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Chenyu Jin, Babak Vajdi Hokmabad, Kyle Anthony Baldwin, Corinna Charlotte Maass
Chemotaxis and auto-chemotaxis are key mechanisms in the dynamics of micro-organisms, e.g. in the acquisition of nutrients and in the communication between individuals, influencing the collective behaviour. However, chemical signalling and the natural environment of biological swimmers are generally complex, making them hard to access analytically. We present a well-controlled, tunable artificial model to study chemotaxis and autochemotaxis in complex geometries, using microfluidic assays of self-propelling oil droplets in an aqueous surfactant solution...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Amir Nourhani, Daniel Brown, Nicholas Pletzer, John G Gibbs
Artificial self-propelled colloidal particles have recently served as effective building blocks for investigating many dynamic behaviors exhibited by nonequilibrium systems. However, most studies have relied upon excluded volume interactions between the active particles. Experimental systems in which the mobile entities interact over long distances in a well-defined and controllable manner are valuable so that new modes of multiparticle dynamics can be studied systematically in the laboratory. Here, a system of self-propelled microscale Janus particles is engineered to have contactless particle-particle interactions that lead to long-range attraction, short-range repulsion, and mutual alignment between adjacent swimmers...
December 2017: Advanced Materials
Abirami S Anu, Kashinath I Dhabbe, Prashant S Kulkarni, Mehilal Mehilal
The current demilitarization processes employs open burning /open detonation which is not permitted by the environmental protection agency. Therefore, a systematic study has been carried out to convert waste/rejected nitramine and fuel rich based propellants into liquid fertilizer by digesting in dilute nitric acid followed by neutralization with potassium hydroxide and phosphoric acid. The obtained liquid fertilizers were fully characterised for nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions along with potassium. Further, the effect of liquid fertilizers of nitramine propellant and fuel rich propellant on cluster bean plants was studied by taking in different concentrations from 25 mL to 150 mL, and their effect on germination pattern, shoots growth, thickness of stem, size and number of leaves, number of pods and length over a full grown period of plants were investigated...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
Haidong Lu, Daesu Lee, Konstantin Klyukin, Lingling Tao, Bo Wang, Hyungwoo Lee, Jung-Woo Lee, Tula R Paudel, Long-Qing Chen, Evgeny Y Tsymbal, Vitaly Alexandrov, Chang-Beom Eom, Alexei Gruverman
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is the "silicon" in the emerging field of oxide electronics. While bulk properties of this material have been studied for decades, new unexpected phenomena have recently been discovered at the nanoscale, when SrTiO3 forms an ultrathin film or an atomically-sharp interface with other materials. One of the striking discoveries is room-temperature ferroelectricity in strain-free ultrathin films of SrTiO3 driven by the TiSr antisite defects, which generate a local dipole moment polarizing the surrounding nanoregion...
December 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Molly J Shaughnessy
Shame is a universal living experience that is just beginning to be explored within the discipline of nursing. Development of a broad understanding of shame is needed to aid nurse researchers in clarifying this phenomenon from a nursing perspective. Pursuant to this goal, the author in this article reviews the extant literature on shame from the disciplines of nursing, psychology, sociology, philosophy, and theology. Three themes that emerged from the scholarly literature were (a) shame propels miring in paralysis, (b) shame captures the illusionary seen-unseen, and...
January 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Robert J MacDonald, Jonathan H Shrimp, Hong Jiang, Lu Zhang, Hening Lin, Andrew Yen
CD38 is an ectoenzyme and receptor with key physiological roles. It metabolizes NAD+ to adenosine diphosphate ribose (ADPR) and cyclic ADPR, regulating several processes including calcium signalling. CD38 is both a positive and negative prognostic indicator in leukaemia. In all-trans retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and HL-60 cells, CD38 is one of the earliest and most prominently upregulated proteins known. CD38 overexpression enhances differentiation, while morpholino- and siRNA-induced knockdown diminishes it...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Long Li, Runzhou Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Guodong Xie, Peicheng Liao, Kai Pang, Haoqian Song, Cong Liu, Yongxiong Ren, Guillaume Labroille, Pu Jian, Dmitry Starodubov, Brittany Lynn, Robert Bock, Moshe Tur, Alan E Willner
We explore the use of orbital-angular-momentum (OAM)-multiplexing to increase the capacity of free-space data transmission to moving platforms, with an added potential benefit of decreasing the probability of data intercept. Specifically, we experimentally demonstrate and characterize the performance of an OAM-multiplexed, free-space optical (FSO) communications link between a ground transmitter and a ground receiver via a moving unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV). We achieve a total capacity of 80 Gbit/s up to 100-m-roundtrip link by multiplexing 2 OAM beams, each carrying a 40-Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anthony S Piro, Dulcemaria Hernandez, Sarah Luoma, Eric M Feeley, Ryan Finethy, Azeb Yirga, Eva M Frickel, Cammie F Lesser, Jörn Coers
Dynamin-like guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-inducible host defense proteins that can associate with cytosol-invading bacterial pathogens. Mouse GBPs promote the lytic destruction of targeted bacteria in the host cell cytosol, but the antimicrobial function of human GBPs and the mechanism by which these proteins associate with cytosolic bacteria are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that human GBP1 is unique among the seven human GBP paralogs in its ability to associate with at least two cytosolic Gram-negative bacteria, Burkholderia thailandensis and Shigella flexneri Rough lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants of S...
December 12, 2017: MBio
C R Hakkenberg, K Zhu, R K Peet, C Song
The central role of floristic diversity in maintaining habitat integrity and ecosystem function has propelled efforts to map and monitor its distribution across forest landscapes. While biodiversity studies have traditionally relied largely on ground-based observations, the immensity of the task of generating accurate, repeatable, and spatially-continuous data on biodiversity patterns at large scales has stimulated the development of remote-sensing methods for scaling up from field plot measurements. One such approach is through integrated LiDAR and hyperspectral remote-sensing...
December 12, 2017: Ecology
Tomofumi Sakai, Yumi Inoue, Naoya Terahara, Keiichi Namba, Tohru Minamino
The bacterial flagellar hook is a short, curved tubular structure made of FlgE. The hook connects the basal body as a rotary motor and the filament as a helical propeller and functions as a universal joint to smoothly transmit torque produced by the motor to the filament. Salmonella FlgE consists of D0, Dc, D1 and D2 domains. Axial interactions between a triangular loop of domain D1 (D1-loop) and domain D2 are postulated to be responsible for hook supercoiling. In contrast, Bacillus FlgE lacks the D1-loop and domain D2...
December 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Badreddine Douzi, Laureen Logger, Silvia Spinelli, Stéphanie Blangy, Christian Cambillau, Eric Cascales
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a specialized macromolecular complex dedicated to the delivery of protein effectors into both eukaryotic and bacterial cells. The general mechanism of action of the T6SS is similar to the injection of DNA by contractile bacteriophages. The cytoplasmic portion of the T6SS is evolutionarily, structurally and functionally related to the phage tail complex. It is composed of an inner tube made of stacked Hcp hexameric rings, engulfed within a sheath and built on a baseplate...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
Virginia Tsapaki, Geoff Ibbott, Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Tae-Suk Suh, Slavik Tabakov, John Damilakis
As medical technology evolves and patient needs increase, the need for well-trained and highly professional medical physicists (MPs) becomes even more urgent. The roles and responsibilities of MPs in various departments within the hospital are diverse and demanding. It is obvious that training, continuing education and professional development of MPs have become essential. One of the ways for an MP to advance his or her knowledge is to participate in conferences and congresses. Last year, the 22nd International Conference of Medical Physics (ICMP 2016) took place in Bangkok, Thailand...
December 6, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
Chen Zha, Changlu Wang, Andrew Li
The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Sandy M S McLachlan, Gary W Kaiser, Nicholas R Longrich
Mesozoic bird fossils from the Pacific Coast of North America are rare, but small numbers are known from the Late Cretaceous aged sediments of Hornby Island, British Columbia. Most are unassociated fragments that offer little information, but additional preparation of a large coracoid has revealed more details of its structure, as well as three associated wing bones. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Maaqwi cascadensis, gen. et sp. nov. represents a derived crown or near-crown member of Ornithurae, and specifically suggests affinities with Vegaviidae...
2017: PloS One
Rüdiger Kürsten, Vladimir Sushkov, Thomas Ihle
Dynamical properties of self-propelled particles obeying a bounded confidence rule are investigated by means of kinetic theory and agent-based simulations. While memory effects are observed in disordered systems, we show that they also occur in active matter systems. In particular, we find that the system exhibits a giant Kovacs-like memory effect that is much larger than predicted by a generic linear theory. Based on a separation of time scales we develop a nonlinear theory to explain this effect. We apply this theory to driven granular gases and propose further applications to spin glasses...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
A Manacorda, A Puglisi
We derive the hydrodynamic equations with fluctuating currents for the density, momentum, and energy fields for an active system in the dilute limit. In our model, nonoverdamped self-propelled particles (such as grains or birds) move on a lattice, interacting by means of aligning dissipative forces and excluded volume repulsion. Our macroscopic equations, in a specific case, reproduce a transition line from a disordered phase to a swarming phase and a linear dispersion law accounting for underdamped wave propagation...
November 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Rongfu Wen, Shanshan Xu, Dongliang Zhao, Yung-Cheng Lee, Xuehu Ma, Ronggui Yang
Self-propelled droplet jumping on nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces is of interest for a variety of industrial applications including self-cleaning, water harvesting, power generation, and thermal management systems. However, the uncontrolled nucleation-induced Wenzel state of condensed droplets at large surface subcooling (high heat flux) leads to the formation of large pinned droplets, which results in the flooding phenomena and greatly degrades the heat transfer performance. In this work, we present a novel strategy to manipulate droplet behaviors during the process from the droplet nucleation to growth and departure through a combination of spatially controlling initial nucleation for mobile droplets by closely spaced nanowires and promoting the spontaneous outward movement for rapid removal using micropatterned nanowire arrays...
December 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hyun Gi Kim, Jin Wook Choi, Soo Han Yoon, Sieun Lee
OBJECTIVE: Infants are vulnerable to high acoustic noise. Acoustic noise generated by MR scanning can be reduced by a silent sequence. The purpose of this study is to compare the image quality of the conventional and silent T2 PROPELLER sequences for brain imaging in infants. METHODS: A total of 36 scans were acquired from 24 infants using a 3.0 T MR scanner. Each patient underwent both conventional and silent T2 PROPELLER sequences. Acoustic noise level was measured...
December 7, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Aviv Regev, Sarah A Teichmann, Eric S Lander, Ido Amit, Christophe Benoist, Ewan Birney, Bernd Bodenmiller, Peter J Campbell, Piero Carninci, Menna Clatworthy, Hans Clevers, Bart Deplancke, Ian Dunham, James Eberwine, Roland Eils, Wolfgang Enard, Andrew Farmer, Lars Fugger, Berthold Göttgens, Nir Hacohen, Muzlifah Haniffa, Martin Hemberg, Seung K Kim, Paul Klenerman, Arnold Kriegstein, Ed Lein, Sten Linnarsson, Emma Lundberg, Joakim Lundeberg, Partha Majumder, John C Marioni, Miriam Merad, Musa Mhlanga, Martijn Nawijn, Mihai Netea, Garry Nolan, Dana Pe'er, Anthony Phillipakis, Chris P Ponting, Stephen R Quake, Wolf Reik, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Joshua R Sanes, Rahul Satija, Ton N Schumacher, Alex K Shalek, Ehud Shapiro, Padmanee Sharma, Jay W Shin, Oliver Stegle, Michael R Stratton, Michael J T Stubbington, Fabian J Theis, Matthias Uhlen, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Allon Wagner, Fiona M Watt, Jonathan S Weissman, Barbara J Wold, Ramnik J Xavier, Nir Yosef
The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology)...
December 5, 2017: ELife
Molly E McCue, Annette M McCoy
Advances in high-throughput molecular biology and electronic health records (EHR), coupled with increasing computer capabilities have resulted in an increased interest in the use of big data in health care. Big data require collection and analysis of data at an unprecedented scale and represents a paradigm shift in health care, offering (1) the capacity to generate new knowledge more quickly than traditional scientific approaches; (2) unbiased collection and analysis of data; and (3) a holistic understanding of biology and pathophysiology...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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