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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938182/the-genetic-epidemiology-of-substance-use-disorder-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Jane Ebejer, Danielle M Dick, M Scott Bowers
BACKGROUND: Substance use disorder (SUD) remains a significant public health issue. A greater understanding of how genes and environment interact to regulate phenotypes comprising SUD will facilitate directed treatments and prevention. METHODS: The literature studying the neurobiological correlates of SUD with a focus on the genetic and environmental influences underlying these mechanisms was reviewed. Results from twin/family, human genetic association, gene-environment interaction, epigenetic literature, phenome-wide association studies are summarized for alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, cocaine, and opioids...
August 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930051/addiction-and-the-role-of-circadian-genes
#2
Laura A Forde, Gursharan Kalsi
OBJECTIVE: In mammals, intimate interactions exist between the circadian system and other molecular systems, and mounting evidence is suggesting that these relationships may affect substance use disorders. Research in preclinical models supports the role of circadian genes as risk factors for addiction. Here, we explore the evidence and review human genetic studies testing the association between specific circadian genes and substance use disorders. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies testing variants in eight circadian genes known to be central to the functioning of the master clock in the brain...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926971/mini-review-the-contribution-of-intermediate-phenotypes-to-gxe-effects-on-disorders-of-body-composition-in-the-new-omics-era
#3
REVIEW
Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Esther C Gallegos-Cabriales, Irene Leal-Berumen, Raul A Bastarrachea
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP)...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921187/moderation-of-genetic-influences-on-alcohol-involvement-by-rural-residency-among-adolescents-results-from-the-1962-national-merit-twin-study
#4
Christal N Davis, Shanaliz S Natta, Wendy S Slutske
Adolescents in rural and urban areas may experience different levels of environmental restrictions on alcohol use, with those in rural areas experiencing greater monitoring and less access to alcohol. Such restrictions may limit expression of genetic vulnerability for alcohol use, resulting in a gene-environment interaction (G × E). This phenomenon has previously been reported in Finnish and Minnesota adolescents. The current study used data from 839 same-sex twin pairs from the 1962 National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test to determine whether the G × E interaction would be evident in this earlier time period...
September 18, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918840/neuroprotective-effects-of-eexenatide-in-a-rotenone-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Dürdane Aksoy, Volkan Solmaz, Türker Çavuşoğlu, Ayfer Meral, Utku Ateş, Oytun Erbaş
BACKROUND: Several studies suggest an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus; these 2 diseases are both known to affect the common molecular pathways. As a synthetic agonist for the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, exenatide has been evaluated as a neuroprotective agent in multiple animal models. Rotenone models of PD have great potential for the investigation of PD pathology and motor and nonmotor symptoms, as well as the role of gene-environment interactions in PD causation and pathogenesis...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914236/the-kr%C3%A3-mmel-germany-childhood-leukaemia-cluster-a-review-and-update
#6
Bernd Grosche, Peter Kaatsch, Birger G J Heinzow, Heinz-Erich Wichmann
The debate surrounding possible adverse health effects from the civil use of nuclear power under normal operating conditions has been on-going since its introduction. It was particularly intensified by the detection of three leukaemia clusters near nuclear installations, i.e. near the reprocessing plants in Sellafield and Dounreay, UK, and near the Krümmel nuclear power plant, Germany, the last of which commenced between 1990 and 1991 and was first described in 1992; it continued until 2003, and an elevated risk up to 2005 has been reported in the literature...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913343/exacerbating-and-reversing-lysosomal-storage-diseases-from-yeast-to-humans
#7
REVIEW
Tamayanthi Rajakumar, Andrew B Munkacsi, Stephen L Sturley
Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) arise from monogenic deficiencies in lysosomal proteins and pathways and are characterized by a tissue-wide accumulation of a vast variety of macromolecules, normally specific to each genetic lesion. Strategies for treatment of LSDs commonly depend on reduction of the offending metabolite(s) by substrate depletion or enzyme replacement. However, at least 44 of the ~50 LSDs are currently recalcitrant to intervention. Murine models have provided significant insights into our understanding of many LSD mechanisms; however, these systems do not readily permit phenotypic screening of compound libraries, or the establishment of genetic or gene-environment interaction networks...
August 25, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910727/gene-environment-interaction-does-fluoride-influence-the-reproductive-hormones-in-male-farmers-modified-by-er%C3%AE-gene-polymorphisms
#8
Qiang Ma, Hui Huang, Long Sun, Tong Zhou, Jingyuan Zhu, Xuemin Cheng, Lijv Duan, Zhiyuan Li, Liuxin Cui, Yue Ba
The occurrence of endemic fluorosis is derived from high fluoride levels in drinking water and industrial fumes or dust. Reproductive disruption is also a major harm caused by fluoride exposure besides dental and skeletal lesions. However, few studies focus on the mechanism of fluoride exposure on male reproductive function, especially the possible interaction of fluoride exposure and gene polymorphism on male reproductive hormones. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in rural areas of Henan province in China to explore the interaction between the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene and fluoride exposure on reproductive hormone levels in male farmers living in the endemic fluorosis villages...
September 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904253/genetic-variants-of-ramp2-and-clr-are-associated-with-stroke
#9
Teruhide Koyama, Nagato Kuriyama, Etsuko Ozaki, Daisuke Matsui, Isao Watanabe, Wakiko Takeshita, Komei Iwai, Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Masahiro Nakatochi, Chisato Shimanoe, Keitaro Tanaka, Isao Oze, Hidemi Ito, Hirokazu Uemura, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Rie Ibusuki, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Naoyuki Takashima, Aya Kadota, Sayo Kawai, Tae Sasakabe, Rieko Okada, Asahi Hishida, Mariko Naito, Kiyonori Kuriki, Kaori Endoh, Norihiro Furusyo, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Sadao Suzuki, Akihiro Hosono, Haruo Mikami, Yohko Nakamura, Michiaki Kubo, Kenji Wakai
AIM: Stroke is associated closely with vascular homeostasis, and several complex processes and interacting pathways, which involve various genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the risk of stroke. Although adrenomedullin (ADM) has a number of physiological and vasoprotective functions, there are few studies of the ADM receptor system in humans. The ADM receptor comprises a calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RAMP2 and CLR genes to determine their association with stroke in the light of gene-environment interactions...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902619/a-case-control-association-study-of-12-candidate-genes-and-attempted-suicide-in-french-adolescents
#10
Bojan Mirkovic, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent, Malaika Lasfar, Christophe Marguet, Prsicille Gerardin
Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death for 10-19-year-olds. Evidence has shown that attempted suicide is a complex interplay of genes and environmental factors. In the adult population, possible associations between genetic polymorphisms and suicidal behaviors have been investigated for several genes, most often with inconsistent findings and poor replicability of significant associations. This study aimed to identify gene variants conferring risk for adolescent suicide attempt. Methods We selected the genes and variants after an analysis of the literature and a selection of the most significant associations identified...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898263/genome-wide-analysis-of-parent-of-origin-interaction-effects-with-environmental-exposure-pooxe-an-application-to-european-and-asian-cleft-palate-trios
#11
Øystein A Haaland, Astanand Jugessur, Miriam Gjerdevik, Julia Romanowska, Min Shi, Terri H Beaty, Mary L Marazita, Jeffrey C Murray, Allen J Wilcox, Rolv T Lie, Håkon K Gjessing
Cleft palate only is a common birth defect with high heritability. Only a small fraction of this heritability is explained by the genetic variants identified so far, underscoring the need to investigate other disease mechanisms, such as gene-environment (GxE) interactions and parent-of-origin (PoO) effects. Furthermore, PoO effects may vary across exposure levels (PoOxE effects). Such variation is the focus of this study. We upgraded the R-package Haplin to enable direct tests of PoOxE effects at the genome-wide level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894224/associations-between-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-aldh2-rs671-genetic-polymorphisms-lifestyles-and-hypertension-risk-in-chinese-han-people
#12
Cong Ma, Bingxiang Yu, Weihua Zhang, Weimin Wang, Liping Zhang, Qiang Zeng
Hypertension is a multiple factor disease which was influenced by gene, environment, and lifestyle. Several studies confirmed that the ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism is associated with hypertension. However, the evidence remains inconclusive. Whether lifestyle affects blood pressure in different genotype groups have not been clarified, either. The subjects were adult Chinese Han people who received health examination in the period from December 2014 to December 2015. Detection of the ALDH2 r671 polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889984/association-between-aspartic-acid-repeat-polymorphism-of-the-asporin-gene-and-risk-of-knee-osteoarthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Mohammad Reza Sobhan, Masoud Mehdinejad, Mohammad Hossein Jamaladini, Mahta Mazaheri, Masoud Zare-Shehneh, Hossein Neamatzadeh
OBJECTIVE: Studies have assessed the association between aspartic acid (D)-repeat polymorphism in the gene encoding Asporin (ASPN) and knee osteoarthritis (KOA) risk, but the results were inconclusive and contradictory. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between ASPN gene D-repeat polymorphism and KOA risk. METHODS: Eligible studies were identified by searching several electronic databases for relevant reports published before September 2016...
September 7, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886592/new-rodent-population-models-may-inform-human-health-risk-assessment-and-identification-of-genetic-susceptibility-to-environmental-exposures
#14
REVIEW
Alison H Harrill, Kimberly A McAllister
BACKGROUND: This paper provides an introduction for environmental health scientists to emerging population-based rodent resources. Mouse reference populations provide an opportunity to model environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions in human disease and to inform human health risk assessment. OBJECTIVES: This review will describe several mouse populations for toxicity assessment, including older models such as the Mouse Diversity Panel (MDP), and newer models that include the Collaborative Cross (CC) and Diversity Outbred (DO) models...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884047/bsmi-rs1544410-and-foki-rs2228570-vitamin-d-receptor-polymorphisms-smoking-and-body-mass-index-as-risk-factors-of-cutaneous-malignant-melanoma-in-northeast-italy
#15
Sabina Cauci, Vincenzo Maione, Cinzia Buligan, Martina Linussio, Diego Serraino, Giuseppe Stinco
OBJECTIVE: : To investigate whether vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) BsmI-rs1544410 and FokI-rs2228570 polymorphisms, smoking duration, and body mass index (BMI) are risk factors for cutaneous melanoma, especially metastatic melanoma. METHODS: : We studied 120 cutaneous melanoma cases [68 stage I and II non-metastatic melanoma (NMetM) patients, plus 52 Stage III and IV metastatic melanoma (MetM) patients], and 120 matching healthy controls from northeast Italy. VDR polymorphisms were measured by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis...
August 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881572/a-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-in-the-interferon-%C3%AE-gene-ifng-874-t-a-is-associated-with-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#16
Zhang Wei, Shen Wenhao, Mi Yuanyuan, Li Yang, Zhou Daming, Xian Jiangchun, Jiang Jijun
Interferon-γ (Interferon gamma, IFNG) is an important cytokine involved in providing resistance to mycobacterial diseases. Common variants of IFNG, such as IFNG +874 T/A(rs2430561), may be related to tuberculosis susceptibility, but this association has not been consistently observed. We performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the IFNG +874 T/A (rs2430561) polymorphism and tuberculosis susceptibility. PubMed and SinoMed databases were searched up to October 2016, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association strength...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879484/acet-an-r-package-for-estimating-dynamic-heritability-and-comparing-twin-models
#17
Liang He, Janne Pitkäniemi, Karri Silventoinen, Mikko J Sillanpää
Estimating dynamic effects of age on the genetic and environmental variance components in twin studies may contribute to the investigation of gene-environment interactions, and may provide more insights into more accurate and powerful estimation of heritability. Existing parametric models for estimating dynamic variance components suffer from various drawbacks such as limitation of predefined functions. We present ACEt, an R package for fast estimating dynamic variance components and heritability that may change with respect to age or other moderators...
September 6, 2017: Behavior Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876522/roles-of-response-inhibition-and-gene-environment-interplay-in-pathways-to-adolescents-externalizing-problems
#18
Frances L Wang, Laurie Chassin, Matthew Lee, Moira Haller, Kevin King
This study used two waves of data to investigate pathways through which adolescents' response inhibition related to later externalizing problems. A polygenic risk score indexed genetic risk for poor response inhibition. Adolescents' performance on a response inhibition task mediated the relation between adolescents' polygenic risk scores and mother's inconsistent parenting (i.e., evocative rGE), even after controlling for mothers' genetic risk (i.e., passive rGE). Mothers' inconsistent parenting subsequently prospectively predicted adolescents' externalizing problems...
June 2017: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875725/il-1%C3%AE-haplotype-influences-the-effect-of-nox-exposure-on-gestational-age-in-the-south-african-mace-birth-cohort
#19
P Nansook, R N Naidoo, P Ramkaran, A Phulukdaree, S Muttoo, K Asharam, A A Chuturgoon
OBJECTIVE: Cytokines, molecules within the immune system that affect either a pro- or anti-inflammatory response, have previously been shown to influence birth outcomes. The maternal cytokine gene-environment interactions are thought to alter their expression, potentially influencing susceptibility to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the maternal interleukin-1β (IL-1β) haplotype and expression variation with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) levels, and thereafter investigate the IL-1β haplotype-specific effects of NOx exposure levels, IL-1β mRNA expression and other variables on gestational age...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873402/gene-environment-interaction-study-for-bmi-reveals-interactions-between-genetic-factors-and-physical-activity-alcohol-consumption-and-socioeconomic-status
#20
Mathias Rask-Andersen, Torgny Karlsson, Weronica E Ek, Åsa Johansson
Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genetic loci to be associated with body mass index (BMI) and risk of obesity. Genetic effects can differ between individuals depending on lifestyle or environmental factors due to gene-environment interactions. In this study, we examine gene-environment interactions in 362,496 unrelated participants with Caucasian ancestry from the UK Biobank resource. A total of 94 BMI-associated SNPs, selected from a previous GWAS on BMI, were used to construct weighted genetic scores for BMI (GSBMI)...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
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