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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651658/the-impact-of-diet-based-glycaemic-response-and-glucose-regulation-on-cognition-evidence-across-the-lifespan
#1
Sandra I Sünram-Lea, Lauren Owen
The brain has a high metabolic rate and its metabolism is almost entirely restricted to oxidative utilisation of glucose. These factors emphasise the extreme dependence of neural tissue on a stable and adequate supply of glucose. Whereas initially it was thought that only glucose deprivation (i.e. under hypoglycaemic conditions) can affect brain function, it has become apparent that low-level fluctuations in central availability can affect neural and consequently, cognitive performance. In the present paper the impact of diet-based glycaemic response and glucose regulation on cognitive processes across the lifespan will be reviewed...
June 27, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649881/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-insulin-degludec-compared-with-insulin-glargine-u100-for-the-management-of-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-from-the-spanish-national-health-system-perspective
#2
Pedro Mezquita-Raya, Josep Darba, Meritxell Ascanio, Antonio Ramírez de Arellano
AIMS: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of insulin degludec versus insulin glargine, from the Spanish NHS in three groups of patients. METHODS: A short-term cost utility model was developed to estimate effectiveness results in terms of the total number of hypoglycaemic events and their disutility impact throughout the year on the initial level of quality of life for patients in each treatment. RESULTS: Degludec was the dominant strategy for T2DM BOT and exhibited an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 52...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648964/factors-associated-with-prolonged-inaction-in-the-hypoglycaemic-treatment-in-people-with-non-insulin-dependent-type-2-diabetes-and-elevated-glycated-haemoglobin-a-registry-based-cohort-study
#3
Geert Goderis, Bert Vaes, Marjan Van den Akker, Steven Elli, Chantal Mathieu, Frank Buntinx, Séverine Henrard
AIMS: To assess factors associated with Prolonged Inaction (PI) in insulin-naïve patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). PI was defined as the absence of treatment initiation or intensification for ≥12 months despite HbA1c >7% (53mmol/mol). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on data from Intego, a Flemish General Practice registry. The study period ranged from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013. Patients with insulin therapy before the start of the study period were excluded from the analysis...
June 22, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638866/kinetics-of-modulatory-role-of-cyperus-esculentus-l-on-the-specific-activity-of-key-carbohydrate-metabolizing-enzymes
#4
Saheed Sabiu, Emmanuel Oladipo Ajani, Taofik Olatunde Sunmonu, Anofi Omotayo Tom Ashafa
BACKGROUND: The continuous search for new lead compounds as viable inhibitors of specific enzymes linked to carbohydrate metabolism has intensified. Cyperus esculentus L. is one of the therapeutically implicated botanicals against several degenerative diseases including diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study evaluated the antioxidant and mechanism(s) of inhibitory potential of aqueous extract of C. esculentus on α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636760/successful-management-of-refractory-diabetic-gastroparesis-with-long-term-aprepitant-treatment
#5
N Fountoulakis, J Dunn, S Thomas, J Karalliedde
BACKGROUND: People with gastroparesis who develop treatment-resistant (refractory) disease pose a difficult challenge, especially in the setting of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or post pancreas transplant. Aprepitant (a neurokinin-receptor antagonist) is licensed for the short-term treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea. There is lack of information on its long-term efficacy and safety in people with diabetic gastroparesis. CASE REPORT: Case 1 was 73-year-old man with Type 2 diabetes of 25 years' duration and ESRD requiring dialysis...
June 21, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622950/glycaemic-control-and-hypoglycaemia-with-insulin-glargine-300u-ml-versus-insulin-glargine-100u-ml-in-insulin-na%C3%A3-ve-people-with-type-2%C3%A2-diabetes-12-month-results-from-the-edition-3-trial
#6
G B Bolli, M C Riddle, R M Bergenstal, M Wardecki, H Goyeau, P D Home
AIM: To explore if efficacy and safety findings for insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) versus insulin glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100), observed over 6 months in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes, are maintained after 12 months. METHODS: EDITION 3 was a phase 3a, randomized, multicentre, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target study of once-daily Gla-300 versus Gla-100 (target fasting self-monitored plasma glucose, 4.4-5.6mmol/L [80-100mg/dL]). Participants completing the initial 6-month treatment phase continued their previously allocated basal insulin...
June 13, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617932/effect-of-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-the-development-of-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#7
REVIEW
Almudena Areosa Sastre, Robin Wm Vernooij, Magali González-Colaço Harmand, Gabriel Martínez
BACKGROUND: Prevention of cognitive impairment and dementia is an important public health goal. Epidemiological evidence shows a relationship between cognitive impairment and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The risk of dementia increases with duration of disease. This updated systematic review investigated the effect on cognitive function of the type of treatment and level of metabolic control in people with Type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different strategies for managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus on cognitive function and the incidence of dementia...
June 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602812/impact-of-hypoglycaemia-on-patient-reported-outcomes-from-a-global-24-country-study-of-27-585-people-with-type-1-and-insulin-treated-type-2-diabetes
#8
Kamlesh Khunti, Saud Alsifri, Ronnie Aronson, Maja Cigrovski Berković, Catherine Enters-Weijnen, Tom Forsén, Gagik Galstyan, Petronella Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, Margalit Goldfracht, Helge Gydesen, Rahul Kapur, Nebojsa Lalic, Bernhard Ludvik, Erik Moberg, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ambady Ramachandran
AIMS: Data on the impact of hypoglycaemia on patients' daily lives and diabetes self-management, particularly in developing countries, are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess fear of, and responses to, hypoglycaemia experienced by patients globally. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This non-interventional, multicentre, 4-week prospective study using self-assessment questionnaires and patient diaries consisted of 27,585 patients, ≥18years, with type 1 diabetes (n=8022) or type 2 diabetes (n=19,563) treated with insulin for >12months, at 2004 sites in 24 countries worldwide...
May 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598692/modulatory-effect-of-garcinol-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#9
Kodikonda Madhuri, Prakash Ramachandra Naik
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of garcinol as an antidiabetic candidate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetic rats showed a significant increase in the biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin, urea, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index and a significant decrease in plasma insulin, HOMA-β-cell functioning index, glycogen, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body weight and antioxidant enzyme activities, viz...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589443/metformin-a-future-therapy-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka, Joanna Sikora, Aleksandra Szydłowska, Agata Skupień, Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik, Kristiina M Huttunen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex, chronic and progressive metabolic disease, which is characterized by relative insulin deficiency, insulin resistance, and high glucose levels in blood. Esteemed published articles and epidemiological data exhibit an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in diabetic pateints. Metformin is the most frequently used oral anti-diabetic drug, which apart from hypoglycaemic activity, improves serum lipid profiles, positively influences the process of haemostasis, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties...
June 6, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588932/fasting-with-diabetes-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Muhammad Jawad Noon, Haseeb Ahmad Khawaja, Osama Ishtiaq, Quratulain Khawaja, Sana Minhas, Asfandyar Khan Niazi, Abdul Mannan Khan Minhas, Umar Rasool Malhi
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of diabetic patients who develop adverse glycaemic events when fasting regularly. DESIGN: Prospective observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in South Asia. Five hundred and twenty-three patients were assessed for eligibility, and 150 were included in the final analysis. Diabetic patients over 18 years of age who were willing to fast regularly and make a chart of their daily blood sugar levels were included in the study...
August 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586530/increase-in-the-incidence-of-severe-hypoglycaemia-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-in-spite-of-new-drugs-analysis-based-on-health-insurance-data-from-germany
#12
Nicolle Müller, Thomas Lehmann, Bettina Gerste, Jürgen-Bernd Adler, Christof Kloos, Michael Hartmann, Guido Kramer, Nadine Kuniss, Ulrich A Müller
AIM: To evaluate the use of new anti-hyperglycaemic agents that offer effective glycaemic control while reducing risk of hypoglycaemia, by analysing the incidence rates of severe hypoglycaemia in 2006 vs 2011 in relation to the medication. METHODS: This cross-sectional, population-based study used German health insurance data. All adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (extrapolated to the German population: 6.35 million in 2006 and 7.52 million in 2011) were screened for severe hypoglycaemia...
June 6, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586518/combination-therapy-with-multiple-oral-hypoglycaemic-agents-together-with-short-term-basal-insulin-in-new-onset-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-marked-hyperglycaemia
#13
S Ray, J J Mukherjee
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the relentless loss of β-cell function, which is partly attributable to glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. Prolonged exposure to excess glucose and oxidative stress leads to β-cell destruction [1,2]. Evidence suggests that early intensive intervention to achieve normoglycaemia can preserve β-cell function, probably by correcting glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity [3]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
June 6, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586510/a-10-second-sprint-does-not-blunt-hormonal-counter-regulation-to-subsequent-hypoglycaemia
#14
N Paramalingam, P A Fournier, R J Davey, H C Roby, G J Smith, V B Shetty, K J Guelfi, E A Davis, T W Jones
AIM: To investigate whether a 10-second (s) sprint impairs the counter-regulatory response to subsequent hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Nine people (five male, four female) with Type 1 diabetes, aged 21.1 ± 4.5 years, performed a 10-s rest or a 10-s maximum-effort sprint in random order on different days, while subjected to an euinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. This was followed by a hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemic glucose clamp 2.5 h later to induce hypoglycaemia for 40 min...
June 6, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580798/delaying-of-cataract-through-intervention-of-hemidesmus-indicus-in-stz-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Prabhakar Tirumani, S Venu, G Sridhar, M Praveen Kumar, A V Rajashekhar, T Naga Raju
Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. was extensively used as hypoglycaemic agent and significance of this plant on secondary complications of diabetes remained unknown. The present study was to investigate the anti-cataractous activity of H. indicus against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cataract in rodent model. Root extracts have been prepared and tested for inhibition of rat lens aldose reductase (AR) activity. In addition, its pharmacological potential has been investigated in STZ-induced diabetic cataract...
June 5, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571200/inhaled-insulin-current-direction-of-insulin-research
#16
REVIEW
Rashmi Ranjan Mohanty, Smita Das
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by relative or absolute deficiency of insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia. Subcutaneous insulin and Oral Hypoglycaemic Agents (OHA) constitute the main treatment option for DM. Insulin is administered by injection or continuous infusion to control glucose levels mainly in Type I diabetes. Newer routes both oral and non oral, for insulin administration are current direction of insulin research as insulin injection therapy is burdensome and painful for many patients...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567293/pro-igf2-induced-hypoglycaemia-associated-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
S A A van den Berg, C G Krol
We present a patient (87 years, female) who was admitted to the emergency department because of loss of consciousness. Previous medical history included advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma and associated weight loss. She was found on the ground in an unresponsive state by her daughter and was determined to be hypoglycaemic. Upon bolus administration of 100 mL intravenous glucose (10%), glucose levels increased to 2.9 mmol/L and the patient regained full consciousness. She was admitted to the hospital for further examination, and treatment and continuous intravenous glucose infusion was initiated...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566414/linagliptin-associated-blistering-and-ulceration
#18
Cristina Psomadakis, Naima Shahzad, Jonathan Katz
We present the case of 60-year-old man with type 2 diabetes who developed blistering after two sequential exposures to linagliptin. Linagliptin is one of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, a group of oral hypoglycaemic agents used commonly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. On the first exposure to linagliptin, he developed blisters on the hands which resolved after stopping the drug. After repeat exposure, he developed two large blisters on the left foot, which burst giving rise to secondary infection, requiring hospital admission for treatment...
May 31, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557705/moringa-olifeira-lam-stimulates-activation-of-the-insulin-dependent-akt-pathway-antidiabetic-effect-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-dio-mouse-model
#19
E S Attakpa, M M Sangaré, G J Béhanzin, J-M Ategbo, B Seri, N A Khan
We investigated the antidiabetic effect of Moringa olifeira Lam. in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. Six mice were randomly selected as normal controls. Moringa olifeira Lam. leaf extract at a dose of 200, 400 or 600 mg/kg body weight, glibenclamide (Glib) at the dose of 10 mg/kg (positive control) and distilled water at 10 ml/kg (control group) were administered orally by gastric intubation, and each group consisted of six mice. Insulinsensitive tissues (liver, skeletal muscle) were collected to investigate antidiabetic effects and examine the plant's molecular mechanisms...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551699/the-role-of-somatostatin-in-glp-1-induced-inhibition-of-glucagon-secretion-in-mice
#20
Anne Ørgaard, Jens J Holst
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their main mechanism of action is enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion (from increased beta cell glucose sensitivity) and inhibition of glucagon secretion. The latter has been demonstrated to account for about half of their blood glucose-lowering activity. Whereas the effect of GLP-1 on insulin secretion is clearly dependent on ambient glucose concentrations and has been described in detail, the mechanism responsible for the inhibitory effect of GLP-1 on glucagon secretion is heavily debated...
May 27, 2017: Diabetologia
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