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Sodium balance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040215/role-of-receptor-for-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-regulating-lung-fluid-balance-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-acute-lung-injury-and-infection-related-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#1
Hao Wang, Tao Wang, Zhicheng Yuan, Yufang Cao, Yongfang Zhou, Junyun He, Yongchun Shen, Ni Zeng, Luqi Dai, Fuqiang Wen, Lei Chen
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is implicated in inflammatory responses in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its role in pulmonary edema formation remains unclear, especially in infection-related ARDS mainly caused by pneumonia or sepsis. In this study, we investigated the role of RAGE in alveolar fluid regulation by using RAGE gene knockout (RAGE) mice in a murine ALI model induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and by comparing soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels in serum and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) between ARDS patients and control subjects...
October 16, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031578/short-term-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-affects-water-and-salt-intakes-differently-in-male-and-ovariectomised-female-rats
#2
Paula Nuñez, Juan Arguelles, Carmen Perillan
Thirst and sodium appetite are motivational states that lead to the search for and ingestion of water and sodium, thus contributing to maintenance of hydromineral balance. Oestrogens affect fluid intake and sodium preference. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine-disrupting substance with oestrogenic activity. Whether there are sex differences in the ingestive effects of BPA is unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to determine the effect of short-term treatment of low doses of BPA on thirst and sodium appetite in adult male and ovariectomised Wistar rats...
October 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031361/treatment-of-disorders-of-sodium-balance-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
David H Ellison
Extracellular fluid volume expansion is nearly universal in patients with CKD. Such volume expansion has features similar to the syndrome of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, which not only leads to symptoms but can also lead to further organ damage. Unique treatment challenges are present in this patient population, including low glomerular filtration, which limits sodium chloride filtration, intrinsic tubule predisposition to sodium chloride retention, and proteinuria. In addition, pharmacokinetic considerations alter the disposition of diuretics in patients with CKD and nephrotic syndrome...
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031352/disturbances-in-acid-base-potassium-and-sodium-balance-in-patients-with-ckd-new-insights-and-novel-therapies
#4
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey A Kraut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030153/potassium-homeostasis-in-health-and-disease-a-scientific-workshop-cosponsored-by-the-national-kidney-foundation-and-the-american-society-of-hypertension
#5
Csaba P Kovesdy, Lawrence J Appel, Morgan E Grams, Lisa Gutekunst, Peter A McCullough, Biff F Palmer, Bertram Pitt, Dominic A Sica, Raymond R Townsend
While much emphasis, and some controversy, centers on recommendations for sodium intake, there has been considerably less interest in recommendations for dietary potassium intake, in both the general population and patients with medical conditions, particularly acute and chronic kidney disease. Physiology literature and cohort studies have noted that the relative balance in sodium and potassium intakes is an important determinant of many of the sodium-related outcomes. A noteworthy characteristic of potassium in clinical medicine is the extreme concern shared by many practitioners when confronted by a patient with hyperkalemia...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029808/potassium-homeostasis-in-health-and-disease-a-scientific-workshop-cosponsored-by-the-national-kidney-foundation-and-the-american-society-of-hypertension
#6
Csaba P Kovesdy, Lawrence J Appel, Morgan E Grams, Lisa Gutekunst, Peter A McCullough, Biff F Palmer, Bertram Pitt, Dominic A Sica, Raymond R Townsend
While much emphasis, and some controversy, centers on recommendations for sodium intake, there has been considerably less interest in recommendations for dietary potassium intake, in both the general population and patients with medical conditions, particularly acute and chronic kidney disease. Physiology literature and cohort studies have noted that the relative balance in sodium and potassium intakes is an important determinant of many of the sodium-related outcomes. A noteworthy characteristic of potassium in clinical medicine is the extreme concern shared by many practitioners when confronted by a patient with hyperkalemia...
September 29, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028506/sodium-deoxycholate-mediated-enhanced-solubilization-and-stability-of-hydrophobic-drug-clozapine-in-pluronic-micelles
#7
Pankaj Singla, Onkar Singh, Shruti Chabba, V K Aswal, Rakesh Kumar Mahajan
In this report, the solubilization behaviour of a hydrophobic drug Clozapine (CLZ) in micellar suspensions of pluronics having different hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) ratios viz. P84, F127 and F108 in the absence and presence of bile salt sodium deoxycholate (SDC) has been studied. UV-Vis spectroscopy has been exploited to determine the solubilization capacity of the investigated micellar systems in terms of drug loading efficiency, average number of drug molecules solubilized per micelle (ns), partition coefficient (P) and standard free energy of solubilization (∆G(°))...
October 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024858/motion-modes-of-two-self-propelled-camphor-boats-on-the-surface-of-a-surfactant-containing-solution
#8
Yuichiro Karasawa, Tomonori Nomoto, Luca Chiari, Taro Toyota, Masanori Fujinami
HYPOTHESIS: The existence of a surface tension difference and a surface flow around self-propelled objects, such as camphor boats, has been confirmed by many studies. However, the interactions in the collective motion of several camphor boats have not been explicitly discussed. Here, a model system of two camphor boats was investigated for the first time from the viewpoint of surface tension and surface flow. EXPERIMENTS: The behavior of one fixed boat and one movable boat on a sodium dodecylsulfate aqueous solution in an oval track has been studied as a model system of two-body interactions...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993296/poly-n-n-dimethylamino-ethyl-methacrylate-sodium-alginate-multilayers-and-their-interaction-with-proteins-enzymes
#9
Claudiu-Augustin Ghiorghita, Florin Bucatariu, Ecaterina Stela Dragan
The aim of the present work is to construct and investigate the properties of novel polyelectrolyte multilayers consisting of poly(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA) and sodium alginate (SA). The influence of PDMAEMA's pH dependent ionization degree on the charge balance, thickness and roughness of the multilayer films was assessed by potentiometric titrations, dye sorption and atomic force microscopy. Moreover, the cross-linking of PDMAEMA/SA films with a dihalogenated aromatic derivative with high reactivity (α,α'-dichloro-p-xylene) by means of Menshutkin reaction and the stability of the multilayer architecture to repeated treatments with NaOH are demonstrated...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985241/short-term-high-salt-diet-increases-corin-level-to-regulate-the-salt-water-balance-in-humans-and-rodents
#10
Jiao Zhang, Yanjun Yin, Lili Chen, Chao Chu, Yang Wang, Yongbo Lv, Ming He, Marcy Martin, Po-Hsun Huang, Jian-Jun Mu, John Y-J Shyy, Zu-Yi Yuan
Background: Dietary sodium and potassium affect the fluctuation in blood pressure and renal function. Corin, with its enzymatic activity to convert pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) to biologically active ANP, regulates blood pressure, cardiac and renal functions. We investigated whether corin expression responds to a high-salt (HS) diet to regulate salt and water balance. Methods and results: Forty-two volunteers followed 3 sequential diets for 7 days each: a low-salt (LS) diet (3...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976127/dr-samokhotskiy-s-method-of-healing-inflammation-by-the-analysis-and-regulation-of-blood-electrolyte-balance
#11
Vadym V Bacherikov, Valeriy A Bacherikov
An overview of a little-known method, which was discovered by Dr. Alexander S. Samokhotskiy, for treatment of gangrenous, traumatic, and postoperative inflammation, sepsis and some other diseases, was represented. Dr. A. S. Samokhotskiy carried out numerous animal experiments and clinical trials and found that application of wet bandages and/or intravenous injection of solution containing trivalent chromium ions (Cr(3+)), alum, resorcinol, sodium salicylate, lactate buffer, colloidal sulphur, thioglycolic acid and glutathione with adding KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 or NaCl solutions can heal inflammation of various etiology...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Therapeutics & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974633/serum-potassium-is-positively-associated-with-stroke-and-mortality-in-the-large-population-based-malm%C3%A3-preventive-project-cohort
#12
Linda S Johnson, Nick Mattsson, Ahmad Sajadieh, Per Wollmer, Martin Söderholm
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low serum potassium is associated with stroke in populations with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus but has not been studied in a mainly healthy population. We aimed to study the relation between serum potassium and incident stroke and mortality in the Malmö Preventive Project, a large cohort with screening in early mid-life and follow-up >25 years. METHODS: Serum potassium measurements and covariates were available in 21 353 individuals (79% men, mean age 44 years)...
October 3, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973168/activating-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-osteocytes-causes-hyperostosis-consistent-with-craniodiaphyseal-dysplasia
#13
Wilson Cheuk Wing Chan, Kwok Yeung Tsang, Yin Wo Cheng, Vivian Chor Wing Ng, Halina Chik, Zhi Jia Tan, Raymond Boot-Handford, Alan Boyde, Kenneth Man Chee Cheung, Kathryn Song Eng Cheah, Danny Chan
Bone remodeling is a balanced process between bone synthesis and degradation, maintaining homeostasis and a constant bone mass in adult life. Imbalance will lead to conditions such as osteoporosis or hyperostosis. Osteoblasts build bone, becoming embedded in bone matrix as mature osteocytes. Osteocytes have a role in sensing and translating mechanical loads into biochemical signals, regulating the differentiation and activity of osteoblasts residing at the bone surface through the secretion of Sclerostin (SOST), an inhibitor of WNT signaling...
August 29, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970718/dextran-sodium-sulfate-colitis-murine-model-an-indispensable-tool-for-advancing-our-understanding-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-pathogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Derrick D Eichele, Kusum K Kharbanda
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are complex diseases that result from the chronic dysregulated immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. The exact etiology is not fully understood, but it is accepted that it occurs when an inappropriate aggressive inflammatory response in a genetically susceptible host due to inciting environmental factors occurs. To investigate the pathogenesis and etiology of human IBD, various animal models of IBD have been developed that provided indispensable insights into the histopathological and morphological changes as well as factors associated with the pathogenesis of IBD and evaluation of therapeutic options in the last few decades...
September 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963831/-neprilysin-inhibition-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Luca Di Lullo, Claudio Ronco, Antonio Bellasi, Mario Cozzolino, Fulvio Floccari, Vincenzo Barbera, Simone Verdesca, Rodolfo Rivera, Antonio De Pascalis, Anna Mudoni, Antonio Santoro
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher incidence of cardiovascular (acute and chronic) events, which in turn have an increased risk of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) Inhibition of neprilysin, in addition to offering a new therapeutic target in patients with heart failure, could represent a potential improvement strategy in cardiovascular and renal outcome of patients with CKD. Inhibition of neprilysin by inhibiting the breakdown of natriuretic peptides, increases their bioavailability resulting in an increase in diuresis and sodium excretion and, in addition to exerting an inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) system...
September 28, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950419/dapagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-pooled-analysis-of-safety-data-from-phase-2b-3-clinical-trials
#16
Serge Jabbour, Jochen Seufert, Andre Scheen, Clifford J Bailey, Cathrina Karup, Anna Maria Langkilde
AIM: Dapagliflozin is a highly selective sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This pooled analysis evaluated the safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin in patients with T2DM. METHODS: Data were pooled from 13 placebo-controlled trials of up to 24 weeks' duration (dapagliflozin, n=2360; placebo, n=2295). Larger placebo/comparator-controlled pools of 21 (≤208 week; dapagliflozin, n=5936; control, n=3403) and 30 trials (≥12 week; dapagliflozin, n=9195; control, n=4629) assessed the rare adverse events (AEs) of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and lower-limb amputation, respectively...
September 26, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950003/the-endothelial-%C3%AE-enac-contributes-to-vascular-endothelial-function-in-vivo
#17
Antoine Tarjus, Martina Maase, Pia Jeggle, Ernesto Martinez-Martinez, Céline Fassot, Laurent Loufrani, Daniel Henrion, Pernille B L Hansen, Kristina Kusche-Vihrog, Frederic Jaisser
The Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) is a key player in renal sodium homeostasis. The expression of α β γ ENaC subunits has also been described in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle, suggesting a role in vascular function. We recently demonstrated that endothelial ENaC is involved in aldosterone-modulated endothelial stiffness. Here we explore the functional role of the endothelial αENaC subunit in vascular function in vivo. Compared to littermates, mice with conditional αENaC subunit gene inactivation in the endothelium only (endo-αENaC Knock Out mice) had no difference in their physiological parameters such as systolic blood pressure or heart rate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939330/effect-of-a-physical-activity-programme-in-the-aquatic-environment-on-haemodynamic-constants-in-pregnant-women
#18
Juana María Vázquez-Lara, Carlos Ruiz-Frutos, Luciano Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús Ramírez-Rodrigo, Carmen Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Gema Torres-Luque
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a physical activity programme in the aquatic environment with immersion up to the neck, of six weeks duration, on haemodynamic constants in pregnant women. METHODS: A six-week physical activity programme in the aquatic environment was carried out with a total of 46 pregnant women, who were distributed into an experimental group (n = 18), which participated in the programme, and a control group (n = 28), which followed routine care...
September 19, 2017: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931546/a-new-paradigm-of-sodium-regulation-in-inflammation-and-hypertension
#19
Annet Kirabo
Dysregulation of sodium (Na(+)) balance is a major cause of hypertensive cardiovascular disease. The current dogma is that interstitial Na(+) readily equilibrates with plasma and that renal excretion and reabsorption is sufficient to regulate extracellular fluid volume and control blood pressure. These ideas have been recently challenged by the discovery that Na(+) accumulates in tissues without commensurate volume retention and activates immune cells, leading to hypertension and autoimmune disease. However, objections have been raised to this new paradigm, with some investigators concerned about where and how salt is stored in tissues...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928461/time-dependent-effects-of-ipragliflozin-on-behaviour-and-energy-homeostasis-in-normal-and-type-2-diabetic-rats-continuous-glucose-telemetry-analysis
#20
Hiroyuki Iuchi, Masaya Sakamoto, Daisuke Matsutani, Hirofumi Suzuki, Yosuke Kayama, Norihiko Takeda, Susumu Minamisawa, Kazunori Utsunomiya
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are oral antidiabetic drugs that promote urinary glucose excretion. Conversely, they cause behavioural changes, such as hyperphagia, that result in a positive energy balance. The relationship between energy homeostasis and SGLT2 inhibitors-induced behavioural changes remains unclear. Here we show that ipragliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, time-dependently affects behaviour and enhances energy expenditure in normal and type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, using continuous glucose telemetry...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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