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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214509/haplodeficiency-of-activin-receptor-like-kinase-4-alleviates-myocardial-infarction-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-and-preserves-cardiac-function
#1
Yi-He Chen, Qian Wang, Chang-Yi Li, Jian-Wen Hou, Xiao-Meng Chen, Qing Zhou, Jie Chen, Yue-Peng Wang, Yi-Gang Li
Cardiac fibrosis (CF), a repairing process following myocardial infarction (MI), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) resulting in inevitable resultant heart failure. TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β)/ALK5 (Activin receptor-like kinase 5)/Smad2/3/4 pathways have been reported to be involved in the process. Recent studies have implicated both activin and its specific downstream component ALK4 in stimulating fibrosis in non-cardiac organs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213499/geometry-and-network-connectivity-govern-the-mechanics-of-stress-fibers
#2
Elena Kassianidou, Christoph A Brand, Ulrich S Schwarz, Sanjay Kumar
Actomyosin stress fibers (SFs) play key roles in driving polarized motility and generating traction forces, yet little is known about how tension borne by an individual SF is governed by SF geometry and its connectivity to other cytoskeletal elements. We now address this question by combining single-cell micropatterning with subcellular laser ablation to probe the mechanics of single, geometrically defined SFs. The retraction length of geometrically isolated SFs after cutting depends strongly on SF length, demonstrating that longer SFs dissipate more energy upon incision...
February 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210901/transplantation-of-lineage-negative-stem-cells-in-pterygopalatine-artery-ligation-induced-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#3
Gillipsie Minhas, Sudesh Prabhakar, Ryuichi Morishita, Munehisa Shimamura, Reema Bansal, Akshay Anand
Retinal ischemia is a condition associated with retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and other optic neuropathies, leading to visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Currently, there is no therapy available for ischemic retinopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test a murine model of pterygopalatine artery ligation-induced retinal injury for transplantation of mouse bone marrow-derived lineage-negative (lin-ve) stem cells. The mouse external carotid artery and pterygopalatine artery were ligated for 3...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209916/diabetic-concentrations-of-metformin-inhibit-platelet-mediated-ovarian-cancer-cell-progression
#4
Rafaela Erices, Sofía Cubillos, Raúl Aravena, Felice Santoro, Monica Marquez, Renan Orellana, Carolina Ramírez, Pamela González, Patricia Fuenzalida, María Loreto Bravo, Bárbara Oliva, Sumie Kato, Carolina Ibañez, Jorge Brañes, Erasmo Bravo, Catalina Alonso, Karen García, Clemente Arab, Vicente A Torres, Alejandro S Godoy, Jaime Pereira, Galdo Bustos, Julio Cesar Cardenas, Mauricio A Cuello, Gareth I Owen
Clinical studies have suggested a survival benefit in ovarian cancer patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking metformin, however the mechanism by which diabetic concentrations of metformin could deliver this effect is still poorly understood. Platelets not only represent an important reservoir of growth factors and angiogenic regulators, they are also known to participate in the tumor microenvironment implicated in tumor growth and dissemination. Herein, we investigated if diabetic concentrations of metformin could impinge upon the previously reported observation that platelet induces an increase in the tube forming capacity of endothelial cells (angiogenesis) and upon ovarian cancer cell aggressiveness...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206772/cytotoxic-fusicoccane-type-diterpenoids-from-streptomyces-violascens-isolated-from-ailuropoda-melanoleuca-feces
#5
Dan Zheng, Li Han, Xiaodan Qu, Xiu Chen, Jialiang Zhong, Xiaoxu Bi, Jiang Liu, Yi Jiang, Chenglin Jiang, Xueshi Huang
Six new fusicoccane-type diterpenoids (2-7) were isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces violascens, which was isolated from Ailuropoda melanoleuca (giant panda) feces. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by a detailed spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 5-7 demonstrated cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 3.5 ± 0.7 to 14.1 ± 0.8 μM. Cell adhesion, migration, and invasion assays showed that 6 inhibited the migration and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205127/apoptosis-induced-by-a-snake-venom-metalloproteinase-from-bothrops-alternatus-venom-in-c2c12-muscle-cells
#6
Soledad Bustillo, Andrea C Van de Velde, Verónica Matzner Perfumo, Claudia C Gay, Laura C Leiva
In this study, the apoptosis inducing effects of baltergin as well as its influence on cell adhesion and migration on muscles cells in vitro were studied. Morphological analysis made by scanning electron and phase contrast microscopy demonstrated typical futures of programmed cell death, apoptosis. This mechanism was confirmed by fluorescence staining, molecular analysis of endonuclease activity and increased mRNA expression level of two representative genes (p53 and bax). On the other hand, baltergin exert an inhibition effect on myoblast cell adhesion and migration in vitro probably through a mechanism that involves the interaction of this enzyme with cell integrins...
February 15, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205070/clinicopathological-significance-of-ganglioside-dsgb5-expression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
Jun Itoh, Akihiro Ito, Shuichi Shimada, Yoshihide Kawasaki, Narihiko Kakoi, Hideo Saito, Koji Mitsuzuka, Mika Watanabe, Makoto Satoh, Seiichi Saito, Yoichi Arai
Disialosyl globopentaosylceramide (DSGb5) is a ganglioside originally isolated from tissue extracts of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with metastasis. Previous in vitro experiments have suggested that DSGb5 promotes metastasis by enhancing the migration of RCC cells and downregulating NK cell cytotoxicity against RCC cells. In this study, we investigated the clinicopathological significance of DSGb5 expression in RCC and outcomes of RCC patients. A total of 156 RCC patients who underwent surgical treatments at our hospital from January 2007 through December 2012 were analyzed in this study...
February 15, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202431/thrombus-migration-in-the-middle-cerebral-artery-incidence-imaging-signs-and-impact-on-success-of-endovascular-thrombectomy
#8
Johannes Kaesmacher, Christian Maegerlein, Mirjam Kaesmacher, Claus Zimmer, Holger Poppert, Benjamin Friedrich, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Justus F Kleine
BACKGROUND: Thrombus migration (TM) in intracranial vessels during ischemic stroke has been reported in the form of case reports, but its incidence, impact on the technical success of subsequent endovascular thrombectomy and patients' outcome have never been studied systematically. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective analysis was done of 409 patients with isolated middle cerebral artery occlusions treated with endovascular thrombectomy. TM was observed (1) by analyzing discrepancies between computed tomographic angiography and digital subtraction angiography and (2) by comparing infarct pattern in the striatocapsular region with exact, angiographically assessed thrombus location within the M1-segment and the involvement of the middle cerebral artery perforators...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196712/ipomoea-pes-caprae-l-r-br-convolvulaceae-as-a-topical-herbal-medicine-to-relieve-pain-and-inflammation-promising-tool-against-effects-due-to-toxin-skin-contact
#9
Cristiane da Silva Barth, Hugo Guilherme Tolentino de Souza, Lilian W Rocha, Gislaine Francieli da Silva, Mariana Ferreira Dos Anjos, Veronica D'Avila Pastor, Tania Mari Belle Bresolin, Angelica Garcia Couto, José Roberto Santin, Nara Lins Meira Quintão
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ipomoea pes-caprae is known as bayhops, beach morning glory or goat's foot, and in Brazil as salsa-de-praia. Its leaves are used in worldwide folk medicine for the relief of jellyfish-stings symptoms. The literature only reports the anti-inflammatory and neutralizing effects of a nonpolar plant derived, without validating the popular use or exploring the mechanism of action. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate and validate the topical effects of a semisolid containing hydroethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of I...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194976/reversible-photoisomerization-among-triplet-amino-naphthylnitrene-triplet-diimine-biradical-and-indazole-matrix-isolation-ir-spectra-of-8-amino-1-naphthylnitrene-1-8-naphthalenediimine-and-1-2-dihydrobenz-cd-indazole
#10
Takuya Okamura, Nobuyuki Akai, Munetaka Nakata
Reaction mechanisms of nitrene, one of the most famous biradicals, have been frequently studied, and many spectral data have been obtained so far. In the present study, the experimental IR spectra of triplet 8-amino-1-naphthylnitrene ((3)ANN), a triplet diimine biradical 1,8-dihydro-1,8-naphthalenediimine ((3)DND), and 1,2-dihydrobenz[cd]indazole (DBI), which are produced in the UV photolysis of 1,8-diaminonaphthalene in an Ar matrix and identified by a combination method of IR spectroscopy and DFT quantum chemical calculations, are first reported...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193827/monocyte-subsets-coregulate-inflammatory-responses-by-integrated-signaling-through-tnf-and-il-6-at-the-endothelial-cell-interface
#11
Myriam Chimen, Clara M Yates, Helen M McGettrick, Lewis S C Ward, Matthew J Harrison, Bonita Apta, Lea H Dib, Beat A Imhof, Paul Harrison, Gerard B Nash, G Ed Rainger
Two major monocyte subsets, CD14(+)CD16(-) (classical) and CD14(+/dim)CD16(+) (nonclassical/intermediate), have been described. Each has different functions ascribed in its interactions with vascular endothelial cells (EC), including migration and promoting inflammation. Although monocyte subpopulations have been studied in isolated systems, their influence on EC and on the course of inflammation has been ignored. In this study, using unstimulated or cytokine-activated EC, we observed significant differences in the recruitment, migration, and reverse migration of human monocyte subsets...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193727/inference-of-gene-flow-in-the-process-of-speciation-an-efficient-maximum-likelihood-method-for-the-isolation-with-initial-migration-model
#12
Rui J Costa, Hilde Wilkinson-Herbots
The isolation-with-migration (IM) model is commonly used to make inferences about gene flow during speciation, using polymorphism data. However, Becquet and Przeworski (2009) report that the parameter estimates obtained by fitting the IM model are very sensitive to the model's assumptions, including the assumption of constant gene flow until the present. This paper is concerned with the isolation-with-initial-migration (IIM) model, which drops precisely this assumption. In the IIM model, one ancestral population divides into two descendant subpopulations, between which there is an initial period of gene flow and a subsequent period of isolation...
February 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193608/dectin-2-deficiency-modulates-th1-differentiation-and-improves-wound-healing-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
Xiaoxiang Yan, Hang Zhang, Qin Fan, Jian Hu, Rong Tao, Qiujing Chen, Yoichiro Iwakura, Weifeng Shen, Lin Lu, Qi Zhang, Ruiyan Zhang
Rationale: Macrophages are involved in wound healing after myocardial infarction (MI). The role of Dectin-2, a pattern recognition receptor mainly expressed on myeloid cells, in the infarct healing remains unknown. Objective: To determine whether Dectin-2 signaling is involved in the healing process and cardiac remodeling after MI, and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Methods and Results: In a mouse model of permanent coronary ligation, Dectin-2, mainly expressed in macrophages, was shown to be increased in the early phase after MI...
February 13, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192100/disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-activity-of-the-alkaloid-montanine-on-experimental-arthritis-and-fibroblast-like-synoviocytes
#14
Mirian Farinon, Vanessa S Clarimundo, Graziele P R Pedrazza, Pércio S Gulko, José A S Zuanazzi, Ricardo M Xavier, Patricia G de Oliveira
Montanine is an alkaloid isolated from Rhodophiala bifida bulb with potential anti-arthritic activity. In this context, we evaluated whether montanine has a disease modifying anti-rheumatic activity in two arthritis models and its effect in vitro on lymphocyte proliferation and on invasiveness of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was performed in Balb/C mice with methylated bovine serum albumin, and nociception and leukocytes migration into the knee joint were evaluated. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was performed in DBA/1J mice, and arthritis development and severity were assessed by clinical and histological scoring and articular nociception...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191774/novel-peripherally-derived-neural-like-stem-cells-as-therapeutic-carriers-for-treating-glioblastomas
#15
Alexander Birbrair, Anirudh Sattiraju, Dongqin Zhu, Gilberto Zulato, Izadora Batista, Van T Nguyen, Maria Laura Messi, Kiran Kumar Solingapuram Sai, Frank C Marini, Osvaldo Delbono, Akiva Mintz
Glioblastoma (GBM), an aggressive grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor characterized by extensive invasiveness, heterogeneity, and angiogenesis. Standard treatment options such as radiation and chemotherapy have proven to be only marginally effective in treating GBM because of its invasive nature. Therefore, extensive efforts have been put forth to develop tumor-tropic stem cells as viable therapeutic vehicles with potential to treat even the most invasive tumor cells that are harbored within areas of normal brain...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190556/cotransplantation-of-neuroepithelial-stem-cells-with-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-improves-neuronal-differentiation-in-a-rat-aganglionic-model
#16
Lijuan Zhang, Bin Zhao, Wei Liu, Rui Ma, Rongde Wu, Yingmao Gao
BACKGROUND: Recent advances have raised the possibility of treating Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) with transplanted neural stem cells. Although these cells have been shown to migrate and differentiate after transplantation, the restoration of intestinal motility by grafted cells is also mediated via the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of cografting with ICC on neural stem cells after transplanted into aganglionic bowel. METHODS: Neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) and ICCs were isolated from neural tube of embryonic rat (embryonic day 11...
February 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186964/il-6-secreted-by-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promotes-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastasis-of-gastric-cancer-via-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway
#17
Xiongyan Wu, Pan Tao, Quan Zhou, Jie Li, Zhenjia Yu, Xiaofeng Wang, Jiaanfang Li, Chen Li, Min Yan, Zhenggang Zhu, Bingya Liu, Liping Su
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor-promoting properties of CAFs in gastric cancer remain unclear. Here, we show that CAFs isolated from gastric cancer produce significant amounts of interleukin-6 (IL-6). CAFs enhances the migration and EMT of gastric cancer cells through the secretion of IL-6 that activates Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT3) pathway in gastric cancer cells, while deprivation of IL-6 using a neutralizing antibody or inhibition of JAK/STAT3 pathway with specific inhibitor AG490 markedly attenuates these phenotypes in gastric cancer cells induced by CAFs...
February 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184941/combined-effects-of-furanodiene-and-doxorubicin-on-the-migration-and-invasion-of-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#18
Zhang-Feng Zhong, Wen Tan, Ke Tian, Hua Yu, Wen-An Qiang, Yi-Tao Wang
Furanodiene is one of the major bioactive components isolated from the natural product of the plant, Curcuma wenyujin Y.H. Chen et C. Ling. Furanodiene has been found to exert anticancer effects in various types of cancer cell lines, as well as exhibit antimetastatic activities. However, the antimetastatic capacity of furanodiene in combination with the common chemotherapy drug doxorubicin has not been investigated. We found that doxorubicin at a non-toxic concentration induced cell migration and cell invasion in highly metastatic breast cancer cells...
February 10, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182950/pseudogenization-of-the-secreted-effector-gene-ssei-confers-rapid-systemic-dissemination-of-s-typhimurium-st313-within-migratory-dendritic-cells
#19
Sarah E Carden, Gregory T Walker, Jared Honeycutt, Kyler Lugo, Trung Pham, Amanda Jacobson, Donna Bouley, Juliana Idoyaga, Renee M Tsolis, Denise Monack
Genome degradation correlates with host adaptation and systemic disease in Salmonella. Most lineages of the S. enterica subspecies Typhimurium cause gastroenteritis in humans; however, the recently emerged ST313 lineage II pathovar commonly causes systemic bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. ST313 lineage II displays genome degradation compared to gastroenteritis-associated lineages; yet, the mechanisms and causal genetic differences mediating these infection phenotypes are largely unknown. We find that the ST313 isolate D23580 hyperdisseminates from the gut to systemic sites, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), via CD11b(+) migratory dendritic cells (DCs)...
February 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178688/upregulated-wee1-protects-endothelial-cells-of-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases
#20
Peter J Webster, Anna T Littlejohns, Hannah J Gaunt, Richard S Young, Baptiste Rode, Judith E Ritchie, Lucy F Stead, Sally Harrison, Alastair Droop, Heather L Martin, Darren C Tomlinson, Adam J Hyman, Hollie L Appleby, Sally Boxall, Alexander F Bruns, Jing Li, Raj K Prasad, J Peter A Lodge, Dermot A Burke, David J Beech
Surgical resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM) can be curative, yet 80% of patients are unsuitable for this treatment. As angiogenesis is a determinant of CLM progression we isolated endothelial cells from CLM and sought a mechanism which is upregulated, essential for angiogenic properties of these cells and relevant to emerging therapeutic options. Matched CLM endothelial cells (CLMECs) and endothelial cells of normal adjacent liver (LiECs) were superficially similar but transcriptome sequencing revealed molecular differences, one of which was unexpected upregulation and functional significance of the checkpoint kinase WEE1...
February 2, 2017: Oncotarget
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