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Oral hypoglycemic

Rajesh Kumari, Venus Dalal, Garima Kachhawa, Ipshita Sahoo, Rajesh Khadgawat, Reeta Mahey, Vidushi Kulshrestha, Perumal Vanamail, J B Sharma, Neerja Bhatla, Alka Kriplani
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the maternal and perinatal outcome in GDM during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with GDM who got antenatal care and delivered in our hospital in previous 5 years...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xia Dai, Zu-Chun Luo, Lu Zhai, Wen-Piao Zhao, Feng Huang
INTRODUCTION: Empagliflozin is a new, emerging oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) which has shown significant benefits in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with cardiovascular disease. In this analysis, our aim was to systematically compare the adverse drug events (ADEs) associated with a low (10 mg) versus a high (25 mg) dose of empagliflozin as (1) monotherapy, (2) as an add-on to other OHAs, and (3) as an add-on specifically to metformin, in patients who were treated for T2DM. METHODS: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared empagliflozin 10 mg versus 25 mg in patients who were treated for T2DM and which reported adverse drug reactions as their clinical endpoints...
March 9, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Venugopala Rao Konda, Madhavi Eerike, R Prasanth Chary, Ruckmani Arunachalam, Venkata Ramana Yeddula, Vinayak Meti, T Sobita Devi
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to assess evaluate the effects of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) on blood glucose and lipid levels in normal, diabetic, and glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of six each. Group I was normal control, Groups II and III were given AlCl3 50 and 100 mg/kg, and Group IV to VII were administered with streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Bahendeka Silver, Kaushik Ramaiya, Swai Babu Andrew, Otieno Fredrick, Sarita Bajaj, Sanjay Kalra, Bavuma M Charlotte, Karigire Claudine, Anthony Makhoba
A diagnosis of diabetes or hyperglycemia should be confirmed prior to ordering, dispensing, or administering insulin (A). Insulin is the primary treatment in all patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (A). Typically, patients with T1DM will require initiation with multiple daily injections at the time of diagnosis. This is usually short-acting insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogue given 0 to 15 min before meals together with one or more daily separate injections of intermediate or long-acting insulin...
March 5, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Hiroki Nakajima, Sadanori Okada, Takako Mohri, Eiichiro Kanda, Naoyuki Inaba, Yoko Hirasawa, Hiroaki Seino, Hisamoto Kuroda, Toru Hiyoshi, Tetsuji Niiya, Hitoshi Ishii
Background: The benefits of sodium glucose cotransporters 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus include plasma glucose control, reduction in body weight and blood pressure, and low risk of hypoglycemia, although they may also cause genitourinary infections, polyuria, or volume depletion. It is not clear whether dapagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, improves treatment satisfaction among patients in a comprehensive way despite the negative side effects. This study assessed the effect of dapagliflozin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, and treatment satisfaction in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with oral hypoglycemic agents...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Jiawei Wu, Yaxian Zheng, Min Liu, Wei Shan, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Nanoparticles (NPs) for oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs are largely limited due to the co-existence of intestinal mucus and epithelial barriers. Sequentially overcoming these two barriers is intractable to realize in single nanovehicle because it needs different or even contradictory surface properties of NPs. To solve this dilemma, a biomimetic mucus penetrating virus-inspired NPs meanwhile with charge reversal ability (P-R8-Pho NPs) were developed by densely coating PLGA NPs with cationic octa-arginine (R8) peptide and specific anionic phosphoserine (Pho)...
March 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Takatoshi Anno, Hideaki Kaneto, Ryo Shigemoto, Fumiko Kawasaki, Yasuhiro Kawai, Noriyo Urata, Hirofumi Kawamoto, Kohei Kaku, Niro Okimoto
Hypoglycemia is induced by many causes, especially over-dose of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic subjects. In such a case, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is usually observed. On the other hand, it is important to classify secondary hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Liver injury-induced hypoglycemia is one of the causes of hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia but rarely observed in clinical practice. Herein, we experienced similar 2 cases of non-diabetic hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Both of them were elderly subjects with low body weight...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Afaque H Khan, Samina Zaidi
We report five cases of treatment-resistant schizophrenia that presented with prominent negative and positive symptoms. They fulfill the criteria of diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). They showed lack of response despite receiving multiple trials of first and second generation psychotropic agents. We decided to give these patients a trial of clozapine to improve their negative and positive symptoms as well as their quality of life...
December 20, 2017: Curēus
Brian Mac Grory, Shadi Yaghi
In this article, we discuss major advances in the treatment and prevention of ischemic stroke that have taken placed in the past 3 years. The most important advance in acute stroke treatment is the validation and widespread adoption of intra-arterial therapies for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Five clinical trials spanning multiple continents were published in early 2015 that proved that intra-arterial treatment - both with and without tPA - is beneficial in improving functional recovery after stroke...
March 1, 2018: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Patrick O Richard, Ardalan E Ahmad, Shaheena Bashir, Alexandre Zlotta, Bimal Bhindi, Ricardo Leao, Madhur Nayan, Aza Mohammed, Neil E Fleshner, Girish S Kulkarni
INTRODUCTION: Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for 75-85% of all bladder cancers (UBC). Many UBC patients are also afflicted by diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been postulated that several oral hypoglycemic agents could impact disease-specific survival (DSS), but the data are sparse among NMIBC patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate the impact of metformin on DSS and overall survival (OS) in NMIBC patients. METHODS: This is a retrospective, population-based study that used linked administrative databases to identify diabetic patients ≥66 years who were subsequently diagnosed with NMIBC in Ontario, between 1992 and 2012...
February 23, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
Yining Xu, Yaxian Zheng, Lei Wu, Xi Zhu, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
Although nanoparticles (NPs) have been demonstrated as promising tools for improving oral absorption of biotherapeutics, most of them still have very limited oral bioavailability. Lyso-endosomal degradation in epithelial cells is one of important but often-neglected physiological barriers, limiting the transport of cargoes across the intestinal epithelium. We herein reported a solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) platform with a unique feature of endosomal escape for oral protein drug delivery. The SLNs consisted of a solid-lipid shell, which contained an endosomal escape agent (GLFEAIEGFIENGWEGMIDGWYG, HA2), and an aqueous core that loaded with insulin (INS HA2-O-SLNs)...
February 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hasani Prabodha Sudasinghe, Dinithi C Peiris
Leaves of Passiflora suberosa L. (Family: Passifloraceae; common name: wild passion fruit, devil's pumpkin) are used in Sri Lankan traditional medicine for treating diabetes. The present study investigated the in vivo ability of P. suberosa leaves to manage blood sugar status and associated cholesterol levels. Mechanisms of action and toxicity were also determined. Phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of P. suberosa leaves and carbohydrate content of the leaves were determined according to previously published methods...
2018: PeerJ
Rai-Hseng Hsu, Wei-De Lin, Mei-Chyn Chao, Hui-Pin Hsiao, Siew-Lee Wong, Pao-Chin Chiu, Shao-Yin Chu, Yu-Yuan Ke, Beng-Huat Lau, Yin-Hsiu Chien, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Chung-Hsing Wang, Ni-Chung Lee
BACKGROUND: Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare disorder characterized by scarce adipose tissue. This disease is distributed worldwide, but little is known about these patients in the Chinese population. Here, we delineate the phenotype and prognosis of CGL in our cohort. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CGL from 8 medical centers were reviewed. The initial presentation, laboratory findings, and molecular testing were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 16 patients were analyzed, and the current median age was 3...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Viviana Bauman, Adaya C Sturkey, Rosa Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Jennifer McEwan, Paul M Jones, Ashley Keating, Elvira Isganaitis, Alyne Ricker, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Factitious hypoglycemia is a condition of self-induced hypoglycemia due to surreptitious administration of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. In adults, it is an uncommon, but well known clinical entity observed in individuals with and without diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To report a case of factitious hypoglycemia highlighting diagnostic pitfalls, to identify common characteristics of children and adolescents with factitious hypoglycemia, and to examine whether the information on long-term outcome exists...
February 21, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Naeem Ullah Jan, Amjad Ali, Bashir Ahmad, Naveed Iqbal, Achyut Adhikari, Inayat-Ur-Rehman, Abid Ali, Safdar Ali, Azra Jahan, Hamid Ali, Ijaz Ali, Anwar Ullah, Syed Ghulam Musharraf
The demand for natural medicines has increased because of their limited adverse effects. The aim of study is to explore the antidiabetic potential of isolated steroidal alkaloid from Sarcococca saligna in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. To determine the antidiabetic activity of steroidal alkaloids, diabetes was induced in rats by injecting streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a dose of 40 mg/Kg. After a week of STZ injection the treatment were started and the 8th day was considered as the 1st day of treatment and up to four weeks the rats were treated with steroidal alkaloids...
February 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yan Cao, Xiaoli Chen, Ying Sun, Jialiang Shi, Xiaojuan Xu, Yong-Cheng Shi
Pyrodextrin shares some properties of resistant starch which is metabolically beneficial, and has potential applications as a functional food. In this study, we report that oral administration of pyrodextrin (50 mg/kg/d for 7 weeks) decreased the blood glucose (from 9.18±1.47 to 7.67±0.42 mmol/L), serum HbA1c, triglycerides, adipocyte size, and body weights (from 24.4±1.2 to 22.5±1.2 g) in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The Western blotting analysis suggested that pyrodextrins decreased the intestinal SGLT-1 and GLUT-2 expression to ~70% and ~60% of the obese control to slow down glucose transportation from gut into blood, and improved the hepatic metabolism tentatively...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shinichiro Ueda, Michio Shimabukuro, Osamu Arasaki, Koichi Node, Takashi Nomiyama, Takeshi Morimoto
BACKGROUND: Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is important for patients with a high risk for atherosclerotic events, such as patients with diabetes and other risk factors. Anagliptin was reported to reduce LDL-C for 12 weeks in phase III trials regardless of the use of statins, but it is uncertain whether this effect is common to other dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted to confirm the superiority of anagliptin to sitagliptin in terms of the primary endpoint of reduction of LDL-C for 52 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular lesions, as well as the non-inferiority of anagliptin to sitagliptin in terms of change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Richa Chaturvedi, Chetna Desai, Prakruti Patel, Asha Shah, Ram K Dikshit
Aims: This study aims to measure the quality of life (QOL), treatment satisfaction, and tolerability of antidiabetic drugs in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: The prospective, observational study was conducted in consenting patients of type 2 DM attending the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Western India. The QOL instrument for Indian diabetes (QOLID) patients questionnaire and the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire were administered to all patients at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of treatment...
January 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Paola Rogliani, Josuel Ora, Nicola Di Daniele, Davide Lauro
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex multifactorial disease due to the interaction between environmental noxae and genetic predisposition. Furthermore, an increased association between DM, especially Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and the onset of pulmonary function impairment with a bronchial hyperresponsiveness has been documented. DM is a risk factor for accelerated decline in FEV1 and the development of asthma and COPD. The increased blood glucose concentrations along with higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation can influence the pulmonary function and, since hypoglycemic drugs can act on these different defects we can hypothesize their direct effect on obstructive pulmonary diseases...
February 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Jae-Woo Lee, Hee-Taik Kang, Hyoung-Ji Lim, Byoungjin Park
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in diabetic prevalence over the past 11 years using Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data. In addition, we aimed to examine trends in diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes after stratification. METHODS: We used data from the KNHANES III (2005), IV (2007 - 2009), V (2010 - 2012), and VI (2013 - 2015). 46,157 participants were included in this study. Diabetes was defined as follows: 1) an answer of 'yes' to whether the participants had ever been diagnosed with diabetes by a physician, 2) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dL, or 3) taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin...
February 2, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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