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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640993/locking-in-optimal-nanoscale-structure-induced-by-naphthalenediimide-based-polymeric-additive-enables-efficient-and-stable-inverted-polymer-solar-cells
#1
Kwang Hyun Park, Yujin An, Seungon Jung, Hyesung Park, Changduk Yang
Operational stability and high performance are the most critical issues that must be addressed in order to propel and advance the current polymer solar cell (PSC) technology to the next level such as manufacturing and mass production. Herein, we report a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.2% together with an excellent device stability in PTB7-Th:PC71BM-based PSCs in the inverted structure by introducing the n-type P(NDI2OD-T2) macromolecular additive (>75% PCE retention at high temperature up to 120 °C, >97% PCE retention after 6 months in inert conditions, >93% PCE retention after 2 months in air with encapsulation, and >80% PCE retention after 140 h in air without encapsulation)...
June 22, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636625/comparison-study-of-exhaust-plume-impingement-effects-of-small-mono-and-bipropellant-thrusters-using-parallelized-dsmc-method
#2
Kyun Ho Lee
A space propulsion system is important for the normal mission operations of a spacecraft by adjusting its attitude and maneuver. Generally, a mono- and a bipropellant thruster have been mainly used for low thrust liquid rocket engines. But as the plume gas expelled from these small thrusters diffuses freely in a vacuum space along all directions, unwanted effects due to the plume collision onto the spacecraft surfaces can dramatically cause a deterioration of the function and performance of a spacecraft. Thus, aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the major differences of the plume gas impingement effects quantitatively between the small mono- and bipropellant thrusters using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636528/three-dimensional-reconstruction-of-energy-stores-for-jumping-in-planthoppers-and-froghoppers-from-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy
#3
Igor Siwanowicz, Malcolm Burrows
Jumping in planthopper and froghopper insects is propelled by a catapult-like mechanism requiring mechanical storage of energy and its quick release to accelerate the hind legs rapidly. To understand the functional biomechanics involved in these challenging movements, the internal skeleton, tendons and muscles involved were reconstructed in 3-D from confocal scans in unprecedented detail. Energy to power jumping was generated by slow contractions of hind leg depressor muscles and then stored by bending specialised elements of the thoracic skeleton that are composites of the rubbery protein resilin sandwiched between layers of harder cuticle with air-filled tunnels reducing mass...
June 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636434/selective-breeding-and-short-term-access-to-a-running-wheel-alter-stride-characteristics-in-house-mice
#4
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Jarren C Kay, Genesis Ordonez, Thomas G Hampton, Theodore Garland
Postural and kinematic aspects of running may have evolved to support high runner (HR) mice to run approximately threefold farther than control mice. Mice from four replicate HR lines selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running show many differences in locomotor behavior and morphology as compared with four nonselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that HR mice would show stride alterations that have coadapted with locomotor behavior, morphology, and physiology. More specifically, we predicted that HR mice would have stride characteristics that differed from those of C mice in ways that parallel some of the adaptations seen in highly cursorial animals...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632820/the-nexus-of-stem-cell-derived-beta-cells-and-genome-engineering
#5
Sara D Sackett, Aida Rodriguez, Jon S Odorico
Diabetes, type 1 and type 2 (T1D and T2D), are diseases of epidemic proportions, which are complicated and defined by genetics, epigenetics, environment, and lifestyle choices. Current therapies consist of whole pancreas or islet transplantation. However, these approaches require life-time immunosuppression, and are compounded by the paucity of available donors. Pluripotent stem cells have advanced research in the fields of stem cell biology, drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine, and importantly allows for the interrogation of therapeutic interventions...
2017: Review of Diabetic Studies: RDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632337/non-equilibrium-assembly-of-light-activated-colloidal-mixtures
#6
Dhruv P Singh, Udit Choudhury, Peer Fischer, Andrew G Mark
The collective phenomena exhibited by artificial active matter systems present novel routes to fabricating out-of-equilibrium microscale assemblies. Here, the crystallization of passive silica colloids into well-controlled 2D assemblies is shown, which is directed by a small number of self-propelled active colloids. The active colloids are titania-silica Janus particles that are propelled when illuminated by UV light. The strength of the attractive interaction and thus the extent of the assembled clusters can be regulated by the light intensity...
June 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632325/nickelocene-precursor-facilitated-fast-growth-of-graphene-h-bn-vertical-heterostructures-and-its-applications-in-oleds
#7
Qiucheng Li, Zifeng Zhao, Baoming Yan, Xiuju Song, Zhepeng Zhang, Jia Li, Xiaosong Wu, Zuqiang Bian, Xiaolong Zou, Yanfeng Zhang, Zhongfan Liu
The direct growth of high-quality, large-area, uniform, vertically stacked Gr/h-BN heterostructures is of vital importance for applications in electronics and optoelectronics. However, the main challenge lies in the catalytically inert nature of the hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrates, which usually afford a rather low decomposition rate of carbon precursors, and thus relatively low growth rate of graphene. Herein, a nickelocene-precursor-facilitated route is developed for the fast growth of Gr/h-BN vertical heterostructures on Cu foils, which shows much improved synthesis efficiency (8-10 times faster) and crystalline quality of graphene (large single-crystalline domain up to ≈20 µm)...
June 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631604/vaccinia-virus-egress-mediated-by-virus-protein-a36-is-reliant-on-the-f12-protein
#8
David C J Carpentier, Alexander Van Loggerenberg, Nele M G Dieckmann, Geoffrey L Smith
Egress of vaccinia virus from its host cell is mediated by the microtubule-associated motor kinesin-1, and three viral proteins, A36 and the F12/E2 complex, have been implicated in this process. Deletion of F12 expression causes a more severe reduction in egress than deletion of A36 but whether these proteins are involved in the same or different mechanisms of kinesin-1 recruitment is unknown. Here it is shown that a virus lacking both proteins forms a smaller plaque than mutants lacking either gene alone, indicating non-redundant functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628856/mammalian-synthetic-biology-in-the-age-of-genome-editing-and-personalized-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Patrick Ho, Yvonne Y Chen
The recent expansion of molecular tool kits has propelled synthetic biology toward the design of increasingly sophisticated mammalian systems. Specifically, advances in genome editing, protein engineering, and circuitry design have enabled the programming of cells for diverse applications, including regenerative medicine and cancer immunotherapy. The ease with which molecular and cellular interactions can be harnessed promises to yield novel approaches to elucidate genetic interactions, program cellular functions, and design therapeutic interventions...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623855/authentic-feminist-authenticity-and-feminist-identity-in-teenage-feminists-talk
#10
Octavia Calder-Dawe, Nicola Gavey
This article explores how young people's feminist identities take shape in conjunction with a contemporary ideal of personal authenticity: to know and to express the 'real me'. Drawing from interviews with 18 teenagers living in Auckland, New Zealand, we examine a novel convergence of authenticity and feminism in participants' identity talk. For social psychologists interested in identity and politics, this convergence is intriguing: individualizing values such as authenticity are generally associated with disengagement with structural critique and with a repudiation of politicized and activist identities...
June 17, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622586/outerwear-through-the-ages-evolutionary-cell-biology-of-vesicle-coats
#11
REVIEW
Joel B Dacks, Margaret S Robinson
Vesicular transport was key to the evolution of eukaryotes, and is essential for eukaryotic life today. All modern eukaryotes have a set of vesicle coat proteins, which couple cargo selection to vesicle budding in the secretory and endocytic pathways. Although these coats share common features (e.g. recruitment via small GTPases, β-propeller-α-solenoid proteins acting as scaffolds), the relationships between them are not always clear. Structural studies on the coats themselves, comparative genomics and cell biology in diverse eukaryotes, and the recent discovery of the Asgard archaea and their 'eukaryotic signature proteins' are helping us to piece together how coats may have evolved during the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition...
June 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620185/c-abl-regulates-gastrointestinal-muscularis-propria-homeostasis-via-erks
#12
Jinnan Xiang, Yiqun Zhang, Dandan Bao, Na Cao, Xin Zhang, Ping Li, Shoutao Qiu, Jigang Guo, Dan He, Baojie Li, Liqing Yao, Huijuan Liu
The gastrointestinal tract is responsible for food digestion and absorption. The muscularis propria propels the foodstuff through the GI tract and defects in intestine motility may cause obstruction disorders. Our present genetic studies identified non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Abl as an important regulator of the muscularis propria homeostasis and a risk factor for rectal prolapse. Mouse deficient for c-Abl showed defects in the muscularis propria of gastrointestinal tract and older c-Abl (-/-) mice developed megaesophagus and rectal prolapse...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620124/a-high-throughput-field-based-phenotyping-technology-for-tall-biomass-crops
#13
Maria G Salas Fernandez, Yin Bao, Lie Tang, Patrick S Schnable
Recent advances in "omics" technologies have not been accompanied by equally efficient, cost-effective and accurate phenotyping methods required to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. Even though high-throughput phenotyping platforms have been developed for controlled environments, field-based aerial and ground technologies have only been designed and deployed for short stature crops. Therefore, we developed and tested Phenobot 1.0, an auto-steered and self-propelled field-based high-throughput phenotyping platform for tall dense canopy crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618500/recovery-of-mechanical-pressure-in-a-gas-of-underdamped-active-dumbbells-with-brownian-noise
#14
Marc Joyeux
In contrast with a gas at thermodynamic equilibrium, the mean force exerted on a wall by a gas of active particles usually depends on the confining potential, thereby preventing a proper definition of mechanical pressure. In this paper, we investigate numerically the properties of a gas of underdamped self-propelled dumbbells subject to Brownian noise of increasing intensity, in order to understand how the notion of pressure is recovered as noise progressively masks the effects of self-propulsion and the system approaches thermodynamic equilibrium...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618351/structure-of-ip3r-channel-high-resolution-insights-from-cryo-em
#15
REVIEW
Mariah R Baker, Guizhen Fan, Irina I Serysheva
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are ubiquitously expressed intracellular Ca(2+) channels and the major mediators of cellular Ca(2+) signals generated by the release of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli. Despite established physiological significance and proven involvements of IP3R channels in many human diseases, detailed structural basis for signal detection by these ion channels and their gating remain obscure. Recently, single particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has yielded a long-awaited near-atomic resolution structure of the entire full-length type 1 IP3R...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617586/research-progress-towards-the-practical-applications-of-lithium-sulfur-li-s-batteries
#16
Joshua Lochala, Dianying Liu, Bingbin Wu, Cynthia Robinson, Jie Xiao
The renaissance of Li-S battery technology is witnessed by the intensive R&D efforts in recent years. Although the theoretical capacity and energy of a Li-S battery is theoretically very high, the projected usable energy is expected to be no more than twice that of state-of-art Li-ion batteries, or 500 Wh/kg. The recent "sulfur fever" has certainly gathered new knowledge on sulfur chemistry and electrochemistry, electrolytes, lithium metal and their interactions in this "new" system; however, a real advance towards a practical Li-S battery is still missing...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615489/ovarian-fluid-impacts-flagellar-beating-and-biomechanical-metrics-of-sperm-between-alternative-reproductive-tactics
#17
Ian A E Butts, Galina Prokopchuk, Vojtěch Kašpar, Jacky Cosson, Trevor E Pitcher
Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are prevalent in nature, where smaller parasitic males typically have better sperm quality than larger territorial guard males. At present, it is unclear what is causing this phenomenon. Our objective was to gain insights into sperm form and function by examining flagellar beating patterns (beat frequency, wave amplitude, bend length, bend angle, wave velocity) and biomechanical sperm metrics (velocity, hydrodynamic power output, propulsive efficiency) of wild spawning Chinook salmon ARTs...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608466/crystal-structure-of-human-wbscr16-an-rcc1-like-protein-in-mitochondria
#18
Masako Koyama, Taeko Sasaki, Narie Sasaki, Yoshiyuki Matsuura
WBSCR16 (Williams-Beuren Syndrome Chromosomal Region 16) gene is located in a large deletion region of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), which is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Although the relationship between WBSCR16 and WBS remains unclear, it has been reported that WBSCR16 is a member of a functional module that regulates mitochondrial 16S rRNA abundance and intra-mitochondrial translation. WBSCR16 has RCC1 (Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1)-like amino acid sequence repeats but the function of WBSCR16 appears to be different from that of other RCC1 superfamily members...
June 12, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605694/effect-of-increased-kick-frequency-on-propelling-efficiency-and-muscular-co-activation-during-underwater-dolphin-kick
#19
Keisuke Kobayashi Yamakawa, Hirofumi Shimojo, Hideki Takagi, Shozo Tsubakimoto, Yasuo Sengoku
In this study, we investigated the effects of increased kick frequency on the propelling efficiency and the muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick. Participants included eight female collegiate swimmers. The participants performed seven 15-m underwater dolphin kick swimming trials at different kick frequencies, which is 85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 110, and 115% of their maximum effort. The Froude (propelling) efficiency of the dolphin kick was calculated from the kinematic analysis. The surface electromyography was measured from six muscles (rectus abdominis, erector spinae, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius)...
June 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605231/a-comparison-of-both-motorized-and-non-motorized-treadmill-gait-kinematics-to-overground-locomotion
#20
Adam M Fullenkamp, Danilo V Tolusso, C Matthew Laurent, Brian M Campbell, Andrea E Cripps
CONTEXT: Motorized treadmills (MT) present an altered motor task compared to overground (OG) locomotion in that MT belt surfaces are motor-driven, whereas individuals walking/running OG must propel themselves. A possible solution may lie with novel non-motorized treadmill (NMT) devices as the belt surface is propelled by the user. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare gait performance during both MT and NMT locomotion to OG. DESIGN: Crossover study...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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