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Xiaona Dong, Yiwei Zhang, Zhiyun Meng, Xiaoxia Zhu, Hui Gan, Ruolan Gu, Zhuona Wu, Jian Li, Ying Zheng, Baofeng Yang, Guifang Dou
HYD-PEP06 is a novel RGD-modified Endostar mimetic peptide with 30 amino acids that is intended to suppress the formation of neoplasm vessels. This assay was developed and validated to monitor the level of the peptide HYD-PEP06 in rat blood, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). HYD-PEP10, another peptide similar to the analyte, was used as an internal standard (IS). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode and an electrospray interface (ESI) in the positive mode were used for MS analysis...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Lijun Fan, Fenghua Zhao, Jing Liu, Karen A Hudson-Edwards
Realgar (As4 S4 )-rich tailings are iron-deficient arsenical mine wastes. The mechanisms and products of the dissolution of realgar by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans) in the presence (0.2 g and 2 g) and absence of zerovalent iron (ZVI) are investigated for three stages (each of 7 d with fresh A. ferrooxidans medium addition between the stages). SEM-EDX, FTIR, XPS and selective extraction analysis are used to characterize the solid-phase during the experiments. ZVI addition causes the systems to become more acid-generating, although pH increases are observed in the first day due to ZVI dissolution...
June 6, 2018: Chemosphere
A P A Cassuriaga, B C B Freitas, M G Morais, J A V Costa
The current study aimed to evaluate if the addition of pentoses along with variations in light intensity and photoperiod can stimulate the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and other biomolecules by Chlorella fusca LEB 111. The variables evaluated were the addition of xylose and arabinose as sources of organic carbon, different photoperiods (18 h, 12 h and 6 h light) and variations in light intensities (58, 28 and 9 μmolphotons  m-2  s-1 ). The highest PHB accumulation (17.4% w w-1 ) and protein production (53...
June 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
V Giordano, P Deindl, R Fuiko, L Unterasinger, T Waldhoer, F Cardona, A Berger, M Olischar
BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend the use of item based scales for the assessment of pain and sedation. In our previous study, the implementation of the Neonatal Pain Agitation and Sedation Scale (N-PASS), and the associated systematic assessment and treatment of pain and sedation reduced pain and over-sedation in our intervention group, but lead to a significant increase of individual opiate exposure. This increased opiate exposure was not associated with impaired motor and mental development at one year of age...
June 20, 2018: Early Human Development
Steven K Jones, Kirk Douglas, Anthony F Shields, Olivia M Merkel
Using an orthotopic model of ovarian cancer, we studied the delivery of siRNA in nanoparticles of tri-block copolymers consisting of hyperbranched polyethylenimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (hyPEI-g-PCL-b-PEG) with and without a folic acid targeting ligand. A SKOV-3/LUC FRα overexpressing cell line was employed to mimic the clinical manifestations of ovarian cancer. Both targeted and non-targeted micelleplexes were able to effectively deliver siRNA to the primary tumor and its metastases, as measured by gamma scintillation counting and confocal microscopy...
June 13, 2018: Biomaterials
Fabian Grasss, Basile Pache, David Martin, Valérie Addor, Dieter Hahnloser, Nicolas Demartines, Martin Hübner
BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) guidelines advocate early postoperative mobilisation to counteract catabolic changes due to immobilisation and maintain muscle strength. The present study aimed to assess compliance to postoperative mobilisation according to ERAS recommendations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study on consecutive colorectal surgical procedures treated within an established ERAS protocol within a single center between May 2011 and May 2017...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Carolina Madeira, Vanessa Mendonça, Miguel C Leal, Augusto A V Flores, Henrique N Cabral, Mário S Diniz, Catarina Vinagre
According to climate science, ocean warming is one of the current and future greatest threats to coastal ecosystems. Projection scenarios for the end of this century show that tropical intertidal ecosystems are particularly at risk. In this study we optimized and tested a holistic method for bio-monitoring present and projected thermal pressure in such ecosystems, in order to assess organism vulnerability to ocean warming. Several species representative of different animal groups (fish, crustaceans and gastropods) were collected from the field and subjected to an experimental trial for 28 days, testing two temperatures: control (present seawater summer temperature) and elevated temperature (+3 °C, projected seawater temperature anomaly for 2100)...
June 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Melina Mottin, Joyce V V B Borba, Rodolpho C Braga, Pedro H M Torres, Matheus C Martini, Jose Luiz Proenca-Modena, Carla C Judice, Fabio T M Costa, Sean Ekins, Alexander L Perryman, Carolina Horta Andrade
Despite the recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV), there are still no approved treatments, and early-stage compounds are probably many years away from approval. A comprehensive A-Z review of the recent advances in ZIKV drug discovery efforts is presented, highlighting drug repositioning and computationally guided compounds, including discovered viral and host cell inhibitors. Promising ZIKV molecular targets are also described and discussed, as well as targets belonging to the host cell, as new opportunities for ZIKV drug discovery...
June 20, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Xian Wu, Yang-Ge Lv, Yi-Feng Du, Fang Chen, Miranda N Reed, Mei Hu, Vishnu Suppiramaniam, Su-Su Tang, Hao Hong
Increasing evidence demonstrates that the neurotoxicity of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition plays a causative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of 6α-ethyl-23(S)-methylcholic acid (S-EMCA, INT-777), a specific G-protein coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5) agonist, in the Aβ1-42 -treated mouse model of acute neurotoxicity. Single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of aggregated Aβ1-42 (410 pmol/mouse; 5 μl) into the mouse brain induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and synaptic dysfunction...
June 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Xin Zhang, Jane E Hartung, Andrey V Bortsov, Seungtae Kim, Sandra C O'Buckley, Julia Kozlowski, Andrea G Nackley
Functional pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorder, are associated with enhanced catecholamine tone and decreased levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines). Consistent with clinical syndromes, our lab has shown that sustained 14-day delivery of the COMT inhibitor OR486 in rodents results in pain at multiple body sites and pain-related volitional behaviors. The onset of COMT-dependent functional pain is mediated by peripheral β2 - and β3 -adrenergic receptors (β2 - and β3 ARs) through the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
June 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
V Blanco-Abad, M Noia, A Valle, F Fontenla, I Folgueira, A P De Felipe, P Pereiro, J Leiro, J Lamas
Many studies have shown that coagulation systems play an important role in the defence against pathogens in invertebrates and vertebrates. In vertebrates, particularly in mammals, it has been established that the coagulation system participates in the entrapment of pathogens and activation of the early immune response. However, functional studies investigating the importance of the fish coagulation system in host defence against pathogens are scarce. In the present study, injection of turbot (Scopthalamus maximus) with the pathogenic ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi led to the formation of macroscopic intraperitoneal clots in the fish...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Yan Chen, Jude Juventus Aweya, Wanwei Sun, Xiaoyuan Wei, Yi Gong, Hongyu Ma, Yueling Zhang, Xiaobo Wen, Shengkang Li
Tolls and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) identified to play key roles in host innate immunity. However, relatively little is known about other types of Toll-like receptors in Scylla paramamosain, although a Toll-like receptor (SpToll1) has recently been cloned. In this study, we cloned and characterized another novel Toll-like receptor 2 (SpToll2) from S. paramamosain. The full-length cDNA of SpToll2 is 3391 bp with a 2646 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 881 amino acids, and predicted to contain six extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain...
June 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Igor C Borges, Dafne C Andrade, Nina Ekström, Camilla Virta, Merit Melin, Annika Saukkoriipi, Maija Leinonen, Olli Ruuskanen, Helena Käyhty, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
The aim of this study was to compare the results of serological assays using pneumococcal proteins or polysaccharides for the detection of pneumococcal infection in childhood pneumonia. Serological assays measured IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply,CbpA,PspA1,PspA2,PcpA,PhtD,StkP-C,PcsB-N), C-polysaccharide [in the whole study population, n = 183], or 19 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (1,2,4,5,6B,7F,8,9 V,10A,11A,12F,14,15B,17F,18C,19F,20,23F,33F) [only in a subgroup of patients, n = 53] in paired serum samples of children aged <5 years-old hospitalized with clinical and radiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Maria A V Willrich, Bruna D Andreguetto, Meera Sridharan, Fernando C Fervenza, Linda J Tostrud, Paula M Ladwig, Ann M Rivard, MeLea D Hetrick, Ryan N Olson, Sandra C Bryant, Melissa R Snyder, David L Murray
BACKGROUND: Eculizumab (ECU) blocks complement C5 cleavage, preventing the formation of C5a and the cytolytic effects of the membrane attack complex. The presence of ECU in blood impacts routine complement tests used to monitor treatment. METHODS: Residual serum samples with normal total complement (CH50) and residual citrate plasma with normal PT/APTT were spiked with ECU at varied concentrations ranging from 25 to 600 μg/mL. In addition, seventy-one samples from patients on ECU were obtained...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Jeffrey M Miller, Francesca Zanderigo, Priya D Purushothaman, Christine DeLorenzo, Harry Rubin-Falcone, R Todd Ogden, John Keilp, Maria A Oquendo, Nabeel Nabulsi, Yiyun H Huang, Ramin V Parsey, Richard E Carson, J John Mann
Endogenous kappa opioids mediate pathological responses to stress in animal models. However, the relationship of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) to life stress and to psychopathology in humans is not well described. This pilot study sought, for the first time, to quantify KOR in major depressive disorder (MDD) in vivo in humans using PET imaging. KOR binding was quantified in vivo by PET imaging with the [11 C]GR103545 radiotracer in 13 healthy volunteers and 10 participants with current MDD. We examined the relationship between regional [11 C]GR103545 total volume of distribution (VT ) and diagnosis, childhood trauma, recent life stress, and, in a subsample, salivary cortisol levels during a modified Trier Social Stress Test (mTSST), amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum and raphe nuclei...
June 23, 2018: Synapse
Unal Mutlu, Mohammad K Ikram, Gennady V Roshchupkin, Pieter W M Bonnemaijer, Johanna M Colijn, Johannes R Vingerling, Wiro J Niessen, Mohammad A Ikram, Caroline C W Klaver, Meike W Vernooij
Increasing evidence shows that thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), assessed on optical coherence tomography (OCT), are reflecting global brain atrophy. Yet, little is known on the relation of these layers with specific brain regions. Using voxel-based analysis, we aimed to unravel specific brain regions associated with these retinal layers. We included 2,235 persons (mean age: 67.3 years, 55% women) from the Rotterdam Study (2007-2012) who had gradable retinal OCT images and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, including diffusion tensor (DT) imaging...
June 23, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Vandana R Thakur, Jayesh V Beladiya, Kiranj K Chaudagar, Anita A Mehta
TLR4 is a key component of innate immune system and activation of TLR4 signaling has the significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Therefore, our objective was to identify the natural TLR4 antagonist and evaluate its activity in experimentally induced asthma. Soya lecithin origin phosphatidylcholine (Soya PC) was identified as a natural TLR4 antagonist by the computational study. Based on the computational study TLR4 antagonist activity of soya PC was confirmed in in-vitro LPS induced neutrophil adhesion assay...
June 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Samuel Chetachukwu Adegoke, Chakree Thongraung, Chutha Takahashi Yupanqui
The effect of short-chain inulin on the rheological and sensory properties of reduced fat set coconut milk yoghurt was studied with whole fat coconut milk yoghurt as reference. The concentration of short-chain inulin was varied at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% w/v respectively. All the yoghurt samples displayed higher elastic modulus G' than viscous modulus G". However, 15% inulin yoghurt had the highest value for G' & G". The 15 and 20% inulin yoghurts displayed high yield stress (1036.7 ± 2.39 & 368...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
Brandon J Auer, Christopher Sciamanna, Joshua M Smyth, Cristina I Truica, Leah V Cream, Dahlia Mukherjee
Mental health programs to improve problem-solving skills and reduce stress through social gameplay can improve psychiatric outcomes, but little is known about whether adult patients are interested in using them. Primary care patients (n = 467) completed a cross-sectional survey to assess interest in using 2 types of group programs for mental health. A significantly greater percentage (23.7%) of patients expressed interest in a gameplay-based program than in interpersonal therapy (17.6%) (P < .001). Lonely patients and younger patients were more likely to report interest in gameplay...
June 21, 2018: Preventing Chronic Disease
Manouchehr Safari, Houman Parsaie, Hamid Reza Sameni, Mohammad Reza Aldaghi, Sam Zarbakhsh
BACKGROUND: Apigenin is a plant-derived compound belonging to the flavonoids category and bears protective effects on different cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of apigenin on the number of viable and apoptotic blastomeres, the zona pellucida (ZP) thickness and hatching rate of pre-implantation mouse embryos exposed to H2 O2 and actinomycin D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 420 two-cell embryos were randomly divided into six groups: i...
June 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
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