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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340246/considerations-on-glycaemic-control-in-older-and-or-frail-individuals-with-diabetes-and-advanced-kidney-disease
#1
Nicolae Mircea Panduru, Ionut Nistor, Per-Henrik Groop, Wim Van Biesen, Ken Farrington, Adrian Covic
The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes over the last decade has resulted in increasing numbers of frail older patients with a combination of these conditions. Current treatment guidelines may not necessarily be relevant for such patients, who are mostly excluded from the trials upon which these recommendations are based. There is a paucity of data upon which to base the management of older patients with CKD. Nearly all current guidelines recommend less-tight glycaemic control for the older population, citing the lack of proven medium-term benefits and concerns about the high short-term risk of hypoglycaemia...
March 13, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328534/clinical-presentation-and-treatment-response-to-diazoxide-in-two-siblings-with-congenital-hyperinsulinism-as-a-result-of-a-novel-compound-heterozygous-abcc8-missense-mutation
#2
Sonya Galcheva, Violeta Iotova, Sian Ellard, Sarah E Flanagan, Irina Halvadzhiyan, Chayka Petrova, Khalid Hussain
BACKGROUND: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) can present with considerable clinical heterogeneity which may be due to differences in the underlying genetic etiology. We present two siblings with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) and marked clinical heterogeneity caused by compound heterozygosity for the same two novel ABCC8 mutations. CASE PRESENTATION: The index patient is a 3-year-old boy with hypoglycaemic episodes presenting on the first day of life. HH was diagnosed and treatment with intravenous glucose and diazoxide was initiated...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328262/haemodialysis-nutritional-disorders-and-hypoglycaemia-in-critical-care
#3
Jeiel Carlos Lamonica Crespo, Vanessa Rossato Gomes, Ricardo Luís Barbosa, Katia Grillo Padilha, Silvia Regina Secoli
This study aimed to determine hypoglycemia incidence and associated factors in critically ill patients. It looked at a retrospective cohort with 106 critically ill adult patients with 48 hours of glycaemic control and 72 hours of follow up. The dependent variable, hypoglycaemia (≤70 mg/dl), was assessed with respect to independent variables: age, diet, insulin, catecholamines, haemodialysis, nursing workload and the Simplified Acute Physiology Score. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression at 5% significance level...
March 9, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322095/therapeutic-inertia-and-intensified-treatment-in-diabetes-mellitus-prescription-patterns-a-nationwide-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#4
Li-Ying Huang, Hseng-Long Yeh, Ming-Chin Yang, Wen-Yi Shau, Syi Su, Mei-Shu Lai
Objective To measure therapeutic inertia by characterizing prescription patterns using secondary data obtained from the nationwide diabetes mellitus pay-for-performance (DM-P4P) programme in Taiwan. Methods Using reimbursement claims from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide retrospective cohort study was undertaken of patients with diabetes mellitus who participated in the DM-P4P programme from 2006-2008. Glycosylated haemoglobin results were used to evaluate modifications in therapy in response to poor diabetes control...
December 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316020/%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-boosts-mitochondrial-and-neuronal-metabolism-but-is-not-preferred-over-glucose-under-activated-conditions
#5
Lavanya B Achanta, Benjamin D Rowlands, Donald S Thomas, Gary D Housley, Caroline D Rae
The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U-(13)C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1-(13)C]D-glucose under conditions of normo- and hypoglycaemia, as well as under high potassium (40 mmol/L K(+)) depolarization in normo- and hypoglycaemic conditions. The contribution of βOHB to synthesis of GABA was also probed by inhibiting the synthesis of glutamine, a GABA precursor, with methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
March 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276776/brain-injury-with-diabetes-mellitus-evidence-mechanisms-and-treatment-implications
#6
Sherifa A Hamed
Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements...
February 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273998/effects-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-central-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-indian-adults-a-prospective-study
#7
Pulkit Sethi, Manoj Thillai, Prabhdeep Singh Nain, Ashish Ahuja, Sudheer Othiyil Vayoth, Preetika Khurana
INTRODUCTION: Increasing incidence of obesity in Indian population has led to an exponential rise in the number of bariatric operations performed annually. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) has been proposed to cause rapid remission of Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome in a weight loss independent manner. AIM: To evaluate the effects of LSG on metabolic syndrome and central obesity in morbidly and severely obese Indian adults. Material and Methods: Study was conducted on 91 morbidly obese [Body Mass Index (BMI)>40 kg/m(2)] and severely obese (BMI>35 kg/m(2)) individuals who were suffering from diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273963/benefits-of-alcohol-on-arsenic-toxicity-in-rats
#8
Purnima Singh, Shubha Ranjan Dutta, Deepak Passi, Jaya Bharti
INTRODUCTION: It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263096/glutamine-dipeptide-and-cortisol-change-the-liver-glucose-metabolism-and-reduce-the-severity-of-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-untreated-t1dm-swiss-mice
#9
Camila Bataglini, Diego G L Rezende, Marcos A Primo, Célia R G Gomes, Maria M D Pedrosa, Vilma A F Godoi
CONTEXT: Glutamine is conditionally essential in type 1 diabetes mellitus, and might be useful to counteract hypoglycaemia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the systemic and hepatic effects of counter-regulatory hormones and glutamine dipeptide (GDP) during hypoglycemic episodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic Swiss mice made hypoglycaemic by insulin injection (1 U/kg) were given counter-regulatory hormones and/or GDP. Sixty minutes later, liver histology, liver glucose metabolism and plasma were assessed...
May 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252323/insulin-knowledge-and-practice-a-survey-of-district-nurses-in-northern-ireland
#10
Alison Robb, Bernie Reid, Elizabeth A Laird
Insulin is one of the top ten high-alert medications worldwide. Approximately 30% of people with diabetes in the UK use injectable therapies, most commonly insulin, to manage their condition. With an increasing number of people with diabetes being managed within the community, district nurses play an important role in the safe and effective use of insulin. This study surveyed a convenience sample of 164 district nurses working within one Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland to ascertain their knowledge and practice regarding insulin...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Community Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251792/glycaemic-control-and-hypoglycaemia-burden-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-initiating-basal-insulin-in-europe-and-the-usa
#11
Dídac Mauricio, Luigi Meneghini, Jochen Seufert, Laura Liao, Hongwei Wang, Liyue Tong, Anna Cali, Peter Stella, Paulo Carita, Kamlesh Khunti
AIMS: To evaluate short- and long-term glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia incidence in insulin-naïve patients ≥30 years of age with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) initiating basal insulin (BI) with or without oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective longitudinal analysis of electronic medical records from five European countries and the USA. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed baseline and short-term (0-3 months post BI initiation) factors associated with long-term (3-24 months) glycaemic control and hypoglycaemia...
March 2, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239849/correlates-of-treatment-satisfaction-and-well-being-among-patients-with-type-ii-diabetes
#12
B Abu Sheikh, D H Arabiat, S L Holmes, Y Khader, D Hiyasat, D Collyer, S Abu-Shiekh
AIM: To examine the impact of patient characteristics, anthropometric measurement and patient clinical variables on their appraisal of treatment satisfaction and well-being. BACKGROUND: Treatment satisfaction and well-being are instrumental in achieving diabetes care goals. Nursing practices and healthcare policies may inform interventions in these areas. INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of diabetes is high in the Middle East. An understanding of relationships between clinical and socio-demographic variables and well-being and treatment satisfaction is needed to improve care and patient outcomes...
February 26, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226292/hplc-dad-qtof-ms-profiling-of-phenolics-from-leaf-extracts-of-two-tunisian-fig-cultivars-potential-as-a-functional-food
#13
Olfa Belguith-Hadriche, Sonda Ammar, María Del Mar Contreras, Hamadi Fetoui, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Abdelfattah El Feki, Mohamed Bouaziz
The phenolic constituents of the aqueous-ethanolic extract of two Tunisian Ficus carica leaves cultivars and their hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. Our results demonstrated that the treatment with the leaves extracts of F. carica improved lipid profile and reduced blood glucose level as well as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances content. The antioxidant enzymes activity in the liver and heart tissues of diabetic rats was increased after the treatment...
February 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218988/toxicological-effects-during-and-following-persistent-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-healthy-euglycaemic-rats
#14
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Line O Berthelsen, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a "peakless" pharmacokinetic profile have been developed to improve efficacy, safety and convenience for diabetic patients. During non-clinical development, according to regulatory guidelines, these analogues are tested in healthy euglycaemic rats rendering them persistently hypoglycaemic. Little is known about the effect of persistent (24 hr/day) insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) in rats, complicating interpretation of results in pre-clinical studies with new longer-acting insulin analogues...
February 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210866/cost-effectiveness-of-insulin-degludec-versus-insulin-glargine-in-adults-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Marc Evans, Barrie Chubb, Jens Gundgaard
INTRODUCTION: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of insulin degludec (IDeg) versus insulin glargine U100 (IGlar U100) and new-to-market basal insulin analogues in patients with diabetes in order to aid decision-making in a complex basal insulin market. METHODS: A simple, short-term model was used to evaluate the costs and effects of treatment with IDeg versus IGlar U100 over a 12-month period in patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from the perspective of the UK National Health Service...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179696/effects-of-oral-vanadium-on-glycaemic-and-lipid-profile-in-rats
#16
Syed Zubair Hussain Shah, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Amir Rashid
OBJECTIVE: Vanadyl sulphate, an inorganic tetravalent salt of transition metal vanadium is conventionally used to treat diabetes and by athletes as body-building supplement. Vanadyl sulphate is a constituent of many supplements and herbal preparations available over the counter in many parts of the world. In this study the efficacy of the salt as hypoglycaemic agent and its effects on lipid profile were determined when administered in therapeutic dose range (in humans) to healthy Sprague Dawley rats for a considerable duration...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178761/the-diabetes-management-and-daily-functioning-burden-of-non-severe-hypoglycaemia-in-japanese-people-treated-with-insulin
#17
Yasuo Ohashi, Michael Lyng Wolden, Jacob Hyllested-Winge, Meryl Brod
AIMS: This study investigated the impact of non-severe hypoglycaemic events (NSHE) on patients' diabetes management, daily functioning and well-being. METHODS: A survey assessing the impact of NSHEs was completed by insulin-treated Japanese people with diabetes, aged ≥20 years with self-reported diabetes, who had experienced at least one NSHE in the last 3 months. Survey questions captured reasons for and length of the event, and impacts on diabetes management, daily functioning, sleep and well-being...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178616/hypoglycemic-effects-of-prunus-cerasus-l-pulp-and-seed-extracts-on-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice-with-histopathological-evaluation
#18
Fatima A Saleh, Nada El-Darra, Karim Raafat
AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was undertaken to investigate the acute and subchronic hypoglycemic effects of an ethyl acetate (EtAc) extract of red sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) pulps and seeds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Prunus cerasus pulp (PPc) and seed (SPc) EtAc extract s were IP-administered to the mice in doses of 100, 150 and 200mg/kgbody weight (b.w.) for acute study (6h) and subchronic study (8days). The in vivo effects of (PPc) and (SPc) EtAc extracts were assessed through blood glucose levels (BGL), changes in body weight as well as antioxidant enzyme activity...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145047/influence-of-health-locus-of-control-and-fear-of-hypoglycaemia-on-glycaemic-control-and-treatment-satisfaction-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-on-insulin-pump-therapy
#19
L Indelicato, V Mariano, S Galasso, F Boscari, E Cipponeri, C Negri, A Frigo, A Avogaro, E Bonora, M Trombetta, D Bruttomesso
AIM: To assess the influence of health locus of control and fear of hypoglycaemia on metabolic control and treatment satisfaction in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. METHODS: People with Type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for at least 1 year, sub-classified as an 'acceptable glucose control' group [HbA1c ≤58 mmol/mol (7.5%)] and a 'suboptimum glucose control' group [HbA1c >58 mmol/mol (7...
February 1, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129400/appropriate-insulin-level-in-selecting-fortified-diet-fed-streptozotocin-treated-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes-for-anti-diabetic-studies
#20
Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa, Ismaila A Umar, Dorcas B James, Hajiya M Inuwa
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological investigation of disease in a suitable animal model is a classical approach towards development of a credible therapeutic strategy. This study examined appropriate insulin level in selecting animal model for type 2 diabetes (T2D) studies. METHOD: Albino Wistar rats (150-200g) were divided into two groups fed with commercially available normal-diet-feed (NDF) and water or fortified diet feed (FDF) (10g NDF per gram of margarine) with 20% fructose solution as drinking water...
2017: PloS One
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