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Ironman 70.3

Geneviève Masson, Benoît Lamarche
Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Jeff S Volek, Daniel J Freidenreich, Catherine Saenz, Laura J Kunces, Brent C Creighton, Jenna M Bartley, Patrick M Davitt, Colleen X Munoz, Jeffrey M Anderson, Carl M Maresh, Elaine C Lee, Mark D Schuenke, Giselle Aerni, William J Kraemer, Stephen D Phinney
BACKGROUND: Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. METHODS: Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months)...
March 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Beat Knechtle, Christoph Alexander Rüst, Thomas Rosemann, Romuald Lepers
BACKGROUND: To date, the age-related decline and gender differences in performance have been investigated for both Olympic and Ironman distance triathlons, but not for the intermediate distance (ie, the half-Ironman distance triathlon covering 1.9 km swimming, 90 km cycling and 21.1 km running, Ironman 70.3®). We determined the age-related differences in performance and the gender differences for female and male half-Ironman triathletes of 6303 finishers (1115 women and 5188 men) at the Ironman 70...
2012: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Katrin Sigg, Beat Knechtle, Christoph A Rüst, Patrizia Knechtle, Romuald Lepers, Thomas Rosemann
BACKGROUND: The present study examined the sex difference in swimming (7.8 km), cycling (360 km), running (84 km), and overall race times for Double Iron ultra-triathletes. METHODS: Sex differences in split times and overall race times of 1,591 men and 155 women finishing a Double Iron ultra-triathlon between 1985 and 2012 were analyzed. RESULTS: The annual number of finishes increased linearly for women and exponentially for men. Men achieved race times of 1,716 ± 243 min compared to 1,834 ± 261 min for women and were 118 ± 18 min (6...
2013: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
Jada L Stevenson, Huaxin Song, Jamie A Cooper
PURPOSE: The magnitude of change in sex differences across age groups in triathlon performance for the Ironman distance has been established. However, the influence of age on sex differences at shorter-distance triathlons is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to compare sex differences across age groups for the different modes of locomotion among varying triathlon distances (Sprint, Olympic, and Ironman 70.3) in amateur triathletes from the 2009-2011 triathlon World Championship...
May 2013: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
James Bales, Karrn Bales, Laura Baugh, John Tokish
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the elbow in Ironman triathletes for ulnar compression neuropathy caused by aerobar use. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study. SETTING: Ironman California 70.3, Ironman Arizona, Ironman New Orleans 70.3, San Antonio, Texas. PARTICIPANTS: Study 1: (n = 712) Ironman California 70.3/Ironman Arizona participants. Study 2: (n = 54) Ironman New Orleans 70.3 finishers. Study 3: (n = 11) participants training for an Ironman triathlon...
March 2012: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Beate Pfeiffer, Trent Stellingwerff, Adrian B Hodgson, Rebecca Randell, Klaus Pöttgen, Peter Res, Asker E Jeukendrup
UNLABELLED: There is little information about the actual nutrition and fluid intake habits and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of athletes during endurance events. PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify and characterize energy, nutrient, and fluid intakes during endurance competitions and investigate associations with GI symptoms. METHOD: A total of 221 endurance athletes (male and female) were recruited from two Ironman triathlons (IM Hawaii and IM GER), a half-Ironman (IM 70...
February 2012: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ben Desbrow, Michael Leveritt
This study assessed the knowledge, prevalence, and quantity of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Caffeine-related questionnaires were self-administered to 140 (105 male and 35 female, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y) athletes representing 16 countries. Fifty of these athletes further consented to immediate post-race blood samples for analysis of plasma caffeine and paraxanthine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seventy-two percent of 70 athletes correctly identified caffeine as being an unrestricted substance in triathlon...
October 2006: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Katsuhiko Suzuki, Jonathan Peake, Kazunori Nosaka, Mitsuharu Okutsu, Chris R Abbiss, Rob Surriano, David Bishop, Marc J Quod, Hamilton Lee, David T Martin, Paul B Laursen
We investigated the effects of an Ironman triathlon race on markers of muscle damage, inflammation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Nine well-trained male triathletes (mean +/- SD age 34 +/- 5 years; VO(2peak) 66.4 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) participated in the 2004 Western Australia Ironman triathlon race (3.8 km swim, 180 km cycle, 42.2 km run). We assessed jump height, muscle strength and soreness, and collected venous blood samples 2 days before the race, within 30 min and 14-20 h after the race. Plasma samples were analysed for muscle proteins, acute phase proteins, cytokines, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and clinical biochemical variables related to dehydration, haemolysis, liver and renal functions...
December 2006: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gerfried Gratze, Richard Rudnicki, Wolfgang Urban, Harald Mayer, Alois Schlögl, Falko Skrabal
We hypothesized that the extreme endurance exercise of an Ironman competition would lead to long-standing hemodynamic and autonomic changes. We investigated also the possibility of predicting competition performance from baseline hemodynamic and autonomic parameters. We have investigated 27 male athletes before competition, 1 h after, and then for the following week after the competition. The Task Force monitor was used to measure beat-to-beat hemodynamic and autonomic parameters during supine rest and active standing...
November 2005: Journal of Applied Physiology
J P Gulbin, P T Gaffney
BACKGROUND: This study sought to describe the training preparations and performances of lower level ultraendurance triatheletes. The lower level or typical ultraendurance athlete was defined as any participant eligible to compete, irrespective of ability. METHODS: HASH(0x49e90c0) EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: participants completed a retrospective questionnaire related to their athletic background, triathlon experience and performances, and training preparation...
March 1999: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
P S Douglas, M L O'Toole, S E Katz
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exhaustive exercise alters cardiac adrenergic chronotropic responsiveness in endurance-trained athletes. METHODS: Fifteen athletes were studied prospectively 2-4 days before and within 3.3 hours after completing the Hawaii Ironman Triathlon (3.9 km swim, 180.2 km bike, 24.2 km run). Increasing intravenous boluses of isoproterenol were given until the rise in heart rate was > 30 bpm (n = 3-6 doses). A log dose heart rate response curve was constructed, and the dose required to increase heart rate by 15 and 25 bpm estimated...
June 1998: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
P C Zarkadas, J B Carter, E W Banister
The purpose of this study was to determine the nature of taper required to optimize performance in Ironman triathletes. Eleven triathletes (26 +/- 4 yrs, 77.0 +/- 6.5 kg) took part in 3 months of training interspersed with two taper periods, one of 10 days (Taper 1) and another six weeks later for 13 days (Taper 2). Reducing training volume by 50% in an exponential fashion (tau < or = 5 days) in one group of triathletes during Taper 1 resulted in a 46 second (4%) improvement in their 5 km criterion run time and a 23 W (5%) increase in maximal ramp power output above the same measurement at the beginning of taper...
1995: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
P K Korkia, D S Tunstall-Pedoe, N Maffulli
During the competitive season of 1990, 155 British triathletes whose competitive distances varied from sprint to full ironman, and who self-classified themselves as recreational, intermediate or élite, kept a training diary for an 8-week period. They gave details of injuries sustained while training for, or competing in, triathlons. The mean(s.d.) distances covered each week were: swimming, 4.2(2.6) km; cycling, 100.2(70.6) km; and running 23.4(15.2) km; mean(s.d.) training time was 7(3.4) h per week, and a mean(s...
September 1994: British Journal of Sports Medicine
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