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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650401/progressive-brain-atrophy-despite-persistent-viral-suppression-in-hiv-over-age-60
#1
Katherine M Clifford, Vishal Samboju, Yann Cobigo, Benedetta Milanini, Gabriel A Marx, Joanna M Hellmuth, Howard J Rosen, Joel H Kramer, Isabel E Allen, Victor G Valcour
BACKGROUND: Current HIV treatments are successful at suppressing plasma HIV RNA to undetectable levels for most adherent patients. Yet, emerging evidence suggests viral suppression will inadequately control inflammation and mitigate risk for progressive brain injury. We sought to quantify differences in longitudinal brain atrophy rates among older virally suppressed HIV-infected participants compared to that of healthy aging. METHODS: We examined longitudinal structural brain MRI atrophy rates employing region of interest assessments and voxel-wise tensor-based morphometry in HIV-infected participants over age 60 years (n=38) compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected healthy and cognitively normal controls (n=24)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649624/spaceflight-induced-neuroplasticity-in-humans-as-measured-by-mri-what-do-we-know-so-far
#2
Angelique Van Ombergen, Steven Laureys, Stefan Sunaert, Elena Tomilovskaya, Paul M Parizel, Floris L Wuyts
Space travel poses an enormous challenge on the human body; microgravity, ionizing radiation, absence of circadian rhythm, confinement and isolation are just some of the features associated with it. Obviously, all of the latter can have an impact on human physiology and even induce detrimental changes. Some organ systems have been studied thoroughly under space conditions, however, not much is known on the functional and morphological effects of spaceflight on the human central nervous system. Previous studies have already shown that central nervous system changes occur during and after spaceflight in the form of neurovestibular problems, alterations in cognitive function and sensory perception, cephalic fluid shifts and psychological disturbances...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649490/frequency-dependent-changes-in-local-intrinsic-oscillations-in-chronic-primary-insomnia-a-study-of-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-the-resting-state
#3
Fuqing Zhou, Suhua Huang, Ying Zhuang, Lei Gao, Honghan Gong
New neuroimaging techniques have led to significant advancements in our understanding of cerebral mechanisms of primary insomnia. However, the neuronal low-frequency oscillation remains largely uncharacterized in chronic primary insomnia (CPI). In this study, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), a data-driven method based on resting-state functional MRI, was used to examine local intrinsic activity in 27 patients with CPI and 27 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls. We examined neural activity in two frequency bands, slow-4 (between 0...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649478/cerebral-air-embolism-as-possible-cause-of-stroke-during-therapeutic-endobronchial-application-of-argon-plasma-coagulation
#4
Venkatkiran Kanchustambham, Manasa Reddy, Swetha Saladi, Setu Patolia
A 68-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of an endobronchial mass obstructing the right middle lobe (RML) and right lower lobe (RLL) of the lung. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed a notable endobronchial lesion in the bronchus intermedius that completely obstructed the RML and the RLL. Argon plasma coagulation (APC) at 30 watts and gas flow at 0.8 liters/minute to 1 liter/minute were applied to the tumor. In the recovery room, the patient was discovered to have a left-sided facial droop and left-sided weakness...
May 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649193/repeated-low-intensity-blast-exposure-is-associated-with-damaged-endothelial-glycocalyx-and-downstream-behavioral-deficits
#5
Aaron A Hall, Mirian I Mendoza, Hanbing Zhou, Michael Shaughness, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard M McCarron, Stephen T Ahlers
Current clinical research into mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has focused on white matter changes as identified by advanced MRI based imaging techniques. However, perivascular tau accumulation in the brains of individuals diagnosed with mTBI suggests that the vasculature plays a key role in the pathology. This study used a rat model to examine whether the endothelial glycocalyx, a layer of the vasculature responsible for sensing luminal shear forces, is damaged by exposure to repeated low intensity blast, and whether this layer is associated with observed behavioral deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648949/welding-related-brain-and-functional-changes-in-welders-with-chronic-and-low-level-exposure
#6
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Mechelle M Lewis, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Although an essential nutrient, manganese (Mn) can be toxic at high doses. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the effects of chronic low-level Mn-exposure. This review provides an overview of Mn-related brain and functional changes based on studies of a cohort of asymptomatic welders who had lower Mn-exposure than in most previous work. In welders with low-level Mn-exposure, we found: 1) Mn may accumulate in the brain in a non-linear fashion: MRI R1 (1/T1) signals significantly increased only after a critical level of exposure was reached (e...
June 22, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648714/evaluation-of-a-minimum-norm-based-beamforming-technique-sloreta-for-reducing-tonic-muscle-contamination-of-eeg-at-sensor-level
#7
Azin S Janani, Tyler S Grummett, Trent W Lewis, Sean P Fitzgibbon, Emma M Whitham, Dylan DelosAngeles, Hanieh Bakhshayesh, John O Willoughby, Kenneth J Pope
BACKGROUND: Cranial and cervical muscle activity (electromyogram, EMG) contaminates the surface electroencephalogram (EEG) from frequencies below 20 through to frequencies above 100Hz. It is not possible to have a reliable measure of cognitive tasks expressed in EEG at gamma-band frequencies until the muscle contamination is removed. NEW METHOD: In the present work, we introduce a new approach of using a minimum-norm based beamforming technique (sLORETA) to reduce tonic muscle contamination at sensor level...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648568/application-of-machine-learning-classification-for-structural-brain-mri-in-mood-disorders-critical-review-from-a-clinical-perspective
#8
REVIEW
Yong-Ku Kim, Kyoung-Sae Na
Mood disorders are a highly prevalent group of mental disorders causing substantial socioeconomic burden. There are various methodological approaches for identifying the underlying mechanisms of the etiology, symptomatology, and therapeutics of mood disorders; however, neuroimaging studies have provided the most direct evidence for mood disorder neural substrates by visualizing the brains of living individuals. The prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, ventral striatum, and corpus callosum are associated with depression and bipolar disorder...
June 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648465/planum-temporale-asymmetry-in-people-who-stutter
#9
Patricia M Gough, Emily L Connally, Peter Howell, David Ward, Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that the planum temporale - a language-related structure that normally shows a leftward asymmetry - had reduced asymmetry in people who stutter (PWS) and reversed asymmetry in those with severe stuttering. These findings are consistent with the theory that altered language lateralization may be a cause or consequence of stuttering. Here, we re-examined these findings in a larger sample of PWS. METHODS: We evaluated planum temporale asymmetry in structural MRI scans obtained from 67 PWS and 63 age-matched controls using: 1) manual measurements of the surface area; 2) voxel-based morphometry to automatically calculate grey matter density...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648301/associations-of-early-kidney-disease-with-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cognitive-function-in-african-americans-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Barry I Freedman, Kaycee M Sink, Christina E Hugenschmidt, Timothy M Hughes, Jeff D Williamson, Christopher T Whitlow, Nicholette D Palmer, Michael E Miller, Laura C Lovato, Jianzhao Xu, S Carrie Smith, Lenore J Launer, Joshua I Barzilay, Robert M Cohen, Mark D Sullivan, R Nick Bryan, Benjamin C Wagner, Donald W Bowden, Joseph A Maldjian, Jasmin Divers
BACKGROUND: Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: African Americans with cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (AA-DHS MIND; n=512; 480 with MRI) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) MIND (n=484; 104 with MRI) studies...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648002/-application-value-of-whole-brain-3d-artery-spin-labeling-in-diagnosis-of-intracranial-tumors
#11
Q Q Zhao, Q X Yang, G X Xu, Y C Lü, D L Rong, L Liu, R Zhang
Objective: To investigate the perfusion characteristics of arterial spin labeling (ASL) in intracranial tumor and its application value in classification. Methods: The clinical, pathological and imaging data of 44 patients with gliomas confirmed by pathology were analyzed retrospectively, including 9 low grade gliomas, 15 high grade gliomas, 11 cases of meningiomas, 6 cases of neurilemmoma, 3 cases of metastatic tumors.Conventional plain scan, 3D- ASL and MRI dynamic enhanced imaging (DSC-MRI) were performed...
June 20, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647598/functional-brain-networks-during-picture-encoding-and-recognition-in-different-odor-contexts
#12
J L Reichert, M Ninaus, W Schuehly, C Hirschmann, D Bagga, V Schöpf
Contextual odors can serve as retrieval cues when applied during encoding and recall/recognition of information. To investigate the neuronal basis of these observations, we collected functional MRI data while participants (n=51) performed an encoding and recognition memory task during which odors (congruent: CO or incongruent: IO) were presented as contextual cues. Recognition performance was not influenced by odor, but there was increased activation in the piriform cortex during successful encoding in the CO group, possibly indicating enhanced retrieval of information previously integrated with an olfactory percept...
June 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647021/reprint-of-minimizing-noise-in-pediatric-task-based-functional-mri-adolescents-with-developmental-disabilities-and-typical-development
#13
Catherine Fassbender, Prerona Mukherjee, Julie B Schweitzer
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) represents a powerful tool with which to examine brain functioning and development in typically developing pediatric groups as well as children and adolescents with clinical disorders. However, fMRI data can be highly susceptible to misinterpretation due to the effects of excessive levels of noise, often related to head motion. Imaging children, especially with developmental disorders, requires extra considerations related to hyperactivity, anxiety and the ability to perform and maintain attention to the fMRI paradigm...
July 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646852/the-facial-expression-of-schizophrenic-patients-applied-with-infrared-thermal-facial-image-sequence
#14
Bo-Lin Jian, Chieh-Li Chen, Wen-Lin Chu, Min-Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a neurological disease characterized by alterations to patients' cognitive functions and emotional expressions. Relevant studies often use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to explore structural differences and responsiveness within brain regions. However, as this technique is expensive and commonly induces claustrophobia, it is frequently refused by patients. Thus, this study used non-contact infrared thermal facial images (ITFIs) to analyze facial temperature changes evoked by different emotions in moderately and markedly ill schizophrenia patients...
June 24, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646692/specific-subcortical-structures-are-activated-during-seizure-induced-death-in-a-model-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep-a-manganese-enhanced-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Srinivasa P Kommajosyula, Marcus E Randall, Thomas J Brozoski, Boris M Odintsov, Carl L Faingold
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major concern for patients with epilepsy. In most witnessed cases of SUDEP generalized seizures and respiratory failure preceded death, and pre-mortem neuroimaging studies in SUDEP patients observed changes in specific subcortical structures. Our study examined the role of subcortical structures in the DBA/1 mouse model of SUDEP using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). These mice exhibit acoustically-evoked generalized seizures leading to seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) that results in sudden death unless resuscitation is rapidly instituted...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646330/-imaging-of-vessels-supplying-the-brain
#16
REVIEW
S M Schellong, N Abolmaali, B Voigts, C Stelzner
Nowadays, several technically validated modalities are available for imaging both the extracranial and intracranial segments of arteries supplying blood to the brain. In the acute stroke setting, computed tomography (CT) angiography is of utmost importance because it provides the key diagnostic criteria indicative for the use of catheter-based recanalization techniques. Ultrasound imaging of extracranial arteries is most suitable for detecting an underlying stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in patients with stroke, transient ischemic attacks (TIA), retinal vessel occlusion and amaurosis fugax...
June 23, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645842/opennft-an-open-source-python-matlab-framework-for-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-training-based-on-activity-connectivity-and-multivariate-pattern-analysis
#17
Yury Koush, John Ashburner, Evgeny Prilepin, Ronald Sladky, Peter Zeidman, Sergei Bibikov, Frank Scharnowski, Artem Nikonorov, Dimitri Van De Ville
Neurofeedback based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) is a novel and rapidly developing research field. It allows for training of voluntary control over localized brain activity and connectivity and has demonstrated promising clinical applications. Because of the rapid technical developments of MRI techniques and the availability of high-performance computing, new methodological advances in rt-fMRI neurofeedback become possible. Here we outline the core components of a novel open-source neurofeedback framework, termed Open NeuroFeedback Training (OpenNFT), which efficiently integrates these new developments...
June 20, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645678/endolymphatic-hydrops-imaging-differential-diagnosis-in-patients-with-meniere-disease-symptoms
#18
A Attyé, M Eliezer, A Galloux, J Pietras, I Tropres, S Schmerber, G Dumas, A Krainik
PURPOSE: The goal of this retrospective study was to investigate the differential diagnosis of endolymphatic hydrops in patients with Meniere's disease (MD) symptoms by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intravenous injection of gadolinium chelate and delayed acquisition. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Two hundred patients (133 women, 67 men; mean age=67.2±11 ([SD] years) with unilateral MD underwent MRI at 3-T, between 4.5 and 5.5hours after intravenous administration of gadoterate meglumine at a dose of 0...
June 20, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645653/catalase-overexpression-modulates-metabolic-parameters-in-a-new-stress-less-leptin-deficient-mouse-model
#19
Deborah L Amos, Tanner Robinson, Melissa B Massie, Carla Cook, Alexis Hoffsted, Courtney Crain, Nalini Santanam
Oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity by modifying the function of important biological molecules, thus altering obesogenic pathways such as glucose and lipid signaling. Catalase, is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that catabolizes hydrogen peroxide produced by the dismutation of superoxide. Recent studies have shown knockdown of catalase exacerbates insulin resistance and leads to obesity. We hypothesized that overexpressing catalase in an obese mouse will modulate obesogenic pathways and protect against obesity...
June 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645353/actualit%C3%A3-s-autour-de-la-prise-en-charge-des-diab%C3%A3-tes-insipides-centraux-management-of-central-diabetes-insipidus-in-2016
#20
H Lasolle, F Borson-Chazot
Diabetes insipidus is a syndrome that associates both hypotonic polyuria and polydipsia, due to insufficient or ineffective arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesis, or to AVP resistance. The diagnosis between central/renal origin, or an abnormal thirst regulation (primary polydipsia) is required to organize an adapted management. Because water deprivation tests are not reliable, it's often based on medical history, response to treatment and MRI. Copeptin is an AVP precursor which could be very helpful for the diagnosis...
October 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
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