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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926610/image-similarity-evaluation-of-the-bulk-density-assigned-synthetic-ct-derived-from-mri-of-intracranial-regions-for-radiation-treatment
#1
Shin-Wook Kim, Hun-Joo Shin, Jin-Ho Hwang, Jin-Sol Shin, Sung-Kwang Park, Jin-Young Kim, Ki-Jun Kim, Chul-Seung Kay, Young-Nam Kang
OBJECTIVE: Various methods for radiation-dose calculation have been investigated over previous decades, focusing on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only. The bulk-density-assignment method based on manual segmentation has exhibited promising results compared to dose-calculation with computed tomography (CT). However, this method cannot be easily implemented in clinical practice due to its time-consuming nature. Therefore, we investigated an automatic anatomy segmentation method with the intention of providing the proper methodology to evaluate synthetic CT images for a radiation-dose calculation based on MR images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926154/brain-functional-connectome-abnormalities-in-als-are-associated-with-disability-and-cortical-hyperexcitability
#2
Nimeshan Geevasinga, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Parvathi Menon, Mehdi Van den Bos, Lavier Gomes, Sheryl Foster, Matthew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized a multimodality approach encompassing connectome network combined with brain volume analysis, and assessment of cortical excitability to provide novel insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla GE Signa HDx scanner, using an 8-channel head coil. MR images for the resting state scan were acquired using echo planar imaging MR sequence, acquiring 40 contiguous axial/oblique slices...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925578/combined-fetal-inflammation-and-postnatal-hypoxia-causes-myelin-deficits-and-autism-like-behavior-in-a-rat-model-of-diffuse-white-matter-injury
#3
Erik van Tilborg, E J Marijke Achterberg, Caren M van Kammen, Annette van der Toorn, Floris Groenendaal, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Cobi J Heijnen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Manon N J L Benders, Cora H A Nijboer
Diffuse white matter injury (WMI) is a serious problem in extremely preterm infants, and is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, including cognitive impairments and an increased risk of autism-spectrum disorders. Important risk factors include fetal or perinatal inflammatory insults and fluctuating cerebral oxygenation. However, the exact mechanisms underlying diffuse WMI are not fully understood and no treatment options are currently available. The use of clinically relevant animal models is crucial to advance knowledge on the pathophysiology of diffuse WMI, allowing the definition of novel therapeutic targets...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925315/prognostic-value-of-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-meta-analysis
#4
Iván Sánchez Fernández, J Leon Morales-Quezada, Samuel Law, Paggie Kim
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the prognostic value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. METHODS: Meta-analysis of studies with ≥35-week neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who underwent brain MRI within age 4 weeks and had neurodevelopmental follow-up for at least 12 months. RESULTS: An abnormal neonatal brain MRI was more frequent among patients with unfavorable neurodevelopmental outcome: odds ratio = 18...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924878/differences-between-schizophrenic-and-normal-subjects-using-network-properties-from-fmri
#5
Youngoh Bae, Kunaraj Kumarasamy, Issa M Ali, Panagiotis Korfiatis, Zeynettin Akkus, Bradley J Erickson
Schizophrenia has been proposed to result from impairment of functional connectivity. We aimed to use machine learning to distinguish schizophrenic subjects from normal controls using a publicly available functional MRI (fMRI) data set. Global and local parameters of functional connectivity were extracted for classification. We found decreased global and local network connectivity in subjects with schizophrenia, particularly in the anterior right cingulate cortex, the superior right temporal region, and the inferior left parietal region as compared to healthy subjects...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924575/ex-vivo-tissue-imaging-for-radiology-pathology-correlation-a-pilot-study-with-a-small-bore-7-t-mri-in-a-rare-pigmented-ganglioglioma-exhibiting-complex-mr-signal-characteristics-associated-with-melanin-and-hemosiderin
#6
Kant M Matsuda, Ana Lopes-Calcas, Michael L Honke, Zoe O'Brien-Moran, Richard Buist, Michael West, Melanie Martin
To advance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies further for in vivo tissue characterization with histopathologic validation, we investigated the feasibility of ex vivo tissue imaging of a surgically removed human brain tumor as a comprehensive approach for radiology-pathology correlation in histoanatomically identical fashion in a rare case of pigmented ganglioglioma with complex paramagnetic properties. Pieces of surgically removed ganglioglioma, containing melanin and hemosiderin pigments, were imaged with a small bore 7-T MRI scanner to obtain T1-, T2-, and T2*-weighted image and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924555/early-changes-in-brain-structure-correlate-with-language-outcomes-in-children-with-neonatal-encephalopathy
#7
Kevin A Shapiro, Hosung Kim, Maria Luisa Mandelli, Elizabeth E Rogers, Dawn Gano, Donna M Ferriero, A James Barkovich, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Hannah C Glass, Duan Xu
Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924482/atypical-presentation-of-central-pontine-myelinolysis-in-hyperglycemia
#8
Swapna Talluri, Raghu Charumathi, Muhammad Khan, Kerri Kissell
Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) usually occurs with rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. Despite the pronounced fluctuations in serum osmolality, CPM is rarely seen in diabetics. This is a case report of CPM associated with hyperglycemia. A 45-year-old non-smoking and non-alcoholic African American male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stage V chronic kidney disease and hypothyroidism presented with a two-week history of intermittent episodes of gait imbalance, slurred speech and inappropriate laughter...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924292/hemimegalencephaly-with-intractable-epilepsy-a-case-report
#9
Prem Chand, Muhammad Faraz Raghib, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Fazal Manzoor Arain
Isolated Hemimegalencephaly (iHME) is a rare form of congenital malformation of cortical development.It is characterized by enlargement of all or part of one cerebral hemisphere. It typically presents with intractable seizures, mental retardation, developmental delay, contralateral hemiparesis and hemianopia. The patient was a five and half month's old baby girl who presented first with focal seizures at 10th day of life. No other physical or behavioral abnormality was noted. However, Initial EEG showed excessive sharp EEG transients more over the right hemisphere, repeated EEG showed spikes, polyspikes, sharps and slow wave discharges predominately over right hemisphere...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924013/reward-related-ventral-striatum-activity-buffers-against-the-experience-of-depressive-symptoms-associated-with-sleep-disturbances
#10
Reut Avinun, Adam Nevo, Annchen R Knodt, Maxwell L Elliott, Spenser R Radtke, Bartholomew D Brigidi, Ahmad R Hariri
Sleep disturbances represent one risk factor for depression. Reward-related brain function, particularly the activity of the ventral striatum (VS), has been identified as a potential buffer against stress-related depression. We were therefore interested in testing whether reward-related VS activity would moderate the effect of sleep disturbances on depression in a large cohort of young adults. Data were available from 1129 university students (mean age 19.71 ± 1.25 years; 637 women) who completed a reward-related functional MRI task to assay VS activity and provided self-reports of sleep using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and symptoms of depression using a summation of the General Distress/Depression (GDD) and Anhedonic Depression (AD) subscales of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire-short form...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923933/longitudinal-identification-of-clinically-distinct-neurophenotypes-in-young-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#11
Jennifer L Bruno, David Romano, Paul Mazaika, Amy A Lightbody, Heather Cody Hazlett, Joseph Piven, Allan L Reiss
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), due to mutations of the FMR1 gene, is the most common known inherited cause of developmental disability. The cognitive, behavioral, and neurological phenotypes observed in affected individuals can vary considerably, making it difficult to predict outcomes and determine the need for interventions. We sought to examine early structural brain growth as a potential marker for identification of clinically meaningful subgroups. Participants included 42 very young boys with FXS who completed a T1-weighted anatomical MRI and cognitive/behavioral assessment at two longitudinal time points, with mean ages of 2...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923528/arterial-spin-labeling-hyperperfusion-in-rasmussen-s-encephalitis-is-it-due-to-focal-brain-inflammation-or-a-post-ictal-phenomenon
#12
Savith Kumar, Chinmay P Nagesh, Bejoy Thomas, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The study evaluated the utility of Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging in Rasmussen's Encephalitis (RE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hospital electronic database was searched using the search words "encephalitis," "autoimmune encephalitis" and "Rasmussen's encephalitis" for the period of 1 Jan 2015 to 31 Jan 2017. Clinically diagnosed cases of RE for which epilepsy protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with perfusion imaging (ASL) performed on a 3T scanner were retrieved...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923276/rapid-whole-brain-resting-state-fmri-at-3%C3%A2-tesla-efficiency-optimized-three-dimensional-epi-versus-repetition-time-matched-simultaneous-multi-slice-epi
#13
Rüdiger Stirnberg, Willem Huijbers, Daniel Brenner, Benedikt A Poser, Monique Breteler, Tony Stöcker
State-of-the-art simultaneous-multi-slice (SMS-)EPI and 3D-EPI share several properties that benefit functional MRI acquisition. Both sequences employ equivalent parallel imaging undersampling with controlled aliasing to achieve high temporal sampling rates. As a volumetric imaging sequence, 3D-EPI offers additional means of acceleration complementary to 2D-CAIPIRINHA sampling, such as fast water excitation and elliptical sampling. We performed an application-oriented comparison between a tailored, six-fold CAIPIRINHA-accelerated 3D-EPI protocol at 530 ms temporal and 2...
September 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922950/the-brain-mri-image-sparse-representation-based-on-the-gradient-information-and-the-non-symmetry-and-anti-packing-model
#14
Hu Liang, Shengrong Zhao, Xiangjun Dong
Nowadays, sparse representation has been widely used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The commonly used sparse representation methods are based on symmetrical partition, which have not considered the complex structure of MRI image. In this paper, we proposed a sparse representation method for the brain MRI image, called GNAMlet transform, which is based on the gradient information and the non-symmetry and anti-packing model. The proposed sparse representation method can reduce the lost detail information, improving the reconstruction accuracy...
September 18, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922945/aav-gene-therapy-in-a-sheep-model-of-tay-sachs-disease
#15
Heather Gray-Edwards, Ashley N Randle, Stacy Maitland, Hector Benatti, Spencer Hubbard, Peter Canning, Matthew Vogel, Brandon Brunson, Misako Hwang, Lauren Ellis, Allison M Bradbury, Atoska Gentry, Amanda Taylor, Anne Wooldridge, Dewey Wilhite, Randoplh Winter, Brain Whitlock, Jacob A Johnson, Merrilee Holland, Nouha Salibi, Ronald Beyers, James Sartin, Thomas Denney, Nancy R Cox, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Douglas R Martin
Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme hexosaminidase A (HexA). Tay-Sachs disease also occurs in sheep, the only experimental model of TSD that has clinical signs of disease. The natural history of sheep TSD was characterized using serial neurological evaluations, 7 tesla MRI, echocardiograms, electrodiagnostics and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Intracranial gene therapy was also tested using AAVrh8 monocistronic vectors encoding the α subunit of Hex (TSD α) or a mixture of two vectors encoding both the α and β subunits separately (TSD α+β) injected at high (1...
September 19, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922355/image-identification-from-brain-activity-using-the-population-receptive-field-model
#16
Wietske Zuiderbaan, Ben M Harvey, Serge O Dumoulin
A goal of computational models is not only to explain experimental data but also to make new predictions. A current focus of computational neuroimaging is to predict features of the presented stimulus from measured brain signals. These computational neuroimaging approaches may be agnostic about the underlying neural processes or may be biologically inspired. Here, we use the biologically inspired population receptive field (pRF) approach to identify presented images from fMRI recordings of the visual cortex, using an explicit model of the underlying neural response selectivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921740/5-httlpr-moderates-the-association-between-interdependence-and-brain-responses-to-mortality-threats
#17
Siyang Luo, Dian Yu, Shihui Han
While behavioral research suggests an association between cultural worldview and decreased anxiety of death, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Using functional MRI, we investigated whether and how the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which has been associated with mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, moderates the associations between a cultural trait (i.e., interdependence) and self-report of death anxiety/depression and between interdependence and brain responses to mortality threats...
September 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921634/the-role-of-whole-brain-diffusion-mri-as-a-tool-for-studying-human-in-vivo-cortical-segregation-based-on-a-measure-of-neurite-density
#18
Fernando Calamante, Ben Jeurissen, Robert E Smith, Jacques-Donald Tournier, Alan Connelly
PURPOSE: To investigate whether diffusion MRI can be used to study cortical segregation based on a contrast related to neurite density, thus providing a complementary tool to myelin-based MRI techniques used for myeloarchitecture. METHODS: Several myelin-sensitive MRI methods (e.g., based on T1 , T2 , and T2*) have been proposed to parcellate cortical areas based on their myeloarchitecture. Recent improvements in hardware, acquisition, and analysis methods have opened the possibility of achieving a more robust characterization of cortical microstructure using diffusion MRI...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921167/brain-structural-concomitants-of-resting-state-heart-rate-variability-in-the-young-and-old-evidence-from-two-independent-samples
#19
Hyun Joo Yoo, Julian F Thayer, Steven Greening, Tae-Ho Lee, Allison Ponzio, Jungwon Min, Michiko Sakaki, Lin Nga, Mara Mather, Julian Koenig
Previous research has shown associations between brain structure and resting state high-frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV). Age affects both brain structure and HF HRV. Therefore, we sought to examine the relationship between brain structure and HF HRV as a function of age. Data from two independent studies were used for the present analysis. Study 1 included 19 older adults (10 males, age range 62-78 years) and 19 younger adults (12 males, age range 19-37). Study 2 included 23 older adults (12 males; age range 55-75) and 27 younger adults (17 males; age range 18-34)...
September 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921161/deep-brain-stimulation-for-refractory-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-with-an-emphasis-on-alleviation-of-seizure-frequency-outcome
#20
Bowen Chang, Jiwen Xu
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting conclusions have been reported regarding predictors of deep brain stimulation (DBS) outcome in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The main goal of this meta-analysis study was to identify possible predictors of remarkable seizure reduction (RSR). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of English-language literature published since 1990 and indexed in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library that addressed seizure outcomes in patients who underwent DBS for refractory TLE...
September 18, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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