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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550360/bioprinting-technologies-for-disease-modeling
#1
REVIEW
Adnan Memic, Ali Navaei, Bahram Mirani, Julio Alvin Vacacela Cordova, Musab Aldhahri, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Mohsen Akbari, Mehdi Nikkhah
There is a great need for the development of biomimetic human tissue models that allow elucidation of the pathophysiological conditions involved in disease initiation and progression. Conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro assays and animal models have been unable to fully recapitulate the critical characteristics of human physiology. Alternatively, three-dimensional (3D) tissue models are often developed in a low-throughput manner and lack crucial native-like architecture. The recent emergence of bioprinting technologies has enabled creating 3D tissue models that address the critical challenges of conventional in vitro assays through the development of custom bioinks and patient derived cells coupled with well-defined arrangements of biomaterials...
May 26, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550305/dynamics-and-ligand-induced-conformational-changes-in-human-prolyl-oligopeptidase-analyzed-by-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-mass-spectrometry
#2
Alexandra Tsirigotaki, Roos Van Elzen, Pieter Van Der Veken, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Anastassios Economou
Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is conserved in many organisms across life. It is involved in numerous processes including brain function and neuropathology, that require more than its strict proteolytic role. It consists of a seven-bladed β-propeller juxtaposed to a catalytic α/β-hydrolase domain. The conformational dynamics of PREP involved in domain motions and the gating mechanism that allows substrate accessibility remain elusive. Here we used Hydrogen Deuterium eXchange Mass Spectrometry (HDX-MS) to derive the first near-residue resolution analysis of global PREP dynamics in the presence or absence of inhibitor bound in the active site...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549390/clinical-and-molecular-monitoring-of-plasmodium-falciparum-resistance-to-antimalarial-drug-artesunate-sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine-in-two-highly-malarious-district-of-madhya-pradesh-central-india-from-2012-2014
#3
Sweta Mishra, Praveen K Bharti, Man M Shukla, Nazia A Ali, Sher S Kashyotia, Avdhesh Kumar, Akshay C Dhariwal, Neeru Singh
The spread of P. falciparum resistant strain has led to a significant resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality. The current cornerstone in malaria treatment in India is Artemisinin based Combination (Artesunate + Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine) Therapy (ACT) for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria since 2010. In the present study we assessed the therapeutic efficacy of ACT and molecular monitoring of antimalarial resistance. Therapeutic efficacy was determined by in vivo method using 28 days follow-up...
May 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549181/g-quadruplex-structure-of-an-anti-proliferative-dna-sequence
#4
Ngoc Quang Do, Wan Jun Chung, Thi Hong Anh Truong, Brahim Heddi, Anh Tuân Phan
AGRO100 (also known as AS1411) is a G-rich oligonucleotide that has long been established as a potent anti-cancer aptamer. However, the structure of AGRO100 remained unresolved, due to the co-existence of multiple different G-quadruplex conformations. We identified a DNA sequence named AT11, derived from AGRO100, which formed a single major G-quadruplex conformation and exhibited a similar anti-proliferative activity as AGRO100. The solution structure of AT11 revealed a four-layer G-quadruplex comprising of two propeller-type parallel-stranded subunits connected through a central linker...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545684/mri-of-cystic-fibrosis-lung-manifestations-sequence-evaluation-and-clinical-outcome-analysis
#5
O Scholz, T Denecke, J Böttcher, C Schwarz, H-J Mentzel, F Streitparth, M H Maurer, A Pfeil, A Huppertz, A Mehl, D Staab, B Hamm, D M Renz
AIM: To evaluate different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences for diagnosis of pulmonary manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) in comparison to chest computed tomography (CT), including an extended outcome analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with CF (15 male, 13 female, mean age 30.5±9.4 years) underwent CT and MRI of the lung. MRI (1.5 T) included different T2- and T1-weighted sequences: breath-hold HASTE (half Fourier acquisition single shot turbo spin echo) and VIBE (volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination, before and after contrast medium administration) sequences and respiratory-triggered PROPELLER (periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction) sequences with and without fat signal suppression, and perfusion imaging...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544803/hollow-mesoporous-carbon-microparticles-and-micromotors-with-single-holes-templated-by-colloidal-silica-assisted-gas-bubbles
#6
Xiaoxi Huang, Tao Zhang, Tewodros Asefa
A simple, new synthetic method that produces hollow, mesoporous carbon microparticles, each with a single hole on its surface, is reported. The synthesis involves unique templates, which are composed of gaseous bubbles and colloidal silica, and poly(furfuryl alcohol) as a carbon precursor. The conditions that give these morphologically unique carbon microparticles are investigated, and the mechanisms that result in their unique structures are proposed. Notably, the amount of colloidal silica and the type of polymer are found to hugely dictate whether or not the synthesis results in hollow asymmetrical microparticles, each with a single hole...
May 19, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544199/benzhydryl-ethers-of-tartaric-acid-derivatives-stereochemical-response-of-dynamically-chiral-propeller
#7
Jakub Grajewski, Tomasz Mądry, Marcin Kwit, Beata Beata Warżajtis, Urszula Rychlewska, Jacek K Gawronski
The benzhydryl (diphenylmethyl) group is a molecular propeller that can acts as a chirality reporter when it is introduced nearby the stereogenic center by making the ether bond. Hydrophobic character of the benzhydryl group allows transformation of insoluble in non-polar environment natural tartaric acid derivatives into soluble entities. Electronic circular dichroism spectra, recorded within the short wavelength region of the phenyl 1B transitions (190-200 nm) showed strong bisignate Cotton effects. The signs and magnitudes of these Cotton effects are a function of absolute configuration and conformation of the molecule and primarily are not due to exciton coupling of chiral benzhydryl chromophores...
May 23, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544194/acoustic-emission-from-organic-martensites
#8
Manas K Panda, Martin Etter, Robert Dinnebier, Pance Naumov
In salient effects, still crystals of solids that switch between phases acquire a momentum and are autonomously propelled due to rapid release of elastic energy accrued during a latent structural transition induced by heat, light or mechanical stimulation. Herein we report that when the mechanical reconfiguration is induced by change of temperature in thermosalient crystals, bursts of detectable acoustic waves are generated prior to their self-actuation. The results provide compelling evidence that the thermosalient transitions in organic and organic-containing crystals are molecular analogues of the martensitic transitions in some metals and metal alloys such as steel and shape memory alloys...
May 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544036/stereospecific-winding-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-into-trinacria-propellers
#9
Dario Mosca, Antoine Stopin, Nicola Demitri, Johan Wouters, Davide Bonifazi
The stereospecific trimerization of enantiomerically-pure binaphthols with hexakis(bromomethyl)benzene gives access in one step to enantiomerically-pure molecular propellers, in which three binaphthyl rings are held together through dioxecine rings. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed that three out the six naphthyl moieties are folded in a (EF)3-type arrangement held by three intramolecular C-H…π interactions. This slips outward the three remaining naphthyl rings in a blade-like fashion, just like in three-folded propeller components...
May 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543419/flu-floods-and-fire-ethical-public-health-preparedness
#10
REVIEW
Alexandra L Phelan, Lawrence O Gostin
Even as public health ethics was developing as a field, major incidents such as 9/11 and the SARS epidemic propelled discourse around public health emergency preparedness and response. Policy and practice shifted to a multidisciplinary approach, recognizing the broad range of potential threats to public health, including biological, physical, radiological, and chemical threats. This propelled the development of surveillance systems to detect incidents, laboratory capacities to rapidly test for potential threats, and therapeutic and social countermeasures to prepare for and respond to a range of hazards...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543411/crowdsourcing-the-moral-limits-of-human-gene-editing
#11
Eric T Juengst
In 2015, a flourish of "alarums and excursions" by the scientific community propelled CRISPR/Cas9 and other new gene-editing techniques into public attention. At issue were two kinds of potential gene-editing experiments in humans: those making inheritable germ-line modifications and those designed to enhance human traits beyond what is necessary for health and healing. The scientific consensus seemed to be that while research to develop safe and effective human gene editing should continue, society's moral uncertainties about these two kinds of experiments needed to be better resolved before clinical trials of either type should be attempted...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540577/cooperativity-of-myosin-interaction-with-thin-filaments-is-enhanced-by-stabilizing-substitutions-in-tropomyosin
#12
Daniil V Shchepkin, Salavat R Nabiev, Galina V Kopylova, Alexander M Matyushenko, Dmitrii I Levitsky, Sergey Y Bershitsky, Andrey K Tsaturyan
Muscle contraction is powered by myosin interaction with actin-based thin filaments containing Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins, tropomyosin and troponin. Coiled-coil tropomyosin molecules form a long helical strand that winds around actin filament and either shields actin from myosin binding or opens it. Non-canonical residues G126 and D137 in the central part of tropomyosin destabilize its coiled-coil structure. Their substitutions for canonical ones, G126R and D137L, increase structural stability and the velocity of sliding of reconstructed thin filaments along myosin coated surface...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539442/extracellular-interactions-between-hepatitis-c-virus-and-secreted-apolipoprotein-e
#13
Zhihua Li, Yadong Li, Yanwei Bi, Hui Zhang, Yufeng Yao, Qihan Li, Wei Cun, Shaozhong Dong
Interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and lipoproteins in humans play an important role in the efficient establishment of chronic infection. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) on the HCV envelope mediates virus attachment to host cells as well as immune evasion. This interaction is thought to occur in hepatocytes, as ApoE plays dual functions in HCV assembly and maturation as well as cell attachment. In the present study, we found that secreted ApoE (sApoE) can also bind to viral particles via its C-terminal domain after HCV is released from the cell...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539068/ethanol-extract-and-chromatographic-fractions-of-tamarindus-indica-stem-bark-inhibits-newcastle-disease-virus-replication
#14
Omobola O Okoh, Grace E Obiiyeke, Uchechukwu U Nwodo, Anthony I Okoh
CONTEXT: The plethora of ethnomedicinal applications of Tamarindus indica Linn. (Leguminosae), tamarind, includes treatment of human and livestock ailments; preparations are recognized antipyretics in fevers, laxatives and carminatives. African folklore has various applications of tamarind. However, in Nyasaland, domestic fowl are fed with preparations for prophylactic properties. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to evaluate the antiviral properties of T...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535801/molecular-markers-of-anti-malarial-drug-resistance-in-central-west-and-east-african-children-with-severe-malaria
#15
Christian N Nguetse, Ayola Akim Adegnika, Tsiri Agbenyega, Bernhards R Ogutu, Sanjeev Krishna, Peter G Kremsner, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan
BACKGROUND: The Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (PfMDR1), P. falciparum Ca(2+)-ATPase (PfATP6) and Kelch-13 propeller domain (PfK13) loci are molecular markers of parasite susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs. Their frequency distributions were determined in the isolates collected from children with severe malaria originating from three African countries. METHODS: Samples from 287 children with severe malaria [(Gabon: n = 114); (Ghana: n = 89); (Kenya: n = 84)] were genotyped for pfmdr1, pfatp6 and pfk13 loci by DNA sequencing and assessing pfmdr1 copy number variation (CNV) by real-time PCR...
May 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535308/invited-commentary-the-contribution-to-the-field-of-nutritional-epidemiology-of-the-landmark-1985-publication-by-willett-et-al
#16
Amy F Subar, Lawrence H Kushi, Jennifer L Lerman, Laurence S Freedman
The semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been the primary source of dietary exposure data in epidemiology for decades. Although frequency instruments had been evaluated before the 1985 publication "Reproducibility and Validity of a Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire" by Willett et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122(1):51-65), that paper was the prototype for the development and validation of what was then a highly innovative method for collecting dietary data. This approach was adopted in nearly all subsequent cohort studies of diet and disease...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533963/morphology-of-an-early-oligocene-beaver-propalaeocastor-irtyshensis-and-the-status-of-the-genus-propalaeocastor
#17
Lüzhou Li, Qiang Li, Xiaoyu Lu, Xijun Ni
The Early to Late Oligocene Propalaeocastor is the earliest known beaver genus from Eurasia. Although many species of this genus have been described, these species are defined based on very fragmentary specimens. Propalaeocastor irtyshensis from the Early Oligocene Irtysh River Formation in northwestern Xinjiang, China is one of the earliest-known members of Propalaeocastor. This species is defined on a single maxillary fragment. We revise the diagnosis of P. irtyshensis and the genus Propalaeocastor, based on newly discovered specimens from the Irtysh River Formation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530758/self-thermophoretic-motion-of-controlled-assembled-micro-nanomotors
#18
Xiankun Lin, Tieyan Si, Zhiguang Wu, Qiang He
As artificial active colloids, micro-/nanomotors (MNMs) can convert energy from the environment into mechanical motion in different fluids, showing potential applications in diverse fields such as targeted drug delivery and photothermal therapy. However, chemical fuels for typical catalytic MNMs, e.g., hydrogen peroxide, are highly toxic to organisms, and thus fuel-free MNMs are required. Recently, we have developed near-infrared light (NIR) propelled MNMs through integrating plasmonic gold nanoshells into nanoparticles or layer-by-layer assemblies in an asymmetric manner...
May 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528628/millisecond-time-resolution-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy-for-dynamic-cellular-processes
#19
Ludek Stepanek, Gaia Pigino
Molecular motors propel cellular components at velocities up to microns per second with nanometer precision. Imaging techniques combining high temporal and spatial resolution are therefore indispensable to understand the cellular mechanics at the molecular level. For example, intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains constantly shuttle ciliary components between the base and tip of the eukaryotic cilium. 3-D electron microscopy has revealed IFT train morphology and position, but was unable to correlate these features with the direction of train movement...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524919/micro-nanomotors-towards-in-vivo-application-cell-tissue-and-biofluid
#20
REVIEW
Fei Peng, Yingfeng Tu, Daniela A Wilson
Inspired by highly efficient natural motors, synthetic micro/nanomotors are self-propelled machines capable of converting the supplied fuel into mechanical motion. A significant advance has been made in the construction of diverse motors over the last decade. These synthetic motor systems, with rapid transporting and efficient cargo towing abilities, are expected to open up new horizons for various applications. Utilizing emergent motor platforms for in vivo applications is one important aspect receiving growing interest as conventional therapeutic methodology still remains limited for cancer, heart, or vasculature diseases...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
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