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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813981/a-magnetic-compatible-supernumerary-robotic-finger-for-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-fmri-acquisitions-device-description-and-preliminary-results
#1
Irfan Hussain, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Leo, Emiliano Ricciardi, Simone Rossi, Domenico Prattichizzo
The Supernumerary robotic limbs are a recently introduced class of wearable robots that, differently from traditional prostheses and exoskeletons, aim at adding extra effectors (i.e., arms, legs, or fingers) to the human user, rather than substituting or enhancing the natural ones. However, it is still undefined whether the use of supernumerary robotic limbs could specifically lead to neural modifications in brain dynamics. The illusion of owning the part of body has been already proven in many experimental observations, such as those relying on multisensory integration (e...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812201/effectiveness-of-navigation-guided-cyst-aspiration-before-resection-of-large-cystic-brain-tumors-a-proof-of-concept-for-more-radical-surgery
#2
Tae Hoon Roh, Kyoung Su Sung, Seok-Gu Kang, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Jong Hee Chang
BACKGROUND: Resection of tumors close to the corticospinal tract (CST) carries a high risk of damage to the CST. For cystic tumors, aspirating the cyst before resection may reduce the risk of damage to vital structures. This study evaluated the effectiveness of cyst aspiration, by comparing the results before and after aspiration of diffusion tensor image (DTI) tractography. METHODS: This study enrolled 23 patients with large cystic brain tumors (>20 cm(3)) between 2012 and 2016...
August 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811179/lateral-frontal-pole-and-relational-processing-activation-patterns-and-connectivity-profile
#3
Bart Hartogsveld, Bob Bramson, Suhas Vijayakumar, A Dilene van Campen, José P Marques, Karin Roelofs, Ivan Toni, Harold Bekkering, Rogier B Mars
The functional contribution of the lateral prefrontal cortex to behavior has been discussed with reference to several higher-order cognitive domains. In a separate line of research, recent studies have focused on the anatomical organization of this part of the brain. However, these different approaches are rarely combined. Here, we combine previous work using anatomical connectivity that identified a lateral subdivision of the human frontal pole and work that suggested a general role for rostrolateral prefrontal cortex in processing higher-order relations, irrespective of the type of information...
August 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810247/physical-inactivity-predicts-slow-gait-speed-in-an-elderly-multi-ethnic-cohort-study-the-northern-manhattan-study
#4
Joshua Z Willey, Yeseon P Moon, Erin R Kulick, Ying Kuen Cheung, Clinton B Wright, Ralph L Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind
INTRODUCTION: Gait speed is associated with multiple adverse outcomes of aging. We hypothesized that physical inactivity would be prospectively inversely associated with gait speed independently of white matter hyperintensity volume and silent brain infarcts on MRI. METHODS: Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study MRI sub-study had physical activity assessed when they were enrolled into the study. A mean of 5 years after the MRI, participants had gait speed measured via a timed 5-meter walk test...
August 16, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810239/the-prevalence-of-and-factors-related-to-vascular-hyperintensity-on-t1-weighted-imaging-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#5
Yuki Sakamoto, Seiji Okubo, Chikako Nito, Satoshi Suda, Noriko Matsumoto, Arata Abe, Junya Aoki, Takashi Shimoyama, Kanako Muraga, Takuya Kanamaru, Kentaro Suzuki, Yuki Go, Masahiro Mishina, Kazumi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Thrombus visualization in patients with acute ischemic stroke has been detected and reported using various imaging modalities. T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI) can depict thrombi as hyperintense signals within vessels. Moreover, in addition to thrombi, T1-WI hyperintensities in arteries may suggest arterial dissection. However, the frequency of and factors related to the T1-hyperintense vessel sign (T1-HVS) are not fully known. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence of and related factors for the T1-HVS in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
August 16, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809833/application-of-granger-causality-analysis-of-the-directed-functional-connection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#6
Mei Wang, Zhengluan Liao, Dewang Mao, Qi Zhang, Yumei Li, Enyan Yu, Zhongxiang Ding
Impaired functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN) may be involved in the progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) is a potential imaging marker for monitoring the progression of AD. Previous studies did not focus on the functional connectivity between the PCC and nodes in regions outside the DMN, but our study is an effort to explore these overlooked functional connections. For collecting data, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809668/tractography-based-score-for-learning-effective-connectivity-from-multimodal-imaging-data-using-dynamic-bayesian-networks
#7
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun K Roy
OBJECTIVE: Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally-active segregated regions of the brain. By definition [1] EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modelling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808987/volume-expansion-of-periaqueductal-gray-in-episodic-migraine-a-pilot-mri-structural-imaging-study
#8
Zhiye Chen, Xiaoyan Chen, Mengqi Liu, Shuangfeng Liu, Lin Ma, Shengyuan Yu
BACKGROUND: The periaqueductal gray (PAG) dysfunction was recognized in migraine, and the nonspecific PAG lesions were also observed in episodic migraine (EM) recently. However, the PAG volume change was not totally detected in EM up to now. Herein, the aim of this study was to investigate altered PAG volume in EM patients based on high resolution brain structural image. METHODS: The brain structural images were obtained from 18 normal controls (NC), 18 EM patients and 16 chronic migraine (CM) on 3...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808839/individuals-with-autism-have-higher-8-iso-pgf2%C3%AE-levels-than-controls-but-no-correlation-with-quantitative-assay-of-paraoxonase-1-serum-levels
#9
Bianca Pop, Alexandru-Ștefan Niculae, Tudor Lucian Pop, Andreea Liana Răchișan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a very large set of neurodevelopmental issues with diverse clinical outcomes. Various hypotheses have been put forth for the etiology of autism spectrum disorder, including issues pertaining to oxidative stress. In this study, we conducted measurements of serum 8-Iso-Prostaglanding F2 α (8-iso-PGF2α, which is the results of non-enzimatically mediated polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation) in a population of individuals with autism and a control group of age and sex matched controls...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808787/malignant-transformation-of-a-conservatively-managed-incidental-childhood-cerebral-mass-lesion-controversy-regarding-management-paradigm
#10
Jehuda Soleman, Jonathan Roth, Zvi Ram, Michal Yalon, Shlomi Constantini
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings on neuroimaging in the pediatric population are an emerging treatment challenge. Treatment options for these incidental childhood brain mass lesions, which radiologically may be assumed to be low-grade gliomas (LGG), vary, ranging from careful conservative "wait and scan" treatment to surgical biopsy, gross total resection, and upfront radiation and/or chemotherapy. As malignant transformation of LGG in children is extremely rare, some series advocate careful conservative management of these lesions; however, universal treatment protocols are not totally agreed upon...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808617/a-novel-method-of-quantifying-brain-atrophy-associated-with-age-related-hearing-loss
#11
Z Jason Qian, Peter D Chang, Gul Moonis, Anil K Lalwani
A growing body of evidence has shown that a relationship between age-related hearing loss and structural brain changes exists. However, a method to measure brain atrophy associated with hearing loss from a single MRI study (i.e. without an interval study) that produces an independently interpretable output does not. Such a method would be beneficial for studying patterns of structural brain changes on a large scale. Here, we introduce our method for this. Audiometric evaluations and mini-mental state exams were obtained in 34 subjects over the age of 80 who have had brain MRIs in the past 6 years...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808288/in-vivo-evaluation-of-radiotracers-targeting-the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptor-1-11-c-snap-7941-and-18-f-fe-snap-reveal-specific-uptake-in-the-ventricular-system
#12
Markus Zeilinger, Monika Dumanic, Florian Pichler, Lubos Budinsky, Wolfgang Wadsak, Katharina Pallitsch, Helmut Spreitzer, Rupert Lanzenberger, Marcus Hacker, Markus Mitterhauser, Cécile Philippe
The MCHR1 is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and changes of the expression are linked to a variety of associated diseases, such as diabetes and adiposity. The study aimed at the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [(11)C]SNAP-7941 and [(18)F]FE@SNAP as potential PET-tracers for the MCHR1. Competitive binding studies with non-radioactive derivatives and small-animal PET/CT and MRI brain studies were performed under baseline conditions and tracer displacement with the unlabelled MCHR1 antagonist (±)-SNAP-7941...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808201/thalamic-paramagnetic-iron-by-t2-relaxometry-correlates-with-severity-of-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Eva Baranovicova, Ema Kantorova, Dagmar Kalenska, Lucia Lichardusova, Michal Bittsan-Sky, Dusan Dobrota
Iron can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) due to its accumulation in the human brain. We focus on the thalamus as an information transmitter between various subcortical and cortical areas. Thalamic iron seems to follow different rules than iron in other deep gray matter structures and its relation to the clinical outcomes of MS is still indistinct. In our study, we investigated a connection between thalamic iron and patients' disability and course of the disease. The presence of paramagnetic substances in the tissues was tracked by T2* quantification...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806742/dissociating-maternal-responses-to-sad-and-happy-facial-expressions-of-their-own-child-an-fmri-study
#14
Dorothea Kluczniok, Catherine Hindi Attar, Jenny Stein, Sina Poppinga, Thomas Fydrich, Charlotte Jaite, Viola Kappel, Romuald Brunner, Sabine C Herpertz, Katja Boedeker, Felix Bermpohl
BACKGROUND: Maternal sensitive behavior depends on recognizing one's own child's affective states. The present study investigated distinct and overlapping neural responses of mothers to sad and happy facial expressions of their own child (in comparison to facial expressions of an unfamiliar child). METHODS: We used functional MRI to measure dissociable and overlapping activation patterns in 27 healthy mothers in response to happy, neutral and sad facial expressions of their own school-aged child and a gender- and age-matched unfamiliar child...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806629/aseptic-meningitis-in-adults-and-children-diagnostic-and-management-challenges
#15
Bhavarth Shukla, Elizabeth A Aguilera, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Quanhathai Kaewpoowat, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Aseptic meningitis represents a common diagnostic and management dilemma to clinicians. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical epidemiology, diagnostic evaluations, management, and outcomes between adults and children with aseptic meningitis. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective study from January 2005 through September 2010 at 9 Memorial Hermann Hospitals in Houston, TX. Patients age≥2months who presented with community-acquired aseptic meningitis with a CSF white blood cell count >5cells/mm(3) and a negative Gram stain and cultures were enrolled...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806518/in-vivo-biosynthesized-zinc-and-iron-oxide-nanoclusters-for-high-spatiotemporal-dual-modality-bioimaging-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Lanmei Lai, Xuerui Jiang, Shanying Han, Chunqiu Zhao, Tianyu Du, Fawad Ur Rehman, Youkun Zheng, Xiaoqi Li, Xiaoli Liu, Hui Jiang, Xuemei Wang
Alzheimer's disease is still incurable neurodegenerative, and lack of detection method with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, by taking different month old Alzheimer's mice as models, we have explored the possibility of the target bioimaging of the diseased sites through the initial injection of zinc gluconate solution into Alzheimer's model mice post tail-vein, and then combination of the further injection of ferrous chloride (FeCl2) solution into the same Alzheimer's model mice post stomach...
August 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806249/epidural-metastases-from-follicular-thyroid-cancer-mimicking-meningiomas-in-68ga-dotatate-pet
#17
Marcus Unterrainer, Harun Ilhan, Andrei Todica, Peter Bartenstein, Nathalie Lisa Albert
We report a woman with multifocal lesions suggestive of meningiomas in MRI, which also presented with high Ga-DOTATATE uptake in PET, a finding characteristic for meningioma. A whole-body staging due to a pathological fracture revealed multiple neoplastic lesions throughout the body without detection of a primary site. Subsequent pathological workup of a lung lesion revealed multifocal metastases from follicular thyroid cancer despite thyroidectomy 10 years ago (without pathological finding), and posttreatment scans after radioiodine therapy confirmed the multiple brain lesions to be metastases as well...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806201/brain-gut-microbiota-axis-and-mental-health
#18
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
OBJECTIVE: The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been put forward as a new paradigm in neuroscience, which may be of relevance to mental illness. The mechanisms of signal transmission in the brain-gut-microbiota axis are complex and involve bidirectional communications which enables gut microbes to communicate with the brain, and the brain to communicate with the microbes. This review assesses the potential usefulness and limitations of the paradigm. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate the current knowledge in clinical and pre-clinical brain-gut-microbiota interactions as related to psychiatric disorders...
August 11, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805936/characterizing-hypoxia-in-human-glioma-a-simultaneous-multimodal-mri-and-pet-study
#19
Christine Preibisch, Kuangyu Shi, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Benedikt Wiestler, Jens Göttler, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Mohamed Al Jaberi, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Thomas Pyka, Stefan Förster
Hypoxia plays an important role for the prognosis and therapy response of cancer. Thus, hypoxia imaging would be a valuable tool for pre-therapeutic assessment of tumor malignancy. However, there is no standard validated technique for clinical application available yet. Therefore, we performed a study in 12 patients with high-grade glioma, where we directly compared the two currently most promising techniques, namely the MR-based relative oxygen extraction fraction (MR-rOEF) and the PET hypoxia marker H-1-(3-[(18) F]-fluoro-2-hydroxypropyl)-2-nitroimidazole ([(18) F]-FMISO)...
August 14, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805763/-angiogenesis-mechanisms-in-the-formation-of-structural-changes-of-brain-tissue-in-patients-with-progressive-cerebrovascular-disease
#20
O N Voskresenskaya, N B Zaharova, Yu S Tarasova, N E Tereshkina, V A Perepelov, E M Perepelova
AIM: To study the correlation between expressiveness of focal changes of brain tissue and VEGF and MCP-1 levels in plasma and blood serum of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Markers of inflammation (MCP-1, CRP) and angiogenesis (VEGF) in serum and blood plasma of 35 patients with CCI depending on expressiveness of structural changes of brain substance according to MRI were investigated. RESULTS: The increase in MCP-1 and CRP content in blood serum and simultaneous decrease in VEGF level in serum and blood plasma were correlated with the increase in the number of focal changes of substance of the brain in patients with CCI...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
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