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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333597/when-is-parenteral-nutrition-appropriate
#1
Patricia Worthington, Jane Balint, Matthew Bechtold, Angela Bingham, Lingtak-Neander Chan, Sharon Durfee, Andrea K Jevenn, Ainsley Malone, Maria Mascarenhas, Daniel T Robinson, Beverly Holcombe
Parenteral nutrition (PN) represents one of the most notable achievements of modern medicine, serving as a therapeutic modality for all age groups across the healthcare continuum. PN offers a life-sustaining option when intestinal failure prevents adequate oral or enteral nutrition. However, providing nutrients by vein is an expensive form of nutrition support, and serious adverse events can occur. In an effort to provide clinical guidance regarding PN therapy, the Board of Directors of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) convened a task force to develop consensus recommendations regarding appropriate PN use...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333596/to-create-a-consensus-on-malnutrition-diagnostic-criteria
#2
Tommy Cederholm, Gordon L Jensen
During the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016), representatives of the 4 largest global parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) societies from Europe (ESPEN), the United States (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [ASPEN]), Asia (Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia [PENSA]), and Latin America (Latin American Federation of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [FELANPE]) and from national PEN societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, Texas (February 2016)...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333594/corrigendum
#3
(no author information available yet)
Boullata JI, Carrera AL, Harvey L, et al. ASPEN safe practices for enteral nutrition therapy. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2017;41:15-103. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0148607116673053 ).
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280959/volatile-mediated-within-plant-signaling-in-hybrid-aspen-required-for-systemic-responses
#4
Tao Li, James D Blande
Plant volatiles play crucial roles in signaling between plants and their associated community members, but their role in within-plant signaling remains largely unexplored, particularly under field conditions. Using a system comprising the hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) and the specialized herbivorous leaf beetle (Phratora laticollis) and, combining field, greenhouse and laboratory experiments, we examined whether local damage triggered systemic responses in undamaged branches that lack vascular connection to the damaged branches, and to what extent this was caused by airborne volatile signals versus internal signals...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257170/downregulation-of-rwa-genes-in-hybrid-aspen-affects-xylan-acetylation-and-wood-saccharification
#5
Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar, Christine Ratke, Vimal K Balasubramanian, Sun-Li Chong, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Mathilda Adriasola, Tobias Sparrman, Mattias Hedenström, Klaudia Szwaj, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Cyril Gaertner, Gregory Mouille, Ines Ezcurra, Maija Tenkanen, Leif J Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz
High acetylation of angiosperm wood hinders its conversion to sugars by glycoside hydrolases, subsequent ethanol fermentation and (hence) its use for biofuel production. We studied the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) gene family of the hardwood model Populus to evaluate its potential for improving saccharification. The family has two clades, AB and CD, containing two genes each. All four genes are expressed in developing wood but only RWA-A and -B are activated by master switches of the secondary cell wall PtNST1 and PtMYB21...
March 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256799/prospects-and-challenges-for-the-recovery-of-2-butanol-produced-by-vacuum-fermentation-a-techno-economic-analysis
#6
Joana P C Pereira, Gustavo Lopez-Gomez, Noelia G Reyes, Luuk A M van der Wielen, Adrie J J Straathof
The conceptual design of a bio-based process for 2-butanol production is presented for the first time. Considering a hypothetical efficient producing strain, a vacuum fermentation is proposed to alleviate product toxicity, but the main challenge is the energy-efficient product recovery from the vapor. Three downstream scenarios were examined for this purpose: 1) multi-stage vapor recompression; 2) temperature swing adsorption; and 3) vapor absorption. The processes were simulated using Aspen Plus, considering a production capacity of 101 kton/yr...
March 3, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251042/techno-economic-analysis-of-extraction-based-separation-systems-for-acetone-butanol-and-ethanol-recovery-and-purification
#7
Víctor Hugo Grisales Díaz, Gerard Olivar Tost
BACKGROUND: Dual extraction, high-temperature extraction, mixture extraction, and oleyl alcohol extraction have been proposed in the literature for acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) production. However, energy and economic evaluation under similar assumptions of extraction-based separation systems are necessary. Hence, the new process proposed in this work, direct steam distillation (DSD), for regeneration of high-boiling extractants was compared with several extraction-based separation systems...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221087/fechner-s-law-in-metacognition-a-quantitative-model-of-visual-working-memory-confidence
#8
Ronald van den Berg, Aspen H Yoo, Wei Ji Ma
Although visual working memory (VWM) has been studied extensively, it is unknown how people form confidence judgments about their memories. Peirce (1878) speculated that Fechner's law-which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of stimulus intensity-might apply to confidence reports. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that humans map the precision of their VWM contents to a confidence rating through Fechner's law. We incorporate this hypothesis into the best available model of VWM encoding and fit it to data from a delayed-estimation experiment...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207782/incorporating-interspecific-competition-into-species-distribution-mapping-by-upward-scaling-of-small-scale-model-projections-to-the-landscape
#9
Mark Baah-Acheamfour, Charles P-A Bourque, Fan-Rui Meng, D Edwin Swift
There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150424/detection-of-individual-ploidy-levels-with-genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs-analysis
#10
Zachariah Gompert, Karen E Mock
Ploidy levels sometimes vary among individuals or populations, particularly in plants. When such variation exists, accurate determination of cytotype can inform studies of ecology or trait variation and is required for population genetic analyses. Here we propose and evaluate a statistical approach for distinguishing low-level ploidy variants (e.g., diploids, triploids and tetraploids) based on genotyping-by-sequencing data. The method infers cytotypes based on observed heterozygosity and the ratio of DNA sequences containing different alleles at thousands of heterozygous SNPs (i...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121057/drought-causes-reduced-growth-of-trembling-aspen-in-western-canada
#11
Lei Chen, Jian-Guo Huang, Syed Ashraful Alam, Lihong Zhai, Andria Dawson, Kenneth J Stadt, Philip G Comeau
Adequate and advance knowledge of the response of forest ecosystems to temperature-induced drought is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function. Recent massive decline in aspen-dominated forests and an increased aspen mortality in boreal forests have been associated with global warming, but it is still uncertain whether the decline and mortality are driven by drought. We used a series of ring-width chronologies from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
January 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112846/disrupted-trophic-interactions-affect-recruitment-of-boreal-deciduous-and-coniferous-trees-in-northern-europe
#12
Per Angelstam, Michael Manton, Simen Pedersen, Marine Elbakidze
Loss of large carnivore populations may lead to increased population densities of large herbivores, and subsequent cascading effects on the composition, structure, and function of ecosystems. Using a macroecological approach based on studies in multiple boreal forest landscapes in the Baltic Sea region and Russia, we tested the hypothesis that disrupted trophic interactions among large carnivores and large herbivores affect the recruitment of both ecologically and economically valuable tree species. We measured damage levels on young trees and large herbivore density in 10 local landscapes representing a gradient from extinct to extant populations of both large carnivores and large herbivores...
January 23, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107425/using-an-inducible-promoter-of-a-gene-encoding-penicillium-verruculosum-glucoamylase-for-production-of-enzyme-preparations-with-enhanced-cellulase-performance
#13
Alexander G Bulakhov, Pavel V Volkov, Aleksandra M Rozhkova, Alexander V Gusakov, Vitaly A Nemashkalov, Aidar D Satrutdinov, Arkady P Sinitsyn
BACKGROUND: Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) displaying a synergism with cellulases. RESULTS: Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL), and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV) from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO), were cloned and expressed by P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095819/adhd-comorbid-disorders-and-psychosocial-functioning-how-representative-is-a-child-cohort-study-findings-from-a-national-patient-registry
#14
Beate Oerbeck, Kristin Romvig Overgaard, Stian Thoresen Aspenes, Are Hugo Pripp, Marianne Mordre, Heidi Aase, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Pal Zeiner
BACKGROUND: Cohort studies often report findings on children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but may be biased by self-selection. The representativeness of cohort studies needs to be investigated to determine whether their findings can be generalised to the general child population. The aim of the present study was to examine the representativeness of child ADHD in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). METHODS: The study population was children born between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2008 registered with hyperkinetic disorders (hereafter ADHD) in the Norwegian Patient Registry during the years 2008-2013, and two groups of children with ADHD were identified in: 1...
January 17, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094155/sustainable-options-for-the-utilization-of-solid-residues-from-wine-production
#15
Nansen Zhang, Andrew Hoadley, Jim Patel, Seng Lim, Chao'en Li
The efficient use of solid organic waste materials is an issue of particular importance for the wine industry. This paper focuses on the valorization of grape marc, the major component of winery organic waste (60-70%). Two methods were designed and compared: combustion to generate electricity, and the pyrolysis for the production of bio-char, bio-oil, and bio-gas. Each of these processes was analysed to determine their economic and environmental viability. The flow-sheeting software, ASPEN PLUS, was used to model the two cases...
January 13, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042677/contrasting-patterns-of-cytokinins-between-years-in-senescing-aspen-leaves
#16
Erik Edlund, Ondrej Novak, Michal Karady, Karin Ljung, Stefan Jansson
Cytokinins are plant hormones that typically block or delay leaf senescence. We profiled 34 different cytokinins/cytokinin metabolites (including precursors, conjugates and degradation products) in leaves of a free-growing mature aspen (Populus tremula) before and after the initiation of autumnal senescence over three consecutive years. The levels and profiles of individual cytokinin species, or classes/groups, varied greatly between years, despite the fact that the onset of autumn senescence was at the same time each year, and senescence was not associated with depletion of either active or total cytokinin levels...
January 1, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034565/to-create-a-consensus-on-malnutrition-diagnostic-criteria-a-report-from-the-global-leadership-initiative-on-malnutrition-glim-meeting-at-the-espen-congress-2016
#17
EDITORIAL
Tommy Cederholm, Gordon L Jensen
During the ESPEN Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016) representatives of the 4 largest global PEN-societies from Europe (ESPEN), USA (ASPEN), Asia (PENSA) and Latin America (FELANPE), and from national PEN-societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, USA (February 2016). Current thinking on diagnostic approaches was shared; ESPEN suggested a grading approach that could encompass various types of signs, symptoms and etiologies to support diagnosis...
December 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032636/cytosolic-invertase-contributes-to-the-supply-of-substrate-for-cellulose-biosynthesis-in-developing-wood
#18
Umut Rende, Wei Wang, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Leif J Jönsson, Totte Niittylä
Carbon for cellulose biosynthesis is derived from sucrose. Cellulose is synthesized from uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-glucose), but the enzyme(s) responsible for the initial sucrose cleavage and the source of UDP-glucose for cellulose biosynthesis in developing wood have not been defined. We investigated the role of CYTOSOLIC INVERTASEs (CINs) during wood formation in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × tremuloides) and characterized transgenic lines with reduced CIN activity during secondary cell wall biosynthesis...
December 29, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028889/the-molecular-response-of-the-white-rot-fungus-dichomitus-squalens-to-wood-and-non-woody-biomass-as-examined-by-transcriptome-and-exoproteome-analyses
#19
Johanna Rytioja, Kristiina Hildén, Marcos Di Falco, Miaomiao Zhou, Maria Victoria Aguilar-Pontes, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Adrian Tsang, Ronald P de Vries, Miia R Mäkelä
The ability to obtain carbon and energy is a major requirement to exist in any environment. For several ascomycete fungi, (post-)genomic analyses have shown that species that occupy a large variety of habitats possess a diverse enzymatic machinery, while species with a specific habitat have a more focused enzyme repertoire that is well-adapted to the prevailing substrate. White-rot basidiomycete fungi also live in a specific habitat, as they are found exclusively in wood. In this study, we evaluated how well the enzymatic machinery of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens is tailored to degrade its natural wood substrate...
December 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003484/potential-role-for-a-%C3%AE-catenin-coactivator-high-mobility-group-at-hook-1-protein-during-the-latency-reactivation-cycle-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1
#20
Liqian Zhu, Aspen Workman, Clinton Jones
The latency-related (LR) RNA encoded by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is abundantly expressed in latently infected sensory neurons. Although the LR gene encodes several products, ORF2 appears to mediate important steps during the latency-reactivation cycle because a mutant virus containing stop codons at the amino terminus of ORF2 does not reactivate from latency in calves. We recently found that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is regulated during the BoHV-1 latency-reactivation cycle (Y. Liu, M. Hancock, A...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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