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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442491/constitutively-active-spak-causes-hyperkalemia-by-activating-ncc-and-remodeling-distal-tubules
#1
P Richard Grimm, Richard Coleman, Eric Delpire, Paul A Welling
Aberrant activation of with no lysine (WNK) kinases causes familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt). Thiazide diuretics treat the disease, fostering the view that hyperactivation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is solely responsible. However, aberrant signaling in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN) and inhibition of the potassium-excretory renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel have also been implicated. To test these ideas, we introduced kinase-activating mutations after Lox-P sites in the mouse Stk39 gene, which encodes the terminal kinase in the WNK signaling pathway, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441389/the-basis-of-sharp-spike-onset-in-standard-biophysical-models
#2
Maria Telenczuk, Bertrand Fontaine, Romain Brette
In most vertebrate neurons, spikes initiate in the axonal initial segment (AIS). When recorded in the soma, they have a surprisingly sharp onset, as if sodium (Na) channels opened abruptly. The main view stipulates that spikes initiate in a conventional manner at the distal end of the AIS, then progressively sharpen as they backpropagate to the soma. We examined the biophysical models used to substantiate this view, and we found that spikes do not initiate through a local axonal current loop that propagates along the axon, but through a global current loop encompassing the AIS and soma, which forms an electrical dipole...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439270/cytokine-regulation-of-na-k-cl-cotransporter-1-and-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-potential-role-in-pulmonary-inflammation-and-edema-formation
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Weidenfeld, Wolfgang M Kuebler
Pulmonary edema, a major complication of lung injury and inflammation, is defined as accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lungs leading to impaired diffusion of respiratory gases. Lung fluid balance across the alveolar epithelial barrier protects the distal airspace from excess fluid accumulation and is mainly regulated by active sodium transport and Cl(-) absorption. Increased hydrostatic pressure as seen in cardiogenic edema or increased vascular permeability as present in inflammatory lung diseases such as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes a reversal of transepithelial fluid transport resulting in the formation of pulmonary edema...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438314/progression-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-is-associated-with-up-regulation-of-major-sodium-transporters-in-the-mouse-kidney-cortex-under-a-normal-salt-diet
#4
Xiaoming Zhou, Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Yao Xiao, Saule Nurmukhambetova, Jason R Lees
Recent demonstrations of exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by high salt diets prompted us to study whether EAE stimulated Na absorption by the renal cortex, a primary regulatory site for Na balance, even under a normal NaCl diet. We found that as EAE progressed from mild to severe symptoms, there were parallel increases in the protein abundance of NHE3 and αENaC and the Na,K-ATPase activity with an affiliated elevation of its β1-subunit protein. These effects are associated with increases in the protein levels of the well-known regulators SGK1 and scaffold NHERF2, and phosphorylation of ERK1/2...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#5
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425228/the-effects-of-the-chloride-sodium-ratio-on-acid-base-statusand-mortality-in-septic-patients
#6
Hakan Korkut Atalan, Bülent Güçyetmez
BACKGROUND/AIM: Calculation of the chloride:sodium (Cl(-):Na(+)) ratio is proposed to enable a quick evaluation of the effect of Cl(-) and Na(+) on the acid-base balance in critically ill patients. In the present study, the relationship of the Cl(-):Na(+) ratio of septic patients with acid-base status and ICU mortality were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our two-center study, 434 patients who were diagnosed with sepsis were included. The patients were divided into three groups: low (<0...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423317/loss-of-nav%C3%AE-4-mediated-regulation-of-sodium-currents-in-adult-purkinje-neurons-disrupts-firing-and-impairs-motor-coordination-and-balance
#7
Joseph L Ransdell, Edward Dranoff, Brandon Lau, Wan-Lin Lo, David L Donermeyer, Paul M Allen, Jeanne M Nerbonne
The resurgent component of voltage-gated Na(+) (Nav) currents, INaR, has been suggested to provide the depolarizing drive for high-frequency firing and to be generated by voltage-dependent Nav channel block (at depolarized potentials) and unblock (at hyperpolarized potentials) by the accessory Navβ4 subunit. To test these hypotheses, we examined the effects of the targeted deletion of Scn4b (Navβ4) on INaR and on repetitive firing in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. We show here that Scn4b(-/-) animals have deficits in motor coordination and balance and that firing rates in Scn4b(-/-) Purkinje neurons are markedly attenuated...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422408/prevention-of-the-osmotic-demyelination-syndrome-after-liver-transplantation-a-multidisciplinary-perspective
#8
J F Crismale, K A Meliambro, S DeMaria, D B Bronster, S Florman, T D Schiano
The osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a serious neurologic condition that occurs in the setting of rapid correction of hyponatremia. It presents with protean manifestations, from encephalopathy to the "locked-in" syndrome. ODS can complicate liver transplantation (LT), and its incidence may increase with the inclusion of serum sodium as a factor in the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. A comprehensive understanding of risk factors for the development of ODS in the setting of LT, along with recommendations to mitigate the risk of ODS, are necessary...
April 19, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413966/the-clinical-problems-of-hypertension-treatment-in-hemodialysis-patients
#9
Charalampos N Loutradis, Costas Tsioufis, Pantelis A Sarafidis
Hypertension (HT) is present in more than 80% of patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis patients is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality only when BP is recorded with home or ambulatory monitoring, since pre- and post-dialysis measurements are not valid estimates of BP levels during the inter-dialytic interval. Sodium and water overload is the most important of several mechanisms involved in HT development in HD. In this context, non-pharmacologic measures to ensure water and sodium balance by achieving patient dry weight and decreasing daily sodium intake, through modification of sodium level in the diet or in dialysis dialysate, are fundamental for HT control...
April 14, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410418/heterogeneous-firing-responses-predict-diverse-couplings-to-presynaptic-activity-in-mice-layer-v-pyramidal-neurons
#10
Yann Zerlaut, Alain Destexhe
In this study, we present a theoretical framework combining experimental characterizations and analytical calculus to capture the firing rate input-output properties of single neurons in the fluctuation-driven regime. Our framework consists of a two-step procedure to treat independently how the dendritic input translates into somatic fluctuation variables, and how the latter determine action potential firing. We use this framework to investigate the functional impact of the heterogeneity in firing responses found experimentally in young mice layer V pyramidal cells...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408634/moderate-20-fructose-enriched-diet-stimulates-salt-sensitive-hypertension-with-increased-salt-retention-and-decreased-renal-nitric-oxide
#11
Kevin L Gordish, Kamal M Kassem, Pablo A Ortiz, William H Beierwaltes
Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407470/label-free-vibrational-spectroscopic-imaging-of-neuronal-membrane-potential
#12
Hyeon Jeong Lee, Delong Zhang, Ying Jiang, Xiangbing Wu, Pei-Yu Shih, Chien-Sheng Liao, Brittani Bungart, Xiao-Ming Xu, Ryan Drenan, Edward Bartlett, Ji-Xin Cheng
Detecting membrane potentials is critical for understanding how neuronal networks process information. We report a vibrational spectroscopic signature of neuronal membrane potentials identified through hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging of patched primary neurons. High-speed SRS imaging allowed direct visualization of puff-induced depolarization of multiple neurons in mouse brain slices, confirmed by simultaneous calcium imaging. The observed signature, partially dependent on sodium ion influx, is interpreted as ion interactions on the CH3 Fermi resonance peak in proteins...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404590/inflammatory-cytokines-regulate-renal-sodium-transporters-how-where-and-why
#13
Allison E Norlander, Meena S Madhur
Hypertension is growing in epidemic proportions worldwide and is now the leading preventable cause of premature death. For over a century, we have known that the kidney plays a critical role in blood pressure regulation. Specifically, abnormalities in renal sodium transport appear to be a final common pathway that gives rise to elevated blood pressure regardless of the nature of the initial hypertensive stimulus. However, it is only in the past decade that we have come to realize that inflammatory cytokines secreted by innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as renal epithelial cells, can modulate the expression and activity of sodium transporters all along the nephron, leading to alterations in pressure natriuresis, sodium and water balance, and ultimately hypertension...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402076/studies-on-supplementary-desalted-mother-liquor-on-digestibility-of-nutrients-ruminal-fermentation-and-energy-and-nitrogen-balance-in-thai-native-cattle
#14
Takashi Sakai, Wanna Angthong, Motoharu Takeda, Kazato Oishi, Hiroyuki Hirooka, Hajime Kumagai
Four Thai native steers were used to determine the adequate levels of supplementary desalted mother liquor (DML) for energy and nitrogen balances and ruminal fermentation. The crude protein and sodium chloride contents of DML were 25.5% and 60.3% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. A 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted by adding different amounts of DML to three experimental diets (T1: 1.1%, T2: 2.2%, T3: 3.4% sodium chloride concentration with supplementary DML on a DM basis) and comparing their effects with those of a control diet (C) containing 1...
April 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393946/a-theoretical-study-of-complexes-formed-between-cations-and-curved-aromatic-systems-electrostatics-does-not-always-control-cation-%C3%AF-interaction
#15
Jorge A Carrazana-García, Enrique M Cabaleiro-Lago, Jesús Rodríguez-Otero
The present work studies the interaction of two extended curved π-systems (corannulene and sumanene) with various cations (sodium, potassium, ammonium, tetramethylammonium, guanidinium and imidazolium). Polyatomic cations are models of groups found in important biomolecules in which cation-π interaction plays a fundamental role. The results indicate an important size effect: with extended π systems and cations of the size of potassium and larger, dispersion is much more important than has been generally recognized for cation-π interactions...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384420/not-good-but-not-all-bad-dehydration-effects-on-body-fluids-organ-masses-and-water-flux-through-the-skin-of-rhinella-schneideri-amphibia-bufonidae
#16
Rodolfo C O Anderson, Rafael P Bovo, Carlos E Eismann, Amauri A Menegario, Denis V Andrade
Because of their permeable skin, terrestrial amphibians are constantly challenged by the potential risk of dehydration. However, some of the physiological consequences associated with dehydration may affect aspects that are themselves relevant to the regulation of water balance. Accordingly, we examined the effects of graded levels of dehydration on the rates of evaporative water loss and water absorption through the skin in the terrestrial Neotropical toad, Rhinella schneideri. Concomitantly, we monitored the effects of dehydration on the mass of visceral organs; hematocrit and hemoglobin content; plasma osmolality; and plasma concentration of urea, sodium, chloride, and potassium...
May 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380850/rapid-detection-of-drought-stress-in-plants-using-femtosecond-laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy
#17
Jeremy N Kunz, Dmitri V Voronine, Ho Wai Howard Lee, Alexei V Sokolov, Marlan O Scully
Drought stress disrupts the balance of macro- and micronutrients and affects the yield of agriculturally and economically significant plants. Rapid detection of stress-induced changes of relative content of elements such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in the field may allow farmers and crop growers to counter the effects of plant stress and to increase their crop return. Unfortunately, the analytical methods currently available are time-consuming, expensive and involve elaborate sample preparation such as acid digestion which hinders routine daily monitoring of crop health on a field scale...
April 3, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378069/cardiac-natriuretic-peptides-hypertension-and-cardiovascular-risk
#18
Riccardo Sarzani, Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Paolo Balietti, Guido Cocci, Marica Bordicchia
Prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease is increasing worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for CV disease is hypertension that is very often related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. The search for key mechanisms, linking high blood pressure (BP), glucose and lipid dysmetabolism together with higher CV risk and mortality, is attracting increasing attention. Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs), including ANP and BNP, may play a crucial role in maintaining CV homeostasis and cardiac health, given their impact not only on BP regulation, but also on glucose and lipid metabolism...
April 4, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374919/all-trans-retinoic-acid-ameliorates-arsenic-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-the-rat-uterus-by-modulating-mapk-signaling-proteins
#19
Aniruddha Chatterjee, Urmi Chatterji
Exposure to arsenic leads to inhibition of the antioxidant defense mechanism of the body. Reactive oxygen species generated in response to arsenic causes reproductive failures in exposed females and also acts as an inducer of apoptosis. As a prospective remedial agent, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was assessed for reversing arsenic-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Rats exposed to arsenic for 28 days were allowed to recover naturally or were treated simultaneously with ATRA for 28 days or up to 56 days...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369721/biased-agonism-and-allosteric-modulation-of-gpr183-a-7tm-receptor-also-known-as-ebv-induced-ebi2
#20
Viktorija Daugvilaite, Christian Medom Madsen, Michael Lückmann, Clara Castello Echeverria, Andreas Walter Sailer, Thomas Michael Frimurer, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Tau Benned-Jensen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The G protein-coupled receptor Epstein Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2, also known as GPR183) is activated by oxysterols and plays a pivotal role for proper B cell migration during immune responses. While the molecular basis of agonist binding has been addressed in several studies, the concept of biased agonism of EBI2 has not been explored. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the effects of the EBI2 endogenous agonist 7α,25-OHC on G protein-dependent and -independent pathways as well as sodium ion allosterism using site-directed mutagenesis and functional studies...
March 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
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