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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#1
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081448/the-relationships-among-fear-of-hypoglycaemia-diabetes-related-quality-of-life-and-psychological-well-being-in-norwegian-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#2
Ragnhild B Strandberg, Marit Graue, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Mark Peyrot, Astrid K Wahl, Berit Rokne
AIMS: To examine the associations among fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being, and determine whether diabetes-related quality of life is a mediator of the relationship between fear of hypoglycaemia and psychological well-being in adults with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 235 of 319 invited adults (18-69years) with Type 1 diabetes agreed to participate. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to 188 individuals with complete data...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058800/basal-rate-tests-24-h-fasts-performed-in-type-1-diabetic-subjects-with-either-absolute-fasting-or-snacks-containing-negligible-carbohydrate-amounts-result-in-similar-glucose-profiles-a-randomized-controlled-prospective-trial
#3
Maike Haase, Melanie Kahle, Martin Janert, Juris J Meier, Michael A Nauck
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Basal rate tests (24 h fasting periods) may be necessary to optimize basal insulin replacement in type 1 diabetes. It was the aim to prospectively compare allowing negligible carbohydrate snacks versus absolute fasting. METHODS: 20 patients with type 1 diabetes (age 48 ± 15 years; 9 women, 11 men; BMI 28.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) ; HbA1c 8.8 ± 2.0 % (73.0 ± 21.9 mmol/mol); insulin dose 0.69 ± 0.31 IU/kg body weight and day) participated in two basal rate tests lasting 24 h in random order with unchanged basal insulin replacement...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058763/relationship-of-glycated-haemoglobin-and-reported-hypoglycaemia-to-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-recent-acute-coronary-syndromes-the-examine-trial
#4
Simon R Heller, Richard M Bergenstal, William B White, Stuart Kupfer, George L Bakris, William C Cushman, Cyrus R Mehta, Steven E Nissen, Craig A Wilson, Faiez Zannad, Yuyin Liu, Noah M Gourlie, Christopher P Cannon
AIMS: To investigate relationships between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and reported hypoglycaemia and risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE). METHODS: The EXAMINE trial randomized 5380 patients in 49 countries with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to double-blind treatment with alogliptin or placebo in addition to standard of care. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze relationships among MACE, HbA1c levels and hypoglycaemia events...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058750/efficacy-and-safety-of-adding-evogliptin-versus-sitagliptin-in-metformin-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-24-week-randomised-controlled-trial-with-open-label-extension
#5
Sang-Mo Hong, Cheol-Young Park, Dong-Min Hwang, Kyung Ah Han, Chang Beom Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ji-Oh Mok, Kyong Soo Park, Sung-Woo Park
AIMS: This trial consisted of a 24-week multicenter, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled study and a 52-week open label extension study to assess the efficacy and safety of evogliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, compared to sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes who have inadequate glycaemic control with metformin alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (N = 222) with HbA1c 6.5-11% on stable metformin doses (≥1000 mg/day) were randomised 1:1 to add-on 5 mg evogliptin (N = 112) or 100 mg sitagliptin (N = 110) once daily for 24 weeks...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053874/long-term-outcome-of-isobutyryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-diagnosed-following-an-episode-of-ketotic-hypoglycaemia
#6
S Santra, A Macdonald, M A Preece, R K Olsen, B S Andresen
Isobutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (IBDD) is an inherited disorder of valine metabolism caused by mutations in ACAD8. Most reported patients have been diagnosed through newborn screening programmes due to elevated C4-carnitine levels and appear clinically asymptomatic. One reported non-screened patient had dilated cardiomyopathy and anaemia at the age of two years. We report a 13 month old girl diagnosed with IBDD after developing hypoglycaemic encephalopathy (blood glucose 1.9 mmol/l) during an episode of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045450/agrimoniin-an-active-ellagitannin-from-comarum-palustre-herb-with-anti-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-antidiabetic-potential-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#7
Nina I Kashchenko, Nadezhda K Chirikova, Daniil N Olennikov
Naturally existing α-glucosidase inhibitors from traditional herbal medicines have attracted considerable interest to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-α-glucosidase activity of extracts from marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre L.), their hypoglycaemic action and detection of the responsible compounds. A 60% ethanol extract from C. palustre herb revealed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 52.0 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis of the major compounds resulted in detection of 15 compounds, including ellagitannins, flavonoids, catechin and other compounds...
January 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027430/pharmacological-properties-of-melanin-and-its-function-in-health
#8
Adila Salih ElObeid, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Mohamed Anwar K Abdelhalim, Adil M Haseeb
The biological pigment melanin is present in most of the biological systems. It manifests a host of biological and pharmacological properties. Its role as a molecule with special properties and functions affecting general health, including photo-protective and immunological action are well recognised. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, radio-protective, hepatic, gastrointestinal and hypoglycaemic benefits have only recently been recognised and studied. It is also associated with certain disorders of the nervous system...
December 27, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027072/spectrum-of-drug-induced-chronic-diarrhea
#9
Nissy A Philip, Nazir Ahmed, Capecomorin S Pitchumoni
The evaluation of a patient with chronic diarrhea can be quite frustrating, as it is expensive and involves multiple diagnostic studies. Moreover, identification of a drug as a cause of chronic diarrhea is a challenge in patients taking multiple medications. The disease may either be associated with intestinal mucosal changes, mimicking diseases such as celiac disease, or purely functional, with no histopathologic change. Drug-induced diarrhea may or may not be associated with malabsorption of nutrients, and a clinical improvement may occur within days of discontinuation of the drug, or may take longer when associated with mucosal injury...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000229/proposed-mechanisms-of-terminalia-catappa-in-hyperglycaemia-and-associated-diabetic-complications
#10
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
OBJECTIVES: Terminalia catappa has shown potent antidiabetic activity in the past; however, the exact molecular mechanisms by which it acts have not been elucidated. This review aims at exploring several hypotheses which have been proposed to explain its mechanism of action, including reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, lipid profile correction and direct hypoglycaemic actions. METHODS: A thorough review of all the articles, research as well as reviews, available regarding the concerned topic was performed...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978595/real-time-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#11
Khalid Benkhadra, Fares Alahdab, Shrikant Tamhane, Zhen Wang, Larry J Prokop, Irl B Hirsch, Denis Raccah, Jean-Pierre Riveline, Olga Kordonouri, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Real time continuous glucose monitoring (RTCGM) may help in the management of individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM); however, the evidence supporting its use is unclear. The available meta-analyses on this topic use aggregate data which weaken inference. OBJECTIVE: Individual patient data were obtained from randomized trials (RCTs) to conduct a meta-analysis and synthesize evidence about the effect of RTCGM on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycaemic events and time spent in hypoglycaemia in T1DM...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972246/impact-of-hypoglycaemic-events-on-healthcare-resource-use-in-type-2-diabetes-patients
#12
J C Chan, A Ramachandran, J C Mbanya, M V Shestakova, J J Gagliardino, H Ilkova, P Leguet-Dinville, J Chantelot, J Schwarzbard, M Pacou, V Taieb, L Annemans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966373/potential-hypoglycaemic-activity-phenolic-glycosides-from-moringa-oleifera-seeds
#13
Fang Wang, Huan-Huan Zhong, Wei-Ke Chen, Qing-Pu Liu, Cun-Yu Li, Yun-Feng Zheng, Guo-Ping Peng
Moringa oleifera seed has remarkable curative effects on reducing blood pressure, blood sugar and enhancing human immunity. In this study, one novel phenolic glycoside (1) together with four known compounds 2-5 were isolated from the macroporous resin adsorption extract of M. oleifera seeds, and the compound 3 was reported for the first time from this plant. The structure of the new crystalline compound was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR experiments...
December 14, 2016: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951745/studies-on-phytochemical-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-hypoglycaemic-and-antiproliferative-activities-of-echinacea-purpurea-and-echinacea-angustifolia-extracts
#14
Rayn Clarenc Aarland, Angel Ernesto Bañuelos-Hernández, Mabel Fragoso-Serrano, Edgar Del Carmen Sierra-Palacios, Fernando Díaz de León-Sánchez, Laura Josefina Pérez-Flores, Fernando Rivera-Cabrera, José Alberto Mendoza-Espinoza
CONTEXT: Echinacea (Asteraceae) is used because of its pharmacological properties. However, there are few studies that integrate phytochemical analyses with pharmacological effects. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the chemical profile and biological activity of hydroalcoholic Echinacea extracts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Density, dry matter, phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method), flavonoids (AlCl3 method), alkylamides (GC-MS analysis), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS methods), antiproliferative effect (SRB assay), anti-inflammatory effect (paw oedema assay, 11 days/Wistar rats; 0...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943546/effect-of-race-and-ethnicity-on-vildagliptin-efficacy-a-pooled-analysis-of-phase-ii-and-iii-studies
#15
P Kozlovski, M Fonseca, V Mohan, V Lukashevich, M Odawara, P M Paldánius, W Kothny
AIMS: To determine the impact of race and ethnicity on the efficacy, body weight and hypoglycaemia incidence with vildagliptin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using patient-level data from the vildagliptin clinical trial programme. METHODS: Data from 22 randomised, placebo-controlled global and local (Japan, China) registration studies of vildagliptin (50 mg once-daily or twice-daily) of ≥12-week duration were analysed by race (Caucasian [n = 2764] and Asian [n = 2232]) and by ethnicity (Japanese, Chinese, and Indian)...
December 10, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941113/forgetting-to-remember-hypoglycaemic-encephalopathy
#16
Tomas D Martin, Carlo Canepa
A 37-year-old woman with a history of poorly controlled type 1 diabetes presented acutely with a decreased Glasgow Coma Scale and a diagnosis of hypoglycaemic brain injury. Her MRI highlighted bilateral hippocampi diffusion restriction and T2 hyperintensity. Clinically, she had a marked cognitive deficit, particularly of short-term, anterograde amnesia. She was managed conservatively and with intensive rehabilitation.
December 9, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937047/effects-of-garlic-extract-on-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-and-oxidative-stress-status-in-the-kidneys-of-rats-with-stz%C3%A2-%C3%A2-nicotinamide-induced-diabetes
#17
Nasrin Ziamajidi, Abolfazl Nasiri, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir, Somayeh Sadeghi Moheb
CONTEXT: Allium sativum L. (Liliaceae) (garlic) is a medicinal plant that is widely used in herbal medicine. Nephropathy is a complication of diabetes that is induced by long-term hyperglycaemia. OBJECTIVE: The effects of aqueous extract of garlic (AGE) on the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and oxidative stress status were studied in the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin (STZ) + nicotinamide-induced diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats, rats with STZ + nicotinamide-induced diabetes that received a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, diabetic rats that were treated with garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage), and normal rats that received garlic (2 g/kg/d, gavage)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932370/doege-potter-syndrome-hypoglycaemic-coma-in-a-90-year-old-due-to-a-solitary-fibrous-tumour
#18
Alla Avramenko, Hayat Lahjibi-Paulet, Laure Gibault, Arnaud Roussel, Bertrand Grand, Françoise Le Pimpec-Barthes
Solitary fibrous tumour of the pleura (SFTP) is a rare primary tumour of the pleura associated with 4% of cases with a paraneoplastic hypoglycaemia, termed Doege-Potter syndrome (DPS). We report a case of DPS presenting with severe coma in a 90-year-old woman. The cause was a malignant SFTP treated with surgical resection, from which the patient made a full recovery with prevention of recurrent hypoglycaemia. Surgical resection of the SFTP presenting with symptomatic hypoglycaemia should be considered even in elderly patients...
December 7, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927067/curcumin-suppresses-inflammatory-cytokines-and-heat-shock-protein-70-release-and-improves-metabolic-parameters-during-experimental-sepsis
#19
Letycia Silvano da Silva, Carlos Henrique Rocha Catalão, Tatiana Tocchini Felippotti, Gabriela Ravanelli de Oliveira-Pelegrin, Sérgio Petenusci, Luis Alexandre Pedro de Freitas, Maria José Alves Rocha
CONTEXT: Curcumin has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic properties, besides reducing mortality in sepsis. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the biological activities of a curcumin dispersion formulated by spray-drying in experimental sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP), controls were sham operated. The animals were treated with curcumin dispersion (100 mg/kg, p...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915035/hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia-in-children-and-adults
#20
REVIEW
Pratik Shah, Sofia A Rahman, Huseyin Demirbilek, Maria Güemes, Khalid Hussain
Pancreatic β cells are functionally programmed to release insulin in response to changes in plasma glucose concentration. Insulin secretion is precisely regulated so that, under normal physiological conditions, fasting plasma glucose concentrations are kept within a narrow range of 3·5-5·5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia, insulin secretion becomes dysregulated (ie, uncoupled from glucose metabolism) so that insulin secretion persists in the presence of low plasma glucose concentrations. Hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is the most common cause of severe and persistent hypoglycaemia in neonates and children...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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