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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054403/top-surface-blade-residues-and-the-central-channel-water-molecules-are-conserved-in-every-repeat-of-the-integrin-like-%C3%AE-propeller-structures
#1
Alexander Denesyuk, Konstantin Denessiouk, Mark S Johnson
An integrin-like β-propeller domain contains seven repeats of a four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet motif (blades). Previously we described a 3D structural motif within each blade of the integrin-type β-propeller. Here, we show unique structural links that join different blades of the β-propeller structure, which together with the structural motif for a single blade are repeated in a β-propeller to provide the functional top face of the barrel, found to be involved in protein-protein interactions and substrate recognition...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051384/taxon-restricted-genes-at-the-origin-of-a-novel-trait-allowing-access-to-a-new-environment
#2
M Emília Santos, Augustin Le Bouquin, Antonin J J Crumière, Abderrahman Khila
Taxon-restricted genes make up a considerable proportion of genomes, yet their contribution to phenotypic evolution is poorly understood. We combined gene expression with functional and behavioral assays to study the origin and adaptive value of an evolutionary innovation exclusive to the water strider genus Rhagovelia: the propelling fan. We discovered that two taxon-restricted genes, which we named geisha and mother-of-geisha, specifically control fan development. geisha originated through a duplication event at the base of the Rhagovelia lineage, and both duplicates acquired a novel expression in a specific cell population prefiguring fan development...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049725/cd11b-and-cd200-on-circulating-monocytes-differentiate-two-angiographic-subtypes-of-polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy
#3
Yousif Subhi, Marie Krogh Nielsen, Christopher Rue Molbech, Akio Oishi, Amardeep Singh, Mogens Holst Nissen, Torben Lykke Sørensen
Purpose: To investigate surface expression of CD11b and CD200 on circulating monocytes in patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Methods: This was a prospective case-control study of patients with PCV (n = 27), age-matched healthy controls (n = 27), and patients with neovascular AMD (n = 49). All participants underwent a comprehensive ocular examination. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography were performed in patients suspected of neovascular AMD or PCV...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042532/three-dimensional-context-rather-than-nls-amino-acid-sequence-determines-importin-%C3%AE-subtype-specificity-for-rcc1
#4
Rajeshwer S Sankhala, Ravi K Lokareddy, Salma Begum, Ruth A Pumroy, Richard E Gillilan, Gino Cingolani
Active nuclear import of Ran exchange factor RCC1 is mediated by importin α3. This pathway is essential to generate a gradient of RanGTP on chromatin that directs nucleocytoplasmic transport, mitotic spindle assembly and nuclear envelope formation. Here we identify the mechanisms of importin α3 selectivity for RCC1. We find this isoform binds RCC1 with one order of magnitude higher affinity than the generic importin α1, although the two isoforms share an identical NLS-binding groove. Importin α3 uses its greater conformational flexibility to wedge the RCC1 β-propeller flanking the NLS against its lateral surface, preventing steric clashes with its Armadillo-core...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040377/safest-practices-for-autologous-buttock-augmentation-with-fat-grafting-using-a-roller-pump-injection-technique
#5
Marc Everett, Rolando Morales, German Newall, Paul F Fortes, Kristi L Hustak, Christopher K Patronella, Henry A Mentz
Background: Autologous buttock augmentation with fat grafting has emerged as one of the preeminent modalities for body contouring employed by plastic surgeons today. Since 2009, we have used the roller pump injection technique. Objectives: This procedure can be performed safely without specialized equipment and eliminates the tasks of manual graft preparation and injection. We describe our technique and standard safety measures. The anatomy of and complications associated with liposuction and fat grafting were recorded and reviewed...
June 23, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039182/a-chiral-nanographene-propeller-embedding-six-enantiomerically-stable-5-helicene-units
#6
Veronika Berezhnaia, Myriam Roy, Nicolas Vanthuyne, Marco Villa, Jean-Valère Naubron, Jean Rodriguez, Yoann Coquerel, Marc Gingras
A one-step synthesis of a nanographene propeller with a D3-symmetry was obtained starting from 7,8-dibromo[5]helicene by Yamamoto nickel(0) couplings. It afforded a chiral polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) embedding six enantiomerically stable [5]helicene units. This dense accumulation of helical strain resulted in an extremely distorted geometry, but stable stereochemistry. The conformational, structural, chiroptical and photophysical properties of the molecule are reported.
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034931/spontaneous-symmetry-breaking-induced-unidirectional-rotation-of-a-chain-grafted-colloidal-particle-in-the-active-bath
#7
Hui-Shu Li, Chao Wang, Wen-de Tian, Yu-Qiang Ma, Cheng Xu, Ning Zheng, Kang Chen
Exploiting the energy of randomly moving active agents such as bacteria is a fascinating way to power a microdevice. Here we show, by simulations, that a chain-grafted disk-like colloidal particle can rotate unidirectionally and hence output work when immersed in a thin film of active particle suspension. The collective spontaneous symmetry breaking of chain configurations is the origin of the unidirectional rotation. Long persistence time, large propelling force and/or small rotating friction are keys to sustaining the collective broken symmetry and realizing the rotation...
October 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034451/cortical-light-scattering-during-interictal-epileptic-spikes-in-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-in-children-a-fast-optical-signal-and-electroencephalographic-study
#8
Mana Manoochehri, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Emilie Bourel-Ponchel, Fabrice Wallois
OBJECTIVE: Interictal epileptic spikes (IES) represent a signature of the transient synchronous and excessive discharge of a large ensemble of cortical heterogeneous neurons. Epilepsy cannot be reduced to a hypersynchronous activation of neurons whose functioning is impaired, resulting on electroencephalogram (EEG) in epileptic seizures or IES. The complex pathophysiological mechanisms require a global approach to the interactions between neural synaptic and nonsynaptic, vascular, and metabolic systems...
October 16, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033288/the-therapeutic-antibody-lm609-selectively-inhibits-ligand-binding-to-human-%C3%AE-v%C3%AE-3-integrin-via-steric-hindrance
#9
Andrew J Borst, Zachary M James, William N Zagotta, Mark Ginsberg, Felix A Rey, Frank DiMaio, Marija Backovic, David Veesler
The LM609 antibody specifically recognizes αVβ3 integrin and inhibits angiogenesis, bone resorption, and viral infections in an arginine-glycine-aspartate-independent manner. LM609 entered phase II clinical trials for the treatment of several cancers and was also used for αVβ3-targeted radioimmunotherapy. To elucidate the mechanisms of recognition and inhibition of αVβ3 integrin, we solved the structure of the LM609 antigen-binding fragment by X-ray crystallography and determined its binding affinity for αVβ3...
October 7, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032689/characterization-and-degradation-of-pectic-polysaccharides-in-cocoa-pulp
#10
Esther Meersman, Nore Struyf, Clare Kyomugasho, Zahra Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Jihan Santanina Santiago, Eline Baert, Sami Hemdane, Gino Vrancken, Kevin J Verstrepen, Christophe M Courtin, Marc Hendrickx, Jan Steensels
Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032678/marangoni-effect-driven-motion-of-miniature-robots-and-generation-of-electricity-on-water
#11
Lidong Zhang, YIhui Yuan, Xiaxin Qiu, Ting Zhang, Qing Chen, Xinhua Huang
The well-known Marangoni effect perfectly supports dynamic mechanism of organic solvent-swollen gels on water. Based on this, we report a series of energy conversion processes of concentrated droplets of polyvinylidene fluoride/dimethyl formamide (PVDF/DMF) that can transfer chemical-free energy to kinetic energy, to rapidly rotate itself on water. 22.2 mg of this droplet is capable to offer kinetic energy of 0.099 μJ to propel an artificial paper rocket of 31.8 mg to move over 560 cm on water at an initial velocity of 7...
October 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031523/6-hydroxy-3-o-methyl-kaempferol-6-o-glucopyranoside-potentiates-the-anti-proliferative-effect-of-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-by-promoting-activation-of-the-jak-stat-signaling-by-inhibiting-socs3-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#12
Orawan Wonganan, Yu-Jiao He, Xiao-Fei Shen, Kanjana Wongkrajang, Apichart Suksamrarn, Guo-Lin Zhang, Fei Wang
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a key negative regulator of type I interferon (IFN α/β) signaling. Inhibition of SOCS3 by small molecules may be a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of type I IFN and reduce its side effects. We established a cell-based screening assay using human hepatoma HepG2 cells stably transfected with a plasmid wherein the luciferase reporter activity was propelled by interferon α-stimulated response element (ISRE), which is a motif specifically recognized by type I IFN-induced activation of Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway...
October 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028064/nonequilibrium-mode-coupling-theory-for-dense-active-systems-of-self-propelled-particles
#13
Saroj Kumar Nandi, Nir S Gov
The physics of active systems of self-propelled particles, in the regime of a dense liquid state, is an open puzzle of great current interest, both for statistical physics and because such systems appear in many biological contexts. We develop a nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory (MCT) for such systems, where activity is included as a colored noise with the particles having a self-propulsion force f0 and a persistence time τp. Using the extended MCT and a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the effective temperature Teff of the active fluid...
October 13, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026209/wd40-repeat-domain-proteins-a-novel-target-class
#14
REVIEW
Matthieu Schapira, Mike Tyers, Maricel Torrent, Cheryl H Arrowsmith
Antagonism of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) with small molecules is becoming more feasible as a therapeutic approach. Successful PPI inhibitors tend to target proteins containing deep peptide-binding grooves or pockets rather than the more common large, flat protein interaction surfaces. Here, we review one of the most abundant PPI domains in the human proteome, the WD40 repeat (WDR) domain, which has a central peptide-binding pocket and is a member of the β-propeller domain-containing protein family...
October 13, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024858/motion-modes-of-two-self-propelled-camphor-boats-on-the-surface-of-a-surfactant-containing-solution
#15
Yuichiro Karasawa, Tomonori Nomoto, Luca Chiari, Taro Toyota, Masanori Fujinami
HYPOTHESIS: The existence of a surface tension difference and a surface flow around self-propelled objects, such as camphor boats, has been confirmed by many studies. However, the interactions in the collective motion of several camphor boats have not been explicitly discussed. Here, a model system of two camphor boats was investigated for the first time from the viewpoint of surface tension and surface flow. EXPERIMENTS: The behavior of one fixed boat and one movable boat on a sodium dodecylsulfate aqueous solution in an oval track has been studied as a model system of two-body interactions...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023496/pacing-the-phasing-of-leg-and-arm-movements-in-breaststroke-swimming-to-minimize-intra-cyclic-velocity-fluctuations
#16
Josje van Houwelingen, Melvyn Roerdink, Alja V Huibers, Lotte L W Evers, Peter J Beek
In swimming propelling efficiency is partly determined by intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. The higher these fluctuations are at a given average swimming velocity, the less efficient is the propulsion. This study explored whether the leg-arm coordination (i.e. phase relation ϕ) within the breaststroke cycle can be influenced with acoustic pacing, and whether the so induced changes are accompanied by changes in intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. Twenty-six participants were asked to couple their propulsive leg and arm movements to a double-tone metronome beat and to keep their average swimming velocity constant over trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019170/drug-delivery-from-an-innovative-lama-laba-co-suspension-delivery-technology-fixed-dose-combination-mdi-evidence-of-consistency-robustness-and-reliability
#17
Amber Doty, Jon Schroeder, Kou Vang, Mark Sommerville, Mervin Taylor, Brad Flynn, David Lechuga-Ballesteros, Peter Mack
To ensure consistency of clinical outcomes, orally inhaled therapies must exhibit consistent delivered dose and aerosol properties at the time of manufacturing, throughout storage, and during various patient-use conditions. Achieving consistency across these scenarios has presented a significant challenge, especially for combination products that contain more than one drug. This study characterized the delivered dose and aerosol properties of glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate metered dose inhaler (GFF MDI; Bevespi Aerosphere™)...
October 10, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018615/a-randomized-control-trial-feasibility-evaluation-of-an-mhealth-intervention-for-wheelchair-skill-training-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#18
Edward M Giesbrecht, William C Miller
BACKGROUND: Providing mobility skills training to manual wheelchair (MWC) users can have a positive impact on community participation, confidence and quality of life. Often such training is restricted or not provided at all because of the expense of, and limited access to, occupational and physical therapists before and after discharge. This is particularly true among middle-aged and older adults, who often have limited access to rehabilitation services and require more time to learn motor skills...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018598/the-plasmodium-berghei-rc-strain-is-highly-diverged-and-harbors-putatively-novel-drug-resistance-variants
#19
Warangkhana Songsungthong, Supasak Kulawonganunchai, Alisa Wilantho, Sissades Tongsima, Pongpisid Koonyosying, Chairat Uthaipibull, Sumalee Kamchonwongpaisan, Philip J Shaw
BACKGROUND: The current first line drugs for treating uncomplicated malaria are artemisinin (ART) combination therapies. However, Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to ART and partner drugs are spreading, which threatens malaria control efforts. Rodent malaria species are useful models for understanding antimalarial resistance, in particular genetic variants responsible for cross resistance to different compounds. METHODS: The Plasmodium berghei RC strain (PbRC) is described as resistant to different antimalarials, including chloroquine (CQ) and ART...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016926/activation-of-wee1-confers-resistance-to-pi3k-inhibition-in-glioblastoma
#20
Shaofang Wu, Shuzhen Wang, Feng Gao, Luyuan Li, Siyuan Zheng, W K Alfred Yung, Dimpy Koul
Background: Oncogenic activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling plays a pivotal role in the development of glioblastoma (GBM). However, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K has so far not been therapeutically successful due to adaptive resistance through a rapid rewiring of cancer cell signaling. Here we identified that WEE1 is activated after transient exposure to PI3K inhibition and confers resistance to PI3K inhibition in GBM. Methods: Patient-derived glioma-initiating cells and established GBM cells were treated with PI3K inhibitor or WEE1 inhibitor alone or in combination, and cell proliferation was evaluated by CellTiter-Blue assay...
July 7, 2017: Neuro-oncology
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