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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443072/extraction-of-ramie-fiber-in-alkali-hydrogen-peroxide-system-supported-by-controlled-release-alkali-source
#1
Chaoran Meng, Zhaoling Li, Chaoyun Wang, Chongwen Yu, Xuerong Bi, Siyi Wang
This protocol demonstrates a method for ramie fiber extraction by scouring raw ramie in an alkali hydrogen peroxide system supported by a controlled-release alkali source. The fiber extracted from ramie is a type of textile material of great importance. In previous studies, ramie fiber was extracted in an alkali hydrogen peroxide system supported only by sodium hydroxide.However, due to the strong alkalinity of sodium hydroxide, the oxidation reaction speed of hydrogen peroxide was difficult to control and thus resulted in great damage to the treated fiber...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442224/vitamin-c-and-sodium-bicarbonate-enhance-the-antioxidant-ability-of-h9c2-cells-and-induce-hsps-to-relieve-heat-stress
#2
Bin Yin, Shu Tang, Jiarui Sun, Xiaohui Zhang, Jiao Xu, Liangjiao Di, Zhihong Li, Yurong Hu, Endong Bao
Heat stress is exacerbated by global warming and affects human and animal health, leading to heart damage caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the antioxidant system, acid-base chemistry, electrolytes and respiratory alkalosis. Vitamin C scavenges excess ROS, and sodium bicarbonate maintains acid-base and electrolyte balance, and alleviates respiratory alkalosis. Herein, we explored the ability of vitamin C alone and in combination with equimolar sodium bicarbonate (Vitamin C-Na) to stimulate endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSPs) to relieve heat stress in H9C2 cells...
February 13, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437746/from-renal-salt-wasting-to-siadh
#3
Tzy Harn Chua, Matin Ly, Senthil Thillainadesan, Katie Wynne
Hyponatraemia is common following major head injury and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A 20-year-old man presented with reduced consciousness after head trauma and was found to have a fractured skull base with bilateral frontal contusions. On day 3 of his admission, he developed hyponatraemia with raised urine sodium and osmolality, despite receiving dexamethasone and intravenous fluid therapy. His hyponatraemia worsened after the treatment with fluid restriction and oral salt. He was in negative fluid balance suggesting possible renal salt wasting...
February 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435645/congruence-between-pm-h-atpase-and-nadph-oxidase-during-root-growth-a-necessary-probability
#4
Arkajo Majumdar, Rup Kumar Kar
Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two key enzymes responsible for cell wall relaxation during elongation growth through apoplastic acidification and production of ˙OH radical via O2˙-, respectively. Our experiments revealed a putative feed-forward loop between these enzymes in growing roots of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Thus, NOX activity was found to be dependent on proton gradient generated across PM by H+-ATPase as evident from pharmacological experiments using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; protonophore) and sodium ortho-vanadate (PM H+-ATPase inhibitor)...
February 12, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433578/resistant-hypertension-on-treatment-reshypot-sequential-nephron-blockade-compared-to-dual-blockade-of-the-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-plus-bisoprolol-in-the-treatment-of-resistant-arterial-hypertension-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Elizabeth do Espirito Santo Cestário, Letícia Aparecida Barufi Fernandes, Luiz Tadeu Giollo-Júnior, Jéssica Rodrigues Roma Uyemura, Camila Suemi Sato Matarucco, Manoel Idelfonso Paz Landim, Luciana Neves Cosenso-Martin, Lúcia Helena Bonalume Tácito, Heitor Moreno, José Fernando Vilela-Martin, Juan Carlos Yugar-Toledo
BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension is characterized when the blood pressure (BP) remains above the recommended goal after taking three antihypertensive drugs with synergistic actions at their maximum recommended tolerated doses, preferably including a diuretic. Identifying the contribution of intravascular volume and serum renin in maintaining BP levels could help tailor more effective hypertension treatment, whether acting on the control of intravascular volume or sodium balance, or acting on the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) on the kidney...
February 12, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433025/time-dependent-disturbances-of-chloride-salts-on-overall-redox-reaction-and-luminescence-in-vibrio-fischeri
#6
Zhenyang Yu, Jing Zhang, Meifang Hou
The redox state of NADH/NADPH balance (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is crucial in cellular homeostasis. Recent studies reported that sodium halide ions (NaX, X = F-, Cl-, Br- and I-) stimulated NAD(P)H in Vibrio fischeri (VF). However, it remained unanswered whether this pattern applied in salts with other cations, e.g., K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, whose aquatic concentrations were increased by anthropogenic activities and climate change. Currently, VF were incubated with chloride salts, including KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2, and effects were measured in a time-dependent fashion...
February 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416246/effect-of-lactate-versus-acetate-based-intravenous-fluids-on-acid-base-balance-in-patients-undergoing-free-flap-reconstructive-surgeries
#7
Sunil Rajan, Soumya Srikumar, Pulak Tosh, Lakshmi Kumar
Background and Aims: Use of lactated intravenous fluids during long surgeries could cause lactate accumulation and lactic acidosis. Acetate-based solutions could be advantageous as they are devoid of lactate. The primary aim of the study was to assess the effect of use of an acetated solution or Ringer's lactate (RL) as intraoperative fluid on lactate levels in patients without hepatic dysfunction undergoing prolonged surgeries. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial involving sixty patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I to II undergoing major head and neck surgeries with free flap reconstruction...
October 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414353/the-toxic-effect-of-sodium-fluoride-on-spodoptera-frugiperda-9-cells-and-differential-protein-analysis-following-naf-treatment-of-cells
#8
Huan Zuo, Liang Chen, Ming Kong, Yanhua Yang, Peng Lü, Lipeng Qiu, Qiang Wang, Shangshang Ma, Keping Chen
Accumulation of excess fluoride has a destructive effect on the environment, endangering human health, affecting organism growth and development, and leading to damage to the biological chain, thereby affecting ecological environment balance. In recent years, numerous studies focused on the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity; however, fluoride-toxicity mechanisms in insect cells remain unclear. This study explored the toxic impact of sodium fluoride (NaF) on Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) insect cells...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407048/personalizing-glucose-lowering-therapy-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
REVIEW
Silvio E Inzucchi
Twelve drug categories are marketed in the United States to lower blood glucose concentrations in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). After metformin, there is disagreement about the optimal next choice for combination therapy. Guidelines advise balancing potency, risks, benefits, and costs. For T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD), emerging evidence suggests that certain options may have specific advantages. Specific members of the thiazolidinedione, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist classes have been associated with significant reductions in major adverse cardiovascular events, generally in those with established CVD...
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405658/role-of-afferent-and-efferent-renal-nerves-in-the-development-of-angii-salt-hypertension-in-rats
#10
Jason D Foss, Jessica Fiege, Yoji Shimizu, John P Collister, Tim Mayerhofer, Laurel Wood, John W Osborn
Hypertension is the leading modifiable risk factor for death worldwide, yet the causes remain unclear and treatment remains suboptimal. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDNX) is a promising new treatment for resistant hypertension, but the mechanisms underlying its antihypertensive effect remain unclear. We recently found that RDNX attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and that this is dependent on ablation of afferent renal nerves and is associated with decreased renal inflammation. To determine if this is common to other models of salt-sensitive hypertension, rats underwent complete RDNX (n = 8), selective ablation of afferent renal nerves (n = 8), or sham denervation (n = 8)...
February 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398027/effects-of-acetic-acid-or-sodium-acetate-infused-into-the-rumen-or-abomasum-on-feeding-behavior-and-metabolic-response-of-cows-in-the-postpartum-period
#11
Laura B Gualdrón-Duarte, Michael S Allen
Effects of continuous isomolar infusions of acetic acid (AcA) or sodium acetate (NAc) infused into the rumen (RU) or into the abomasum (AB) on feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI), and metabolic response of cows in the early postpartum period were evaluated. Six rumen-cannulated multiparous Holstein cows (11.8 ± 3.9 d in milk; mean ± SD) were utilized in a 6 × 6 Latin square design experiment balanced for carryover effects with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were AcA and NAc, with sodium chloride (CON) as a control, infused at a rate of ∼0...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386975/balanced-fluid-versus-saline-based-fluid-in-post-operative-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-acid-base-and-electrolytes-assessment
#12
Mohamad Hasyizan Hassan, Wan Mohd Nazaruddin Wan Hassan, Rhendra Hardy Mohd Zaini, Wan Fadzlina Wan Muhd Shukeri, Huda Zainal Abidin, Chong Soon Eu
Background: Normal saline (NS) is a common fluid of choice in neurosurgery and neuro-intensive care unit (ICU), but it does not contain other electrolytes and has the potential to cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with prolonged infusion. These problems may be reduced with the availability of balanced fluid (BF), which becomes a more physiological isotonic solution with the presence of complete electrolyte content. This study aimed to compare the changes in electrolytes and acid-base between NS and BF (Sterofundin® ISO) therapy for post-operative severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients in neuro-ICU...
October 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385456/dietary-supplements-during-the-cold-season-increase-rumen-microbial-abundance-and-improve-rumen-epithelium-development-in-tibetan-sheep
#13
X P Jing, Q H Peng, R Hu, H W Zou, H Z Wang, X Q Yu, J W Zhou, A A Degen, Z S Wang
Livestock on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau are faced with extreme harsh winters and are often in negative energy balance during this period. Dietary supplementation can improve growth performance of Tibetan sheep and, consequently, we hypothesized that it would also increase microbial abundance and rumen epithelium development. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of feed supplementation during the cold season on rumen microbes, fermentation, epithelium development and absorptive capability in Tibetan sheep...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383015/protective-effects-of-hydrogen-sulfide-on-chronic-kidney-disease-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-apoptosis
#14
Hassan Askari, Behjat Seifi, Mehri Kadkhodaee, Nima Sanadgol, Mohammed Elshiekh, Mina Ranjbaran, Parisa Ahghari
The current study aimed to examine the renoprotective effects of long-term treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a prominent hydrogen sulfide donor, in 5/6 nephrectomy animal model. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into 3 groups including sham-operated group (Sham), 5/6-nephrectomized group (5/6 Nx), and NaHS-treated group (5/6Nx+NaHS). NaHS (30 micromol/l) was added twice daily into the drinking water and renal failure was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy. Twelve weeks after surgical procedure, blood pressure, creatinine clearance (CCr), urine concentration of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as renal morphological changes, apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3) and inflammation (p-NF-κB) were measured...
2018: EXCLI Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371419/plasma-potassium-determines-ncc-abundance-in-adult-kidney-specific-%C3%AE-enac-knockout
#15
Emilie Boscardin, Romain Perrier, Chloé Sergi, Marc P Maillard, Johannes Loffing, Dominique Loffing-Cueni, Robert Koesters, Bernard C Rossier, Edith Hummler
The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) are key regulators of sodium and potassium and colocalize in the late distal convoluted tubule of the kidney. Loss of the αENaC subunit leads to a perinatal lethal phenotype characterized by sodium loss and hyperkalemia resembling the human syndrome pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA-I). In adulthood, inducible nephron-specific deletion of αENaC in mice mimics the lethal phenotype observed in neonates, and as in humans, this phenotype is prevented by a high sodium (HNa+)/low potassium (LK+) rescue diet...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363027/pharmacodynamics-safety-and-tolerability-of-the-nhe3-inhibitor-tenapanor-two-trials-in-healthy-volunteers
#16
David P Rosenbaum, Andrew Yan, Jeffrey W Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Tenapanor, a small molecule with minimal systemic availability, is a first-in-class sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) inhibitor that acts in the gut. Here, we evaluate the pharmacodynamics and safety of tenapanor in healthy adults. METHODS: Two phase I, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were performed. The first study assessed single-ascending oral tenapanor doses of 10, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg (n = 8 per group; six tenapanor, two placebo) and multiple ascending doses over 7 days of 3, 10, 30, and 100 mg q...
January 23, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360830/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-of-arginine-silicate-inositol-complex-on-absorption-and-metabolism-of-calcium-of-laying-hens
#17
Kazim Sahin, Cemal Orhan, Mehmet Tuzcu, Armagan Hayirli, James R Komorowski, Nurhan Sahin
The effects of supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex (ASI; 49.5-8.2-25 g/kg, respectively) to laying hens were investigated with respect to eggshell quality, calcium (Ca) balance, and expression of duodenal proteins related to Ca metabolism (calbindin and tight junction proteins). A total of 360 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate of cages, 20 birds per cage. The groups were fed a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with 500 or 1000 mg ASI complex per kilogram for 90 days...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360554/circadian-regulation-of-renal-function
#18
REVIEW
Jermaine G Johnston, David M Pollock
The kidneys regulate many vital functions that require precise control throughout the day. These functions, such as maintaining sodium balance or regulating arterial pressure, rely on an intrinsic clock mechanism that was commonly believed to be controlled by the central nervous system. Mounting evidence in recent years has unveiled previously underappreciated depth of influence by circadian rhythms and clock genes on renal function, at the molecular and physiological level, independent of other external factors...
January 31, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359117/fluid-balance-concepts-in-medicine-principles-and-practice
#19
REVIEW
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos P Argyropoulos, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
The regulation of body fluid balance is a key concern in health and disease and comprises three concepts. The first concept pertains to the relationship between total body water (TBW) and total effective solute and is expressed in terms of the tonicity of the body fluids. Disturbances in tonicity are the main factor responsible for changes in cell volume, which can critically affect brain cell function and survival. Solutes distributed almost exclusively in the extracellular compartment (mainly sodium salts) and in the intracellular compartment (mainly potassium salts) contribute to tonicity, while solutes distributed in TBW have no effect on tonicity...
January 6, 2018: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350919/pair-distribution-function-analysis-of-structural-disorder-by-nb5-inclusion-in-ceria-evidence-for-enhanced-oxygen-storage-capacity-from-under-coordinated-oxide
#20
Craig I Hiley, Helen Y Playford, Janet M Fisher, Noelia Cortes Felix, David Thompsett, Reza J Kashtiban, Richard I Walton
Partial substitution of Ce4+ by Nb5+ is possible in CeO2 by coinclusion of Na+ to balance the charge, via hydrothermal synthesis in sodium hydroxide solution. Pair distribution function analysis using reverse Monte Carlo refinement reveals that the small pentavalent substituent resides in irregular coordination positions in an average fluorite lattice, displaced away from the ideal cubic coordination toward four oxygens. This results in under-coordinated oxygen, which explains significantly enhanced oxygen storage capacity of the materials of relevance to redox catalysis used in energy and environmental applications...
January 24, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
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