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M Berthelette, D D Mann, J Ripat, C M Glazebrook
Wheelchair users who live in cold climates are faced with daily difficulties related to personal independence and societal inclusion, as their assistive devices are unable to overcome the physical barriers created by snow and ice. The purpose of the research was to evaluate four commercially available casters to determine which caster performed best on snow-covered surfaces. Performance measures included: travel time, force transfer through the palms of the hands, number of propulsive movements, static resistance to movement, kinetic resistance to movement, and caster penetration into the packed snow...
April 18, 2018: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
J Joris Hage, Maurits Lange, Henry J Zijlmans, Marc van Beurden
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Because of the associated high recurrence rate, future reconstructive options should be reckoned with during surgical treatment of primary or recurrent (pre)malignant vulvoperineal lesions. One of the claimed advantages of the gluteal fold flap is the possibility of repeated use of the flap in case of recurrence. We present our experience with such reuse of gluteal fold flaps to illustrate this possibility. METHODS: A mean of 27 months after initial use, 10 subcutaneously pedicled or perforator-based V-Y advancement or propeller-rotation flaps were elevated from previously used gluteal fold flaps in 9 women presenting with recurrent vulvoperineal (pre)malignancy...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Maisa Vuorte, Jukka Määttä, Maria Sammalkorpi
Here, we study one component and mixed n-alkyl-poly(ethylene oxide) (Cm En ) micelles with varying poly(ethylene oxide) (PEG) chain lengths n using coarse-grained molecular simulations. These non-ionic alkyl-PEG surfactants and their aggregates are widely used in bio and chemical technology. As expected, the simulations show that increasing the PEG chain length decreases the alkyl-PEG micelle core diameter and aggregation number but also enhances PEG chain penetration to the core region and spreads the micelle corona...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Neus Oliver, Christina Alpmann, Álvaro Barroso, Lena Dewenter, Mike Woerdemann, Cornelia Denz
Although synchronization is a well-known physical phenomenon, experimental studies of its emergence in living bacterial cells are still scarce. The difficulty in generating a controlled scenario to detect synchronization has limited the experimental outcomes so far. We present a realization based on holographic optical tweezers in which adhered pairs of self-propelled bacteria rotate in a plane. The separation distance between the bacteria determines the strength of the hydrodynamic coupling. Despite the noisy environment and autonomous dynamics of the living bacteria, we find evidence of phase locking and frequency entrainment in their rotation...
April 17, 2018: Soft Matter
Yan Zhang, Hong Zhu, Wenxuan Qiu, Yilu Zhou, Gaoshan Huang, Yongfeng Mei, Alexander A Solovev
We demonstrate a new type of gaseous fuel for rolled-up tubular Ti/Cr microengine powered by carbon dioxide microbubbles in carbonated water and brewed beverages. Existence of microbubble pockets is revealed using on-chip integrated transparent microtubes. Vertical position, angle of rotation and buoyancy of ferromagnetic Ti/Fe/Cr microengines are controlled using an external magnetic field.
April 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Outi Haapanen, Vivek Sharma
Respiratory complex I is a giant redox-driven proton pump, and central to energy production in mitochondria and bacteria. It catalyses the reduction of quinone to quinol, and converts the free energy released into the endergonic proton translocation across the membrane. The proton pumping sets up the proton electrochemical gradient, which propels the synthesis of ATP. Despite the availability of extensive biochemical, biophysical and structural data on complex I, the mechanism of coupling between the electron and proton transfer reactions remain uncertain...
April 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
John R Wagner, Takashi Taguchi, Jane Y Cho, Chandrashekhar Charavaryamath, Dominique J Griffon
Regenerative medicine provides novel alternatives to conditions that challenge traditional treatments. The prevalence and morbidity of tendinopathy across species, combined with the limited healing properties of this tissue, have prompted the search for cellular therapies and propelled the development of experimental models to study their efficacy. Umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCM-MSC) are appealing candidates because they are abundant, easy to collect, circumvent the ethical concerns and risk of teratoma formation, yet resemble primitive embryonic stem cells more closely than adult tissue-derived MSCs...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael Taschner, Anna Lorentzen, André Mourão, Toby Collins, Grace M Freke, Dale Moulding, Jerome Basquin, Dagan Jenkins, Esben Lorentzen
Oligomeric assemblies of intraflagellar transport (IFT) particles build cilia through sequential recruitment and transport of ciliary cargo proteins within cilia. Here we present the 1.8Å resolution crystal structure of the Chlamydomonas IFT-B protein IFT80, which reveals the architecture of two N-terminal b-propellers followed by an a-helical extension. The N-terminal b-propeller tethers IFT80 to the IFT-B complex via IFT38 whereas the second b-propeller and the C-terminal a-helical extension result in IFT80 homo-dimerization...
April 16, 2018: ELife
Andrew J P Smith, Panos Deloukas, Patricia B Munroe
Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have propelled the discovery of thousands of loci associated with complex diseases. The focus is now turning towards the function of these association signals, determining the causal variant(s) amongst those in strong linkage disequilibrium, and identifying their underlying mechanisms, such as long-range gene regulation. Genome-editing techniques utilising zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats with Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR-Cas9), are becoming the tools of choice to establish functionality for these variants, due to the ability to assess effects of single variants in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Aleksander Shakhov, Artyom Astafiev, Viktor Nadtochenko
We report the effect of laser cavitation in water initiated by femtosecond pulses confined into subwavelength volume of photonic nanojet of spherical microparticles. The effect of nanoscale optical breakdown was employed for controllable and nondestructive micromanipulation of silica microspheres. We combine this technique with optical trapping for cyclic particle movements and estimate a peak velocity and an acceleration acquired by microspheres propelled by nanojet cavitation. Our study provides a strategy for nondestructive optical micromanipulation, cavitation-assisted drug delivery, and laser energy transduction in microdevices...
April 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Tamanna Bhuyan, Mitradip Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar Singh, Siddhartha Sankar Ghosh, Dipankar Bandyopadhyay
We demonstrate the feasibility of a self-propelling mushroom motor, namely a 'logibot', as a functional unit for the construction of a host of optimized binary logic gates. Emulating the chemokinesis of unicellular prokaryotes or eukaryotes, the logibots made stimuli responsive conditional movements at varied speeds towards a pair of acid-alkali triggers. A series of integrative logic operations and cascaded logic circuits, namely, AND, NAND, NOT, OR, NOR, and NIMPLY, have been constructed employing the decisive chemotactic migrations of the logibot in the presence of the pH gradient established by the sole or coupled effects of acid (HCl-catalase) and alkali (NaOH) drips inside a peroxide bath...
April 12, 2018: Soft Matter
Daniel F Argolo, Clifford A Hudis, Neil M Iyengar
The rates of obesity are increasing worldwide and this condition is now recognized as a leading preventable cause of cancer. Several diseases are directly related to obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke, musculoskeletal disorders, and a diverse range of malignances-such as breast cancer. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and worse cancer-related outcomes for all breast tumor subtypes. Several mechanisms have been proposed to contribute to the obesity-cancer link, including high levels of circulating and local estrogens, altered amounts of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), disrupted insulin/IGF signaling, modifications within the microbiome, and local and systemic effects of inflammation...
April 11, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Brittany Bickelhaupt, Sakiko Oyama, Jonathan Benfield, Keith Burau, Shuko Lee, Michelle Trbovich
BACKGROUND: Shoulder dysfunction is common in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) with an incidence of up to 63%1 . Dysfunction is a result of muscle imbalances, specifically denervated rotator cuff muscles that are repetitively used during manual wheelchair propulsion. OBJECTIVE: To determine which arm stroke technique, pump (P) or semicircular (SC), is most energy efficient for long periods of propulsion. DESIGN: A small randomized study with repeated-measures observations...
April 5, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Abdallah Daddi-Moussa-Ider, Maciej Lisicki, Christian Hoell, Hartmut Löwen
The hydrodynamic flow field generated by self-propelled active particles and swimming microorganisms is strongly altered by the presence of nearby boundaries in a viscous flow. Using a simple model three-linked sphere swimmer, we show that the swimming trajectories near a no-slip wall reveal various scenarios of motion depending on the initial orientation and the distance separating the swimmer from the wall. We find that the swimmer can either be trapped by the wall, completely escape, or perform an oscillatory gliding motion at a constant mean height above the wall...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Pierre Gaspard, Raymond Kapral
The propulsion of active particles by self-diffusiophoresis is driven by asymmetric catalytic reactions on the particle surface that generate a mechanochemical coupling between the fluid velocity and the concentration fields of fuel and product in the surrounding solution. Because of thermal and molecular fluctuations in the solution, the motion of micrometric or submicrometric active particles is stochastic. Coupled Langevin equations describing the translation, rotation, and reaction of such active particles are deduced from fluctuating chemohydrodynamics and fluctuating boundary conditions at the interface between the fluid and the particle...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Pascal Röthlisberger, Marcel Hollenstein
Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules capable of tightly binding to specific targets. These functional nucleic acids are obtained by an in vitro Darwinian evolution method coined SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment). Compared to their proteinaceous counterparts, aptamers offer a number of advantages including a low immunogenicity, a relative ease of large-scale synthesis at affordable costs with little or no batch-to-batch variation, physical stability, and facile chemical modification...
April 4, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Mihir Durve, Arnab Saha, Ahmed Sayeed
We consider the flocking of self-propelling agents in two dimensions, each of which communicates with its neighbors within a limited vision-cone. Also, the communication occurs with some time-delay. The communication among the agents are modeled by Vicsek rules. In this study we explore the combined effect of non-reciprocal interaction (induced by limited vision-cone) among the agents and the presence of delay in the interactions on the dynamical pattern formation within the flock. We find that under these two influences, without any position-based attractive interactions or confining boundaries, the agents can spontaneously condense into "drops"...
April 9, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Elizabeth S Rodriguez
OBJECTIVES: To review patient portals which serve as a tool for patient engagement by increasing access to electronic health care information and expanding ways to communicate with health care providers. DATA SOURCES: Reviews of the literature and first-hand experience. CONCLUSION: Meaningful Use requirements propelled the design and development of patient portals in recent years. Patient engagement in oncology can improve quality of life and outcomes...
April 3, 2018: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Marta Cajozzo, Massimiliano Tripoli, Giovanni Zabbia, Salvatore D'Arpa, Francesca Toia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 6, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Fuji Ren, Ning Liu
In this paper, we propose an emotion separated method(SeTF·IDF) to assign the emotion labels of sentences with different values, which has a better visual effect compared with the values represented by TF·IDF in the visualization of a multi-label Chinese emotional corpus Ren_CECps. Inspired by the enormous improvement of the visualization map propelled by the changed distances among the sentences, we being the first group utilizes the Word Mover's Distance(WMD) algorithm as a way of feature representation in Chinese text emotion classification...
2018: PloS One
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