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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103265/rabbit-model-of-human-gliomas-implications-for-intra-arterial-drug-delivery
#1
Huamin Qin, Miroslaw Janowski, Monica S Pearl, Izabela Malysz-Cymborska, Shen Li, Charles G Eberhart, Piotr Walczak
The prognosis for malignant brain tumors remains poor despite a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This is partly due to the blood-brain barrier, a major obstacle that prevents therapeutic agents from effectively reaching the tumor. We have recently developed a method for precise and predictable opening of the blood-brain barrier via the intra-arterial administration of mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent, in a rabbit model, whose vascular anatomy facilitates the use of standard interventional neuroradiology techniques and devices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102949/simultaneous-pet-mr-imaging-with-a-radio-frequency-penetrable-pet-insert
#2
Alexander M Grant, Brian J Lee, Chen-Ming Chang, Craig S Levin
PURPOSE: A brain sized radio frequency (RF)-penetrable PET insert has been designed for simultaneous operation with MRI systems. This system takes advantage of electro-optical coupling and battery power to electrically float the PET insert relative to the MRI ground, permitting RF signals to be transmitted through small gaps between the modules that form the PET ring. This design facilitates the use of the built-in body coil for RF transmission and thus could be inserted into any existing MR site wishing to achieve simultaneous PET/MR imaging...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102882/factors-associated-with-significant-mri-findings-in-medical-walk-in-patients-with-acute-headache
#3
Joris Budweg, Till Sprenger, Anthony De Vere-Tyndall, Anne Hagenkord, Christoph Stippich, Christoph T Berger
QUESTION: Acute headache is a main reason for emergency consultations and can be a symptom of dangerous neurological conditions. We hypothesised that in medical walk-in headache patients with low suspicion of intracranial bleeding significant findings in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with clinical features. METHODS: Retrospective chart review on medical outpatient referrals for brain MRI (2010-2014) with the chief complaint "acute headache" (duration <4 weeks)...
January 19, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102529/recovery-from-chemotherapy-induced-white-matter-changes-in-young-breast-cancer-survivors
#4
Thibo Billiet, Louise Emsell, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Ronald Peeters, Daan Christiaens, Alexander Leemans, Wim Van Hecke, Ann Smeets, Frederic Amant, Stefan Sunaert, Sabine Deprez
In a previous longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we observed cerebral white matter (WM) alterations (reduced fractional anisotropy (FA)) related to decreased cognitive performance 3-5 months after chemotherapy-treatment (t2) when compared to baseline (t1) (Deprez et al. in Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, 30(3), 274-281. doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.36.8571, 2012). The current study investigates the evolution and the nature of these previously observed microstructural changes...
January 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102528/alteration-of-gray-matter-microstructure-in-schizophrenia
#5
Seitz Johanna, Rathi Yogesh, Lyall Amanda, Pasternak Ofer, Del Re Elisabetta C, Niznikiewicz Margaret, Nestor Paul, J Seidman Larry, L Petryshen Tracey, I Mesholam-Gately Raquelle, Wojcik Joanne, W McCarley Robert, E Shenton Martha, K Koerte Inga, Kubicki Marek
Neuroimaging studies demonstrate gray matter (GM) macrostructural abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). While ex-vivo and genetic studies suggest cellular pathology associated with abnormal neurodevelopmental processes in SCZ, few in-vivo measures have been proposed to target microstructural GM organization. Here, we use diffusion heterogeneity- to study GM microstructure in SCZ. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner in 46 patients with SCZ and 37 matched healthy controls (HC)...
January 19, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102508/simvastatin-promotes-hematoma-absorption-and-reduces-hydrocephalus-following-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-part-by-upregulating-cd36
#6
Qianwei Chen, Xia Shi, Qiang Tan, Zhou Feng, Yuelong Wang, Qiaoying Yuan, Yihao Tao, Jianbo Zhang, Liang Tan, Gang Zhu, Hua Feng, Zhi Chen
We previously found that hematoma worsens hydrocephalus after intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) via increasing iron deposition and aggravating ependymal cilia injury; therefore, promoting hematoma absorption may be a promising strategy for IVH. Recently, some investigations imply that simvastatin has the ability of accelerating hematoma absorption. Thus, this study was designed to examine the efficacy of simvastatin for IVH in rats. Intracerebral hemorrhage with ventricular extension was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after autologous blood injection...
January 19, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102196/whole-brain-3d-mapping-of-human-neural-transplant-innervation
#7
Jonas Doerr, Martin Karl Schwarz, Dirk Wiedermann, Anke Leinhaas, Alina Jakobs, Florian Schloen, Inna Schwarz, Michael Diedenhofen, Nils Christian Braun, Philipp Koch, Daniel A Peterson, Ulrich Kubitscheck, Mathias Hoehn, Oliver Brüstle
While transplantation represents a key tool for assessing in vivo functionality of neural stem cells and their suitability for neural repair, little is known about the integration of grafted neurons into the host brain circuitry. Rabies virus-based retrograde tracing has developed into a powerful approach for visualizing synaptically connected neurons. Here, we combine this technique with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize transplanted cells and connected host neurons in whole-mouse brain preparations...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102082/characterization-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-chronic-phase-of-stroke-in-a-cynomolgus-monkey-model-of-induced-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Henry C H Law, Samuel S W Szeto, Quan Quan, Yun Zhao, Zaijun Zhang, Olga Krakovska, Leong Ting Lui, Chengyou Zheng, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, K W Michael Siu, Yuqiang Wang, Ivan K Chu
Stroke is one of the main causes of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease are not well understood, particularly in the chronic phase after the initial ischemic episode. In this study, a Macaca fascicularis stroke model consisting of two sample groups, as determined by MRI-quantified infarct volumes as a measure of the stroke severity 28 days after the ischemic episode, was evaluated using qualitative and quantitative proteomics analyses. By using multiple online multidimensional liquid chromatography platforms, 8790 non-redundant proteins that condensed to 5223 protein groups at 1% global false discovery rate (FDR)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101804/white-matter-hyperintensities-correlate-to-cognition-and-fiber-tract-integrity-in-older-adults-with-hiv
#9
Christa Watson, Edgar Busovaca, Jessica M Foley, I Elaine Allen, Christopher G Schwarz, Neda Jahanshad, Talia M Nir, Pardis Esmaeili-Firidouni, Benedetta Milanini, Howard Rosen, Owen T Carmichael, Paul M Thompson, Victor G Valcour
Our aim was to examine the clinical relevance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in HIV. We used an automated approach to quantify WMH volume in HIV seropositive (HIV+; n = 65) and HIV seronegative (HIV-; n = 29) adults over age 60. We compared WMH volumes between HIV+ and HIV- groups in cross-sectional and multiple time-point analyses. We also assessed correlations between WMH volumes and cardiovascular, HIV severity, cognitive scores, and diffusion tensor imaging variables. Serostatus groups did not differ in WMH volume, but HIV+ participants had less cerebral white matter (mean: 470...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101700/predicting-brain-metastases-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-based-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Gang Yin, Churong Li, Heng Chen, Yangkun Luo, Lucia Clara Orlandini, Pei Wang, Jinyi Lang
In this study the relationship between brain structure and brain metastases (BM) occurrence was analyzed. A model for predicting the time of BM onset in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was proposed. Twenty patients were used to develop the model, whereas the remaining 69 were used for independent validation and verification of the model. Magnetic resonance images were segmented into cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter (GM), and white matter using voxel-based morphometry. Automatic anatomic labeling template was used to extract 116 brain regions from the GM volume...
January 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101340/pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-imaging-of-cerebral-blood-perfusion-asymmetry-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-first-episode-major-depression
#11
Guangdong Chen, Haiman Bian, Deguo Jiang, Mingwei Cui, Shengzhang Ji, Mei Liu, Xu Lang, Chuanjun Zhuo
Many previous studies have reported that regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) aberrations may be one of the pathological characteristics of depression and rCBF has demonstrated a certain degree of asymmetry. However, studies investigating the cerebral blood perfusion asymmetry changes of drug-naïve patients experiencing their first episode of major depression using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) are rare. Ten drug-naïve patients experiencing their first major depression episode and 15 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the current study...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100688/the-use-of-oxytocin-to-improve-feeding-and-social-skills-in-infants-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#12
Maïthé Tauber, Kader Boulanouar, Gwenaelle Diene, Sophie Çabal-Berthoumieu, Virginie Ehlinger, Pascale Fichaux-Bourin, Catherine Molinas, Sandy Faye, Marion Valette, Jeanne Pourrinet, Catie Cessans, Sylvie Viaux-Sauvelon, Céline Bascoul, Antoine Guedeney, Patric Delhanty, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens, Françoise Muscatelli, David Cohen, Angèle Consoli, Pierre Payoux, Catherine Arnaud, Jean-Pierre Salles
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100092/sample-size-requirements-for-one-year-treatment-effects-using-deep-gray-matter-volume-from-3t-mri-in-progressive-forms-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Gloria Kim, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Shahamat Tauhid, Lynn Stazzone, Maria K Houtchens, James M Stankiewicz, Christopher Severson, Dorlan Kimbrough, Francisco Quintana, Tanuja Chitnis, Howard L Weiner, Brian C Healy, Rohit Bakshi
OBJECTIVE: The subcortical deep gray matter (DGM) develops selective, progressive, and clinically-relevant atrophy in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (PMS). This patient population is the target of active neurotherapeutic development, requiring the availability of outcome measures. We tested a fully automated MRI analysis pipeline to assess DGM atrophy in PMS. DESIGN/METHODS: Consistent 3D T1-weighted high-resolution 3T brain MRI was obtained over one year in 19 consecutive patients with PMS [15 secondary progressive, 4 primary progressive, 53% women, age (mean±SD) 50...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100076/precuneus-structure-changes-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#14
Robert Haussmann, Annett Werner, Antonia Gruschwitz, Antje Osterrath, Jan Lange, Katharina L Donix, Jennifer Linn, Markus Donix
Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Due to their prominent memory impairment, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) often focuses on the hippocampal region. However, recent positron-emission tomography data suggest that within a network of frontal and temporal changes, patients with aMCI show metabolic alterations in the precuneus, a key region for higher cognitive functions. Using high-resolution MRI and whole-brain cortical thickness analyses in 28 patients with aMCI and 25 healthy individuals, we wanted to investigate whether structural changes in the precuneus would be associated with cortical thickness reductions in frontal and temporal brain regions in patients with aMCI...
February 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099507/correlations-of-behavioral-deficits-with-brain-pathology-assessed-through-longitudinal-mri-and-histopathology-in-the-hdhq150-q150-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#15
Ivan Rattray, Edward J Smith, William R Crum, Thomas A Walker, Richard Gale, Gillian P Bates, Michel Modo
A variety of mouse models have been developed that express mutant huntingtin (mHTT) leading to aggregates and inclusions that model the molecular pathology observed in Huntington's disease. Here we show that although homozygous HdhQ150 knock-in mice developed motor impairments (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip strength) by 36 weeks of age, cognitive dysfunction (swimming T maze, fear conditioning, odor discrimination, social interaction) was not evident by 94 weeks. Concomitant to behavioral assessments, T2-weighted MRI volume measurements indicated a slower striatal growth with a significant difference between wild type (WT) and HdhQ150 mice being present even at 15 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099366/does-the-distribution-pattern-of-brain-metastases-during-braf-inhibitor-therapy-reflect-phenotype-switching
#16
Silvia A Haueis, Pascale Kränzlin, Joanna Mangana, Phil F Cheng, Mirjana Urosevic-Maiwald, Ralph P Braun, Mitchell P Levesque, Reinhard Dummer, Simone M Goldinger
Brain metastases (brain mets) are frequent in metastatic melanoma patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology and progression pattern of brain mets in melanoma patients treated with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) compared with patients who did not receive targeted therapy (BRAFi group and control group). The number and size of brain mets were compared between a baseline and a comparative MRI at progression. The number of brain mets was grouped into seven number classes (N=1-4, N=5-10, N=11-20, N=21-30, N=31-40, N=41-50, and N>50) and its difference was reported as the change of class that occurred...
January 17, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099131/turner-syndrome-and-pituitary-adenomas-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#17
Tiffany Yeh, Angela Ganan Soto, Jose Bernardo Quintos, Lisa Swartz Topor
BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome (TS) is the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, typically associated with primary amenorrhea and premature ovarian failure due to gonadal dysgenesis. The association of TS with hypopituitarism is an uncommon finding. The objective of the study was to describe an adolescent with TS with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and subsequent hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. CASE PRESENTATION: A 16-year-old female with primary amenorrhea was diagnosed with TS based on karyotype 45,XO...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099068/same-story-different-story
#18
Yaara Yeshurun, Stephen Swanson, Erez Simony, Janice Chen, Christina Lazaridi, Christopher J Honey, Uri Hasson
Differences in people's beliefs can substantially impact their interpretation of a series of events. In this functional MRI study, we manipulated subjects' beliefs, leading two groups of subjects to interpret the same narrative in different ways. We found that responses in higher-order brain areas-including the default-mode network, language areas, and subsets of the mirror neuron system-tended to be similar among people who shared the same interpretation, but different from those of people with an opposing interpretation...
January 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098510/dt-mri-microstructural-cortical-lesion-damage-does-not-explain-cognitive-impairment-in-ms
#19
Paolo Preziosa, Elisabetta Pagani, Maria E Morelli, Massimiliano Copetti, Vittorio Martinelli, Fiammetta Pirro, Andrea Falini, Giancarlo Comi, Massimo Filippi, Maria A Rocca
OBJECTIVE: We combined double inversion recovery (DIR) and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify the severity of cortical lesion (CL) microstructural tissue abnormalities in a large cohort of relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its contribution to cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: DIR, DT, dual-echo, and three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were acquired from 149 MS patients and 40 controls. Cognitively impaired (CI) patients had ⩾2 abnormal neuropsychological tests...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096729/advanced-mri-for-pediatric-brain-tumors-with-emphasis-on-clinical-benefits
#20
REVIEW
Hyun Woo Goo, Young-Shin Ra
Conventional anatomic brain MRI is often limited in evaluating pediatric brain tumors, the most common solid tumors and a leading cause of death in children. Advanced brain MRI techniques have great potential to improve diagnostic performance in children with brain tumors and overcome diagnostic pitfalls resulting from diverse tumor pathologies as well as nonspecific or overlapped imaging findings. Advanced MRI techniques used for evaluating pediatric brain tumors include diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, perfusion imaging, spectroscopy, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
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