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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717322/th1-th2-balance-and-humoral-immune-response-to-potential-antigens-as-early-diagnostic-method-of-equine-strongylus-nematode-infection
#1
Faten A M Abo-Aziza, Seham H M Hendawy, Amira H El Namaky, Heba M Ashry
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylusvulgaris (CSS), excretory-secretory S...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711257/seasonal-and-maternal-effects-on-acid-base-l-lactate-electrolyte-and-hematological-status-of-205-dairy-calves-born-to-eutocic-dams
#2
L Kovács, F L Kézér, E Albert, F Ruff, O Szenci
In this study, we used linear mixed models to determine the effects of season, time of sampling relative to birth (factors), duration of the delivery process, duration of maternal grooming, calf body weight (BW) at birth, and time of day (covariates) on values of venous blood gas, acid-base and electrolyte parameters, and l-lactate concentrations in dairy calves born to eutocic dams in summer (SUM, n = 101) and winter (WIN, n = 104). Neonatal vitality was assessed at 0, 1, and 24 h after delivery in a linear scoring system using muscle tone, erection of the head, muscle reflexes, heart rate, and sucking drive as criteria...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710664/role-of-sodium-ion-transporters-and-osmotic-adjustments-in-stress-alleviation-of-cynodon-dactylon-under-nacl-treatment-a-parallel-investigation-with-rice
#3
Swarnendu Roy, Usha Chakraborty
Comparative analyses of the responses to NaCl in Cynodon dactylon and a sensitive crop species like rice could effectively unravel the salt tolerance mechanism in the former. C. dactylon, a wild perennial chloridoid grass having a wide range of ecological distribution is generally adaptable to varying degrees of salinity stress. The role of salt exclusion mechanism present exclusively in the wild grass was one of the major factors contributing to its tolerance. Salt exclusion was found to be induced at 4 days when the plants were treated with a minimum conc...
July 15, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708402/two-step-micellization-model-the-case-of-long-chain-carboxylates-in-water
#4
Ziga Medos, Marija Bester-Rogac
The micellization behaviour of the long-chain carboxylates: sodium and potassium octanoate (NaC8, KC8), sodium decanoate (NaC10), potassium decanoate (KC10), caesium decanoate (CsC10), choline decanoate (ChC10) and sodium dodecanoate (NaC12) in aqueous solutions were studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the temperature range between 288.15 and 328.15 K. Experimental data were analysed by help of improved model treating the micellization process as a two-step process. Furthermore, consideration of the state of the stock and titrated solutions during the experiment, allowed the elimination of all usually used empirical parameters...
July 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706756/impact-of-vital-dyes-on-cell-viability-and-transduction-efficiency-of-aav-vectors-used-in-retinal-gene-therapy-surgery-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis
#5
Anna P Salvetti, Maria I Patrício, Alun R Barnard, Harry O Orlans, Doron G Hickey, Robert E MacLaren
PURPOSE: Treatment of inherited retinal degenerations using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors involves delivery by subretinal injection. In the latter stages, alteration of normal anatomy may cause difficulty in visualizing the retinotomy, retinal detachment extension, and vector diffusion. Vital dyes may be useful surgical adjuncts, but their safety and impact on AAV transduction are largely unknown. METHODS: The effects of Sodium Fluorescein (SF), Membrane Blue (MB), and Membrane Blue Dual (DB) at a range of dilutions were assessed on human embryonic kidney cells in vitro using an AAV2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter at different multiplicities of infection...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696986/fueling-the-triathlete-evidence-based-practical-advice-for-athletes-of-all-levels
#6
Andrew R Getzin, Cynthia Milner, Marie Harkins
Triathletes need to effectively fuel during training and racing to maximize their potential for success. While most research on fueling has focused on elite male triathletes, triathlon participation encompasses a broader demographic of racers ranging from those with aspirations of winning to those whose goals are completion. Carbohydrate is the primary macronutrient for fueling endurance activities. Athletes can usually tolerate 60 to 90 mg·h in the form of multiple different carbohydrate sources. Athletes should drink as thirst dictates and consider sodium replacement of sweat loss especially in individuals with a history of exercise-associated muscle cramps...
July 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693594/the-impact-of-phosphate-balanced-crystalloid-infusion-on-acid-base-homeostasis-palance-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Judith-Irina Pagel, Nikolai Hulde, Tobias Kammerer, Michaela Schwarz, Daniel Chappell, Alexander Burges, Klaus Hofmann-Kiefer, Markus Rehm
BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the effects of a modified, balanced crystalloid including phosphate in a perioperative setting in order to maintain a stable electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the patient. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial involving two parallel groups of female patients comparing a perioperative infusion regime with sodium glycerophosphate and Jonosteril® (treatment group) or Jonosteril® (comparator) alone...
July 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684304/sodium-butyrate-regulates-th17-treg-cell-balance-to-ameliorate-uveitis-via-the-nrf2-ho-1-pathway
#8
Xiaoqing Chen, Wenru Su, Taoshang Wan, Jianfeng Yu, Wenjie Zhu, Fen Tang, Guangming Liu, Nancy Olsen, Dan Liang, Song Guo Zheng
Autoimmune uveitis, a group of potentially blinding intraocular inflammatory diseases, remains a therapeutic challenge for ophthalmologists. Butyrates, which belong to the short-chain fatty acid family, possess immunomodulatory properties and therapeutic potential in several inflammatory disorders. However, the roles of butyrates in uveitis and their underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that treatment with sodium butyrate (NaB) significantly attenuated the ocular inflammatory response in mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) at 14 days after immunization, with significant decreases in inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammatory cytokine production in the retinas...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677923/-potassium-and-blood-pressure-an-old-story-revisited
#9
Sofia Zisimopoulou, Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi, Michel Burnier
Food in industrialized countries is rich in processed products with a high sodium and low potassium content. There is abundant evidence in the literature depicting the relationship between a high daily sodium/potassium intake ratio and the high prevalence of arterial hypertension in modern societies. There is also increasing evidence suggesting a blood pressure lowering effect of potassium, especially in cases of high sodium intake or in patients with increased salt sensibility. Our dietary advice for the prevention and treatment of hypertension should follow a thorough evaluation of our patients' daily nutritional habits and should not only focus on sodium intake but also aim for a balanced sodium/potassium uptake...
September 14, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673579/the-chloride-theory-a-unifying-hypothesis-for-renal-handling-and-body-fluid-distribution-in-heart-failure-pathophysiology
#10
Hajime Kataoka
Body fluid volume regulation is a complex process involving the interaction of various afferent (sensory) and neurohumoral efferent (effector) mechanisms. Historically, most studies focused on the body fluid dynamics in heart failure (HF) status through control of the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the body, and maintaining arterial circulatory integrity is central to a unifying hypothesis of body fluid regulation in HF pathophysiology. The pathophysiologic background of the biochemical determinants of vascular volume in HF status, however, has not been known...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665738/development-of-a-dry-medium-for-isolation-of-histomonas-meleagridis-in-the-field
#11
Miguel A Barrios, Anna Kenyon, Robert Beckstead
Blackhead disease is caused by Histomonas meleagridis, an anaerobic protozoan parasite, and results in mortality rates of up to 100% in turkeys and 30% in chickens. Outbreaks of blackhead disease are unpredictable, and the harvesting of H. meleagridis strains from the field would be a great resource for researchers to study its epidemiology. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a dry medium that would allow storage at ambient temperatures until needed. Fifty milliliters of horse serum was dried and then mixed with dry medium M199 with Hanks balanced salts (10...
June 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661045/sodium-salicylate-modulates-inflammatory-responses-through-amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation-in-lps-stimulated-thp-1-cells
#12
Weiwei Bao, Yaru Luo, Dan Wang, Jian Li, Xi Wu, Wei Mei
Sodium salicylate (NaSal) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The putative mechanisms for NaSal's pharmacologic actions include the inhibition of cyclooxygenases, platelet-derived thromboxane A2 and NF-κB signaling. Recent studies demonstrated that salicylate could activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor that maintains the balance between ATP production and consumption. The anti-inflammatory action of AMPK has been reported to be mediated by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660810/intravenous-fluid-and-electrolyte-administration-in-elective-gastrointestinal-surgery-mechanisms-of-excessive-therapy
#13
R G Simpson, J Quayle, N Stylianides, G Carlson, M Soop
INTRODUCTION While clinical guidelines stress the importance of the judicious perioperative intravenous fluid administration, data show that adherence to these protocols is poor. The reasons have not been identified. We therefore audited the magnitude and indications of fluid and electrolyte administration in a teaching hospital. We hypothesised that epidural analgesia is associated with excessive fluid therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Intravenous fluid and electrolyte administration during the day of surgery and the subsequent 2 days in consecutive patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery between November 2013 and May 2014 were retrospectively audited...
July 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660246/gaba-b-controls-persistent-na-current-and-coupled-na-activated-k-current
#14
Ping Li, Richard Stewart, Alice Butler, Ana Laura Gonzalez-Cota, Steve Harmon, Lawrence Salkoff
The GABA-B receptor is densely expressed throughout the brain and has been implicated in many CNS functions and disorders, including addiction, epilepsy, spasticity, schizophrenia, anxiety, cognitive deficits, and depression, as well as various aspects of nervous system development. How one GABA-B receptor is involved in so many aspects of CNS function remains unanswered. Activation of GABA-B receptors is normally thought to produce inhibitory responses in the nervous system, but puzzling contradictory responses exist...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659029/the-mixture-of-anemarrhena-asphodeloides-and-coptis-chinensis-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-colitis-in-mice
#15
Su-Min Lim, Hyun-Sik Choi, Dong-Hyun Kim
Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting IRAK1 phosphorylation and helper T (Th)17 differentiation. Coptis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae), which inhibits macrophage activation by inhibiting the binding of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on toll-like receptor 4 and inducing regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation. The mixture of AA and CC (AC-mix) synergistically attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid or dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by inhibiting NF-[Formula: see text]B activation and regulating Th17/Treg balance...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651514/study-protocol-for-the-balanced-solution-versus-saline-in-intensive-care-study-basics-a-factorial-randomised-trial
#16
Fernando G Zampieri, Luciano C P Azevedo, Thiago D Corrêa, Maicon Falavigna, Flavia R Machado, Murillo S C de Assunção, Suzana M A Lobo, Letícia K Dourado, Otavio Berwanger, John A Kellum, Nilton Brandão, Alexandre B Cavalcanti
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness and safety of balanced crystalloid fluids compared with saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a fluid of choice in critically ill patients remain unclear. The effects of different fluid infusion rates on outcomes are also unknown. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that a balanced crystalloid solution, compared with saline, decreases 90-day all-cause mortality among critically ill patients; and to test the hypothesis that slow, compared with rapid, infusion rate decreases 90-day mortality in this population of patients...
June 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651510/pharmacodynamics-of-intravenous-frusemide-bolus-in-critically-ill-patients
#17
Agnes Huang, Nora Luethi, Johan Mårtensson, Rinaldo Bellomo, Luca Cioccari
OBJECTIVE: To assess the physiological, biochemical and haemodynamic response to a single intravenous (IV) dose of frusemide in critically patients. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: A prospective observational study of 21 critically ill patients in a tertiary intensive care unit in Australia. INTERVENTIONS: We collected information on urine output (UO), fluid balance, serum and urinary electrolyte levels, serum biochemical levels and haemodynamics...
June 2017: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644866/the-high-tolerance-to-aluminium-in-crucian-carp-carassius-carassius-is-associated-with-its-ability-to-avoid-hypoxia
#18
Antonio B S Poléo, Joachim Schjolden, Jørgen Sørensen, Göran E Nilsson
It is well known that aluminium is the principle toxicant killing fish in acidified freshwater systems, and it has been shown that crucian carp (Carassius carassius) can survive exposures to aqueous aluminium levels toxic to most other freshwater fish species. The crucian carp has a remarkable ability to survive anoxic conditions, and the aim of the present study was to reveal if the tolerance to aluminium can be associated with the ability to survive prolonged anoxia. Crucian carps were exposed to either acidic Al-rich water (pH 5...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637887/mitigating-cardiovascular-risk-in-type-2-diabetes-with-antidiabetes-drugs-a-review-of-principal-cardiovascular-outcome-results-of-empa-reg-outcome-leader-and-sustain-6-trials
#19
Sanjay Kaul
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a diabetes guidance in 2008 mandating that all new antidiabetes drugs rule out excess cardiovascular (CV) risk, defined as an upper bound of the two-sided 95% CI for major adverse CV events (MACE) of less than 1.80 preapproval and 1.30 postapproval. Over 25 large, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials involving nearly 195,000 subjects thus far have been completed or are ongoing in accordance with this guidance. The results of seven trials have been presented so far-three with dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors, one with a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and three with glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA)...
July 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634813/long-term-excessive-selenium-supplementation-induces-hypertension-in-rats
#20
Denise Grotto, Maria Fernanda Hornos Carneiro, Michele Mazzaron de Castro, Solange Cristina Garcia, Fernando Barbosa Junior
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element involved in several biological pathways, naturally found in rocks, soils, and food. Even though the daily requirement of Se is achieved through a balanced diet, the use of Se supplements has been frequent. Due to the risk of toxic effects of having Se in excess, supplementation is still under debate. The aim was to evaluate the effects of long-term Se supplementation upon systolic blood pressure (SBP) and redox status of rats exposed to sodium selenite. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 2 and 6 mg/L of sodium selenite in drinking water for 85 days...
June 20, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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