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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428822/in-muro-deacetylation-of-xylan-affects-lignin-properties-and-improves-saccharification-of-aspen-wood
#1
Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Sun-Li Chong, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Shamrat Shafiul Bashar, Tobias Sparrman, Patrik Ahvenainen, Mattias Hedenström, Merve Özparpucu, Markus Rüggeberg, Ritva Serimaa, Martin Lawoko, Maija Tenkanen, Leif J Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulose from fast growing hardwood species is a preferred source of polysaccharides for advanced biofuels and "green" chemicals. However, the extensive acetylation of hardwood xylan hinders lignocellulose saccharification by obstructing enzymatic xylan hydrolysis and causing inhibitory acetic acid concentrations during microbial sugar fermentation. To optimize lignocellulose for cost-effective saccharification and biofuel production, an acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 from Aspergillus niger was introduced into aspen and targeted to cell walls...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384532/circadian-patterns-of-xylem-sap-properties-and-their-covariation-with-plant-hydraulic-traits-in-hybrid-aspen
#2
Annika Meitern, Eele Õunapuu-Pikas, Arne Sellin
Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), electrical conductivity (σsap), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377782/species-delimitation-and-lineage-separation-history-of-a-species-complex-of-aspens-in-china
#3
Honglei Zheng, Liqiang Fan, Richard I Milne, Lei Zhang, Yaling Wang, Kangshan Mao
Species delimitation in tree species is notoriously challenging due to shared polymorphisms among species. An integrative survey that considers multiple operational criteria is a possible solution, and we aimed to test it in a species complex of aspens in China. Genetic [four chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments and 14 nuclear microsatellite loci (nSSR)] and morphological variations were collected for 76 populations and 53 populations, respectively, covering the major geographic distribution of the Populus davidiana-rotundifolia complex...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377780/pseudomonas-fluorescens-transportome-is-linked-to-strain-specific-plant-growth-promotion-in-aspen-seedlings-under-nutrient-stress
#4
Shalaka Shinde, Jonathan R Cumming, Frank R Collart, Philippe H Noirot, Peter E Larsen
Diverse communities of bacteria colonize plant roots and the rhizosphere. Many of these rhizobacteria are symbionts and provide plant growth promotion (PGP) services, protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic stresses and increasing plant productivity by providing access to nutrients that would otherwise be unavailable to roots. In return, these symbiotic bacteria receive photosynthetically-derived carbon (C), in the form of sugars and organic acids, from plant root exudates. PGP activities have been characterized for a variety of forest tree species and are important in C cycling and sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360939/techno-economic-assessment-of-hybrid-extraction-and-distillation-processes-for-furfural-production-from-lignocellulosic-biomass
#5
Le Cao Nhien, Nguyen Van Duc Long, Sangyong Kim, Moonyong Lee
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising alternatives for replacing mineral resources to overcome global warming, which has become the most important environmental issue in recent years. Furfural was listed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as one of the top 30 potential chemicals arising from biomass. However, the current production of furfural is energy intensive and uses inefficient technology. Thus, a hybrid purification process that combines extraction and distillation to produce furfural from lignocellulosic biomass was considered and investigated in detail to improve the process efficiency...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360169/complete-genome-sequences-of-two-genotype-a2-small-ruminant-lentiviruses-isolated-from-infected-u-s-sheep
#6
Aspen M Workman, Aaron M Dickey, Michael P Heaton, Michael L Clawson, Timothy P L Smith
Two distinct subgroups of genotype A2 small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) have been identified in the United States that infect sheep with specific host transmembrane protein 154 (TMEM154) diplotypes. Here, we report the first two complete genome sequences of SRLV strains infecting U.S. sheep belonging to genotype A2, subgroups 1 and 2.
March 30, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341422/pyrolysis-of-waste-tires-a-modeling-and-parameter-estimation-study-using-aspen-plus-%C3%A2
#7
Hamza Y Ismail, Ali Abbas, Fouad Azizi, Joseph Zeaiter
This paper presents a simulation flowsheet model of a waste tire pyrolysis process with feed capacity of 150kg/h. A kinetic rate-based reaction model is formulated in a form implementable in the simulation package Aspen Plus, giving the flowsheet model the capability to predict more than 110 tire pyrolysis products as reported in experiments by Laresgoiti et al. (2004) and Williams (2013) for the oil and gas products respectively. The simulation model is successfully validated in two stages: firstly against experimental data from Olazar et al...
February 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338915/ungulate-herbivory-alters-leaf-functional-traits-and-recruitment-of-regenerating-aspen
#8
Aaron C Rhodes, Val Anderson, Samuel B St Clair
Herbivory by ungulates can affect forest regeneration success, but its long-term impacts on tree function and recruitment are less studied. We evaluated strategies of resistance, tolerance and vertical escape against ungulate herbivory by evaluating leaf traits (photosynthesis, morphology and chemistry) and growth rates of aspen in the presence and absence of ungulate herbivores 1, 2, 3 and 26 years after fires initiated aspen suckering. Over the initial 3-year period, ~60% of aspen stems in unfenced plots showed evidence of being browsed by ungulates...
March 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338574/rigid-occipitocervical-instrumented-fusion-for-atlantoaxial-instability-in-an-18-month-old-toddler-with-brachytelephalangic-chondrodysplasia-punctata-a-case-report
#9
Hiroki Oba, Jun Takahashi, Kyoko Takano, Yuji Inaba, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Gen Nishimura, Shugo Kuraishi, Masayuki Shimizu, Shota Ikegami, Toshimasa Futatsugi, Masashi Uehara, Tomoki Kosho, Hiroyuki Kato, Koki Uno
STUDY DESIGN: Case report OBJECTIVE.: We report here on an 18-month-old boy with brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata (BCDP), whose atlantoaxial instability was successfully managed with occipitocervical instrumented fusion (OCF) using screw and rod instrumentations. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Recently, there have been a number of reports on BCDP with early onset of cervical myelopathy. Surgical OCF is a vital intervention to salvage affected individuals from the life-threatening morbidity...
March 23, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333597/when-is-parenteral-nutrition-appropriate
#10
Patricia Worthington, Jane Balint, Matthew Bechtold, Angela Bingham, Lingtak-Neander Chan, Sharon Durfee, Andrea K Jevenn, Ainsley Malone, Maria Mascarenhas, Daniel T Robinson, Beverly Holcombe
Parenteral nutrition (PN) represents one of the most notable achievements of modern medicine, serving as a therapeutic modality for all age groups across the healthcare continuum. PN offers a life-sustaining option when intestinal failure prevents adequate oral or enteral nutrition. However, providing nutrients by vein is an expensive form of nutrition support, and serious adverse events can occur. In an effort to provide clinical guidance regarding PN therapy, the Board of Directors of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) convened a task force to develop consensus recommendations regarding appropriate PN use...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333596/to-create-a-consensus-on-malnutrition-diagnostic-criteria
#11
Tommy Cederholm, Gordon L Jensen
During the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark (September 2016), representatives of the 4 largest global parenteral and enteral nutrition (PEN) societies from Europe (ESPEN), the United States (American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [ASPEN]), Asia (Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Society of Asia [PENSA]), and Latin America (Latin American Federation of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition [FELANPE]) and from national PEN societies around the world met to continue the conversation on how to diagnose malnutrition that started during the Clinical Nutrition Week, Austin, Texas (February 2016)...
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333594/corrigendum
#12
(no author information available yet)
Boullata JI, Carrera AL, Harvey L, et al. ASPEN safe practices for enteral nutrition therapy. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2017;41:15-103. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0148607116673053 ).
March 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280959/volatile-mediated-within-plant-signaling-in-hybrid-aspen-required-for-systemic-responses
#13
Tao Li, James D Blande
Plant volatiles play crucial roles in signaling between plants and their associated community members, but their role in within-plant signaling remains largely unexplored, particularly under field conditions. Using a system comprising the hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) and the specialized herbivorous leaf beetle (Phratora laticollis) and, combining field, greenhouse and laboratory experiments, we examined whether local damage triggered systemic responses in undamaged branches that lack vascular connection to the damaged branches, and to what extent this was caused by airborne volatile signals versus internal signals...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257170/downregulation-of-rwa-genes-in-hybrid-aspen-affects-xylan-acetylation-and-wood-saccharification
#14
Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar, Christine Ratke, Vimal K Balasubramanian, Sun-Li Chong, Madhavi Latha Gandla, Mathilda Adriasola, Tobias Sparrman, Mattias Hedenström, Klaudia Szwaj, Marta Derba-Maceluch, Cyril Gaertner, Gregory Mouille, Ines Ezcurra, Maija Tenkanen, Leif J Jönsson, Ewa J Mellerowicz
High acetylation of angiosperm wood hinders its conversion to sugars by glycoside hydrolases, subsequent ethanol fermentation and (hence) its use for biofuel production. We studied the REDUCED WALL ACETYLATION (RWA) gene family of the hardwood model Populus to evaluate its potential for improving saccharification. The family has two clades, AB and CD, containing two genes each. All four genes are expressed in developing wood but only RWA-A and -B are activated by master switches of the secondary cell wall PtNST1 and PtMYB21...
March 3, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256799/prospects-and-challenges-for-the-recovery-of-2-butanol-produced-by-vacuum-fermentation-a-techno-economic-analysis
#15
Joana P C Pereira, Gustavo Lopez-Gomez, Noelia G Reyes, Luuk A M van der Wielen, Adrie J J Straathof
The conceptual design of a bio-based process for 2-butanol production is presented for the first time. Considering a hypothetical efficient producing strain, a vacuum fermentation is proposed to alleviate product toxicity, but the main challenge is the energy-efficient product recovery from the vapor. Three downstream scenarios were examined for this purpose: 1) multi-stage vapor recompression; 2) temperature swing adsorption; and 3) vapor absorption. The processes were simulated using Aspen Plus, considering a production capacity of 101 kton/yr...
March 3, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251042/techno-economic-analysis-of-extraction-based-separation-systems-for-acetone-butanol-and-ethanol-recovery-and-purification
#16
Víctor Hugo Grisales Díaz, Gerard Olivar Tost
BACKGROUND: Dual extraction, high-temperature extraction, mixture extraction, and oleyl alcohol extraction have been proposed in the literature for acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) production. However, energy and economic evaluation under similar assumptions of extraction-based separation systems are necessary. Hence, the new process proposed in this work, direct steam distillation (DSD), for regeneration of high-boiling extractants was compared with several extraction-based separation systems...
2017: Bioresources and Bioprocessing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221087/fechner-s-law-in-metacognition-a-quantitative-model-of-visual-working-memory-confidence
#17
Ronald van den Berg, Aspen H Yoo, Wei Ji Ma
Although visual working memory (VWM) has been studied extensively, it is unknown how people form confidence judgments about their memories. Peirce (1878) speculated that Fechner's law-which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of stimulus intensity-might apply to confidence reports. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that humans map the precision of their VWM contents to a confidence rating through Fechner's law. We incorporate this hypothesis into the best available model of VWM encoding and fit it to data from a delayed-estimation experiment...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207782/incorporating-interspecific-competition-into-species-distribution-mapping-by-upward-scaling-of-small-scale-model-projections-to-the-landscape
#18
Mark Baah-Acheamfour, Charles P-A Bourque, Fan-Rui Meng, D Edwin Swift
There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150424/detection-of-individual-ploidy-levels-with-genotyping-by-sequencing-gbs-analysis
#19
Zachariah Gompert, Karen E Mock
Ploidy levels sometimes vary among individuals or populations, particularly in plants. When such variation exists, accurate determination of cytotype can inform studies of ecology or trait variation and is required for population genetic analyses. Here we propose and evaluate a statistical approach for distinguishing low-level ploidy variants (e.g., diploids, triploids and tetraploids) based on genotyping-by-sequencing data. The method infers cytotypes based on observed heterozygosity and the ratio of DNA sequences containing different alleles at thousands of heterozygous SNPs (i...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121057/drought-causes-reduced-growth-of-trembling-aspen-in-western-canada
#20
Lei Chen, Jian-Guo Huang, Syed Ashraful Alam, Lihong Zhai, Andria Dawson, Kenneth J Stadt, Philip G Comeau
Adequate and advance knowledge of the response of forest ecosystems to temperature-induced drought is critical for a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of global climate change on forest ecosystem structure and function. Recent massive decline in aspen-dominated forests and an increased aspen mortality in boreal forests have been associated with global warming, but it is still uncertain whether the decline and mortality are driven by drought. We used a series of ring-width chronologies from 40 trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx...
January 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
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