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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036658/dying-piece-by-piece-carbohydrate-dynamics-in-aspen-populus-tremuloides-seedlings-under-severe-carbon-stress
#1
Erin Wiley, Günter Hoch, Simon M Landhäusser
Carbon starvation as a mechanism of tree mortality is poorly understood. We exposed seedlings of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to complete darkness at 20 or 28 °C to identify minimum non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations at which trees die and to see if these levels vary between organs or with environmental conditions. We also first grew seedlings under different shade levels to determine if size affects survival time under darkness due to changes in initial NSC concentration and pool size and/or respiration rates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036599/carbon-allocation-and-partitioning-in-populus-tremuloides-are-modulated-by-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-under-phosphorus-limitation
#2
Shalaka Shinde, Dhiraj Naik, Jonathan R Cumming
The fate of carbon (C) captured by forest trees during photosynthesis is influenced by the supply of other resources. Fixed C may be partitioned among biomolecules within the leaf and/or allocated throughout the tree to growth, storage and maintenance activities. Phosphorus (P) availability often limits tree productivity due to its high biological demand and strong interactions with soil minerals. As ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play critical roles in enhancing phosphate (Pi) acquisition by their hosts, these symbioses will influence the fate of C within trees and forested ecosystems...
September 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036397/polyploidy-influences-plant-environment-interactions-in-quaking-aspen-populus-tremuloides-michx
#3
Burke T Greer, Christopher Still, Grace L Cullinan, J Renée Brooks, Frederick C Meinzer
Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), a widespread and keystone tree species in North America, experienced heat and drought stress in the years 2002 and 2003 in the southwestern United States. This led to widespread aspen mortality that has altered the composition of forests, and is expected to occur again if climate change continues. Understanding interactions between aspen and its environments is essential to understanding future mortality risk in forests. Polyploidy, which is common in aspen, can modify plant structure and function and therefore plant-environment interactions, but the influence of polyploidy on aspen physiology is still not well understood...
September 26, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985513/increasing-air-humidity-influences-hydraulic-efficiency-but-not-functional-vulnerability-of-xylem-in-hybrid-aspen
#4
Arne Sellin, Meeli Alber, Priit Kupper
Climate models predict greater increases in the frequency than in the amount of precipitation and a consequent rise in atmospheric humidity at high latitudes by the end of the century. We investigated the responses of hydraulic and relevant anatomical traits of xylem to elevated relative humidity of air on a 1-yr-old coppice of hybrid aspen (Populus×wettsteinii) growing in the experimental stand at the Free Air Humidity Manipulation site in Eastern Estonia. The hydraulic conductivity of stems was measured with a high pressure flow meter; artificial cavitation in the stem segments was induced by the air injection method...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945479/list-of-abstracts-and-posters-presented-at-the-59th-thomas-l-petty-aspen-lung-conference
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945478/introduction-to-the-59th-annual-thomas-l-petty-aspen-lung-conference-lung-transplantation-opportunities-for-repair-and-regeneration
#6
Martin R Zamora, Tereza Martinu, Mark R Nicolls
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938057/outbreak-of-drepanopeziza-fungus-in-aspen-forests-and-variation-in-stand-susceptibility-leaf-functional-traits-compensatory-growth-and-phenology
#7
Anson C Call, Samuel B St Clair
In the spring of 2015, a severe outbreak of the necrotrophic pathogen Drepanopeziza (also known as Marssonina) spread across large portions of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests in the western United States. Among adjacent stands, some were diseased and others were not. Drepanopeziza infection in diseased aspen stands stimulated compensatory growth of second-flush leaves at the top of the canopy. These patterns of infection provided an opportunity to characterize associations of pathogen infection and leaf functional traits...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931209/process-simulation-of-ethanol-production-from-biomass-gasification-and-syngas-fermentation
#8
Oscar Pardo-Planas, Hasan K Atiyeh, John R Phillips, Clint P Aichele, Sayeed Mohammad
The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928950/using-sheep-genomes-from-diverse-u-s-breeds-to-identify-missense-variants-in-genes-affecting-fecundity
#9
Michael P Heaton, Timothy P L Smith, Bradley A Freking, Aspen M Workman, Gary L Bennett, Jacky K Carnahan, Theodore S Kalbfleisch
Background:  Access to sheep genome sequences significantly improves the chances of identifying genes that may influence the health, welfare, and productivity of these animals.   Methods:  A public, searchable DNA sequence resource for U.S. sheep was created with whole genome sequence (WGS) of 96 rams.  The animals shared minimal pedigree relationships and represent nine popular U.S. breeds and a composite line.  The genomes are viewable online with the user-friendly Integrated Genome Viewer environment, and may be used to identify and decode gene variants present in U...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877258/an-empirical-hierarchical-typology-of-tree-species-assemblages-for-assessing-forest-dynamics-under-global-change-scenarios
#10
Jennifer K Costanza, John W Coulston, David N Wear
The composition of tree species occurring in a forest is important and can be affected by global change drivers such as climate change. To inform assessment and projection of global change impacts at broad extents, we used hierarchical cluster analysis and over 120,000 recent forest inventory plots to empirically define forest tree assemblages across the U.S., and identified the indicator and dominant species associated with each. Cluster typologies in two levels of a hierarchy of forest assemblages, with 29 and 147 groups respectively, were supported by diagnostic criteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861091/insufficient-chilling-effects-vary-among-boreal-tree-species-and-chilling-duration
#11
Rongzhou Man, Pengxin Lu, Qing-Lai Dang
Insufficient chilling resulting from rising winter temperatures associated with climate warming has been an area of particular interest in boreal and temperate regions where a period of cool temperatures in fall and winter is required to break plant dormancy. In this study, we examined the budburst and growth of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843431/design-and-implementation-of-a-control-structure-for-quality-products-in-a-crude-oil-atmospheric-distillation-column
#12
David Sotelo, Antonio Favela-Contreras, Carlos Sotelo, Guillermo Jiménez, Luis Gallegos-Canales
In recent years, interest for petrochemical processes has been increasing, especially in refinement area. However, the high variability in the dynamic characteristics present in the atmospheric distillation column poses a challenge to obtain quality products. To improve distillates quality in spite of the changes in the input crude oil composition, this paper details a new design of a control strategy in a conventional crude oil distillation plant defined using formal interaction analysis tools. The process dynamic and its control are simulated on Aspen HYSYS(®) dynamic environment under real operating conditions...
August 23, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842579/phase-behavior-and-thermodynamic-model-parameters-in-simulations-of-extractive-distillation-for-azeotrope-separation
#13
Min Li, Xicai Xu, Xin Li, Kang Ma, Bin Qin, Zhaoyou Zhu, Yinglong Wang
Extractive distillation (ED) processes for separating ternary mixtures of benzene-cyclohexane-toluene with dimethyl formamide (DMF) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) were studied using Aspen Plus and PRO/II simulators. The Aspen Plus built-in binary interaction parameters for the toluene-DMF, benzene-NMP and cyclohexane-NMP systems resulted in inaccurate phase behavior calculations. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for the three binary systems was regressed to illustrate the importance of using accurate model parameters...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836842/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-serum-antibody-abundance-against-bovine-coronavirus-on-bovine-coronavirus-shedding-and-risk-of-respiratory-tract-disease-in-beef-calves-from-birth-through-the-first-five-weeks-in-a-feedlot
#14
Aspen M Workman, Larry A Kuehn, Tara G McDaneld, Michael L Clawson, Carol G Chitko-McKown, John Dustin Loy
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of serum antibody abundance against bovine coronavirus (BCV) on BCV shedding and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef calves from birth through the first 5 weeks in a feedlot. ANIMALS 890 natural-service crossbred beef calves from 4 research herds. PROCEDURES Serial blood samples for measurement of serum anti-BCV antibody abundance by an ELISA and nasal swab specimens for detection of BCV and other viral and bacterial BRD pathogens by real-time PCR methods were collected from all calves or subsets of calves at predetermined times from birth through the first 5 weeks after feedlot entry...
September 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821082/recycling-of-pre-hydrolysis-liquor-to-improve-the-concentrations-of-hemicellulosic-saccharides-during-water-pre-hydrolysis-of-aspen-woodchips
#15
Zongquan Li, Jungang Jiang, Yingjuan Fu, Zhaojiang Wang, Menghua Qin
In this study, the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) was recycled during aspen chip water pre-hydrolysis, and the effects of PHL recycling on the extraction and accumulation of the hemicellulosic saccharides especially that with high molecular weight in the PHL were studied. The results showed that the concentration of hemicellulose saccharides in PHL depended on the pre-hydrolysis temperature and PHL recycling times. Compared to the unrecycled PHL, the concentration of hemicellulosic saccharides in PHL increased significantly when recycling PHL once or twice at 170°C...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797628/refuse-derived-fuel-rdf-production-and-gasification-in-a-pilot-plant-integrated-with-an-otto-cycle-ice-through-aspen-plus%C3%A2-modelling-thermodynamic-and-economic-viability
#16
Albany Milena Lozano Násner, Electo Eduardo Silva Lora, José Carlos Escobar Palacio, Mateus Henrique Rocha, Julian Camilo Restrepo, Osvaldo José Venturini, Albert Ratner
This work deals with the development of a Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) gasification pilot plant using air as a gasification agent. A downdraft fixed bed reactor is integrated with an Otto cycle Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Modelling was carried out using the Aspen Plus™ software to predict the ideal operational conditions for maximum efficiency. Thermodynamics package used in the simulation comprised the Non-Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) model and the Hayden-O'Connell (HOC) equation of state. As expected, the results indicated that the Equivalence Ratio (ER) has a direct influence over the gasification temperature and the composition of the Raw Produced Gas (RPG), and effects of ER over the Lower Heating Value (LHV) and Cold Gasification Efficiency (CGE) of the RPG are also discussed...
August 7, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780454/nicotinamide-antioxidative-and-dna-hypomethylation-effects-in-plant-cells
#17
Torkel Berglund, Anders Wallström, Tuong-Van Nguyen, Cecilia Laurell, Anna B Ohlsson
The effects of nicotinamide (NIC) and its natural plant metabolites nicotinic acid (NIA) and trigonelline (TRIG) were studied with respect to defense in plant cell cultures. NIC and NIA could protect against oxidative stress damage caused by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), which generates free radicals. Damage was analyzed as DNA strand breaks in cell cultures of Pisum sativum (garden pea), Daucus carota (carrot), Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides (hybrid aspen) and Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), monitored by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), and assays of cell leakage in C...
July 29, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777916/41st-aspen-president-s-address-advancing-the-science-and-practice-of-nutrition-support-into-the-future
#18
Charlene Compher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768815/synthesis-and-self-assembly-of-cellulose-microfibrils-from-reconstituted-cellulose-synthase
#19
Sung Hyun Cho, Pallinti Purushotham, Chao Fang, Cassandra Maranas, Sara M Díaz-Moreno, Vincent Bulone, Jochen Zimmer, Manish Kumar, B Tracy Nixon
Cellulose, the major component of plant cell walls, can be converted to bioethanol and is thus highly studied. In plants, cellulose is produced by cellulose synthase, a processive family-2 glycosyltransferase. In plant cell walls, individual β-1,4-glucan chains polymerized by CesA are assembled into microfibrils that are frequently bundled into macrofibrils. An in vitro system in which cellulose is synthesized and assembled into fibrils would facilitate detailed study of this process. Here, we report the heterologous expression and partial purification of His-tagged CesA5 from Physcomitrella patens Immunoblot analysis and mass spectrometry confirmed enrichment of PpCesA5...
September 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762590/contributions-of-insects-and-droughts-to-growth-decline-of-trembling-aspen-mixed-boreal-forest-of-western-canada
#20
Lei Chen, Jian-Guo Huang, Andria Dawson, Lihong Zhai, Kenneth J Stadt, Philip G Comeau, Caroline Whitehouse
Insects, diseases, fire and drought and other disturbances associated with global climate change contribute to forest decline and mortality in many parts of the world. Forest decline and mortality related to drought or insect outbreaks have been observed in North American aspen forests. However, little research has been done to partition and estimate their relative contributions to growth declines. In this study, we combined tree-ring width and basal area increment series from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
August 1, 2017: Global Change Biology
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