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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643262/genome-editing-in-the-cricket-gryllus-bimaculatus
#1
Takahito Watanabe, Sumihare Noji, Taro Mito
Hemimetabolous, or incompletely metamorphosing, insects are phylogenetically basal and include many beneficial and deleterious species. The cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, is an emerging model for hemimetabolous insects, based on the success of RNA interference (RNAi)-based gene-functional analyses and transgenic technology. Taking advantage of genome editing technologies in this species would greatly promote functional genomics studies. Genome editing has proven to be an effective method for site-specific genome manipulation in various species...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642024/rtms-with-a-two-coil-array-safety-and-efficacy-for-treatment-resistant-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Linda L Carpenter, Scott T Aaronson, Gregory N Clarke, Paul E Holtzheimer, Clark W Johnson, William M McDonald, Elizabeth L Stannard, M Bret Schneider
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a standard of care for individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) who do not benefit from, or are unable to tolerate, antidepressant pharmacotherapy. Depth of stimulation is limited with currently approved figure-eight coils and larger coils capable of deeper penetration may be associated with loss of stimulation focality and undesired recruitment of motor cortex. A second generation 2-coil array rTMS system was designed to target converging brain pathways for potentially deeper prefrontal cortex stimulation...
June 9, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641582/a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-levetiracetam-versus-phenytoin-for-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children-protocol-convulsive-status-epilepticus-paediatric-trial-consept-a-predict-study
#3
Stuart R Dalziel, Jeremy Furyk, Megan Bonisch, Ed Oakley, Meredith Borland, Jocelyn Neutze, Susan Donath, Cynthia Sharpe, Simon Harvey, Andrew Davidson, Simon Craig, Natalie Phillips, Shane George, Arjun Rao, Nicholas Cheng, Michael Zhang, Kam Sinn, Amit Kochar, Christine Brabyn, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening childhood neurological emergency. Despite this, there is a lack of high quality evidence supporting medication use after first line benzodiazepines, with current treatment protocols based solely on non-experimental evidence and expert opinion. The current standard of care, phenytoin, is only 60% effective, and associated with considerable adverse effects. A newer anti-convulsant, levetiracetam, can be given faster, is potentially more efficacious, with a more tolerable side effect profile...
June 22, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641035/hypoglycemia-patients-and-transport-by-ems-in-alameda-county-2013-15
#4
Howard H Moffet, E Margaret Warton, Lee Siegel, Karl Sporer, Kasia J Lipska, Andrew J Karter
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate, characteristics, and dispositions of hypoglycemia events among persons who received care from Alameda County, California, Emergency Medical Services (EMS). METHODS: This study was based on data for 601,077 Alameda County EMS encounters during 2013-15. Subjects were defined as having hypoglycemia if EMS personnel recorded a primary impression of hypoglycemia or low blood glucose (<60 mg/dl or "unspecified low"). The outcome of interest was patient transport or non-transport to an emergency department or other care setting; we excluded 33,177 (6%) encounters which lacked clear disposition outcomes...
June 22, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640984/is-it-right-to-ignore-learning-curve-patients-laparoscopic-colorectal-trials
#5
Alan P Meagher, Shi Yang, Shuyuan Li
BACKGROUND: Increasingly complex, technically demanding surgical procedures utilizing emerging technologies have developed over recent decades and are recognized as having long 'learning curves'. This raises significant new issues. Ethically and scientifically, the outcome of a patient in the learning curve is as important as the outcome of a patient outside the learning curve. The aim of this study is to highlight just one aspect of our approach to learning-curve patients that should change...
June 22, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640812/challenges-in-preparing-and-implementing-a-clinical-trial-at-field-level-in-an-ebola-emergency-a-case-study-in-guinea-west-africa
#6
Sara Carazo Perez, Elin Folkesson, Xavier Anglaret, Abdoul-Habib Beavogui, Emmanuel Berbain, Alseny-Modet Camara, Evelyn Depoortere, Annabelle Lefevre, Piet Maes, Kristian Nødtvedt Malme, Jean-Marie Denis Malvy, Sien Ombelet, Geertrui Poelaert, Daouda Sissoko, Alexis Tounkara, Pierre Trbovic, Pascal Piguet, Annick Antierens
During the large Ebola outbreak that affected West Africa in 2014 and 2015, studies were launched to evaluate potential treatments for the disease. A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the antiviral drug favipiravir was conducted in Guinea. This paper describes the main challenges of the implementation of the trial in the Ebola treatment center of Guéckédou. Following the principles of the Good Clinical Research Practices, we explored the aspects of the community's communication and engagement, ethical conduct, trial protocol compliance, informed consent of participants, ongoing benefit/risk assessment, record keeping, confidentiality of patients and study data, and roles and responsibilities of the actors involved...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640220/a-comprehensive-study-on-the-internet-of-underwater-things-applications-challenges-and-channel-models
#7
Chien-Chi Kao, Yi-Shan Lin, Geng-De Wu, Chun-Ju Huang
The Internet of Underwater Things (IoUT) is a novel class of Internet of Things (IoT), and is defined as the network of smart interconnected underwater objects. IoUT is expected to enable various practical applications, such as environmental monitoring, underwater exploration, and disaster prevention. With these applications, IoUT is regarded as one of the potential technologies toward developing smart cities. To support the concept of IoUT, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have emerged as a promising network system...
June 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640200/animal-assisted-interventions-in-the-classroom-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Victoria L Brelsford, Kerstin Meints, Nancy R Gee, Karen Pfeffer
The inclusion of animals in educational practice is becoming increasingly popular, but it is unclear how solid the evidence for this type of intervention is. The aim of this systematic review is to scrutinise the empirical research literature relating to animal-assisted interventions conducted in educational settings. The review included 25 papers; 21 from peer-reviewed journals and 4 obtained using grey literature databases. Most studies reported significant benefits of animal-assisted interventions in the school setting...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639253/ultrasonography-in-trauma-a-nation-wide-cross-sectional-investigation
#9
Jesper Weile, Klaus Nielsen, Stine C Primdahl, Christian A Frederiksen, Christian B Laursen, Erik Sloth, Hans Kirkegaard
BACKGROUND: The Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) protocol is considered beneficial in emergent evaluation of trauma patients with blunt or penetrating injury and has become integrated into the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocol. No guidelines exist as to the use of ultrasonography in trauma in Denmark. We aimed to determine the current use of ultrasonography for assessing trauma patients in Denmark. METHODS: We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional investigation of ultrasonography usage in trauma care...
December 2017: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637573/laparoscopic-appendectomy-protocol-expedites-management-of-uncomplicated-acute-appendicitis
#10
Alvaro M Bada, Joseph A Ibrahim, Karen Safcsak, Andrew C Gratzon, Chadwick P Smith, Michael L Cheatham
Bed availability remains a constant struggle for tertiary care centers resulting in the use of management protocols to streamline patient care and reduce length of stay (LOS). A standardized perioperative management protocol for uncomplicated acute appendicitis (UA) was implemented in April 2014 to decrease both CT scan usage and LOS. Patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for UA from April 2012 to May 2013 (PRE group) and April 2014 to May 2015 (POST group) were compared retrospectively. There were no differences in patient demographics or clinical findings between the groups...
June 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636447/emerging-viral-infections-in-pakistan-issues-concerns-and-future-prospects
#11
Ali Talha Khalil, Muhammad Ali, Faouzia Tanveer, Muhammad Ovais, Muhammad Idrees, Zabta Khan Shinwari, James E Hollenbeck
Emerging infectious diseases pose a serious threat to public health security; this is especially true in the underdeveloped world because of limited resources to combat them. These emerging pathogens are characterized by a novel mode of pathogenesis and, in some cases, a broad host range. Over the past few decades, Pakistan has suffered a great deal from infectious diseases such as dengue, Crimean-Congo fever, hepatitis, measles, and polio. Changing climate conditions, environmental degradation, global warming, loss of biodiversity, and other ecological determinants have a direct effect on these diseases and result in the emergence and reemergence of infectious entities...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635130/prothrombin-complex-concentrate-for-emergent-reversal-of-warfarin-an-international-survey-of-hospital-protocols
#12
J Gorlin, S Kinney, M K Fung, A Tinmouth
For emergent warfarin reversal, four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (4FPCCs) are recommended by many international guidelines. We surveyed international clinical sites including members of the Biomedical Excellence for Safer Transfusion (BEST) Collaborative. Most sites have emergent warfarin reversal protocols (53% use PCC, 25% use PCC+ plasma and 2% use plasma alone); however, variation between adjusted dosing and fixed dosing was observed.
June 21, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633152/state-of-pelvic-and-acetabular-surgery-in-the-developing-world-a-global-survey-of-orthopaedic-surgeons-at-surgical-implant-generation-network-sign-hospitals
#13
Paul S Whiting, Duane R Anderson, Daniel D Galat, Lewis G Zirkle, Douglas W Lundy, Hassan R Mir
OBJECTIVES: To document the current state of pelvic and acetabular surgery in the developing world and to identify critical areas for improvement in the treatment of these complex injuries. DESIGN: A 50-question online survey. SETTING: International, multicenter. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-one orthopaedic surgeons at Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) hospitals, which represent a cross-section of institutions in low- and middle-income countries that treat high-energy musculoskeletal trauma...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632822/-strategies-to-reduce-infections-and-antibiotic-use-and-its-effects-in-a-neonatal-care-unit
#14
Soledad Urzúa, Marcela Ferrés, Patricia García, Amparo Sánchez, Matías Luco
INTRODUCTION: Late onset sepsis (LOS) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The empirical use of vancomycin and other broad spectrum antibiotics is very frequent and is associated with the emergence of resistant agents, infection by gram-negative bacilli (GNB), fungal infections and increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of 5 intervention protocols designed to reduce infections and promote the rational use of antibiotics (AB) in a single NICU...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632025/use-of-latent-class-analysis-to-define-groups-based-on-validity-cognition-and-emotional-functioning
#15
Ruth T Morin, Bradley N Axelrod
OBJECTIVE: Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify a heterogeneous sample of neuropsychology data. In particular, we used measures of performance validity, symptom validity, cognition, and emotional functioning to assess and describe latent groups of functioning in these areas. METHOD: A data-set of 680 neuropsychological evaluation protocols was analyzed using a LCA. Data were collected from evaluations performed for clinical purposes at an urban medical center...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631157/performance-characteristics-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-without-contrast-agents-or-sedation-in-pediatric-appendicitis
#16
Ryne A Didier, Katharine L Hopkins, Fergus V Coakley, Sanjay Krishnaswami, David M Spiro, Bryan R Foster
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising modality for evaluating pediatric appendicitis. However optimal imaging protocols, including roles of contrast agents and sedation, have not been established and diagnostic criteria have not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate performance characteristics of rapid MRI without contrast agents or sedation in the diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included patients ages 4-18 years with suspicion of appendicitis who underwent rapid MRI between October 2013 and March 2015 without contrast agent or sedation...
June 19, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630755/advances-in-hip-arthroplasty-surgery-what-is-justified
#17
Luigi Zagra
Total hip arthroplasty (THA) surgery has shown dramatic changes in terms of increased number of procedures and of technical development in recent years. It has been described as "the operation of the 20(th) century" for the excellent results, the high satisfaction of the patients and the improvement of the quality of life.A lot of variations have been introduced over the last few decades in THA especially in terms of indications (both in younger and older patients), techniques and devices (approaches, tissue preservation, biomaterials and industrial finishing), per-operative management (blood loss and pain control) and post-operative protocols (the so called "fast track" surgery)...
May 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630034/fall-prevention-self-assessments-via-mobile-3d-visualization-technologies-community-dwelling-older-adults-perceptions-of-opportunities-and-challenges
#18
Julian Hamm, Arthur Money, Anita Atwal
BACKGROUND: In the field of occupational therapy, the assistive equipment provision process (AEPP) is a prominent preventive strategy used to promote independent living and to identify and alleviate fall risk factors via the provision of assistive equipment within the home environment. Current practice involves the use of paper-based forms that include 2D measurement guidance diagrams that aim to communicate the precise points and dimensions that must be measured in order to make AEPP assessments...
June 19, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629473/emergency-treatment-with-levetiracetam-or-phenytoin-in-status-epilepticus-in-children-the-eclipse-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#19
Mark D Lyttle, Carrol Gamble, Shrouk Messahel, Helen Hickey, Anand Iyer, Kerry Woolfall, Amy Humphreys, Naomi E A Bacon, Louise Roper, Franz E Babl, Stuart R Dalziel, Mary Ryan, Richard E Appleton
BACKGROUND: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is the most common life-threatening neurological emergency in childhood. These children are also at risk of significant morbidity, with acute and chronic impact on the family and the health and social care systems. The current recommended first-choice, second-line treatment in children aged 6 months and above is intravenous phenytoin (fosphenytoin in the USA), although there is a lack of evidence for its use and it is associated with significant side effects...
June 19, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629112/european-demonstration-program-on-the-effect-based-and-chemical-identification-and-monitoring-of-organic-pollutants-in-european-surface-waters
#20
Zuzana Tousova, Peter Oswald, Jaroslav Slobodnik, Ludek Blaha, Melis Muz, Meng Hu, Werner Brack, Martin Krauss, Carolina Di Paolo, Zsolt Tarcai, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Henner Hollert, Sanja Koprivica, Marijan Ahel, Jennifer E Schollée, Juliane Hollender, Marc J-F Suter, Anita O Hidasi, Kristin Schirmer, Manoj Sonavane, Selim Ait-Aissa, Nicolas Creusot, Francois Brion, Jean Froment, Ana Catarina Almeida, Kevin Thomas, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Sara Tufi, Xiyu Ouyang, Pim Leonards, Marja Lamoree, Victoria Osorio Torrens, Annemieke Kolkman, Merijn Schriks, Petra Spirhanzlova, Andrew Tindall, Tobias Schulze
Growing concern about the adverse environmental and human health effects of a wide range of micropollutants requires the development of novel tools and approaches to enable holistic monitoring of their occurrence, fate and effects in the aquatic environment. A European-wide demonstration program (EDP) for effect-based monitoring of micropollutants in surface waters was carried out within the Marie Curie Initial Training Network EDA-EMERGE. The main objectives of the EDP were to apply a simplified protocol for effect-directed analysis, to link biological effects to target compounds and to estimate their risk to aquatic biota...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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