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Simon Praetorius, Axel Voigt, Raphael Wittkowski, Hartmut Löwen
Two-dimensional crystals on curved manifolds exhibit nontrivial defect structures. Here we consider "active crystals" on a sphere, which are composed of self-propelled colloidal particles. Our work is based on a phase-field-crystal-type model that involves a density and a polarization field on the sphere. Depending on the strength of the self-propulsion, three different types of crystals are found: a static crystal, a self-spinning "vortex-vortex" crystal containing two vortical poles of the local velocity, and a self-translating "source-sink" crystal with a source pole where crystallization occurs and a sink pole where the active crystal melts...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Félix Zapata, Marta Ferreiro-González, Carmen García-Ruiz
The NIR spectra from 1000 to 2500 nm of 18 different explosives, propellant powders and energetic salts were collected and interpreted. NIR spectroscopy is known to provide information about the combination bands and overtones of highly anharmonic vibrations as those occurring in XH bonds (CH, NH and OH). Particularly intense and complex were the bands corresponding to the first combination region (2500-1900 nm) and first overtone stretching mode (2ν) of CH and NH bonds (1750-1450 nm). Inorganic oxidizing salts including sodium/potassium nitrate, sodium/potassium chlorate, and sodium/potassium perchlorate displayed low intense or no NIR bands...
June 7, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Fan Yang, Fangzhi Mou, Yuzhou Jiang, Ming Luo, Leilei Xu, Huiru Ma, Jianguo Guan
In this work, we demonstrate a simple, versatile and real-time motion guidance strategy for artificial microengines and motile microorganisms in a ferrofluid by dynamic topographical pathways (DTPs), which are assembled from superparamagnetic nanoparticles in response to external magnetic field ( H). In this general strategy, the DTPs can exert anisotropic resistance forces on autonomously moving microengines and thus regulate their orientation. As the DTPs with different directions and lengths can be reversibly and swiftly assembled in response to the applied H, the microengines in the ferrofluid can be guided on demand with controlled motion directions and trajectories, including circular, elliptical, straight-line, semi-sine and sinusoidal trajectories...
June 15, 2018: ACS Nano
Roberto Maria-Hormigos, Beatriz Jurado Sánchez, Alberto Escarpa
Tubular micromotors composed of a hybrid single wall carbon nanotubes (SW)-Fe2O3 outer layer and powered by MnO2 catalyst are used for phenylenediamines isomers detection and discrimination. Catalytic decomposition of H2O2 as fuel results in the production of oxygen bubbles and hydroxyl radicals for phenylenediamines dimerization to produce colorful solutions in colorimetric assays. The combination of Fe2O3 nanoparticles along with the irregular SW backbone results in a rough catalytic layer for enhanced hydroxyl radical production rate and improved analytical sensitivity...
June 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jean-Francois Nierengarten, Uwe Hahn, Emmanuel Maisonhaute
Two diastereoisomeric N-doped nanographene derivatives have been efficiently prepared in two synthetic steps starting from an ethynylated hexaazatriphenylene building block. The first derivative adopts a D3-symmetrical propeller-shaped structure with three equivalent nanographene foils. The structure of the second diastereoisomer is C2-symmetrical and differs from the first one by the way two peripheral nanographene foils overlap. Owing to their intertwined structures, the two N-doped nanographene are soluble in organic solvents and could be characterized by a combination of several analytical tools...
June 15, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Daniel R Parisi, Raúl Cruz Hidalgo, Iker Zuriguel
We report extensive numerical simulations of the flow of anisotropic self-propelled particles through a constriction. In particular, we explore the role of the particles' desired orientation with respect to the moving direction on the system flowability. We observe that when particles propel along the direction of their long axis (longitudinal orientation) the flow-rate notably reduces compared with the case of propulsion along the short axis (transversal orientation). And this is so even when the effective section (measured as the number of particles that are necessary to span the whole outlet) is larger for the case of longitudinal propulsion...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anthony J Treichel, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract's normal function depends on its ability to propel, mix, and store contents in a highly coordinated fashion. An ability to sense mechanical forces is therefore fundamental to normal GI tract operation. There are several mechanosensory circuits distributed throughout the GI tract. These circuits rely on a range of proposed specialized and non-specialized mechanosensory cells that include epithelial enterochromaffin (EC) cells, both intrinsic and extrinsic sensory neurons, glia, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells...
August 15, 2018: Brain Research
Yashovardhan Agarwal
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and the World Bank's "World Report on Disability" reported that over 1 billion people have various kinds of disability worldwide while Indian Census 2011 reported about 26 million in India. The United Nations Convention states, "The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (PwD) include accessibility to Information, Transportation, Environment, Communication Technology and Services". OBJECTIVE: This article takes forward the reason of making the "EasenAccess" (EnA) Android-based app to empower PwD with wheelchair-accessibility information, communication sentences and sending SOS signals with location...
June 14, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Cheng Zeng, Chengyi Xiao, Xinliang Feng, Lei Zhang, Wei Jiang, Zhaohui Wang
A novel kind of electron-deficient bisheterotetracenes (PTTIs) involving double S-hetero[5]helicene diimides, is developed by fourfold thienannulation protocol via ortho-functionalization of PDIs. PTTIs exhibit significantly red-shifted absorption capacity with lowest-energy transition maxima beyond 700 nm and narrowed HOMO-LUMO energy gaps. Through delicately tuning the side-chain substitution, the distorted propeller-like framework could self-assemble into unprecedented 1D helical π-stacking structures with short π-π contacts and rich nonbonding interactions by alternating arrangements of P/M enantiomeric couples or tetrads...
June 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Anshumali Mittal, Fruzsina Hobor, Ying Zhang, Stephen R Martin, Steven J Gamblin, Andres Ramos, Jon R Wilson
The multi-protein complex WRAD, formed by WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L and Dpy30, binds to the MLL SET domain to stabilize the catalytically active conformation required for histone H3K4 methylation. In addition, the WRAD complex contributes to the targeting of the activated complex to specific sites on chromatin. RbBP5 is central to MLL catalytic activation, by making critical contacts with the other members of the complex. Interestingly its only major structural domain, a canonical WD40 repeat β-propeller, is not implicated in this function...
April 20, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Yuta Inoue, Shintaro Kodama, Nobuto Taya, Hirohiko Sato, Katsuyoshi Oh-Ishi, Youichi Ishii
A novel C3 -symmetric propeller-shaped vanadium(IV/V) oxide cluster complex, [V8 O19 (4,4'- t Bubpy)3 ] (V8 '), has been synthesized from the reaction of the windmill-shaped vanadium(V) oxide cluster complex [V8 O20 (4,4'- t Bubpy)4 ] (V8 ) with PPh3 under N2 , whereas refluxing V8 in methanol or ethanol under N2 provides tetranuclear oxido(alkoxido)vanadium(IV/V) complexes [V4 O6 (OR)6 (4,4'- t Bubpy)2 ] [R = Me (V4 '-Me) and Et (V4 '-Et)]. The mixed-valent vanadium(IV/V) clusters V8 ' and V4 ' are converted back to V8 under O2 ...
June 13, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Ram Haddas, Kevin L Ju
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: Analyze ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients to elucidate gait alterations as compared to healthy controls. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: During the human gait cycle, the magnitude and direction of the force each foot imparts on the ground varies in a controlled fashion to propel the body's center of mass forward. Alterations in GRF patterns can both point to subtle gait disturbances and explain altered gait patterns such as that seen in CSM...
June 8, 2018: Spine
Yunfeng Hua, Ke Li, Xiaolin Zhou, Linli He, Linxi Zhang
Effective forces between two micro-wedges immersed in an active bath are investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Two anti-parallel and parallel wedge-like obstacles are considered respectively, and the effective forces between two wedges rely on the wedge-to-wedge distance, the apex angle of the wedge, as well as the particle density and aspect ratio. For two anti-parallel wedges, a transition from repulsion to attraction occurs by varying the apex angle, which is also sensitive to the particle density and aspect ratio...
June 11, 2018: Soft Matter
Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Hypothalamic integration of gastrointestinal and adipose tissue-derived hormones serves as a key element of neuroendocrine control of food intake. Leptin, adiponectin, oleoylethanolamide, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin, to name a few, are in a constant "cross talk" with the feeding-related brain circuits that encompass hypothalamic populations synthesizing anorexigens (melanocortins, CART, oxytocin) and orexigens (Agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, orexins). While this integrated neuroendocrine circuit successfully ensures that enough energy is acquired, it does not seem to be equally efficient in preventing excessive energy intake, especially in the obesogenic environment in which highly caloric and palatable food is constantly available...
June 10, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Laetitia Guyot, Christelle Machon, Myléne Honorat, Brigitte Manship, Charlotte Bouard, Arnaud Vigneron, Alain Puisieux, Emilie Labarthe, Guy Jacob, Anne Dhenain, Jérôme Guitton, Léa Payen
Hydrazine-based liquid propellants are routinely used for space rocket propulsion, in particular monomethylhydrazine (MMH), although such compounds are highly hazardous. For several years, great efforts were devoted to developing a less hazardous molecule. To explore the toxicological effects of an alternative compound, namely (E)-1,1,4,4-tetramethyl-2-tetrazene (TMTZ), we exposed various cellular animal and human models to this compound and to the reference compound MMH. We observed no cytotoxic effects following exposure to TMTZ in animal, as well as human models...
June 6, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Taylor C Brown, Timothy D Murtha, Jill C Rubinstein, Reju Korah, Tobias Carling
BACKGROUND: Altered expression of Solute Carrier Family 12 Member 7 (SLC12A7) is implicated to promote malignant behavior in multiple cancer types through an incompletely understood mechanism. Recent studies have shown recurrent gene amplifications and overexpression of SLC12A7 in adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). The potential mechanistic effect(s) of SLC12A7 amplifications in portending an aggressive behavior in ACC has not been previously studied and is investigated here using two established ACC cell lines, SW-13 and NCI-H295R...
June 8, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Qiu-Song Yang, Qing-Wei Fan, Zhuang-Lin Shen, Yi-Qi Xia, Wen-de Tian, Kang Chen
We study the interplay between active Brownian particles (ABPs) and a "hairy" surface in two-dimensional geometry. We find that the increase of propelling force leads to and enhances inhomogeneous accumulation of ABPs inside the brush region. Oscillation of chain bundles (beating like cilia) is found in company with the formation and disassembly of a dynamic cluster of ABPs at large propelling forces. Meanwhile chains are stretched and pushed down due to the effective shear force by ABPs. The decrease of the average brush thickness with propelling force reflects the growth of the beating amplitude of chain bundles...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mónica Valenzuela-Delgado, Wendy Flores-Fuentes, Moisés Rivas-López, Oleg Sergiyenko, Lars Lindner, Daniel Hernández-Balbuena, Julio C Rodríguez-Quiñonez
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is becoming more popular every day among developers of applications based on microfluidics, such as “lab on a chip” (LOC) and/or “micro-total analysis systems” (micro-TAS). Its physical properties enable fluid manipulation for tasks such as pumping, networking, propelling, stirring, mixing, and even cooling without the need for mechanical components, and its non-intrusive nature provides a solution to mechanical systems issues. However, these are not easy tasks...
May 24, 2018: Sensors
Mohammad Zarei, Mohanna Zarei
Self-propelled micro/nanomotors have gained attention for successful application in cargo delivery, therapeutic treatments, sensing, and environmental remediation. Unique characteristics such as high speed, motion control, selectivity, and functionability promote the application of micro/nanomotors in analytical sciences. Here, the recent advancements and main challenges regarding the application of self-propelled micro/nanomotors in sensing and environmental remediation are discussed. The current state of micro/nanomotors is reviewed, emphasizing the period of the last five years, then their developments into the future applications for enhanced sensing and efficient purification of water resources are extrapolated...
June 7, 2018: Small
Michael V McConnell, Mintu P Turakhia, Robert A Harrington, Abby C King, Euan A Ashley
The growing recognition that "health" takes place outside of the hospital and clinic, plus recent advances in mobile and wearable devices, have propelled the field of mobile health (mHealth). Cardiovascular disease and prevention are major opportunities for mHealth, as mobile devices can monitor key physiological signals (e.g., physical activity, heart rate and rhythm) for promoting healthy behaviors, detecting disease, and aid in ongoing care. In this review, the authors provide an update on cardiovascular mHealth by highlighting recent progress and challenges with mobile and wearable devices for assessing and promoting physical activity and fitness, and for monitoring heart rate and rhythm for the detection and management of atrial fibrillation...
June 12, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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