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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678794/aggravated-gut-inflammation-in-mice-lacking-the-taste-signaling-protein-%C3%AE-gustducin
#1
Pu Feng, Jinghua Chai, Huilan Yi, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Liquan Huang, Hong Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating immune-related condition that affects over 1.4 million Americans. Recent studies indicate that taste receptor signaling is involved in much more than sensing food flavor, and taste receptors have been localized in a variety of extra-oral tissues. One of the newly revealed functions of taste receptors and downstream signaling proteins is modulation of immune responses to microbes and parasites. We previously found that components of the taste receptor signaling pathway are expressed in subsets of the intestinal epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674190/urinary-angiotensinogen-excretion-in-australian-indigenous-and-non-indigenous-pregnant-women
#2
Kirsty G Pringle, Celine Corbisier de Meaultsart, Shane D Sykes, Loretta J Weatherall, Lyniece Keogh, Don C Clausen, Gus A Dekker, Roger Smith, Claire T Roberts, Kym M Rae, Eugenie R Lumbers
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (iRAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, chronic kidney disease and diabetic nephropathy. Urinary angiotensinogen (uAGT) levels reflect the activity of the iRAS and are altered in women with preeclampsia. Since Indigenous Australians suffer high rates and early onset of renal disease, we hypothesised that Indigenous Australian pregnant women, like non-Indigenous women with pregnancy complications, would have altered uAGT levels. The excretion of RAS proteins was measured in non-Indigenous and Indigenous Australian women with uncomplicated or complicated pregnancies (preeclampsia, diabetes/gestational diabetes, proteinuria/albuminuria, hypertension, small/large for gestational age, preterm birth), and in non-pregnant non-Indigenous women...
April 11, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669938/canagliflozin-triggers-the-fgf23-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d-pth-axis-in-healthy-volunteers-in-a-randomized-crossover-study
#3
Jenny E Blau, Viviana Bauman, Ellen M Conway, Paolo Piaggi, Mary F Walter, Elizabeth C Wright, Shanna Bernstein, Amber B Courville, Michael T Collins, Kristina I Rother, Simeon I Taylor
BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the most recently approved class of drugs for type 2 diabetes and provide both glycemic efficacy and cardiovascular risk reduction. A number of safety issues have been identified, including treatment-emergent bone fractures. To understand the overall clinical profile, these safety issues must be balanced against an attractive efficacy profile. Our study was designed to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms mediating treatment-emergent adverse effects on bone health...
April 19, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656647/tea-polysaccharides-inhibits-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-via-interleukin-6-stat3-pathway
#4
Li-Qiao Liu, Mingyue Shen, Shao-Ping Nie, Jie-Lun Hu, Qiang Yu, Deming Gong, Ming-Yong Xie
The interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 signaling pathway regulates survival and proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells, and has profound impact on the tumorigenesis of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Tea polysaccharides (TPS) is the major nutraceutical component isolated from tea-leaves and is known to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor bi-oactivities. Here, we investigated the antitumor activities of TPS on CAC using the azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) mouse model and IL-6-induced colorectal cancer cell line (CT26), and determined whether TPS exerted its antitumor effects through the IL-6/STAT3 pathway...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#5
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621672/oyster-transcriptome-response-to-alexandrium-exposure-is-related-to-saxitoxin-load-and-characterized-by-disrupted-digestion-energy-balance-and-calcium-and-sodium-signaling
#6
Audrey M Mat, Christophe Klopp, Laura Payton, Céline Jeziorski, Morgane Chalopin, Zouher Amzil, Damien Tran, Gary H Wikfors, Hélène Hégaret, Philippe Soudant, Arnaud Huvet, Caroline Fabioux
Harmful Algal Blooms are worldwide occurrences that can cause poisoning in human seafood consumers as well as mortality and sublethal effets in wildlife, propagating economic losses. One of the most widespread toxigenic microalgal taxa is the dinoflagellate Genus Alexandrium, that includes species producing neurotoxins referred to as PST (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins). Blooms cause shellfish harvest restrictions to protect human consumers from accumulated toxins. Large inter-individual variability in toxin load within an exposed bivalve population complicates monitoring of shellfish toxicity for ecology and human health regulation...
March 27, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619577/effects-of-sodium-chloride-salinity-on-ecophysiological-and-biochemical-parameters-of-oak-seedlings-quercus-robur-l-from-use-of-de-icing-salts-for-winter-road-maintenance
#7
Xavier Laffray, Laurence Alaoui-Sehmer, Mohamed Bourioug, Pascale Bourgeade, Badr Alaoui-Sossé, Lotfi Aleya
Salt is widely used to melt snow on roads especially in mountain regions. Whether as rock salt or aerosols, spread or sprayed over road surfaces, salt may result in increased salt concentrations in soils, which, in turn, affect natural vegetation, especially tree seedlings already subjected to various other types of abiotic stress. The authors investigated the effects of salt treatment-related stress on seedling growth and certain biochemical parameters in Quercus robur to determine ion concentrations in root tips...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608812/to-salt-or-not-to-salt-that-is-the-question-in-liver-cirrhosis
#8
Julia Haberl, Gernot Zollner, Peter Fickert, Vanessa Stadlbauer
Ascites is the most common complication of patients with liver cirrhosis, resulting from portal hypertension and vasodilatation. It is associated with an increased risk for the development of hyponatremia, renal failure and has a high mortality rate of 20% per year. The development of ascites represents a baleful sign in the course of disease in liver cirrhosis. To prevent complications of cirrhosis and improve quality of life, an effective management of ascites is pivotal. Combined salt restriction and diuretic therapy is recommended as first-line therapy in numerous clinical practice guidelines...
April 2, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604245/curcumin-protects-rabbit-articular-chondrocytes-against-sodium-nitroprusside-induced-apoptosis-in-vitro
#9
Ping Zhao, Jiafeng Cheng, Jiajin Geng, Min Yang, Yongqiang Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Yang Wang, Bin Lu
The preventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin on degeneration of articular (joint) cartilage diseases have rarely been investigated. In the present study, the protective effects of curcumin against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis were evaluated and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. Curcumin was used to as a co-treatment with SNP in chondrocytes, and changes occurring in the cells were observed and evaluated. It was shown using a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay that curcumin protected the viability of chondrocytes against SNP damage...
March 28, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604181/a-default-option-to-enhance-nutrition-within-financial-constraints-a-randomized-controlled-proof-of-principle-trial
#10
Jaime A Coffino, Julia M Hormes
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the feasibility and initial efficacy of a novel default option intervention targeting nutritional quality of online grocery purchases within the financial constraints of food insecurity. METHODS: Female undergraduates (n = 59) without eating disorder symptoms or dietary restrictions selected foods online with a budget corresponding to maximum Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits. Before completing the task again, participants were randomly assigned to receive a $10 incentive for selecting nutritious groceries (n = 17), education about nutrition (n = 24), or a default online shopping cart containing a nutritionally balanced selection of groceries (n = 18) to which they could make changes...
March 31, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599102/assessment-of-dietary-intake-in-spanish-university-students-of-health-sciences
#11
María Correa-Rodríguez, Gabriela Pocovi, Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle, Emilio González-Jiménez, Blanca Rueda-Medina
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional intake during early ages has been associated to disease onset later in life. This study aimed to assess dietary intake in Spanish university students of health sciences as compared to national recommended dietary intakes (DRIs). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted including 585 university students of health sciences aged 18-25 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 72-h diet recall. A control group was selected from Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (ENIDE) data...
March 26, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595116/ameliorative-potentials-of-methanol-fractions-of-cnidoscolus-aconitifolius-on-some-hematological-and-biochemical-parameters-in-streptozotocin-diabetic-rats
#12
Ngozi Achi, Christopher Ohaeri, Ifeoma Ijeh, Chinedum Eleazu, Kalu Igwe, Chima Onyeabo
There is paucity of information in literature on the effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on the hematological, coagulation activities, electrolyte balance and antioxidant activities of humans or animals. </p><p> Objectives: To determine the ameliorative potentials of methanol fractions of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on hematological, coagulation, electrolyte, hepatic and renal antioxidant activities of streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats using standard techniques. </p><p> Method: Thirty rats, distributed into five groups of six rats each were used for this study...
March 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594870/treatment-strategies-for-dravet-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Kelly G Knupp, Elaine C Wirrell
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a medically refractory epilepsy that onsets in the first year of life with prolonged seizures, often triggered by fever. Over time, patients develop other seizure types (myoclonic, atypical absences, drops), intellectual disability, crouch gait and other co-morbidities (sleep problems, autonomic dysfunction). Complete seizure control is generally not achievable with current therapies, and the goals of treatment are to balance reduction of seizure burden with adverse effects of therapies...
March 28, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593868/recommendations-for-active-correction-of-hypernatremia-in-volume-resuscitated-shock-or-sepsis-patients-should-be-taken-with-a-grain-of-salt-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Joseph W Quinn, Kerry Sewell, Dell E Simmons
Background: Healthcare-acquired hypernatremia (serum sodium >145 mEq/dL) is common among critically ill and other hospitalized patients and is usually treated with hypotonic fluid and/or diuretics to correct a "free water deficit." However, many hypernatremic patients are eu- or hypervolemic, and an evolving body of literature emphasizes the importance of rapidly returning critically ill patients to a neutral fluid balance after resuscitation. Objective: We searched for any randomized- or observational-controlled studies evaluating the impact of active interventions intended to correct hypernatremia to eunatremia on any outcome in volume-resuscitated patients with shock and/or sepsis...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589205/hyperchloraemia-in-sepsis
#15
REVIEW
Christos Filis, Ioannis Vasileiadis, Antonia Koutsoukou
Chloride represents-quantitatively-the most prevalent, negatively charged, strong plasma electrolyte. Control of chloride concentration is a probable major mechanism for regulating the body's acid-base balance and for maintaining homeostasis of the entire internal environment. The difference between the concentrations of chloride and sodium constitutes the major contributor to the strong ion difference (SID); SID is the key pH regulator in the body, according to the physicochemical approach. Hyperchloraemia resulting from either underlying diseases or medical interventions is common in intensive care units...
March 27, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589054/maintenance-fluid-therapy-and-fluid-creep-impose-more-significant-fluid-sodium-and-chloride-burdens-than-resuscitation-fluids-in-critically-ill-patients-a-retrospective-study-in-a-tertiary-mixed-icu-population
#16
Niels Van Regenmortel, Walter Verbrugghe, Ella Roelant, Tim Van den Wyngaert, Philippe G Jorens
PURPOSE: Research on intravenous fluid therapy and its side effects, volume, sodium, and chloride overload, has focused almost exclusively on the resuscitation setting. We aimed to quantify all fluid sources in the ICU and assess fluid creep, the hidden and unintentional volume administered as a vehicle for medication or electrolytes. METHODS: We precisely recorded the volume, sodium, and chloride burdens imposed by every fluid source administered to 14,654 patients during the cumulative 103,098 days they resided in our 45-bed tertiary ICU and simulated the impact of important strategic fluid choices on patients' chloride burdens...
March 27, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588531/review-of-case-reports-on-hyperkalemia-induced-by-dietary-intake-not-restricted-to-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#17
REVIEW
Rogier P M Te Dorsthorst, Jytte Hendrikse, Mats T Vervoorn, Valerie Y H van Weperen, Marcel A G van der Heyden
Hyperkalemia is a metabolic disturbance of the potassium balance that can cause potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Kidney dysfunction and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibiting drugs are notorious for their tendency to induce hyperkalemia by decreasing the excretion of potassium. The role of dietary potassium intake in inducing hyperkalemia is less clear. We review and analyze the common presentation, laboratory, and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and therapeutic options associated with dietary-induced hyperkalemia, and find evidence for hyperkalemia development in non-renal impaired patients...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588327/educational-attainment-of-children-born-to-mothers-with-epilepsy
#18
Arron S Lacey, William Owen Pickrell, Rhys H Thomas, Mike P Kerr, Cathy P White, Mark I Rees
OBJECTIVE: Small prospective studies have identified that children exposed to valproate in utero have poorer scores on cognitive testing. We wanted to identify whether children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in utero have poorer school performance. METHODS: We used anonymised, linked, routinely collected healthcare records to identify children born to mothers with epilepsy. We linked these children to their national attainment Key Stage 1 (KS1) tests in mathematics, language and science at the age of 7 and compared them with matched children born to mothers without epilepsy, and with the national KS1 results...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582369/field-cancerization-therapies-for-management-of-actinic-keratosis-a-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Nathan Jetter, Neha Chandan, Stephanie Wang, Maria Tsoukas
Actinic keratoses (AKs) are atypical, precancerous proliferations of keratinocytes that develop because of chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Treatment of AK can be lesion-directed or field-directed. Field cancerization theory postulates that the skin surrounding AK is also at increased risk for possible malignant transformation since it has been exposed to the same chronic UV light. Field-directed therapies thus have the potential to address subclinical damage, reduce AK recurrence rates, and potentially reduce the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development...
March 26, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572631/caste-specific-expression-of-na-k-atpase-in-the-asian-weaver-ant-oecophylla-smaragdina-fabricius-1775
#20
C C Sheeja, V V Thushara, L Divya
Social insect colonies adopt different levels of survival strategies and exhibit well-defined reproductive division of labour. Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775) has physiological and behavioral adaptations that enable them to forage at extreme environmental conditions and are lethal to most other insects. Ion homeostasis is the key process in an organism's survival mechanism. Among ion pumps, the ATP-dependent sodium-potassium ion pump is essential for maintaining the Na+ and K+ ionic balance and is well known as the primary consumer of energy...
March 23, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
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