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Bahtijor Rasulov, Eero Talts, Irina Bichele, Ulo Niinemets
Isoprene is synthesized via chloroplastic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate/1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (MEP/DOXP) pathway and its synthesis is directly related to photosynthesis, except under high CO2 concentration when the rate of photosynthesis increases, but isoprene emission decreases. Suppression of MEP/DOXP pathway activity by high CO2 has been explained by limited supply of cytosolic substrate precursor, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into chloroplast as the result of enhanced activity of PEP carboxylase (PEPC) or by limited supply of energetic and reductive equivalents...
December 12, 2017: Plant Physiology
Jennifer Arnold, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Peter Weisberg
To determine whether trees are reliable biomonitors of air mercury (Hg) pollution concentrations were measured in bark, foliage, and tree rings. Data were developed using 4-year old Pinus and Populus trees grown from common genetic stock in Oregon and subsequently transferred to four air treatments differing in gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) chemistry and total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations. Soil of a subset of trees was spiked with HgBr2 in solution to test for root uptake. Results indicate no significant effect of the soil spike or GOM compounds on tree tissue Hg concentrations...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Haiyan Sun, Aspen Workman, Fernando A Osorio, David Steffen, Hiep L X Vu
Modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines are widely used to protect pigs against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). However, current MLV vaccines do not confer adequate levels of heterologous protection, presumably due to the substantial genetic diversity of PRRSV isolates circulating in the field. To overcome this genetic variation challenge, we recently generated a synthetic PRRSV strain containing a consensus genomic sequence of PRRSV-2. We demonstrated that our synthetic PRRSV strain confers unprecedented levels of heterologous protection...
November 21, 2017: Vaccine
Jelena Pavlović, Philip Greenland, Jaap W Deckers, Maryam Kavousi, Albert Hofman, M Arfan Ikram, Oscar H Franco, Maarten Jg Leening
Background The purpose of this study was to determine how American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 and European Society of Cardiology 2016 guidelines for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) compare in reflecting the totality of accrued randomised clinical trial evidence for statin treatment at population level. Methods From 1997-2008, 7279 participants aged 45-75 years, free of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, from the population-based Rotterdam Study were included...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Anatoly V Zhigunov, Pavel S Ulianich, Marina V Lebedeva, Peter L Chang, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Elena K Potokina
BACKGROUND: Restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) technology was recently employed to identify a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for linkage mapping of a North American and Eastern Asian Populus species. However, there is also the need for high-density genetic linkage maps for the European aspen (P. tremula) as a tool for further mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and marker-assisted selection of the Populus species native to Europe. RESULTS: We established a hybrid F1 population from the cross of two aspen parental genotypes diverged in their phenological and morphological traits...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Zhao Wang, John Gräsvik, Leif J Jönsson, Sandra Winestrand
BACKGROUND: Ionic liquids (ILs) draw attention as green solvents for pretreatment of lignocellulose before enzymatic saccharification. Imidazolium-based ILs with different anionic constituents ([HSO4](-), [Cl](-), [MeCO2](-)) were compared with regard to pretreatment of wood from aspen and spruce. The objective was to elucidate how the choice of anionic constituent affected the suitability of using the IL for pretreatment of hardwood, such as aspen, and softwood, such as spruce. The investigation covered a thorough analysis of the mass balance of the IL pretreatments, the effects of pretreatment on the cell wall structure as assessed by fluorescence microscopy, and the effects of pretreatment on the susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification...
November 15, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
Abdol Ghaffar Ebadi, Hikmat Hisoriev
Gasification is one of the most important thermochemical routes to produce both synthesis gas (syngas) and chars. The quality of produced syngas wieldy depends on the operating conditions (temperature, residence time, heating rate, and gasifying agent), hydrodynamic properties of gasifier (particle size, minimum fluidization velocity, and gasifier size), and type of feedstock (coal, biomass, oil, and municipal solid wastes). In the present study, simulation of syngas production via circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Technology
Santosh Ojha, Luben Dimov
The diversity-productivity relationship has not been studied as extensively in forests as in other ecosystems. We address this gap in our knowledge by examining the relationship of productivity (primarily the periodic annual increment in aboveground biomass, but also the mean annual increment) with five species diversity indices, stand, and environmental factors. We used 967 naturally regenerated Forest Inventory and Analysis plots with stand age ≤30 years, located in the conterminous thirty-one eastern states, and satisfying strict selection requirements...
2017: PloS One
Nataliya V Melnikova, Elena V Borkhert, Anastasiya V Snezhkina, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Alexey A Dmitriev
Populus is an effective model for genetic studies in trees. The genus Populus includes dioecious species, and the differences exhibited in males and females have been intensively studied. This review focused on the distinctions between male and female poplar and aspen plants under stress conditions, such as drought, salinity, heavy metals, and nutrient deficiency on morphological, physiological, proteome, and gene expression levels. In most studies, males of Populus species were more adaptive to the majority of the stress conditions and showed less damage, better growth, and higher photosynthetic capacity and antioxidant activity than that of the females...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Joel Rovnak, Rushika Perera, Matthew W Hopken, Jenna Read, Derrick M Waller, Randall J Cohrs
Since 2000, scientists and students from the greater Rocky Mountain region, along with invited speakers, both national and international, have gathered at the Mountain Campus of Colorado State University to discuss their area of study, present recent findings, establish or strengthen collaborations, and mentor the next generation of virologists and prionologists through formal presentations and informal discussions concerning science, grantsmanship and network development. This year, approximately 100 people attended the 17th annual Rocky Mountain Virology Association meeting, that began with a keynote presentation, and featured 29 oral and 35 poster presentations covering RNA and DNA viruses, prions, virus-host interactions and guides to successful mentorship...
November 8, 2017: Viruses
P Kannan, G Lakshmanan, A Al Shoaibi, C Srinivasakannan
Utilization of carbon dioxide (CO2) in thermochemical treatment of waste plastics may significantly help to improve CO2 recycling, thus simultaneously curtailing dioxins/furans and CO2 emissions. Although CO2 is not such an effective gasifying agent as steam, a few investigations have explored the utilization of CO2 in conjunction with steam to achieve somewhat higher carbon conversion. This work presents a comparative evaluation study of CO2 and steam gasification of a typical post-consumer waste plastics mixture using an Aspen Plus equilibrium model...
November 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Icíar Castro-Vega, Silvia Veses Martin, Juana Cantero Llorca, Cristina Barrios Marta, Núria Monzó Albiach, Celia Bañuls Morant, Antonio Hernández-Mijares
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition depends on the population studied and the methods used for screening, for nutritional assessment and the diagnostic criteria employed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition, and the type and degree of malnutrition in outpatient, hospitalized and institutionalized populations in a health department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional and descriptive study with a randomly selected sample...
July 28, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Juan Li, Chisaki Kudo, Akio Tonouchi
A bacterial strain designated PtRA-8(T) was isolated from the trunk surface of a Japanese aspen tree (Populus tremula var. sieboldii). Cells of strain PtRA-8(T) were aerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-stain-negative rods, 1.0‒2.0 µm in width and 3.0‒10.0 µm in length. The pH range for growth was between 5.5 and 7.5, with an optimum at 6.5. The temperature range for growth was between 10 and 37 °C, with an optimum at around 25‒30 °C. Strain PtRA-8(T) was highly resistant to UV irradiation, similar to its Deinococcus relatives...
October 28, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
Chhana Ullah, Sybille B Unsicker, Christin Fellenberg, C Peter Constabel, Axel Schmidt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Almuth Hammerbacher
Phenolic secondary metabolites are often thought to protect plants against attack by microbes but their role in defense against pathogen infection in woody plants has not been comprehensively investigated. We studied the biosynthesis, occurrence and anti-fungal activity of flavan-3-ols in black poplar (Populus nigra L.), which include both monomers, such as catechin, and oligomers known as proanthocyanidins (PAs). We identified and biochemically characterized three leucoanthocyanidin reductases (LAR) and two anthocyanidin reductases (ANR) from P...
October 25, 2017: Plant Physiology
R A Lastra, N C Kenkel, F Daayf
In the aspen-grassland ecotone of Riding Mountain, Manitoba, lightly browsed vigorous clones of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) occur in close proximity to heavily browsed dieback clones. This study examines whether intraspecific variation in the production of phenolic glycosides is correlated with this strong dichotomy in clonal vigor. Individual clones were sampled over four years at three sites located along a gradient of increasing soil moisture stress. At each site, eight aspen clones of similar size and age were sampled: four vigorous and four dieback clones (total of 24 individual clones)...
October 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
A T Trugman, D Medvigy, W R L Anderegg, S W Pacala
Rapid warming and changes in water availability at high latitudes alter resource abundance, tree competition, and disturbance regimes. While these changes are expected to disrupt the functioning of boreal forests, their ultimate implications for forest composition are uncertain. In particular, recent site-level studies of the Alaskan boreal forest have reported both increases and decreases in productivity over the past few decades. Here, we test the idea that variations in Alaskan forest growth and mortality rates are contingent on species composition...
October 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
Unnikrishnan Sivadasan, Tendry Randriamanana, Cao Chenhao, Virpi Virjamo, Line Nybakken, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
Boreal tree species are excellent tools for studying tolerance to climate change. Bud phenology is a trait, which is highly sensitive to environmental fluctuations and thus useful for climate change investigations. However, experimental studies of bud phenology under simulated climate change outdoors are deficient. We conducted a multifactorial field experiment with single (T, UVA, UVB) and combined treatments (UVA+T, UVB+T) of elevated temperature (T, +2°C) and ultraviolet-B radiation (+30% UVB) in order to examine their impact on both male and female genotypes of aspen (Populus tremula L...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Guilherme Dutra, John Canning, Whayne Padden, Cicero Martelli, Svetlana Dligatch
Top-down contact angle measurements have been validated and confirmed to be as good if not more reliable than side-based measurements. A range of samples, including industrially relevant materials for roofing and printing, has been compared. Using the top-down approach, mapping in both 1-D and 2-D has been demonstrated. The method was applied to study the change in contact angle as a function of change in silver (Ag) nanoparticle size controlled by thermal evaporation. Large area mapping reveals good uniformity for commercial Aspen paper coated with black laser printer ink...
September 4, 2017: Optics Express
Erin Wiley, Günter Hoch, Simon M Landhäusser
Carbon starvation as a mechanism of tree mortality is poorly understood. We exposed seedlings of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to complete darkness at 20 or 28 °C to identify minimum non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations at which trees die and to see if these levels vary between organs or with environmental conditions. We also first grew seedlings under different shade levels to determine if size affects survival time under darkness due to changes in initial NSC concentration and pool size and/or respiration rates...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Shalaka Shinde, Dhiraj Naik, Jonathan R Cumming
The fate of carbon (C) captured by forest trees during photosynthesis is influenced by the supply of other resources. Fixed C may be partitioned among biomolecules within the leaf and/or allocated throughout the tree to growth, storage and maintenance activities. Phosphorus (P) availability often limits tree productivity due to its high biological demand and strong interactions with soil minerals. As ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play critical roles in enhancing phosphate (Pi) acquisition by their hosts, these symbioses will influence the fate of C within trees and forested ecosystems...
September 28, 2017: Tree Physiology
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