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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342246/associations-of-quadriceps-torque-properties-with-muscle-size-attenuation-and-intra-muscular-adipose-tissue-in-older-adults
#1
Andrew W Frank-Wilson, Didier Chalhoub, Pedro Figueiredo, Pálmi V Jónsson, Kristín Siggeirsdóttir, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Guðnason, Lenore Launer, Tamara B Harris
Background: Atrophy and fatty infiltration of muscle with aging are associated with fractures and falls, however, their direct associations with muscle function are not well described. It was hypothesized that participants with lower quadriceps muscle attenuation, area, and greater intra-muscular adipose tissue (IMAT) will exhibit slower rates of torque development (RTD) and lower peak knee extension torques. Methods: Data from 4842 participants (2041 men, 2801 women) from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study (mean age 76±0...
January 12, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341488/gene-gene-interaction-between-msx1-and-tp63-in-asian-case-parent-trios-with-nonsyndromic-cleft-lip-with-or-without-cleft-palate
#2
Dongjing Liu, Holger Schwender, Mengying Wang, Hong Wang, Ping Wang, Hongping Zhu, Zhibo Zhou, Jing Li, Tao Wu, Terri H Beaty
BACKGROUND: Small ubiquitin-like modification, also known as sumoylation, is a crucial post-translational regulatory mechanisms involved in development of the lip and palate. Recent studies reported two sumoylation target genes, MSX1 and TP63, to have achieved genome-wide level significance in tests of association with nonsyndromic clefts. Here, we performed a candidate gene analysis considering gene-gene and gene-environment interaction for SUMO1, MSX1, and TP63 to further explore the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P)...
January 17, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340618/mitochondrial-toxicity
#3
Joel N Meyer, Jessica H Hartman, Danielle F Mello
Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in reported toxic effects of drugs and pollutants on mitochondria. Researchers have also documented many genetic differences leading to mitochondrial diseases, currently reported to affect ∼1 person in 4,300, creating a large number of potential gene-environment interactions in mitochondrial toxicity. We briefly review this history, and then highlight cutting-edge areas of mitochondrial research including the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in signaling; increased understanding of fundamental biological processes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis (DNA maintenance and mutagenesis, mitochondrial stress response pathways, fusion and fission, autophagy and biogenesis, and exocytosis); systemic effects resulting from mitochondrial stresses in specific cell types; mitochondrial involvement in immune function; the growing evidence of long-term effects of mitochondrial toxicity; mitochondrial-epigenetic cross-talk; and newer approaches to test chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity...
January 11, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338478/gene-gene-environment-interactions-of-prenatal-exposed-to-environmental-tobacco-smoke-cyp1a1-and-gsts-polymorphisms-on-full-term-low-birth-weight-relationship-of-maternal-passive-smoking-gene-polymorphisms-and-ft-lbw
#4
Lihua Huang, Yijuan Luo, Xiaozhong Wen, Yan-Hui He, Ding Peng, Chuanbo Xie, Liu Tao, Shi-Xin Yuan, De-Qin Jia, Wei-Qing Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the interaction effects of prenatal exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and genotypes of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) on the risk of full-term low birth weight (FT-LBW). STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a case-control study among pregnant women at two Women and Children's Hospitals in Guangdong, China (n = 910). Information was collected through interview, medical records review, and blood lab tests. Maternal selfreport and serum cotinine concentration were combined to define prenatal exposed to ETS...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334044/gene-environment-interplay-in-the-etiology-of-psychosis
#5
Alyson Zwicker, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Rudolf Uher
Schizophrenia and other types of psychosis incur suffering, high health care costs and loss of human potential, due to the combination of early onset and poor response to treatment. Our ability to prevent or cure psychosis depends on knowledge of causal mechanisms. Molecular genetic studies show that thousands of common and rare variants contribute to the genetic risk for psychosis. Epidemiological studies have identified many environmental factors associated with increased risk of psychosis. However, no single genetic or environmental factor is sufficient to cause psychosis on its own...
January 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333649/detection-of-gene-environment-interactions-in-a-family-based-population-using-scad
#6
Gwangsu Kim, Chao-Qiang Lai, Donna K Arnett, Laurence D Parnell, Jose M Ordovas, Yongdai Kim, Joungyoun Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331300/cigarette-smoking-and-hip-volumetric-bone-mineral-density-and-cortical-volume-loss-in-older-adults-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#7
Elisa A Marques, Martine Elbejjani, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Lang, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Thor Aspelund, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Lenore Launer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Tamara B Harris
This study aimed to explore the relationships of several indicators of cigarette smoking habits (smoking status, pack-years, age at smoking initiation and smoking cessation) with quantitative computed tomographic (QCT)-derived proximal femur bone measures (trabecular vBMD, integral vBMD and the ratio of cortical to total tissue volume (cvol/ivol)) and with subsequent change in these measures over the next five years. A total of 2673 older adults (55.9% women), aged 66-92 years at baseline from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, who had two QCT scans of the hip were studied...
January 10, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323517/individual-differences-are-more-than-a-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-the-role-of-learning
#8
Nicola C Byrom, Robin A Murphy
Individual differences in behavior are understood generally as arising from an interaction between genes and environment, omitting a crucial component. The literature on animal and human learning suggests the need to posit principles of learning to explain our differences. One of the challenges for the advancement of the field has been to establish how general principles of learning can explain the almost infinite variation in behavior. We present a case that: (a) individual differences in behavior emerge, in part, from principles of learning; (b) associations provide a descriptive mechanism for understanding the contribution of experience to behavior; and (c) learning theories explain dissociable aspects of behavior...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322552/gene-gene-and-gene-environment-interactions-in-complex-traits-in-yeast
#9
Anupama Yadav, Himanshu Sinha
One of the fundamental question in biology is how the genotype regulates the phenotype. An increasing number of studies indicate that in most cases, the effect of a genetic locus on the phenotype is context-dependent, i.e. it is influenced by the genetic background and the environment in which the phenotype is measured. Still, the majority of the studies, in both model organisms and humans, that map the genetic regulation of phenotypic variation in complex traits primarily identify additive loci with independent effects...
January 10, 2018: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317608/epigenetics-and-cerebral-organoids-promising-directions-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Sheena Louise Forsberg, Mirolyuba Ilieva, Tanja Maria Michel
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect 1 in 68 children in the US according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is characterized by impairments in social interactions and communication, restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors, and interests. Owing to disease complexity, only a limited number of treatment options are available mainly for children that alleviate but do not cure the debilitating symptoms. Studies confirm a genetic link, but environmental factors, such as medications, toxins, and maternal infection during pregnancy, as well as birth complications also play a role...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317594/polymorphism-in-tmem132d-regulates-expression-and-anxiety-related-behavior-through-binding-of-rna-polymerase-ii-complex
#11
Roshan R Naik, Sergey V Sotnikov, Rebekka P Diepold, Stella Iurato, Patrick O Markt, Andrea Bultmann, Nadine Brehm, Tobias Mattheus, Beat Lutz, Angelika Erhardt, Elisabeth B Binder, Ulrike Schmidt, Florian Holsboer, Rainer Landgraf, Ludwig Czibere
TMEM132D is a candidate gene, where risk genotypes have been associated with anxiety severity along with higher mRNA expression in the frontal cortex of panic disorder patients. Concurrently, in a high (HAB) and low (LAB) trait anxiety mouse model, Tmem132d was found to show increased expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) of HAB as compared to LAB mice. To understand the molecular underpinnings underlying the differential expression, we sequenced the gene and found two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter differing between both lines which could explain the observed mRNA expression profiles using gene reporter assays...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304322/epidemiological-patterns-of-leukaemia-in-184-countries-a-population-based-study
#12
Adalberto Miranda-Filho, Marion Piñeros, Jacques Ferlay, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Alain Monnereau, Freddie Bray
BACKGROUND: Leukaemia is a heterogeneous group of haemopoietic cancers that comprises a number of diverse and biologically distinct subgroups. We examine the leukaemia burden worldwide and highlight the distinct incidence patterns in order to elucidate explanatory factors that may support preventive measures and health resource planning. We aimed to estimate the global burden of leukaemia incidence according to the four major subtypes stratified by age and sex. METHODS: In this population-based study, we assessed leukaemia incidence for the major subtypes using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volume X (CI5-X), which includes data from 290 cancer registries in 68 countries covering the diagnostic period 2003-07, for all ages and both sexes...
January 2018: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302221/genetics-of-addictive-behavior-the-example-of-nicotine-dependence
#13
Philip Gorwood, Yann Le Strat, Nicolas Ramoz
The majority of addictive disorders have a significant heritability-roughly around 50%. Surprisingly, the most convincing association (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster in nicotine dependence), with a unique attributable risk of 14%, was detected through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer, although lung cancer has a low heritability. We propose some explanations of this finding, potentially helping to understand how a GWAS strategy can be successful. Many endophenotypes were also assessed as potentially modulating the effect of nicotine, indirectly facilitating the development of nicotine dependence...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302075/foxo1-a2m-and-tgf-%C3%AE-1-three-novel-genes-predicting-depression-in-gene-x-environment-interactions-are-identified-using-cross-species-and-cross-tissues-transcriptomic-and-mirnomic-analyses
#14
Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Chiara Malpighi, Darina Czamara, Anna Suarez, Nicole Mariani, Eero Kajantie, Alessia Luoni, Johan G Eriksson, Jari Lahti, Valeria Mondelli, Paola Dazzan, Katri Räikkönen, Elisabeth B Binder, Marco A Riva, Carmine M Pariante
To date, gene-environment (GxE) interaction studies in depression have been limited to hypothesis-based candidate genes, since genome-wide (GWAS)-based GxE interaction studies would require enormous datasets with genetics, environmental, and clinical variables. We used a novel, cross-species and cross-tissues "omics" approach to identify genes predicting depression in response to stress in GxE interactions. We integrated the transcriptome and miRNome profiles from the hippocampus of adult rats exposed to prenatal stress (PNS) with transcriptome data obtained from blood mRNA of adult humans exposed to early life trauma, using a stringent statistical analyses pathway...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299150/methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-tagging-polymorphisms-are-associated-with-risk-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-in-eastern-chinese-han-population
#15
Hao Ding, Yafeng Wang, Yuanmei Chen, Chao Liu, Hao Qiu, Mingqiang Kang, Weifeng Tang
Previous reports implicated 5,10-ethylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms acted as a potential risk factor for several cancers. In order to explore the effect of MTHFR SNPs on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we selected MTHFR tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and carried out a case-control study to determine the potential relationship of MTHFR SNPs with NSCLC risk. Our study consisted of 521 NSCLC patients and 1,030 non-cancer controls. MTHFR SNPs were genotyped by SNPscanTM genotyping assay...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296931/bone-disease-in-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-results-from-a-screened-population-based-study
#16
Sigrun Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun H Lund, Ebba K Lindqvist, Marianna Thordardottir, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Rene Costello, Debra Burton, Hlif Steingrimsdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Tamara B Harris, Ola Landgren, Sigurdur Y Kristinsson
Previous studies have shown that individuals with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) have an increased risk of fractures, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Our aim was to analyze bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume, and risk of fractures among individuals with MGUS. We performed a screening using the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study cohort, consisting of 5764 elderly individuals, identifying 300 individuals with MGUS, and 275 with light-chain MGUS...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296866/obesity-and-risk-of-monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-and-progression-to-multiple-myeloma-a-population-based-study
#17
Marianna Thordardottir, Ebba K Lindqvist, Sigrun H Lund, Rene Costello, Debra Burton, Neha Korde, Sham Mailankody, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J Launer, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Ola Landgren, Sigurdur Y Kristinsson
All multiple myeloma (MM) cases are preceded by the premalignant state monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Results from previous studies show a positive association between obesity and MM; however, the association between obesity and MGUS is controversial. The aims were to determine (1) if obesity is associated with an increased risk of MGUS and light-chain MGUS (LC-MGUS) and (2) whether obesity is associated with a higher risk of progression to MM and other lymphoproliferative (LP) diseases...
November 14, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296205/angiotensin-ii-receptor-type-1-a1166c-modifies-the-association-between-angiotensinogen-m235t-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#18
Sui-Lung Su, Wei-Teing Chen, Po-Jen Hsiao, Kuo-Cheng Lu, Yuh-Feng Lin, Chin Lin, Wen Su, Shih-Jen Yeh, Hung Chang, Fu-Huang Lin
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes are associated with RAS imbalance and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We performed a case-control study and meta-analysis to investigate the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T polymorphism and CKD. A total of 634 patients with end-stage renal disease and 739 healthy controls were studied. We also searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library to identify prospective observational studies published before December 2015. We found that the TT and MT genotypes were associated with a higher risk of CKD than the MM genotype (odds ratio [OR]: 3...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288272/macular-degeneration-epidemiology-nature-nurture-lifestyle-factors-genetic-risk-and-gene-environment-interactions-the-weisenfeld-award-lecture
#19
Johanna M Seddon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280387/serotonin-transporter-5-httlpr-genotype-is-associated-with-intrusion-and-avoidance-symptoms-of-dsm-5-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd-in-chinese-earthquake-survivors
#20
Luobing Liu, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Xing Cao, Ye Zhu, Ping Liu, Shu Luo, Jianxin Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have found that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) interacts with trauma exposure to increase general risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, there is little knowledge about the effects of the interaction on distinct symptom clusters of PTSD. This study aimed to investigate the relation between the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and earthquake-related exposures and a contemporary phenotypic model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms in a traumatised adult sample from China...
December 27, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
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