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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218988/toxicological-effects-during-and-following-persistent-insulin-induced-hypoglycaemia-in-healthy-euglycaemic-rats
#1
Vivi F H Jensen, Anne-Marie Mølck, Line O Berthelsen, Lene Alifrangis, Lene Andersen, Melissa Chapman, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Ingrid B Bøgh
New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a "peakless" pharmacokinetic profile have been developed to improve efficacy, safety and convenience for diabetic patients. During non-clinical development, according to regulatory guidelines, these analogues are tested in healthy euglycaemic rats rendering them persistently hypoglycaemic. Little is known about the effect of persistent (24 hr/day) insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (IIH) in rats, complicating interpretation of results in pre-clinical studies with new longer-acting insulin analogues...
February 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210866/cost-effectiveness-of-insulin-degludec-versus-insulin-glargine-in-adults-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Marc Evans, Barrie Chubb, Jens Gundgaard
INTRODUCTION: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of insulin degludec (IDeg) versus insulin glargine U100 (IGlar U100) and new-to-market basal insulin analogues in patients with diabetes in order to aid decision-making in a complex basal insulin market. METHODS: A simple, short-term model was used to evaluate the costs and effects of treatment with IDeg versus IGlar U100 over a 12-month period in patients with type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from the perspective of the UK National Health Service...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179696/effects-of-oral-vanadium-on-glycaemic-and-lipid-profile-in-rats
#3
Syed Zubair Hussain Shah, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Amir Rashid
OBJECTIVE: Vanadyl sulphate, an inorganic tetravalent salt of transition metal vanadium is conventionally used to treat diabetes and by athletes as body-building supplement. Vanadyl sulphate is a constituent of many supplements and herbal preparations available over the counter in many parts of the world. In this study the efficacy of the salt as hypoglycaemic agent and its effects on lipid profile were determined when administered in therapeutic dose range (in humans) to healthy Sprague Dawley rats for a considerable duration...
December 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178761/the-diabetes-management-and-daily-functioning-burden-of-non-severe-hypoglycaemia-in-japanese-people-treated-with-insulin
#4
Yasuo Ohashi, Michael Lyng Wolden, Jacob Hyllested-Winge, Meryl Brod
AIMS: This study investigated the impact of non-severe hypoglycaemic events (NSHE) on patients' diabetes management, daily functioning and well-being. METHODS: A survey assessing the impact of NSHEs was completed by insulin-treated Japanese people with diabetes, aged ≥20 years with self-reported diabetes, who had experienced at least one NSHE in the last 3 months. Survey questions captured reasons for and length of the event, and impacts on diabetes management, daily functioning, sleep and well-being...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178616/hypoglycemic-effects-of-prunus-cerasus-l-pulp-and-seed-extracts-on-alloxan-induced-diabetic-mice-with-histopathological-evaluation
#5
Fatima A Saleh, Nada El-Darra, Karim Raafat
AIM OF THE STUDY: The study was undertaken to investigate the acute and subchronic hypoglycemic effects of an ethyl acetate (EtAc) extract of red sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) pulps and seeds in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Prunus cerasus pulp (PPc) and seed (SPc) EtAc extract s were IP-administered to the mice in doses of 100, 150 and 200mg/kgbody weight (b.w.) for acute study (6h) and subchronic study (8days). The in vivo effects of (PPc) and (SPc) EtAc extracts were assessed through blood glucose levels (BGL), changes in body weight as well as antioxidant enzyme activity...
February 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145047/influence-of-health-locus-of-control-and-fear-of-hypoglycaemia-on-glycaemic-control-and-treatment-satisfaction-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-on-insulin-pump-therapy
#6
L Indelicato, V Mariano, S Galasso, F Boscari, E Cipponeri, C Negri, A Frigo, A Avogaro, E Bonora, M Trombetta, D Bruttomesso
AIM: To assess the influence of health locus of control and fear of hypoglycaemia on metabolic control and treatment satisfaction in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. METHODS: People with Type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion for at least 1 year, sub-classified as an 'acceptable glucose control' group [HbA1c ≤58 mmol/mol (7.5%)] and a 'suboptimum glucose control' group [HbA1c >58 mmol/mol (7...
February 1, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129400/appropriate-insulin-level-in-selecting-fortified-diet-fed-streptozotocin-treated-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes-for-anti-diabetic-studies
#7
Stanley Irobekhian Reuben Okoduwa, Ismaila A Umar, Dorcas B James, Hajiya M Inuwa
BACKGROUND: Pathophysiological investigation of disease in a suitable animal model is a classical approach towards development of a credible therapeutic strategy. This study examined appropriate insulin level in selecting animal model for type 2 diabetes (T2D) studies. METHOD: Albino Wistar rats (150-200g) were divided into two groups fed with commercially available normal-diet-feed (NDF) and water or fortified diet feed (FDF) (10g NDF per gram of margarine) with 20% fructose solution as drinking water...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109295/a-randomised-active-and-placebo-controlled-three-period-crossover-trial-to-investigate-short-term-effects-of-the-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-linagliptin-on-macro-and-microvascular-endothelial-function-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Thomas Jax, Alin Stirban, Arne Terjung, Habib Esmaeili, Andreas Berk, Sandra Thiemann, Robert Chilton, Maximilian von Eynatten, Nikolaus Marx
BACKGROUND: Studies of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors report heterogeneous effects on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study assessed the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin versus the sulphonylurea glimepiride and placebo on measures of macro- and microvascular endothelial function in patients with T2D who represented a primary cardiovascular disease prevention population. METHODS: This crossover study randomised T2D patients (n = 42) with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤7...
January 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093873/diagnostic-and-management-challenges-from-childhood-puberty-through-to-transition-in-severe-insulin-resistance-due-to-insulin-receptor-mutations
#9
Christina Wei, Christine P Burren
Two Caucasian girls, both of normal weight and body mass indices, were diagnosed with type A insulin resistance (IR) in childhood. Case 1 presented with premature adrenarche aged 7 years, then by age 12 years had hirsutism, acne, acanthosis nigricans, and asymptomatic diabetes. Subsequent investigation revealed raised adiponectin (15.3 mg/L) and heterozygous p.Pro1205Leu mutation in the INSR gene encoding the insulin receptor. She experienced postprandial hypoglycaemia on metformin; acarbose was trialled and discontinued aged 16 years, as she became normoglycaemic...
January 17, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081448/the-relationships-among-fear-of-hypoglycaemia-diabetes-related-quality-of-life-and-psychological-well-being-in-norwegian-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#10
Ragnhild B Strandberg, Marit Graue, Tore Wentzel-Larsen, Mark Peyrot, Astrid K Wahl, Berit Rokne
AIMS: To examine the associations among fear of hypoglycaemia, diabetes-related quality of life and psychological well-being, and determine whether diabetes-related quality of life is a mediator of the relationship between fear of hypoglycaemia and psychological well-being in adults with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 235 of 319 invited adults (18-69years) with Type 1 diabetes agreed to participate. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to 188 individuals with complete data...
December 27, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058800/basal-rate-tests-24-h-fasts-performed-in-type-1-diabetic-subjects-with-either-absolute-fasting-or-snacks-containing-negligible-carbohydrate-amounts-result-in-similar-glucose-profiles-a-randomized-controlled-prospective-trial
#11
Maike Haase, Melanie Kahle, Martin Janert, Juris J Meier, Michael A Nauck
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Basal rate tests (24 h fasting periods) may be necessary to optimize basal insulin replacement in type 1 diabetes. It was the aim to prospectively compare allowing negligible carbohydrate snacks versus absolute fasting. METHODS: 20 patients with type 1 diabetes (age 48 ± 15 years; 9 women, 11 men; BMI 28.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) ; HbA1c 8.8 ± 2.0 % (73.0 ± 21.9 mmol/mol); insulin dose 0.69 ± 0.31 IU/kg body weight and day) participated in two basal rate tests lasting 24 h in random order with unchanged basal insulin replacement...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058763/relationship-of-glycated-haemoglobin-and-reported-hypoglycaemia-to-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-recent-acute-coronary-syndromes-the-examine-trial
#12
Simon R Heller, Richard M Bergenstal, William B White, Stuart Kupfer, George L Bakris, William C Cushman, Cyrus R Mehta, Steven E Nissen, Craig A Wilson, Faiez Zannad, Yuyin Liu, Noah M Gourlie, Christopher P Cannon
AIMS: To investigate relationships between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and reported hypoglycaemia and risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE). METHODS: The EXAMINE trial randomized 5380 patients in 49 countries with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to double-blind treatment with alogliptin or placebo in addition to standard of care. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze relationships among MACE, HbA1c levels and hypoglycaemia events...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058750/efficacy-and-safety-of-adding-evogliptin-versus-sitagliptin-in-metformin-treated-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-24-week-randomised-controlled-trial-with-open-label-extension
#13
Sang-Mo Hong, Cheol-Young Park, Dong-Min Hwang, Kyung Ah Han, Chang Beom Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ji-Oh Mok, Kyong Soo Park, Sung-Woo Park
AIMS: This trial consisted of a 24-week multicenter, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled study and a 52-week open label extension study to assess the efficacy and safety of evogliptin, a novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, compared to sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes who have inadequate glycaemic control with metformin alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (N = 222) with HbA1c 6.5-11% on stable metformin doses (≥1000 mg/day) were randomised 1:1 to add-on 5 mg evogliptin (N = 112) or 100 mg sitagliptin (N = 110) once daily for 24 weeks...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053874/long-term-outcome-of-isobutyryl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency-diagnosed-following-an-episode-of-ketotic-hypoglycaemia
#14
S Santra, A Macdonald, M A Preece, R K Olsen, B S Andresen
Isobutyryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (IBDD) is an inherited disorder of valine metabolism caused by mutations in ACAD8. Most reported patients have been diagnosed through newborn screening programmes due to elevated C4-carnitine levels and appear clinically asymptomatic. One reported non-screened patient had dilated cardiomyopathy and anaemia at the age of two years. We report a 13 month old girl diagnosed with IBDD after developing hypoglycaemic encephalopathy (blood glucose 1.9 mmol/l) during an episode of rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis...
March 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045450/agrimoniin-an-active-ellagitannin-from-comarum-palustre-herb-with-anti-%C3%AE-glucosidase-and-antidiabetic-potential-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#15
Nina I Kashchenko, Nadezhda K Chirikova, Daniil N Olennikov
Naturally existing α-glucosidase inhibitors from traditional herbal medicines have attracted considerable interest to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-α-glucosidase activity of extracts from marsh cinquefoil (Comarum palustre L.), their hypoglycaemic action and detection of the responsible compounds. A 60% ethanol extract from C. palustre herb revealed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 52.0 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis of the major compounds resulted in detection of 15 compounds, including ellagitannins, flavonoids, catechin and other compounds...
January 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027430/pharmacological-properties-of-melanin-and-its-function-in-health
#16
Adila Salih ElObeid, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Mohamed Anwar K Abdelhalim, Adil M Haseeb
The biological pigment melanin is present in most of the biological systems. It manifests a host of biological and pharmacological properties. Its role as a molecule with special properties and functions affecting general health, including photo-protective and immunological action are well recognised. Its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, radio-protective, hepatic, gastrointestinal and hypoglycaemic benefits have only recently been recognised and studied. It is also associated with certain disorders of the nervous system...
December 27, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027072/spectrum-of-drug-induced-chronic-diarrhea
#17
Nissy A Philip, Nazir Ahmed, Capecomorin S Pitchumoni
The evaluation of a patient with chronic diarrhea can be quite frustrating, as it is expensive and involves multiple diagnostic studies. Moreover, identification of a drug as a cause of chronic diarrhea is a challenge in patients taking multiple medications. The disease may either be associated with intestinal mucosal changes, mimicking diseases such as celiac disease, or purely functional, with no histopathologic change. Drug-induced diarrhea may or may not be associated with malabsorption of nutrients, and a clinical improvement may occur within days of discontinuation of the drug, or may take longer when associated with mucosal injury...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000229/proposed-mechanisms-of-terminalia-catappa-in-hyperglycaemia-and-associated-diabetic-complications
#18
REVIEW
Tapan Behl, Anita Kotwani
OBJECTIVES: Terminalia catappa has shown potent antidiabetic activity in the past; however, the exact molecular mechanisms by which it acts have not been elucidated. This review aims at exploring several hypotheses which have been proposed to explain its mechanism of action, including reduction in oxidative stress, inflammation, angiogenesis, lipid profile correction and direct hypoglycaemic actions. METHODS: A thorough review of all the articles, research as well as reviews, available regarding the concerned topic was performed...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978595/real-time-continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-type-1-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#19
Khalid Benkhadra, Fares Alahdab, Shrikant Tamhane, Zhen Wang, Larry J Prokop, Irl B Hirsch, Denis Raccah, Jean-Pierre Riveline, Olga Kordonouri, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RTCGM) may help in the management of individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM); however, the evidence supporting its use is unclear. The available meta-analyses on this topic use aggregate data which weaken inference. OBJECTIVE: Individual patient data were obtained from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to conduct a meta-analysis and synthesize evidence about the effect of RTCGM on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), hypoglycaemic events and time spent in hypoglycaemia in T1DM...
March 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972246/impact-of-hypoglycaemic-events-on-healthcare-resource-use-in-type-2-diabetes-patients
#20
J C Chan, A Ramachandran, J C Mbanya, M V Shestakova, J J Gagliardino, H Ilkova, P Leguet-Dinville, J Chantelot, J Schwarzbard, M Pacou, V Taieb, L Annemans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
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