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urinary system

Joel E Abbott, Roger L Sur
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current technology and designs of flexible ureterorenoscopes. We will review contemporary fiberoptic and digital ureteroscopes, including a discussion on ureteroscope damage and repair, and lastly present the projected future of flexible ureterorenoscopy. Ureterorenoscopy has evolved dramatically over the past several decades, which has led to landscape reshaping of stone disease treatment and upper tract pathology. Advancements in tip control, miniaturization of scopes, introduction of a digital chip on the tip, disposable devices to augment surgery, surgical experience/familiarity and most recently single use scopes are all independent factors that have increased flexible ureterorenoscopy adoption and success...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Jelmer Sjollema, Heidrun Keul, Henny van der Mei, René Dijkstra, Minie Rustema-Abbing, Joop de Vries, Ton Loontjens, Ton Dirks, Henk Busscher
Various potential anti-infection strategies can be thought of for biomaterial implants and devices. Permanent, tissue-integrated implants such as artificial joint prostheses require a different anti-infection strategy than, for instance, removable urinary catheters. The different requirements set to biomaterials implants and devices in different clinical applications call for tailor-made strategies. Here, a modular coating-concept for biomaterials is reported, which in its full, trifunctional form comprises nonadhesiveness to bacteria and antimicrobial release, combined with enhanced tissue integration characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Matthias Oelke, Peter Anderson, Robert Wood, Tove Holm-Larsen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and timing of the diagnosis and treatment of nocturia in real-life practice in European and US-American patients to obtain better insights into the management of nocturia in different Western healthcare systems. METHODS: Data were drawn from the "LUTS Disease Specific Programme," a real-life survey of physicians and patients in France, Germany, Spain, UK and the USA. Physicians completed a patient record form for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) patients...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Bernt Johan von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Signe Rosenlund, Peter Hovind, Jens Faber, Tine Willum Hansen, Peter Rossing
AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria have high cardiorenal morbidity and mortality despite multifactorial treatment. Short-term reduction in albuminuria is considered suggestive of long-term renoprotective effects. We evaluated the renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide on top of multifactorial care, including renin-angiotensin-system (RAS)-inhibition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial including patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1...
October 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Francis Mawanda, Robert B Wallace, Kimberly McCoy, Thad E Abrams
INTRODUCTION: Emerging evidence indicates associations between extra-central nervous system (CNS) bacterial infections and an increased risk for dementia; however, epidemiological evidence is still very limited. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective cohort of a national sample of US veterans (N = 417,172) aged ≥56 years. Extended Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for demographic characteristics and medical and psychiatric comorbidities determined the associations between systemic and localized extra-CNS bacterial infections occurring >2 years before the initial dementia diagnosis and the risk for dementia...
2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Jill Buyon, Richard Furie, Chaim Putterman, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, Kenneth Kalunian, Derren Barken, John Conklin, Thierry Dervieux
BACKGROUND: The relationship between cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs: EC4d, EC3d), anti-C1q, soluble complement C3/C4 and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was evaluated. METHODS: Per protocol, at baseline all SLE subjects enrolled in this longitudinal study presented with active disease and elevated CB-CAPs. At each monthly visit, the non-serological (ns) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA-SLEDAI) and the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG)-2004 index scores were determined as was a random urinary protein to creatinine ratio (uPCR)...
2016: Lupus Science & Medicine
Kelly K Ferguson, David E Cantonwine, Thomas F McElrath, Bhramar Mukherjee, John D Meeker
Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure occurs commonly and may adversely impact pregnancy. Endocrine disruption is posited as the primary mechanism of action, but oxidative stress and inflammation pathways may also be important. We investigated associations between BPA exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation in 482 pregnant women. Participants were recruited early in pregnancy and provided urine and plasma at up to four visits. We measured total BPA and two biomarkers of oxidative stress (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane) in urine from each visit...
October 14, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Jiangan Xie, Christopher Codd, Kevin Mo, Yongqun He
M. bovis strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been the only licensed live attenuated vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) for nearly one century and has also been approved as a therapeutic vaccine for bladder cancer treatment since 1990. During its long time usage, different adverse events (AEs) have been reported. However, the AEs associated with the BCG preventive TB vaccine and therapeutic cancer vaccine have not been systematically compared. In this study, we systematically collected various BCG AE data mined from the US VAERS database and PubMed literature reports, identified statistically significant BCG-associated AEs, and ontologically classified and compared these AEs related to these two types of BCG vaccine...
2016: PloS One
Jae-Yun Ju, Kyung-Sook Chung, Se-Yun Cheon, Hyo-Jin An
Alternative medicine is a widely accepted therapeutic approach for the management of various diseases. The Korean medicine, musulju (MSJ), has been traditionally used to improve vital energy in men with reduced physical strength and a weakened urinary system. The present study determined the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MSJ against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common disorder in elderly men that involves inflammation‑mediated imbalance between cell proliferation and death. MSJ treatment was demonstrated to decrease prostate weight, cell proliferation, and the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in a rat model of BPH...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Guang-Han Wang, Lan Zhu, Ai-Ming Liu, Tao Xu, Jing-He Lang
BACKGROUND: Female genital malformations represent miscellaneous deviations from normal anatomy. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent surgery for genital tract malformations at Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) during a 31-year period. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed surgical cases of congenital malformation of the female genital tract at PUMCH for a 31-year period, analyzed the clinical characteristics of 1634 hospitalized patients, and investigated their general condition, diagnosis, and treatment process...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Liz Gough, Lindy M Castell, Rosalba Gatti, Richard J Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concentrations in human body fluids reflect the exercise-induced growth hormone response (EIGR) after exercise. In populations such as elite athletes, the invasive nature of venous sampling is poorly accepted. Thus, this study examines possible viable alternatives such as urine and saliva samples and the GH concentration...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Mohamed I F Shariff, Jin U Kim, Nimzing G Ladep, Mary M E Crossey, Larry K Koomson, Abigail Zabron, Helen Reeves, Matthew Cramp, Stephen Ryder, Shaun Greer, I Jane Cox, Roger Williams, Elaine Holmes, Kathryn Nash, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: Discriminatory metabolic profiles have been described in urinary (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of African patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to assess similarities in a UK cohort, where there is a greater etiological diversity. METHODS: Urine from cirrhosis and HCC patients was analyzed using a 600 MHz (1)H NMR system. Multivariate analysis and median group MR spectra comparison identified metabolite alterations between groups...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Benoît Peyronnet, Thomas Seisen, Véronique Phé, Vincent Misrai, Alexandre de la Taille, Morgan Rouprêt
AIM: To provide a systematic review of epidemiological data regarding the association between erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men. SEARCH STRATEGY: A research has been conducted on the Medline database using the keywords: ("erectile dysfunction" or "sexual dysfunction") and ("benign prostatic hyperplasia" or "lower urinary tract symptoms"). The eligibility of studies was defined using the PICOS method in accordance with the PRISMA statement...
October 10, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Tomoaki Shiba, Mao Takahashi, Tadashi Matsumoto, Kohji Shirai, Yuichi Hori
PROPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were significant correlations between the pulse waveform in the capillary area of the optic nerve head (ONH) microcirculation shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and parameters of the systemic condition, especially the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). METHOD: We studied 130 men (ages 60.5 ± 10.9 years) who visited the Vascular Function Section of the Department of Cardiovascular Center of Toho University Sakura Medical Center...
October 14, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Volkan Sen, Ibrahim Halil Bozkurt, Ozgu Aydogdu, Tarik Yonguc, Serkan Yarimoglu, Pinar Sen, Omer Koras, Tansu Degirmenci
We evaluated the usefulness of preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) in predicting postoperative sepsis after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). In total, 487 patients who underwent PCNL for renal stones were included in the present retrospective study. The stone burden, number of tracts and location, operation time, fluoroscopy time, presence of residual stones, and blood transfusion rates were postoperatively recorded in all patients. All patients were followed up for signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Alessandro Casilli, Thomas Piper, Fábio Azamor de Oliveira, Monica Costa Padilha, Henrique Marcelo Pereira, Mario Thevis, Francisco Radler de Aquino Neto
Measuring carbon isotope ratios (CIR) of urinary analytes represents a cornerstone of doping control analysis and has been particularly optimized for the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of appropriate quality however necessitates adequate purities of the investigated steroids, which requires extensive pre-analytical sample clean-up steps due to both, the natural presence of the target analytes and the high complexity of the matrix. In order to accelerate the sample preparation and increase the automation of the process, the use of multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) prior to IRMS experiments, was investigated...
October 14, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Michiro Susa, Kazutaka Kikuta, Robert Nakayama, Kazumasa Nishimoto, Keisuke Horiuchi, Sota Oguro, Masanori Inoue, Hideki Yashiro, Seishi Nakatsuka, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Chiba, Hideo Morioka
BACKGROUND: Historically, local control of recurrent sarcomas has been limited to radiotherapy when surgical re-resection is not feasible. For metastatic carcinomas to the bone or soft tissue, radiotherapy and some interventional radiology treatment along with other systemic therapies have been widely advocated due to the possibility of disseminated disease. These techniques are effective in alleviating pain and achieving local control for some tumor types, but it has not been effective for prolonged local control of most tumors...
October 13, 2016: BMC Cancer
Tayfur Demiray, Mehmet Köroğlu, Ahmet Özbek, Taner Hafizoğlu, Mustafa Altındiş
Raoultella terrigena, formerly known as Klebsiella terrigena is Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic, encapsulated bacilli and is a very rare cause of infections in humans. Until now, only two cases of actual clinical infection caused by R. terrigena were reported in adults. This report is the first case of neonatal infection with this microorganism, which was isolated from the urinary tract of a premature newborn followed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Vitek 2® automated system had identified the bacteria as R...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
R Wells, A Tonkin
Patients with autonomic dysfunction may present with a variety of seemingly unrelated symptoms, both generalised and involving specific systems, including fatigue, difficulty concentrating, orthostatic intolerance, palpitations, constipation or diarrhoea, early satiety, urinary retention or incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Failure to connect the diverse symptoms with a single underlying mechanism may lead to incorrect diagnoses, inappropriate interventions and frustration on the part of both doctors and patients...
October 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
Kevin D Burns, Yuliya Lytvyn, Farid H Mahmud, Denis Daneman, Livia Deda, David B Dunger, John E Deanfield, R Neil Dalton, Yesmino Elia, Ronnie Har, Julie A D Van, Timothy J Bradley, Cameron Slorach, Wei Hui, Fengxia Xiao, Joseph Zimpelmann, Luc Mertens, Rahim Moineddin, Heather N Reich, Etienne B Sochett, James W Scholey, David Z I Cherney
AIMS: The relationship between the renal renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and cardiorenal pathophysiology is unclear. Our aims were to assess (1) levels of urinary RAAS components and (2) the association between RAAS components and HbA1c, urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and blood pressure in otherwise healthy adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (TID) vs. healthy controls (HC). METHODS: Urinary angiotensinogen and ACE2 levels, activity of ACE and ACE2, blood pressure (BP), HbA1c, ACR and eGFR were measured in 65 HC and 194 T1D from the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT)...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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