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Peter B Barr, Judy Silberg, Danielle M Dick, Hermine H Maes
Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is an important aspect of early life environment associated with later life health/health behaviors, including alcohol misuse. However, alcohol misuse is modestly heritable and involves differing etiological pathways. Externalizing disorders show significant genetic overlap with substance use, suggesting an impulsivity pathway to alcohol misuse. Alcohol misuse also overlaps with internalizing disorders, suggesting alcohol is used to cope. These differing pathways could lead to different patterns over time and/or differential susceptibility to environmental conditions, such as childhood SES...
May 14, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Hamed Khalili, Simon S M Chan, Paul Lochhead, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Andrew R Hart, Andrew T Chan
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, collectively known as IBD, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Although the aetiopathogenesis of IBD is largely unknown, it is widely thought that diet has a crucial role in the development and progression of IBD. Indeed, epidemiological and genetic association studies have identified a number of promising dietary and genetic risk factors for IBD. These preliminary studies have led to major interest in investigating the complex interaction between diet, host genetics, the gut microbiota and immune function in the pathogenesis of IBD...
May 22, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Li Xiong, Wei Liu, Li Gao, Qiwen Mu, Xindong Liu, Yuhuan Feng, Zhi Tang, Huanyu Tang, Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke (IS) is considered to be a heterogeneous, multifactorial disease with a strong genetic background. This study aims to determine whether variants in the antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) gene are associated with IS in Han Chinese, as well as whether there is evidence of a gene-environment interactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-controlled association study was conducted in which only patients with atherothrombotic stroke (ATS) were enrolled...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Heather M Ochs-Balcom, Leah Preus, Jing Nie, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Linda Agyemang, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley Tinker, Cheng Zheng, Rasa Kazlauskaite, Lihong Qi, Lara E Sucheston-Campbell
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a gene-environment interaction study to evaluate whether the association of body mass index (BMI) associated meta genome-wide association study single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (as a genetic risk score) and BMI is modified by physical activity and age. METHODS: In 8,206 women of European ancestry from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), we used linear regression to examine main effects of the 95 SNP BMI genetic risk score (GRS) and physical activity on BMI, and evaluated whether genetic associations are modified by physical activity (two-way interaction) and age (three-way interaction)...
May 14, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Xinping Wang, Heng Guo, Yu Li, Haixia Wang, Jia He, Lati Mu, Yunhua Hu, Jiaolong Ma, Yizhong Yan, Shugang Li, Yusong Ding, Mei Zhang, Qiang Niu, Jiaming Liu, Jingyu Zhang, Rulin Ma, Shuxia Guo
Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions may be partially responsible for dyslipidemia, but studies investigating interactions in the reverse cholesterol transport system (RCT) are limited. We explored these interactions in a Xinjiang rural population by genotyping five SNPs using SNPShot technique in APOA1, ABCA1, and LCAT, which are involved in the RCT (690 patients, 743 controls). We conducted unconditional logistical regression analysis to evaluate associations and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction to evaluate interactions...
2018: PloS One
Birgit Ludwig, Klemens Kienesberger, Laura Carlberg, Patrick Swoboda, Alexandra Bernegger, Romina Koller, Qingzhong Wang, Michelle Inaner, Melanie Zotter, Nestor D Kapusta, Helmuth Haslacher, Martin Aigner, Siegfried Kasper, Alexandra Schosser
Background: Previous studies have shown that the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis) is closely involved in the development of affective disorders. Given that early life events are also linked to dysregulation of the same system, there might be an association between childhood adversities and suicidal behavior in affective disorders, moderated by HPA-axis genes. We aimed to investigate a potential association between childhood trauma and previous suicide attempts in affective disorder patients, moderated by variants of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Nancy E Thomas, Sharon N Edmiston, Irene Orlow, Peter A Kanetsky, Li Luo, David C Gibbs, Eloise A Parrish, Honglin Hao, Klaus J Busam, Bruce K Armstrong, Anne Kricker, Anne E Cust, Hoda Anton-Culver, Stephen B Gruber, Richard P Gallagher, Roberto Zanetti, Stefano Rosso, Lidia Sacchetto, Terence Dwyer, David W Ollila, Colin B Begg, Marianne Berwick, Kathleen Conway
BRAF and NRAS mutations arise early in melanoma development but their associations with low-penetrance melanoma susceptibility loci remain unknown. In the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) Study, 1223 European-origin participants had their incident invasive primary melanomas screened for BRAF/NRAS mutations and germline DNA genotyped for 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified as low-penetrant melanoma risk variants. We used multinomial logistic regression to simultaneously examine each SNP's relationship to BRAF V600E, BRAF V600K, BRAF other, and NRAS+ relative to BRAF-/NRAS- melanoma adjusted for study features...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Laura N Anderson, Julia A Knight, Rayjean J Hung, Sheryl L Hewko, Ryan A Seeto, Mary-Jean Martin, Alison Fleming, Jonathon L Maguire, Stephen G Matthews, Kellie E Murphy, Nan Okun, Jennifer M Jenkins, Stephen J Lye, Alan Bocking
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and early childhood represent critical periods that impact health throughout the life-course. The Ontario Birth Study (OBS) is a pregnancy cohort study designed as a platform for research on pregnancy complications, maternal and infant health, and the developmental origins of health and disease. METHODS: Pregnant women <17 weeks gestational age were recruited between 2013 and 2015 from antenatal clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada...
May 11, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
David S Moore
An ambiguity exists in how psychological scientists use the word "interaction." This word can refer to physical interactions between components that form the mechanisms in complex systems, but it can also refer to statistical interactions revealed by General Linear Statistical Models (e.g., Analyses of Variance). Statistical interactions indicate that the nature of the relationship between two variables depends on a third variable, but the discovery of such interactions does not constitute evidence of physical interactions between components in a system...
May 7, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Angelica Ronald, Oliver Pain
We present a systematic review of genome-wide research on psychotic experience and negative symptom traits (PENS) in the community. We integrate these new findings, most of which have emerged over the last four years, with more established behaviour genetic and epidemiological research. The review includes the first genome-wide association studies of PENS, including a recent meta-analysis, and the first SNP heritability estimates. Sample sizes of < 10,000 participants mean that no genome-wide significant variants have yet been replicated...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Wenfan Ke, Anna Drangowska-Way, Daniel Katz, Karsten Siller, Eyleen J O'Rourke
Caenorhabditis elegans is the first and only metazoan model that enables whole-body gene knockdown by simply feeding their standard laboratory diet, E. coli, carrying RNA interference (RNAi)-expressing constructs. The simplicity of the RNAi treatment, small size, and fast reproduction rate of C. elegans allow us to perform whole-animal high-throughput genetic screens in wild-type, mutant, or otherwise genetically modified C. elegans. In addition, more than 65% of C. elegans genes are conserved in mammals including human...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Wendy S Slutske, Arielle R Deutsch, Thomas M Piasecki
BACKGROUND: Genetic influences on alcohol involvement are likely to vary as a function of the 'alcohol environment,' given that exposure to alcohol is a necessary precondition for genetic risk to be expressed. However, few gene-environment interaction studies of alcohol involvement have focused on characteristics of the community-level alcohol environment. The goal of this study was to examine whether living in a community with more alcohol outlets would facilitate the expression of the genetic propensity to drink in a genetically-informed national survey of United States young adults...
May 7, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Elizabeth T Jensen, Evan S Dellon
The incidence and prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) have markedly increased over the past two decades, outpacing increased detection of the disease. While genetic susceptibility markers for EoE have begun to be elucidated, the rate at which EoE has increased in incidence suggests environmental factors predominate. Despite many advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of EoE, the etiology of EoE is unknown. This paper reviews the emerging data related to environmental risk factors for EoE...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yunpeng Chi, Conghong Shi, Xiaojiang Zhang, Yang Xi
To investigate the impact of PLA2G7 polymorphism, and additional their interactions with smoking and drinking on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk based on Chinese population. GMDR model was used to screen the best gene-smoking and gene-drinking interaction combinations. Logistic regression was performed to investigate association between 4 SNPs and CHD, and the interaction effect between rs1805017 and smoking. For CHD patient-control haplotype analyses, the SHEsis online haplotype analysis software ( http://analysis...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Vincent Laville, Amy R Bentley, Florian Privé, Xiaofeng Zhu, Jim Gauderman, Thomas W Winkler, Mike Province, D C Rao, Hugues Aschard
Summary: Many genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genome-wide screening for gene-environment interactions have been performed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of human traits and diseases. When the analyzed outcome is quantitative, the overall contribution of identified genetic variants to the outcome is often expressed as the percentage of phenotypic variance explained. This is commonly done using individual-level genotype data but it is challenging when results are derived through meta-analyses...
May 3, 2018: Bioinformatics
Cameron B Speyer, Karen H Costenbader
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system inflammatory autoimmune disease of incompletely understood etiology. It is thought that environmental exposures "trigger" or accelerate the disease in genetically-predisposed individuals. Areas covered: Substantial epidemiological evidence exists to support the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of incident SLE. Recent evidence points to current smoking as the specific risk factor, with decreasing risk 5 years after smoking cessation, and the greatest risk for disease characterized by the presence of SLE- specific autoantibodies...
May 3, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Julia Smith-Paine, Shari L Wade, Amery Treble-Barna, Nanhua Zhang, Huaiyu Zang, Lisa J Martin, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Brad G Kurowski
This study examined whether the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 gene (ANKK1) C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800497 moderated the association of family environment with long-term executive function (EF) following traumatic injury in early childhood. Caregivers of children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with orthopedic injury (OI) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) at post injury visits. DNA was collected to identify the rs1800497 genotype in the ANKK1 gene...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Shan-Shan Dong, Shi Yao, Yi-Xiao Chen, Yan Guo, Yu-Jie Zhang, Hui-Min Niu, Ruo-Han Hao, Hui Shen, Qing Tian, Hong-Wen Deng, Tie-Lin Yang
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified many susceptibility loci for obesity. However, missing heritability problem is still challenging and ignorance of genetic interactions is believed to be an important cause. Current methods for detecting interactions usually do not consider regulatory elements in non-coding regions. Interaction analyses within chromatin regulatory circuitry may identify new susceptibility loci. METHODS: We developed a pipeline named interaction analyses within chromatin regulatory circuitry (IACRC), to identify genetic interactions impacting body mass index (BMI)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
D Angus Clark, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt
Parent depressive symptomatology is robust risk factor for externalizing behavior in childhood (Goodman et al., 2011). Although the precise mechanisms underlying this association have yet to be fully illuminated, there is some evidence that parent depression can impact externalizing behavior via both genetic and environmental pathways. In the current study, we investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental influences on externalizing behavior are moderated by parent depressive symptoms (i.e., genotype-environment interaction) in a sample of 2,060, 6- to 11-year-old twins...
April 26, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Marco Battaglia, Waqas Ullah Khan
Separation anxiety applies to multiple forms of distress responses seen in mammals during postnatal development, including separation from a caregiver. Childhood separation anxiety disorder is an important risk factor for developing panic disorder in early adulthood, and both conditions display an increased sensitivity to elevated CO2 concentrations inhaled from the air. By interfacing epidemiological, genetic, and physiological knowledge with preclinical animal research models, it is possible to decipher the mechanisms that are central to separation anxiety and panic disorders while also suggesting possible therapies...
April 26, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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