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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#1
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911321/the-effects-of-meditation-on-grey-matter-atrophy-and-neurodegeneration-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#2
Nicole Last, Emily Tufts, Leslie E Auger
The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911308/the-effects-of-gene-mutations-on%C3%A2-default%C3%A2-mode-network-in%C3%A2-familial%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Xiaozhen Li, Eric Westman, Steinunn Thordardottir, Anne Kinhult Ståhlbom, Ove Almkvist, Kaj Blennow, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Caroline Graff
Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations have very high penetrance but age at onset and rate of disease progression differ. Neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations in mutation carriers (MCs) may provide an opportunity to identify early biomarkers that can be used to track disease progression from presymptomatic to the dementia stages of disease. The default mode network (DMN) is a resting state neuronal network composed of regions known to associate with amyloid deposition in AD. We hypothesized that functional connectivity in the DMN might change at pre-clinical stages in FAD MCs and correlate with changes in CSF biomarkers as a consequence of AD brain pathology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911301/tau-platelets-correlate-with-regional-brain%C3%A2-atrophy-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s%C3%A2-disease
#4
Andrea Slachevsky, Leonardo Guzmán-Martínez, Carolina Delgado, Pablo Reyes, Gonzalo A Farías, Carlos Muñoz-Neira, Eduardo Bravo, Mauricio Farías, Patricia Flores, Cristian Garrido, James T Becker, Oscar L López, Ricardo B Maccioni
BACKGROUND: Intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are part of the core pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which are mainly composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to determine whether high molecular weight (HMW) or low molecular weight (LMW) tau protein levels, as well as the ratio HMW/LMW, present in platelets correlates with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) structural changes in normal and cognitively impaired subjects...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911297/sample-size-estimation-for-alzheimer-s-disease-trials-from-japanese-adni-serial-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#5
Motonobu Fujishima, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Norihide Maikusa, Ryozo Kuwano, Takeshi Iwatsubo, Hiroshi Matsuda
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the sample sizes required for clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-modifying treatments using atrophy measures from serial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the Japanese population. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the present study was to estimate how large a sample size would be needed for future clinical trials for AD-modifying treatments in Japan using atrophy measures of the brain as a surrogate biomarker...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911291/a-metal-free-method-for-producing-mri-contrast-at-amyloid-%C3%AE
#6
Silvia Hilt, Tang Tang, Jeffrey H Walton, Madhu Budamagunta, Izumi Maezawa, Tamás Kálai, Kálmán Hideg, Vikrant Singh, Heike Wulff, Qizhi Gong, Lee-Way Jin, Angelique Louie, John C Voss
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by depositions of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain. The disease process develops over decades, with substantial neurological loss occurring before a clinical diagnosis of dementia can be rendered. It is therefore imperative to develop methods that permit early detection and monitoring of disease progression. In addition, the multifactorial pathogenesis of AD has identified several potential avenues for AD intervention. Thus, evaluation of therapeutic candidates over lengthy trial periods also demands a practical, noninvasive method for measuring Aβ in the brain...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911289/the-brain-s-structural-connectome-mediates-the-relationship-between-regional-neuroimaging-biomarkers-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Sneha Pandya, Amy Kuceyeski, Ashish Raj
Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common causes of dementia in adults, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting well-defined neuropathological hallmarks. It is known that disease pathology involves misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau proteins, and exhibits a relatively stereotyped progression over decades. The relationship between AD neuropathological hallmarks (Aβ, hypometabolism, and tau proteins) and imaging biomarkers (MRI, AV-45/FDG-PET) is not fully understood. In addition, biomarker pathologies are oftentimes discordant, wherein it may show varying levels of abnormality across brain regions...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910995/a-diffusion-tensor-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-paediatric-patients-with-severe-non-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Erika Molteni, Maria A Rocca, Sandra Strazzer, Elisabetta Pagani, Katia Colombo, Filippo Arrigoni, Giacomo Boffa, Massimiliano Copetti, Valentina Pastore, Massimo Filippi
AIM: In this observational study using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor, we investigated the differential effects of pathology, stage of disease, state of consciousness, and aetiology on the modifications of supra- and infra-tentorial white matter tracts and their correlations with clinical scales in paediatric patients with severe non-traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) was obtained from seven children with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS; five males, two females; age at event 5y; standard deviation [SD] 2y 1mo), six children in a minimally conscious state (MCS; three males, three females; age at event 5y 10mo; SD 5y), and 10 healthy children as controls(two males, eight females; age at study 10y 10mo; SD 2y 10mo)...
December 2, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910866/biomechanical-analysis-of-normal-brain-development-during-the-first-year-of-life-using-finite-strain-theory
#9
Jeong Chul Kim, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen, Weili Lin
The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909890/does-severity-of-cerebral-mri-lesions-in-congenital-cmv-infection-correlates-with-the-outcome-of-cochlear-implantation
#10
Stefan Lyutenski, Friedrich Götz, Alexandros Giourgas, Omid Majdani, Eva Bültmann, Heinrich Lanfermann, Thomas Lenarz, Anja M Giesemann
The objective is to investigate whether there is a correlation between the severity of typical brain lesions in congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection and cochlear implant (CI) outcome. The design of the study is a retrospective single-institutional chart review (2005-2015), performed in a tertiary academic referral center. 23 children with typical signs of cCMV infection on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bilateral severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss were retrospectively evaluated...
December 1, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909401/implicit-learning-in-transient-global-amnesia-and-the-role-of-stress
#11
Frauke Nees, Martin Griebe, Anne Ebert, Michaela Ruttorf, Benjamin Gerber, Oliver T Wolf, Lothar R Schad, Achim Gass, Kristina Szabo
Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a disorder with reversible anterograde disturbance of explicit memory, frequently preceded by an emotionally or physically stressful event. By using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following an episode of TGA, small hippocampal lesions have been observed. Hence it has been postulated that the disorder is caused by the stress-related transient inhibition of memory formation in the hippocampus. In experimental studies, stress has been shown to affect both explicit and implicit learning-the latter defined as learning and memory processes that lack conscious awareness of the information acquired...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909095/dynamic-shifts-in-large-scale-brain-network-balance-as-a-function-of-arousal
#12
Christina B Young, Gal Raz, Daphne Everaerd, Christian F Beckmann, Indira Tendolkar, Talma Hendler, Guillén Fernández, Erno J Hermans
: The ability to temporarily prioritize rapid and vigilant reactions over slower higher-order cognitive functions is essential for adaptive responding to threat. This reprioritization is believed to reflect shifts in resource allocation between large-scale brain networks that support these cognitive functions, including the salience and executive control networks. How changes in communication within and between such networks dynamically unfold as a function of threat-related arousal, however, remains unknown...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908187/dosimetric-characterization-of-mri-only-treatment-planning-for-brain-tumors-in-atlas-based-pseudo-ct-images-generated-from-standard-t1-weighted-mr-images
#13
Benjamin Demol, Christine Boydev, Juha Korhonen, Nick Reynaert
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-only radiotherapy treatment planning requires accurate pseudo-CT (pCT) images for precise dose calculation. The current work introduced an atlas-based method combined with MR intensity information. pCT analyses and Monte Carlo dose calculations for intracranial stereotactic treatments were performed. METHODS: Twenty-two patients, representing 35 tumor targets, were scanned using a 3D T1-weighted MRI sequence according to the clinical protocol...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908171/automated-detection-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-of-all-sizes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#14
Mohsen Ghafoorian, Nico Karssemeijer, Inge W M van Uden, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Tom Heskes, Elena Marchiori, Bram Platel
PURPOSE: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are seen on FLAIR-MRI in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, dementia, Parkinsonism, stroke and cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). WMHs are often used as biomarkers for prognosis or disease progression in these diseases, and additionally longitudinal quantification of WMHs is used to evaluate therapeutic strategies. Human readers show considerable disagreement and inconsistency on detection of small lesions. A multitude of automated detection algorithms for WMHs exists, but since most of the current automated approaches are tuned to optimize segmentation performance according to Jaccard or Dice scores, smaller WMHs often go undetected in these approaches...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908163/learning-based-3t-brain-mri-segmentation-with-guidance-from-7t-mri-labeling
#15
Minghui Deng, Renping Yu, Li Wang, Feng Shi, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
PURPOSE: Segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for brain structural measurement and disease diagnosis. Learning-based segmentation methods depend largely on the availability of good training ground truth. However, the commonly used 3T MR images are of insufficient image quality and often exhibit poor intensity contrast between WM, GM, and CSF. Therefore, they are not ideal for providing good ground truth label data for training learning-based methods...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907162/simultaneous-11c-methionine-positron-emission-tomography-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-suspected-primary-brain-tumors
#16
Cornelius Deuschl, Sophia Goericke, Johannes Grueneisen, Lino Morris Sawicki, Juliane Goebel, Nicolai El Hindy, Karsten Wrede, Ina Binse, Thorsten Poeppel, Harald Quick, Michael Forsting, Joerg Hense, Lale Umutlu, Marc Schlamann
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of integrated 11C- methionine PET/MRI for suspected primary brain tumors, in comparison to MRI alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-eight consecutive patients with suspected primary brain tumor were prospectively enrolled for an integrated 11C-methionine PET/MRI. Two neuro-radiologists separately evaluated the MRI alone and the integrated PET/MRI data sets regarding most likely diagnosis and diagnostic confidence on a 5-point scale...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907080/development-of-an-automated-mri-based-diagnostic-protocol-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-disease-specific-pathognomonic-features-a-quantitative-disease-state-classification-study
#17
Christina Schuster, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances in quantitative neuroimaging, the diagnosis of ALS remains clinical and MRI-based biomarkers are not currently used to aid the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to develop a robust, disease-specific, multimodal classification protocol and validate its diagnostic accuracy in independent, early-stage and follow-up data sets. METHODS: 147 participants (81 ALS patients and 66 healthy controls) were divided into a training sample and a validation sample...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906119/degrading-traumatic-memories-with-eye-movements-a-pilot-functional-mri-study-in-ptsd
#18
Kathleen Thomaes, Iris M Engelhard, Marit Sijbrandij, Danielle C Cath, Odile A Van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a "working-memory" (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources...
2016: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905657/-toxic-encephalopathy-caused-by-liquefied-gas-exposure-report-of-one-case
#19
Luis Cartier R, Andrés Gallardo V
Liquefied hydrocarbon gas, such as propane is considered safe. However there are reports that voluntary exposure to liquefied gas at least could originate hallucinatory states. We report a 20 years old woman who was found in a coma with extensor muscle hypertonia, brisk tendon reflexes and extensor plantar (Babinski) responses after being exposed to propane gas. The brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed lesions in both hippocampi and white matter in the oval center. The patient had a normal oxygen saturation of 98%, a carboxyhemoglobin of 1...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#20
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
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