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Chronic nausea

Adel Abdel-Moneim, Alaa Aboud, Mohamed Abdel-Gabbar, Mohamed Zanaty, Mohamed Ramadan
BACKGROUND: The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, rare clinical trials have been reported on the combination regimen of sofosbuvir (SOF) with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus ribavirin (RBV) for treated patients with HCV genotype 4 (GT4) infection. AIMS: To clarify the retreatment efficacy and safety of the recent regimen, SOF with OBV/PTV/r + RBV, for chronic HCV GT4-experienced patients who failed treatment with DAA-based regimens...
March 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Young-A Heo, Emma D Deeks
A fixed-dose combination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir, the HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir and the HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir; Vosevi® ) is approved in the EU for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection in adults. In the phase III POLARIS trials, in patients who had HCV genotype 1-6 infection with or without compensated cirrhosis, overall rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12 ) with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir were high after 8 weeks of treatment in direct-acting antiviral (DAA)-naïve patients and 12 weeks of treatment in DAA-experienced patients...
March 15, 2018: Drugs
Brian E Lacy, Henry P Parkman, Michael Camilleri
Nausea is an uneasy feeling in the stomach while vomiting refers to the forceful expulsion of gastric contents. Chronic nausea and vomiting represent a diverse array of disorders defined by 4 weeks or more of symptoms. Chronic nausea and vomiting result from a variety of pathophysiological processes, involving gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal causes. The prevalence of chronic nausea and vomiting is unclear, although the epidemiology of specific conditions, such as gastroparesis and cyclic vomiting syndrome, is better understood...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Wesley F Kim, Thomas Sonnanstine
BACKGROUND: Despite effectively treating obesity and its comorbidities, only a fraction of the growing obese population is evaluated for bariatric surgery. Aside from barriers including resources and social support, patients report personal experience with friends and relatives suffering poor outcomes after bariatric surgery. Rates of mortality, leaks, and strictures have decreased over the past 20 years, but few instances of gross surgeon error have been reported in the literature. Our objective is to report and demonstrate the revision of a critically shortened Roux limb in a patient with chronic nausea and dysphagia found to have a 15-cm Roux limb and briefly discuss its implications...
March 14, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Agnieszka E Zawada, Małgorzata Moszak, Dorota Skrzypczak, Marian Grzymisławski
Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease which affects patients of various age. Hyperglycemia induces damage of vascular endothelium, development of chronic inflammation, organic and functional lesions in several systems and organs. The principal gastroenterological complaints linked to the manifestation of the disease include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, flatulence, and vomiting. However, complications in the alimentary system may manifest exclusively by difficulties in reaching normoglycemia and numerous persistent episodes of hypoglycemia...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Stephen A Harrison, Mary E Rinella, Manal F Abdelmalek, James F Trotter, Angelo H Paredes, Hays L Arnold, Marcelo Kugelmas, Mustafa R Bashir, Mark J Jaros, Lei Ling, Stephen J Rossi, Alex M DePaoli, Rohit Loomba
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a chronic liver disease characterised by the presence of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular injury, for which no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment exists. FGF19 is a hormone that regulates bile acid synthesis and glucose homoeostasis. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of NGM282, an engineered FGF19 analogue, for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study, we recruited patients aged 18-75 years with biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis as defined by the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis clinical research network histological scoring system, from hospitals and gastroenterology and liver clinics in Australia and the USA...
March 5, 2018: Lancet
Primploy Greeviroj, Thidarat Kitrungphaiboon, Pisut Katavetin, Kearkiat Praditpornsilpa, Somchai Eiam-Ong, Bertrand L Jaber, Paweena Susantitaphong
BACKGROUND: Cinacalcet could decrease serum calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in previous meta-analyses. However, the effect of cinacalcet on the new biomarkers such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), bone markers, and vascular calcification are still unestablished. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of cinacalcet on all laboratory and clinical spectrums of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders (CKD-MBD). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Clinical Trials...
March 7, 2018: Nephron
Hassan Tariq, Muhammad Umar Kamal, Vamshidhar Vootla, Mohamed ElZaeedi, Masooma Niazi, Brian Gilchrist, Ariyo Ihimoyan, Anil Dev, Sridhar Chilimuri
We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with complains of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting for 2 years. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a 3 mm nodule on the lesser curvature of the stomach and prominent gastric folds. Biopsy of the nodule revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) in lamina prop with focal extension into muscularis mucosa consistent with a gastric carcinoid. Tumor cells stained with neuron-specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin and synaptophysin only...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Research
S Zaami, A Di Luca, N M Di Luca, G Montanari Vergallo
This review illustrates some brief considerations of the medical use of cannabis recently issued in Italy. History and uses of cannabis throughout centuries and different countries are illustrated together with a description of botany and active phytocannabinoids. Then, medical use of cannabis anti-pain treatment for patients resistant to conventional therapies is described in case of chronic neuropathic pain, spasticity, for anticinetosic and antiemetic effect in nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, for appetite stimulating effect in cachexia, anorexia, loss of appetite in cancer patients or patients with AIDS and in anorexia nervosa, hypotensive effect in glaucoma resistant to conventional therapies and for reduction of involuntary body and facial movements in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome...
February 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Dustin Anderson, Nabeela Nathoo, Jian-Qiang Lu, Kinga T Kowalewska-Grochowska, Christopher Power
Sarcocystosis is a zoonotic infection that causes intestinal and muscular illnesses in humans. Sarcocystosis was until recently considered rare in humans. To complete their life cycle, Sarcocystis species require both a definitive and an intermediate host. Humans are the definitive host when infected by one of two species: Sarcocystis hominis (from eating undercooked beef) or Sarcocystis suihominis (from eating uncooked pork). Infection with either of these species results in intestinal sarcocystosis, causing a self-limited disease characterized by nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Mark Gaertner, Jiang-Ti Kong, Kristen H Scherrer, Alyssa Foote, Sean Mackey, Kevin A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), a rare and severe chronic pain condition, often responds poorly to existing treatments. Previous studies demonstrated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) provided short-term pain relief for upper extremity CRPS. METHODS: Building on previous methodologies, we employed a TMS protocol that may lead to significant pain relief for upper and lower extremity CRPS in a nonrandomized open label pilot trial involving 21 participants...
March 4, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Jian Luo, Ling Yang, Jing Yang, Dan Yang, Bi-Cui Liu, Dan Liu, Bin-Miao Liang, Chun-Tao Liu
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors are a novel medication approved for airway inflammatory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Their role and application in asthma are controversial and not defined. A comprehensive search was performed in major databases (1946-2016) using the keywords: 'phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor' or 'roflumilast' and 'asthma'. Placebo-controlled trials reporting lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness by direct challenge, asthma control and exacerbations, and adverse events were included...
March 4, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Patrick Welsch, Nurcan Üçeyler, Petra Klose, Brian Walitt, Winfried Häuser
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a clinically defined chronic condition of unknown etiology characterized by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep disturbances, cognitive dysfunction and fatigue. People with fibromyalgia often report high disability levels and poor quality of life. Drug therapy, for example, with serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), focuses on reducing key symptoms and improving quality of life. This review updates and extends the 2013 version of this systematic review...
February 28, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Taylor Olmsted Kim, Jenny Despotovic, Michele P Lambert
Eltrombopag is currently the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children. This oral, once-per-day therapy has shown favorable efficacy and adverse effect profiles in children. Two multicenter, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trials (PETIT [Efficacy and Safety Study of Eltrombopag in Pediatric Patients With Thrombocytopenia From Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)] and PETIT2 [Study of a New Medication for Childhood Chronic Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP), a Blood Disorder of Low Platelet Counts That Can Lead to Bruising Easily, Bleeding Gums, and/or Bleeding Inside the Body]) demonstrated efficacy in raising platelet counts, reducing bleeding, and reducing the need for concomitant ITP therapies with relatively few adverse effects...
February 27, 2018: Blood Advances
Sunil Taneja, Ajay Duseja, Arka De, Manu Mehta, Raja Ramachandran, Vivek Kumar, Harbir Singh Kohli, Krishan Lal Gupta, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is sparse data on the use of Sofosbuvir based directly acting antiviral (DAA) drug regimens in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 . We evaluated the safety and efficacy of low-dose Sofosbuvir plus full-dose Daclatasvir in CHC patients with CKD. METHODS: Sixty-five CHC patients with CKD with eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 [54 (83%) patients with ESRD on hemodialysis] were included...
February 26, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Howard A Burris, Ian W Flinn, Manish R Patel, Timothy S Fenske, Changchun Deng, Danielle M Brander, Martin Gutierrez, James H Essell, John G Kuhn, Hari P Miskin, Peter Sportelli, Michael S Weiss, Swaroop Vakkalanka, Michael R Savona, Owen A O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Umbralisib (TGR-1202) is a novel next-generation inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) isoform p110δ (PI3Kδ), which is structurally distinct from other PI3Kδ inhibitors and shows improved isoform selectivity. Umbralisib also uniquely inhibits casein kinase-1ε, a major regulator of protein translation. The aim of this first-in-human phase 1 study was to establish the safety and preliminary activity profile of umbralisib in patients with haematological malignancies...
February 20, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Fangli Men, Lianmin Wei, Bing Liu, Fengting Wu, Jingyu Liu, Ni Guo, Qing Niu
The aim of the present study was to compare the safety of the application of painless gastroscopy and ordinary gastroscopy for chronic hypertension patients combined with early gastric cancer. A total of 123 patients with early gastric cancer were selected at the Dongying People's Hospital from June, 2014 to August, 2016. The patients were randomly divided into the painless (n=63) and ordinary (n=60) gastroscopy groups. Proper pretreatment was performed according to whether anesthesia was performed or not. Arterial pressure, heart rate, and blood oxygen saturation were detected and compared before anesthesia, when gastroscope passed through the esophageal entrance plane, and after recovery from anesthesia...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
Linda Stein Gold, Jerry Bagel, Mark Lebwohl, J Mark Jackson, Rongdean Chen, Joana Goncalves, Eugenia Levi, Kristina Callis Duffin
<p>BACKGROUND: Many patients with moderate plaque psoriasis are undertreated despite broadening treatment options. In the phase IV UNVEIL study, oral apremilast demonstrated efficacy and safety in systemic-naive patients with chronic moderate plaque psoriasis with lower psoriasis-involved body surface area (BSA; 5%-10%) during the 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase. We describe efficacy and safety of apremilast in this population through week 52 in UNVEIL.</p> <p>METHODS: Patients with moderate plaque psoriasis (BSA 5%-10%; static Physician's Global Assessment [sPGA] score of 3 [moderate]) and naive to systemic therapies for psoriasis were randomized (2:1) to receive apremilast 30 mg twice daily or placebo for 16 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Joelle Thorpe, Bonnie Shum, R Andrew Moore, Philip J Wiffen, Ian Gilron
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Current pharmacotherapies are often ineffective and poorly tolerated. Combining different agents could provide superior pain relief and possibly also fewer side effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of combination pharmacotherapy compared to monotherapy or placebo, or both, for the treatment of fibromyalgia pain in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase to September 2017...
February 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Takashi Suzuki, Ryota Inokuchi, Kazuo Hanaoka, Machi Suka, Hiroyuki Yanagisawa
Objectives: Minimally invasive epiduroscopy has recently been reported as an effective treatment procedure for chronic and intractable low back pain. However, no study has determined safe anesthetics for monitored anesthesia care during epiduroscopy. We aimed to compare and evaluate conventional monitored anesthesia care drugs with dexmedetomidine. Methods: A retrospective study including all patients who underwent epiduroscopy at the JR Tokyo General Hospital from April 2011 to March 2016 was designed...
2018: SAGE Open Medicine
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