyl metabolism disruption in a defective QS phenotype...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
A L Wollenberg, T M O'Shea, J H Kim, A Czechanski, L G Reinholdt, M V Sofroniew, T J Deming
Injectable hydrogels with tunable physiochemical and biological properties are potential tools for improving neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation to treat central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Here, we developed injectable diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCH) for NSPC transplantation that contain hydrophilic segments of modified l-methionine (Met). Multiple Met-based DCH were fabricated by post-polymerization modification of Met to various functional derivatives, and incorporation of different amino acid comonomers into hydrophilic segments...
April 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Yunier Rodríguez-Álvarez, Ania Cabrales-Rico, Alejandro Perera-Pintado, Anais Prats-Capote, Hilda E Garay-Pérez, Osvaldo Reyes-Acosta, Erik Pérez-García, Araceli Chico-Capote, Alicia Santos-Savio
Interleukin (IL)-15 is an inflammatory cytokine that constitutes a validated therapeutic target in some immunopathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previously, we identified an IL-15 antagonist peptide named [K6T]P8, with potential therapeutic application in RA. In the current work, the metabolic stability of this peptide in synovial fluids from RA patients was studied. Moreover, [K6T]P8 peptide was labeled with 99m Tc to investigate its stability in human plasma and its biodistribution pattern in healthy rats...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
Jeffrey McBride, Luis Rodriguez-Menocal, Ambar Candanedo, Wellington Guzman, Marta Garcia-Contreras, Evangelos Badiavas
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is a severe blistering disease resulting from a lack of type VII collagen production. Recent clinical trials have shown efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa, including improved basement membrane restructuring and cutaneous wound healing. The mechanism as to how type VII collagen is transferred from donor stem cell to recipient RDEB cells has not been defined. Here, we submit the model that BM-MSC-derived extracellular vesicles serve at least two roles: 1) to help transport type VII collagen within the extracellular space; and 2) to feed RDEB fibroblasts with messenger RNA that codes for type VII collagen, resulting in COL7A1 translation and synthesis of type VII collagen alpha chain proteins by RDEB fibroblasts...
April 10, 2018: Biochimie
Patrícia Monah Cunha Bartos, Hugo Teixeira Gomes, Lourdes Isabel Velho do Amaral, João Batista Teixeira, Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira
Several biochemical components associated with different stages of somatic embryogenesis in coffee ( Coffea arabica L.) are investigated using foliar explants. Soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids and total proteins were extracted and quantified at different stages of somatic embryogenesis, such as foliar segments (initial explants), primary calluses, embryogenic calluses, globular embryos, torpedoes, cotyledonary embryos and mature fruit zygotic embryos. Total soluble sugar levels increased sixfold at the initial stages of somatic embryogenesis induction...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Steven M Pennington, Paula R Klutho, Litao Xie, Kim Broadhurst, Olha M Koval, Michael L McCormick, Douglas R Spitz, Isabella M Grumbach
OBJECTIVE: Reduction of oxidized methionines is emerging as a major protein repair pathway. The lack of methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) exacerbates cardiovascular disease phenotypes driven by increased oxidative stress. However, the role of MsrA on maintaining cellular homeostasis in the absence of excessive oxidative stress is less well understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Constitutive genetic deletion of MsrA increased formation of p62-containing protein aggregates, activated autophagy, and decreased a marker of apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
April 3, 2018: Redox Biology
Fang Chen, Shihai Zhang, Zixiao Deng, Qiqi Zhou, Lin Cheng, Sung Woo Kim, Jun Chen, Wutai Guan
Background: Milk protein is crucial for milk quality in sows and health of newborn piglets. Plasma amino acids (AA) in sows are important precursors for milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland. In order to study the regulation of AA transported in sow mammary glands and possible underlying mechanisms, we measured the expression of genes coding for milk proteins, AA transporter expressions, and plasma AA concentrations in sows at three different physiological stages (D-17, D1 and D17 of lactation), and then further investigated the regulation of AA transport across the cell membrane by adaptive mechanisms using pig mammary epithelial cells (PMEC) as an in vitro model...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Yonghong Zhang, Zhen Liu, Ranran Liu, Jie Wang, Maiqing Zheng, Qinghe Li, Huanxian Cui, Guiping Zhao, Jie Wen
Fatty liver is a widespread disease in chickens that causes a decrease in egg production and even death. The characteristics of the inherited phenotype of acquired fatty liver and the molecular mechanisms underlying it, however, are largely unknown. In the current study, fatty liver was induced in 3 breeds by a high-fat (HF) diet and a methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet. The results showed that the dwarf Jingxing-Huang (JXH) chicken was more susceptible to fatty liver compared with the layer White Leghorns (WL) and local Beijing-You (BJY) breeds...
April 8, 2018: Genes
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Xiang-Pu Qu, Jian-Xin Wang, Chang-Jun Chen, Ming-Guo Zhou
Cyprodinil belongs to the chemical class of anilinopyrimidines fungicides. In this study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary to cyprodinil was determined using 100 strains collected from the fields in Jiangsu Province of China. The EC50 (50% effective concentration) values ranged from 0.0636-0.8163 μg/ml with a mean value of 0.1869 (±0.1118) ug/ml for mycelial growth. Nine cyprodinil-resistant mutants (Range of resistance factor: 20.22-271.59) were obtained from sensitive strains exposed on PDA medium amended with cyprodinil and the resistance was stable after their ten transfers on PDA without the fungicide or stored at 4 °C for two months...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Boushra Bathish, Rufus Turner, Martina Paumann-Page, Anthony J Kettle, Christine C Winterbourn
Peroxidasin is a heme peroxidase that catalyses the oxidation of bromide by hydrogen peroxide to form an essential sulfilimine crosslink between methionine and hydroxylysine residues in collagen IV. We investigated cross-linking by peroxidasin embedded in extracellular matrix isolated from cultured epithelial cells and its sensitivity to alternative substrates and peroxidase inhibitors. Peroxidasin showed peroxidase activity as measured with hydrogen peroxide and Amplex red. Using a specific mass spectrometry assay that measures NADH bromohydrin, we showed definitively that the enzyme releases hypobromous acid (HOBr)...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Fei Cao, Yikun Huang, Fei Wang, Dongwook Kwak, Qiuchen Dong, Donghui Song, Jie Zeng, Yu Lei
As a new class of l-cysteine electrocatalyst explored in this study, Au/CeO2 composite nanofibers (CNFs) were employed to modify the screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) to fabricate a novel l-cysteine (CySH) electrochemical sensor with high performance. Its electrochemical behavior and the roles of Au and CeO2 in the composite toward electro-oxidation of CySH were elucidated and demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry techniques for the first time through the comparison with pure CeO2 NFs. More specifically, the Au/CeO2 CNFs modified SPCE possessed greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward CySH oxidation...
August 17, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
J Marczuk, P Brodzki, A Brodzki, Ł Kurek
Ketosis is a common condition found in the initial stages of lactation in high-yielding dairy cows. The major cause of ketosis is a negative energy balance. During the energy deficiency, proteolysis processes develop parallel to lipolysis. During proteolysis, muscle tissue can be used as a source of amino acid. To date, the participation of amino acids in gluconeogenesis (glucogenic amino acids) and ketogenesis (ketogenic amino acids) has not been determined in detail. This paper presents the study on determination of the parameters of protein and free amino acid metabolism in blood serum of dairy cows with primary ketosis compared to healthy cows...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Shota Tokai, Tomohiro Bito, Katsuhiko Shimizu, Jiro Arima
Family S9 prolyl oligopeptidases (POPs) are of interest as pharmacological targets. We recently found that an S9 POP from Pleurotus eryngii showed altered substrate specificity following H2 O2 treatment. Oxidation of Met203 on the non-catalytic β-propeller domain resulted in decreased activity toward non-aromatic aminoacyl-para-nitroanilides (pNAs) while maintaining its activity toward aromatic aminoacyl-pNAs. Given that the other Met residues should also be oxidized by H2 O2 treatment, we constructed mutants in which all the Met residues were substituted with other amino acids...
April 6, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Kei Kawaguchi, Kentaro Miyake, Qinghong Han, Shukuan Li, Yuying Tan, Kentaro Igarashi, Thinzar M Lwin, Takashi Higuchi, Tasuku Kiyuna, Masuyo Miyake, Hiromichi Oshiro, Michael Bouvet, Michiaki Unno, Robert M Hoffman
Pancreatic cancer is a recalcitrant disease. Gemcitabine (GEM) is the most widely-used first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, but most patients eventually fail. Transformative therapy is necessary to significantly improve the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients. Our and other's previous work has demonstrated tumors have an elevated requirement for methionine and are susceptible to methionine restriction. The present study used a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model of pancreatic cancer to determine the efficacy of recombinant methioninase (rMETase) to effect methionine restriction and thereby overcome GEM-resistance...
April 6, 2018: Cell Cycle
Indu Dhar, Vegard Lysne, Reinhard Seifert, Gard F T Svingen, Per M Ueland, Ottar K Nygård
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid involved in methylation reactions and lipid metabolism. A Met-deficient diet may cause hepatic lipid accumulation, which is considered an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. However, the prospective relationship between circulating Met and incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. METHODS: We studied the associations of plasma Met and incident AMI in 4156 patients (77% men; median age 62 years) with stable angina pectoris, among whom the majority received lipid lowering therapy with statins...
March 23, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Nan Hee Kim, Jin Seong Hyeon, Nam Hoon Kim, Ahreum Cho, Gayoung Lee, Seo Young Jang, Mi-Kyung Kim, Eun Young Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Hunjoo Ha, Geum Sook Hwang
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) involves various pathogenic processes during progression to end stage renal disease, and activated metabolic pathways might be changing based on major pathophysiologic mechanisms as DKD progresses. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based metabolic profiling was performed in db/db mice to suggest potential biomarkers for early detection and its progression. We compared concentrations of serum and urinary metabolites between db/m and db/db mice at 8 or 20 weeks of age and investigated whether changes between 8 and 20 weeks in each group were significant...
April 2, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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