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Erik Beňo, Róbert Góra, Milan Hutta
The presented work is focused on the separation and characterization of lignin samples isolated by Klason method from European beech (Fagus sylvatica) broadleaf hardwood and European aspen (Populus tremula) broadleaf softwood by size-exclusion chromatography. The separation was carried out using dimethylformamide as major component of the mobile phase and a 3 mm id microbore column packed with hydroxyethyl methacrylate gel, calibrated with polystyrene standards. The influence of mobile phase composition and sample solvent composition on the chromatographic behavior and molar mass distributions was investigated...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Aspen T Reese, Eugenia H Cho, Bruce Klitzman, Scott P Nichols, Natalie A Wisniewski, Max M Villa, Heather K Durand, Sharon Jiang, Firas S Midani, Sai N Nimmagadda, Thomas M O'Connell, Justin P Wright, Marc A Deshusses, Lawrence A David
How host and microbial factors combine to structure gut microbial communities remains incompletely understood. Redox potential is an important environmental feature affected by both host and microbial actions. We assessed how antibiotics, which can impact host and microbial function, change redox state and how this contributes to post-antibiotic succession. We showed gut redox potential increased within hours of an antibiotic dose in mice. Host and microbial functioning changed under treatment, but shifts in redox potentials could be attributed specifically to bacterial suppression in a host-free ex vivo human gut microbiota model...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Gerald N Presley, Ellen Panisko, Samuel O Purvine, Jonathan S Schilling
Wood-degrading fungi use a sequence of oxidative and hydrolytic mechanisms to loosen lignocellulose and then release and metabolize embedded sugars. These temporal sequences have recently been mapped at high resolution using directional growth on wood wafers, revealing previously obscured dynamics as fungi progressively colonize wood. Here, we applied secretomics in the same wafer design to track temporal trends on aspen decayed by fungi with distinct nutritional modes: two brown rot-type (BR) fungi ( Postia placenta , Gloeophyllum trabeum ) and two white rot (WR) ( Stereum hirsutum , Trametes versicolor )...
June 8, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Baojun Wu, Jill Gaskell, Benjamin W Held, Cristina Toapanta, Thu Vuong, Steven Ahrendt, Anna Lipzen, Jiwei Zhang, Jonathan S Schilling, Emma Master, Igor V Grigoriev, Robert A Blanchette, Dan Cullen, David S Hibbett
Wood-decaying fungi tend to have characteristic substrate ranges that partly define their ecological niche. Fomitopsis pinicola is a brown rot species of Polyporales that is reported on 82 species of softwoods and 42 species of hardwoods. We analyzed gene expression levels and RNA editing profiles of F. pinicola from submerged cultures with ground wood powder (sampled at five days) or solid wood wafers (sampled at ten and thirty days), using aspen, pine, and spruce substrates (aspen was used only in submerged cultures)...
June 8, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rongzhou Man, Hua Yang, John W Schnare
Growing demand for non-timber forest ecosystem services has resulted in increased use of partial harvesting in boreal forests. Since the 1990s, multiple studies have yielded short-term responses to partial harvesting. Here we present an inventory of longer-term (20 years) responses of overstory and understory trees to partial harvesting in aspen-dominated boreal mixedwood stands. Pre- and post-harvesting overstory trees were mapped and measured for total height and diameter at breast height (DBH); understory trees were measured for total height...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Jing Wang, Jihua Ding, Biyue Tan, Kathryn M Robinson, Ingrid H Michelson, Anna Johansson, Björn Nystedt, Douglas G Scofield, Ove Nilsson, Stefan Jansson, Nathaniel R Street, Pär K Ingvarsson
BACKGROUND: The initiation of growth cessation and dormancy represent critical life-history trade-offs between survival and growth and have important fitness effects in perennial plants. Such adaptive life-history traits often show strong local adaptation along environmental gradients but, despite their importance, the genetic architecture of these traits remains poorly understood. RESULTS: We integrate whole genome re-sequencing with environmental and phenotypic data from common garden experiments to investigate the genomic basis of local adaptation across a latitudinal gradient in European aspen (Populus tremula)...
June 4, 2018: Genome Biology
M Molly McMahon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 29, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Akihiro Suzuki, Chizuru Sasaki, Chikako Asada, Yoshitoshi Nakamura
Holocellulose was generated from Aspen and Bode chopsticks by high temperature, high pressure steam treatment combined with milling. The steam treatment conditions were increased, the holocellulose component ratio in the treated sample as well as its molecular weight decreased. The treated holocellulose was subjected to grinder treatment to obtain cellulose nanofibers (CNF). Field-emission scanning electron micrographs indicated that CNF were successfully produced. The maximum tensile strength values of 86...
August 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Piotr Okińczyc, Antoni Szumny, Jakub Szperlik, Anna Kulma, Roman Franiczek, Beata Żbikowska, Barbara Krzyżanowska, Zbigniew Sroka
In this work, we studied similarities and differences between 70% ethanol in water extract (70EE) and essential oils (EOs) obtained from propolis, black poplars ( Populus nigra L.) and aspens ( P. tremula L.) to ascertain which of these is a better indicator of the plant species used by bees to collect propolis precursors. Composition of 70EE was analyzed by UPLC-PDA-MS, while GC-MS was used to research the EOs. Principal component analyses (PCA) and calculations of Spearman's coefficient rank were used for statistical analysis...
May 25, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sebastián Serna-Loaiza, Alfredo Martínez, Yuri Pisarenko, Carlos Ariel Cardona-Alzate
During last decades, there has been a growing interest of decreasing the environmental impact generated by humans. This situation has been approached from different perspectives being the integral use of raw materials as one of the best alternatives. It was estimated that 3.7 × 109  tonnes of agricultural residues are produced annually worldwide. Then, the integral use of feedstocks has been studied through the biorefinery concept. A biorefinery can be a promissory option for processing feedstocks in rural zones aiming to boost the techno-economic and social growth...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Michael A Falk, Richard L Lindroth, Ken Keefover-Ring, Kenneth F Raffa
Empirical studies indicate that host-tree bud break will likely advance faster than spring-folivore egg hatch in response to predicted increases in temperature. How these phenological shifts will affect herbivory will depend on temporal patterns of foliar traits that occur during leaf expansion, and their effects on folivore performance. Through fine-scale time series sampling of newly flushed trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) foliage, we observed a previously unknown peak in phenolic glycoside concentrations that coincides with the emergence of sensitive neonates of gypsy moths and rapidly declines soon after bud break...
May 23, 2018: Oecologia
Murray A Rudd, Althea F P Moore, Daniel Rochberg, Lisa Bianchi-Fossati, Marilyn A Brown, David D'Onofrio, Carrie A Furman, Jairo Garcia, Ben Jordan, Jennifer Kline, L Mark Risse, Patricia L Yager, Jessica Abbinett, Merryl Alber, Jesse E Bell, Cyrus Bhedwar, Kim M Cobb, Juliet Cohen, Matt Cox, Myriam Dormer, Nyasha Dunkley, Heather Farley, Jill Gambill, Mindy Goldstein, Garry Harris, Melissa Hopkinson, Jean-Ann James, Susan Kidd, Pam Knox, Yang Liu, Daniel C Matisoff, Michael D Meyer, Jamie D Mitchem, Katherine Moore, Aspen J Ono, Jon Philipsborn, Kerrie M Sendall, Fatemeh Shafiei, Marshall Shepherd, Julia Teebken, Ashby N Worley
Climate change has far-reaching effects on human and ecological systems, requiring collaboration across sectors and disciplines to determine effective responses. To inform regional responses to climate change, decision-makers need credible and relevant information representing a wide swath of knowledge and perspectives. The southeastern U. S. State of Georgia is a valuable focal area for study because it contains multiple ecological zones that vary greatly in land use and economic activities, and it is vulnerable to diverse climate change impacts...
May 23, 2018: Environmental Management
Yalan Guo, Zhen Gao, Jiaxing Xu, Siyuan Chang, Bin Wu, Bingfang He
A GH30-8 endoxylanase was identified from an environmental Bacillus subtilis isolate following growth selection on aspen wood glucuronoxylan. The putative endoxylanase was cloned for protein expression and characterization in the Gram-positive protease deficient protein expression host B. subtilis WB800. The extracellular activity obtained was 55 U/mL, which was 14.5-fold higher than that obtained with the native species. The apparent molecular mass of BsXyn30 was estimated as 43 kDa by SDS-PAGE. BsXyn30 showed an optimal activity at pH 7...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Kwabena Darkwah, Sue E Nokes, Jeffrey R Seay, Barbara L Knutson
Process simulations of batch fermentations with in situ product separation traditionally decouple these interdependent steps by simulating a separate "steady state" continuous fermentation and separation units. In this study, an integrated batch fermentation and separation process was simulated for a model system of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation with in situ gas stripping, such that the fermentation kinetics are linked in real-time to the gas stripping process. A time-dependent cell growth, substrate utilization, and product production is translated to an Aspen Plus batch reactor...
May 22, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Marie-Francoise Noirot-Gros, Shalaka Shinde, Peter E Larsen, Sarah Zerbs, Peter J Korajczyk, Kenneth M Kemner, Philippe H Noirot
Rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens are known plant growth promoting (PGP) and mycorrhizal helper bacteria (MHB) of many plants and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of colonization of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Aspen seedlings roots by the P. fluorescens strains SBW25, WH6, Pf0-1, and the P. protegens strain Pf-5. Seedlings were grown in laboratory vertical plates systems, inoculated with a fluorescently labeled Pseudomonas strain, and root colonization was monitored over a period of 5 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Åsa Grimberg, Ida Lager, Nathaniel R Street, Kathryn M Robinson, Salla Marttila, Niklas Mähler, Pär K Ingvarsson, Rishikesh P Bhalerao
The signalling pathways that control seasonal modulation of carbon metabolism in perennial plants are poorly understood. Using genetic, metabolic and natural variation approaches, we identify factors mediating photoperiodic control of storage lipid accumulation in the model tree hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides). We characterized lipid accumulation in transgenic hybrid aspen with impaired photoperiodic and hormonal responses. Genome-wide association mapping was performed in Swedish aspen (P. tremula) genotypes to determine genetic loci associated with genotype variation in lipid content...
May 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Xueyang Zhang, Pia Guadalupe Dominguez, Manoj Kumar, Joakim Bygdell, Sergey Miroshnichenko, Bjorn Sundberg, Gunnar Wingsle, Totte Niittyla
Cellulose is synthesised at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) containing cellulose synthases (CESAs). Genetic analysis and CESA isoform quantification indicate that cellulose in the secondary cell walls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is synthesised by isoforms CESA4, CESA7 and CESA8 in equimolar amounts. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to investigate whether the CSC model based on Arabidopsis secondary cell wall CESA stoichiometry can be applied to the angiosperm tree aspen (Populus tremula) and the gymnosperm tree Norway spruce (Picea abies)...
May 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
Maciej Jerzy Bernacki, Weronika Czarnocka, Damian Witoń, Anna Rusaczonek, Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda, Ireneusz Ślesak, Joanna Dąbrowska-Bronk, Stanisław Karpiński
ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) was first described as a protein involved in salicylic acid (SA)-, ethylene-, and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent defense and acclimation responses. It is a molecular regulator of biotic and abiotic stress-induced programmed cell death. Its role is relatively well known in annual plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. However, little is known about its functions in woody plants. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to characterize the function of EDS1 in the Populus tremula L...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Xinyu Jiang, Jian-Guo Huang, Jiong Cheng, Andria Dawson, Kenneth J Stadt, Philip G Comeau, Han Y H Chen
Tree growth of boreal forest plays an important role on global carbon (C) cycle, while tree growth in the western Canadian boreal mixed forests has been predicted to be negatively affected by regional drought. Individual tree growth can be controlled by many factors, such as competition, climate, tree size and age. However, information about contributions of different factors to tree growth is still limited in this region. In order to address this uncertainty, tree rings of two dominant tree species, trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
W Druml, M Joannidis, S John, A Jörres, M Schmitz, J Kielstein, D Kindgen-Milles, M Oppert, V Schwenger, C Willam, A Zarbock
BACKGROUND: Intensive care patients with renal failure or insufficiency comprise a heterogeneous group of subjects with widely differing metabolic patterns and nutritional requirements. They include subjects with various stages of acute kidney injury (AKI), acute-on-chronic renal failure (A-CKD), without/with renal replacement therapy (RRT), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and subjects on regular hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis therapy (HD/PD). GOALS: Development of recommendations by the renal section of DGIIN (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internistische Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin), ÖGIAIN (Österreichische Gesellschaft für Internistische und Allgemeine Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin) and DIVI (Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Vereinigung für Intensiv- und Notfallmedizin) for the metabolic management and the planning, indication, implementation, and monitoring of nutrition therapy in this heterogeneous group of patients...
May 3, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
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