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Lisa A Maier, Arnold R Brody, David A Schwartz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jonathan M Samet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Alexei Polevoi, Anna Ruokolainen, Ekaterina Shorohova
Background: In 2016, saproxylic Diptera associated with aspen ( Populus tremula L.) logs were studied in the Kivach Nature Reserve, Russian Karelia, using trunk emergence traps. New information: Eleven rare species of Diptera (families Limoniidae, Scatopsidae, Axymyiidae, Mycetophilidae, Sciaridae, Platypezidae, Syrphidae and Clusiidae) with poorly known distribution and ecology were recorded. For each species, basic diagnostic characteristics were provided along with the information on microhabitats...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Firas S Midani, Ana A Weil, Fahima Chowdhury, Yasmin A Begum, Ashraful I Khan, Meti D Debela, Heather K Durand, Aspen T Reese, Sai N Nimmagadda, Justin D Silverman, Crystal N Ellis, Edward T Ryan, Stephen B Calderwood, Jason B Harris, Firdausi Qadri, Lawrence A David, Regina C LaRocque
Background: Cholera is a public health problem worldwide and the risk factors for infection are only partially understood. Methods: We prospectively studied household contacts of cholera patients to compare those who were infected with those who were not. We constructed predictive machine learning models of susceptibility using baseline gut microbiota data. We identified bacterial taxa associated with susceptibility to Vibrio cholerae infection and tested these taxa for interactions with V...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dominique Boucher, Yan Boulanger, Isabelle Aubin, Pierre Y Bernier, André Beaudoin, Luc Guindon, Sylvie Gauthier
Canada's forests are shaped by disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks and droughts that often overlap in time and space. The resulting cumulative disturbance risks and potential impacts on forests are generally not well accounted for by models used to predict future impacts of disturbances on forest. This study aims at projecting future cumulative effects of four main natural disturbances - fire, mountain pine beetle, spruce budworm and drought - on timber volumes across Canada's forests using an approach that accounts for potential overlap among disturbances...
April 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Yaodan Zhang, Virpi Virjamo, Norul Sobuj, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Line Nybakken, Hongyan Guo, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
High northern latitudes are climatic sensitive areas, and are also regions to which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) easily transport and accumulate with potential risk to natural ecosystems. However, the effect of PAHs on northern woody plant growth and defense under climate change is very little studied. Here, we conducted a unique experiment in greenhouses to investigate sex-related responses of the dioecious Populus tremula to pyrene (50mgkg-1 ) and residue of pyrene in soils under ambient and elevated temperature (+1...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jimmy Anderson Martínez-Ruano, Ashley Sthefanía Caballero-Galván, Daissy Lorena Restrepo-Serna, Carlos Ariel Cardona
Two scenarios for the biogas production using Banana Peel as raw material were evaluated. The first scenario involves the stand-alone production of biogas and the second scenario includes the biogas production together with other products under biorefinery concept. In both scenarios, the influence of the production scale on the process economy was assessed and feasibility limits were defined. For this purpose, the mass and energy balances were established using the software Aspen Plus along with kinetic models reported in the literature...
April 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pengwu Zhao, Chongyang Xu, Mei Zhou, Bo Zhang, Peng Ge, Nan Zeng, Hongyan Liu
Worldwide tree mortality as induced by climate change presents a challenge to forest managers. To successfully manage vulnerable forests requires the capacity of regeneration to compensate for losses from tree mortality. We observed rapid regeneration and the growth release of young trees after warming-induced mortality in a David aspen-dominated (Populus davidiana) broad-leaved forest in Inner Mongolia, China, as based on individual tree measurements taken in 2012 and 2015 from a 6-ha permanent plot. Warming and drought stress killed large trees 10-15 m tall with a total number of 2881 trees during 2011-2012, and also thinned the upper crowns...
2018: PloS One
Weibin Kong, Jan Baeyens, Peiyong Qin, Huili Zhang, Tianwei Tan
The extraction of vegetable oils is an energy-intensive process. It has moreover a significant environmental impact through hexane emissions and through the production of organic-loaded wastewater. A rice bran oil process was selected as the basis, since full data were available. By using Aspen Plus v8.2 simulation, with additional scripts, several improvements were examined, such as using heat exchanger networks, integrating a Vapor Recompression Heat Pump after the evaporation and stripping, and examining a nitrogen stripping of hexane in the rice bran meal desolventizing unit followed by a gas membrane to recover hexane...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Yaodan Zhang, Virpi Virjamo, Norul Sobuj, Wenchao Du, Ying Yin, Line Nybakken, Hongyan Guo, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto
The combined effects of climate change and chemical contaminants on plant performance are still not well understood. Especially, whether different sexes of dioecious plants respond differently to combined stresses is unknown. In order to study the sex-related responses of European aspen to soil nTiO2 contamination (0, 50, 300 mg kg-1 ) under elevated temperature (+1.6 °C) and CO2 (730 ppm), we conducted a study in greenhouses. Ti accumulated in roots exposed to nTiO2 (1.1-3.3 and 2.7-21.1 mg kg-1 in 50 and 300 mg kg-1 treatments, respectively)...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Carolin Seyfferth, Bernard Wessels, Soile Jokipii-Lukkari, Björn Sundberg, Nicolas Delhomme, Judith Felten, Hannele Tuominen
Thickening of tree stems is the result of secondary growth, accomplished by the meristematic activity of the vascular cambium. Secondary growth of the stem entails developmental cascades resulting in the formation of secondary phloem outwards and secondary xylem (i.e., wood) inwards of the stem. Signaling and transcriptional reprogramming by the phytohormone ethylene modifies cambial growth and cell differentiation, but the molecular link between ethylene and secondary growth remains unknown. We addressed this shortcoming by analyzing expression profiles and co-expression networks of ethylene pathway genes using the AspWood transcriptome database which covers all stages of secondary growth in aspen ( Populus tremula ) stems...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Peggi Guenter, Patricia Worthington, Phil Ayers, Joseph I Boullata, Kathleen M Gura, Neil Marshall, Beverly Holcombe, Denise S Richardson
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a highly complex medication and its provision can be prone to a variety of errors. Safe administration of this therapy requires that the competency of clinicians, particularly nurses, be demonstrated using a standardized process. In this document, a standardized model for PN administration competency is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, discipline-specific standards of practice, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines...
March 23, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Sean M P Cahoon, Patrick F Sullivan, Annalis H Brownlee, Robert R Pattison, Hans-Erik Andersen, Kate Legner, Teresa N Hollingsworth
The boreal biome represents approximately one third of the world's forested area and plays an important role in global biogeochemical and energy cycles. Numerous studies in boreal Alaska have concluded that growth of black and white spruce is declining as a result of temperature-induced drought stress. The combined evidence of declining spruce growth and changes in the fire regime that favor establishment of deciduous tree species has led some investigators to suggest the region may be transitioning from dominance by spruce to dominance by deciduous forests and/or grasslands...
March 22, 2018: Ecology
Judith Felten, Jorma Vahala, Jonathan Love, András Gorzsás, Markus Rüggeberg, Nicolas Delhomme, Joanna Leśniewska, Jaakko Kangasjärvi, Torgeir R Hvidsten, Ewa J Mellerowicz, Björn Sundberg
The phytohormone ethylene impacts secondary stem growth in plants by stimulating cambial activity, xylem development and fiber over vessel formation. We report the effect of ethylene on secondary cell wall formation and the molecular connection between ethylene signaling and wood formation. We applied exogenous ethylene or its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to wild-type and ethylene-insensitive hybrid aspen trees (Populus tremula × tremuloides) and studied secondary cell wall anatomy, chemistry and ultrastructure...
March 12, 2018: New Phytologist
S Tylewicz, A Petterle, S Marttila, P Miskolczi, A Azeez, R K Singh, J Immanen, N Mähler, T R Hvidsten, D M Eklund, J L Bowman, Y Helariutta, R P Bhalerao
In temperate and boreal ecosystems, seasonal cycles of growth and dormancy allow perennial plants to adapt to winter conditions. We show, in hybrid aspen trees, that photoperiodic regulation of dormancy is mechanistically distinct from autumnal growth cessation. Dormancy sets in when symplastic inter-cellular communication through plasmodesmata is blocked by a process dependent upon the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). The communication blockage prevents growth-promoting signals from accessing the meristem...
March 8, 2018: Science
Aaron C Ericsson, Jonalyn Gagliardi, Delia Bouhan, William G Spollen, Scott A Givan, Craig L Franklin
Countless studies have identified differences between the gut microbiota of humans affected with myriad conditions and healthy individuals, and animal models are commonly used to determine whether those differences are causative or correlative. Recently, concerns have arisen regarding the reproducibility of animal models between institutions and across time. To determine the influence of three common husbandry-associated factors that vary between institutions, groups of weanling mice were placed in either static or ventilated microisolator caging, with either aspen or paperchip bedding, and with one of three commonly used rodent chows, in a fully crossed study design...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
David M Love, John S Sperry
Little is known about the ability of trees to recover hydraulic conductance (k) within a growing season by regrowth or refilling of embolized conduits. Recovery of k lost to drought or other causes would prevent chronic reductions in gas exchange and productivity. To test recovery ability we conducted a 2-year experiment (2014-15) on a cohort of aspen ramets (Populus tremuloides, Michx.). Whole-tree k was measured from mid-June through September from sapflow (Q) and pre-dawn and mid-day xylem pressure. We induced embolism in the treatment group with high air pressure delivered by a split pressure chamber sealed around the main trunk...
March 2, 2018: Tree Physiology
Urvashi Mulasi, David M Vock, Adam J Kuchnia, Gautam Jha, Naomi Fujioka, Venkatesh Rudrapatna, Manish R Patel, Levi Teigen, Carrie P Earthman
BACKGROUND: Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Academy/ASPEN) Consensus malnutrition definition, we estimated malnutrition prevalence in a sample of individuals with head and neck cancer (HNC) and compared it with the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA). We also investigated the utility of the 50-kHz phase angle (PA) and 200-kHz/5-kHz impedance ratio (IR) to identify malnutrition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen individuals (18 males, 1 female) scheduled to undergo chemoradiotherapy were seen at 5 time points during and up to 3 months after treatment completion...
January 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Benedicte Riber Albrectsen, Abu Bakar Siddique, Vicki Huizu Guo Decker, Martin Unterseher, Kathryn M Robinson
Salicinoid phenolic glycosides are common defence substances in salicaceous trees and specialist leaf beetles use these compounds for their own defence against predators. Salicinoids vary qualitatively and qualitatively in aspen (Populus tremula) and this variation has a genetic basis. The foliar endophyte mycobiome is plentiful and we hypothesised that it is related to plant genotype, potentially mediated by salicinoid composition, and that interactions with the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula may alter this relationship...
March 1, 2018: Oecologia
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