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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651013/loss-of-prion-protein-induces-a-primed-state-of-type-i-interferon-responsive-genes
#1
Giulia Malachin, Malin R Reiten, Øyvind Salvesen, Håvard Aanes, Jorke H Kamstra, Kerstin Skovgaard, Peter M H Heegaard, Cecilie Ersdal, Arild Espenes, Michael A Tranulis, Maren K Bakkebø
The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been extensively studied because of its pivotal role in prion diseases; however, its functions remain incompletely understood. A unique line of goats has been identified that carries a nonsense mutation that abolishes synthesis of PrPC. In these animals, the PrP-encoding mRNA is rapidly degraded. Goats without PrPC are valuable in re-addressing loss-of-function phenotypes observed in Prnp knockout mice. As PrPC has been ascribed various roles in immune cells, we analyzed transcriptomic responses to loss of PrPC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from normal goat kids (n = 8, PRNP+/+) and goat kids without PrPC (n = 8, PRNPTer/Ter) by mRNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643331/treatment-with-antipsychotics-in-pregnancy-changes-in-drug-disposition
#2
Andreas Austgulen Westin, Malin Brekke, Espen Molden, Eirik Skogvoll, Ingrid Castberg, Olav Spigset
Although pregnancy is known to cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics, little is known about its impact on serum levels of antipsychotics. In this study, we retrospectively assessed 201 routine serum antipsychotic therapeutic drug monitoring concentration measurements obtained from a total of 110 pregnancies in 103 women, and 512 measurements from the same women before and after pregnancy. Serum concentrations in the third trimester were significantly lower than baseline for quetiapine (-76%; CI, -83%, -66%; p<0...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642623/predicting-long-term-mortality-in-hospitalized-elderly-patients-using-the-new-espen-definition
#3
Jiaojiao Jiang, Xiaoyi Hu, Jing Chen, Haozhong Wang, Lei Zhang, Birong Dong, Ming Yang
The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) recently published new diagnostic criteria for malnutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether malnutrition by the new ESPEN diagnostic criteria can predict long-term mortality in elderly inpatients. We conducted a prospective study in the acute geriatric wards. Malnutrition was defined according to the new ESPEN criteria and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), respectively. The survival status was determined by telephone interviews at 3-years...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641831/two-components-of-the-new-espen-diagnostic-criteria-for-malnutrition-are-independent-predictors-of-lung-function-in-hospitalized-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#4
Arora Ros Ingadottir, Anne Marie Beck, Christine Baldwin, C Elizabeth Weekes, Olof Gudny Geirsdottir, Alfons Ramel, Thorarinn Gislason, Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir
INTRODUCTION: Low fat free mass index (FFMI) is a component of the ESPEN diagnosis criteria of malnutrition, that only when accompanied with weight loss is considered to be a determinant of malnutrition. Our aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) applying the ESPEN criteria, and to examine the ability of different components of the criteria to predict COPD severity, length of stay (LOS), hospital readmissions within 30 days and mortality...
June 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627185/adherencia-y-tolerancia-como-claves-en-la-detenci%C3%A3-n-de-la-p%C3%A3-rdida-de-peso-en-pacientes-oncol%C3%A3-gicos-sometidos-a-radioterapia-mediante-una-estrategia-de-suplementaci%C3%A3-n-precoz-con-una-f%C3%A3-rmula-enteral-hipercal%C3%A3-rica-e-hiperproteica-espec%C3%A3-fica
#5
Jose M García Almeida, Yolanda Lupiáñez Pérez, Mercedes Blanco Naveira, Josefina Ruiz Nava, José Antonio Medina, Isabel Cornejo Pareja, Ana Gómez Pérez, María Molina Vega, José A López-Medina, Francisco Tinahones Madueño
Introducción: en pacientes con riesgo nutricional, la Sociedad Europea de Clínica y Metabolismo (ESPEN) y Parenteral recomienda suplementos nutricionales durante el tratamiento oncológico para prevenir la pérdida de peso involuntaria.Objetivos: nuestro objetivo es conocer el cumplimiento, la aceptabilidad y la tolerancia de un suplemento hiperproteico, hipercalórico, rico en omega 3 en pacientes oncológicos.Métodos: estudio unicéntrico, observacional y prospectivo en pacientes oncológicos con un suplemento nutricional hiperproteico, hipercalórico, rico en omega 3 y de bajo volumen...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620494/endemic-goitre-and-hypothyroidism-in-an-adult-female-patient-dependent-on-total-parenteral-nutrition
#6
S Pearson, C Donnellan, L Turner, E Noble, K Seejore, R D Murray
We present the case of a thirty-year-old female patient who was referred to the endocrinology team with an enlarging goitre and biochemical hypothyroidism. She had been dependent on total parenteral nutrition for the previous six years as a result of intestinal failure thought to be caused by possible underlying mitochondrial disease. The patient also suffers from a Desmin myopathy, and at present, the exact aetiology behind her intestinal failure is not certain. The goitre was smooth and had been enlarging slowly over the previous few months...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620454/elixir-pilot-action-marine-metagenomics-towards-a-domain-specific-set-of-sustainable-services
#7
Espen Mikal Robertsen, Hubert Denise, Alex Mitchell, Robert D Finn, Lars Ailo Bongo, Nils Peder Willassen
Metagenomics, the study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples, has the potential to provide insight into the structure and function of heterogeneous microbial communities.  There has been an increased use of metagenomics to discover and understand the diverse biosynthetic capacities of marine microbes, thereby allowing them to be exploited for industrial, food, and health care products. This ELIXIR pilot action was motivated by the need to establish dedicated data resources and harmonized metagenomics pipelines for the marine domain, in order to enhance the exploration and exploitation of marine genetic resources...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608292/sex-differences-on-the-go-no-go-test-of-inhibition
#8
Espen A Sjoberg, Geoff G Cole
Parental investment theory suggests that women, due to greater investment in child rearing, can be more choosy than men when considering a potential mate. A corollary to this is that women should possess greater inhibition abilities compared to men in contexts related to sex and reproduction. This notion has found support from the inhibition literature demonstrating that while women do indeed show greater inhibition on tasks that include a social aspect, no such effect is found on cognitive tasks that do not possess a social component...
June 12, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601839/the-quality-of-reports-of-medical-and-public-health-research-from-palestinian-institutions-a-systematic-review
#9
Loai Albarqouni, Niveen Me Abu-Rmeileh, Khamis Elessi, Mohammad Obeidallah, Espen Bjertness, Iain Chalmers
OBJECTIVE: Over the past decade, there has been an increase in reports of health research from Palestine, but no assessment of their quality. We have assessed the quality of reports of Palestinian health research and factors associated with it. DESIGN: This is a systematic review. INCLUSION CRITERIA: We searched Medline and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or healthcare authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between January 2000 and August 2015 inclusive...
June 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598477/revealing-the-slow-decomposition-kinetics-of-type-i-clathrate-ba8ga16ge30
#10
Hazel Reardon, Anders B Blichfeld, Hidetaka Kasai, Hao Yin, Espen Drath Bøjesen, Bo B Iversen
Inconsistencies in high temperature thermoelectric property measurements of Ba8Ga16Ge30 have prompted our study on the thermal stability of this heavily studied inorganic clathrate. Using X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and imaging techniques on both powder and spark plasma sintered pelletized samples, we probe the structure and decomposition characteristics of this important high temperature thermoelectric material. We demonstrate that the decomposition of Ba8Ga16Ge30 is extremely dependent on the heating conditions employed and, as a result of the slow decomposition kinetics of the clathrate, reveal that the true stability of this system has been overlooked in the extensive literature available...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585378/4%C3%AE-hydroxycholesterol-level-significantly-correlates-with-steady-state-serum-concentration-of-the-cyp3a4-substrate-quetiapine-in-psychiatric-patients
#11
Caroline Gjestad, Tore Haslemo, Ole A Andreassen, Espen Molden
AIM: 4β-Hydroxycholesterol (4βOHC) is sensitive towards induction or inhibition of CYP3A4, but its potential usefulness as a dosing biomarker remains to be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between 4βOHC levels and steady-concentrations (Css) of quetiapine, a CYP3A4 substrate with high presystemic metabolism, in psychiatric patients. METHODS: Serum samples from 151 patients treated with quetiapine as immediate release (IR; n=98) or slow release (XR; n=53) tablets were included for analysis of 4βOHC...
June 5, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541064/stability-and-change-in-etiological-factors-for-alcohol-use-disorder-and-major-depression
#12
Fartein Ask Torvik, Tom Henrik Rosenström, Eivind Ystrom, Kristian Tambs, Espen Røysamb, Nikolai Czajkowski, Nathan Gillespie, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Kenneth S Kendler, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are often comorbid. It is not understood how genetic risk factors for these disorders relate to each other over time and to what degree they are stable. Age-dependent characteristics of the disorders indicate that different genetic factors could be relevant at different stages of life, and MDD may become increasingly correlated with AUD over time. DSM-IV diagnoses of AUD and MDD were assessed by interviews of 2,801 young adult twins between 1999 and 2004 (T1) and 2,284 of the same twins between 2010 and 2011 (T2)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535753/anxiety-and-depression-symptoms-and-alcohol-use-among-adolescents-%C3%A2-a-cross-sectional-study-of-norwegian-secondary-school-students
#13
Espen Lund Johannessen, Helle Wessel Andersson, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Kristine Pape
BACKGROUND: We investigated the associations between symptoms of anxiety and depression and alcohol drinking behavior among adolescents, by focusing on the importance of symptom load, as well as gender differences. METHODS: Data was derived from a cross-sectional school based survey among adolescents in upper secondary schools in Norway. Among other variables adolescents reported on symptoms of anxiety and depression, time of onset and extent of alcohol use. The sample consisted of 6238 adolescents aged 16-18 years...
May 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532450/lps-induced-systemic-inflammation-reveals-an-immunomodulatory-role-for-the-prion-protein-at-the-blood-brain-interface
#14
Ø Salvesen, M R Reiten, A Espenes, M K Bakkebø, M A Tranulis, C Ersdal
BACKGROUND: The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is an evolutionary conserved protein abundantly expressed not only in the central nervous system but also peripherally including the immune system. A line of Norwegian dairy goats naturally devoid of PrP(C) (PRNP (Ter/Ter)) provides a novel model for studying PrP(C) physiology. METHODS: In order to explore putative roles for PrP(C) in acute inflammatory responses, we performed a lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli O26:B6) challenge of 16 goats (8 PRNP (+/+) and 8 PRNP (Ter/Ter)) and included 10 saline-treated controls (5 of each PRNP genotype)...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525783/toolset-for-assessment-of-natural-recovery-from-legacy-contaminated-sediment-case-study-of-pallanza-bay-lake-maggiore-italy
#15
Diana Lin, Yeo-Myoung Cho, Amy Oen, Espen Eek, Jake P Tommerdahl, Richard G Luthy
The aim of this study was to develop a toolset that can be used by site managers to assess and monitor natural attenuation processes in sediments contaminated with legacy hydrophobic organic contaminants. The toolset is composed of sediment traps to measure quality and deposition rate of incoming sediment under different hydrodynamic conditions, sediment cores to show trends in sediment bed concentrations over time, and passive samplers attached to a porewater probe frame to assess the mobility of buried contaminants and possible contaminant flux from sediment...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512986/work-climate-and-the-mediating-role-of-workplace-bullying-related-to-job-performance-job-satisfaction-and-work-ability-a-study-among-hospital-nurses
#16
Espen Olsen, Gunhild Bjaalid, Aslaug Mikkelsen
AIM: To increase understanding of workplace bullying and its relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses. Examine a proposed bullying model including both job resource and job demands, as well as nurse outcomes reflected in job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability. BACKGROUND: Workplace bullying has been identified as some of the most damaging mechanisms in workplace settings. It is important to increase understanding of workplace bullying in relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511999/clinical-nutrition-education-in-medical-schools-results-of-an-espen-survey
#17
EDITORIAL
Cristina Cuerda, Stéphane M Schneider, André Van Gossum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506286/high-protein-intake-without-concerns
#18
Olav Rooyackers, Martin Sundström Rehal, Felix Liebau, Åke Norberg, Jan Wernerman
The high fashion in nutrition for the critically ill is to recommend a high protein intake. Several opinion leaders are surfing on this wave, expanding the suggested protein allowance upwards. At the same time, there is no new evidence supporting this change in recommendations. Observational data show that in clinical practice protein intake is most often far below current ESPEN recommendations of 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day. Therefore, it may be in the best interests of our patients just to adhere to that guideline, and not to stretch them upwards for protein intake? Here we give arguments to stay conservative...
May 15, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502609/switching-from-originator-infliximab-to-biosimilar-ct-p13-compared-with-maintained-treatment-with-originator-infliximab-nor-switch-a-52-week-randomised-double-blind-non-inferiority-trial
#19
Kristin K Jørgensen, Inge C Olsen, Guro L Goll, Merete Lorentzen, Nils Bolstad, Espen A Haavardsholm, Knut E A Lundin, Cato Mørk, Jørgen Jahnsen, Tore K Kvien
BACKGROUND: TNF inhibitors have improved treatment of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, spondyloarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and chronic plaque psoriasis, but are expensive therapies. The aim of NOR-SWITCH was to examine switching from originator infliximab to the less expensive biosimilar CT-P13 regarding efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity. METHODS: The study is a randomised, non-inferiority, double-blind, phase 4 trial with 52 weeks of follow-up...
May 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498979/cohort-profile-the-tracking-opportunities-and-problems-study-topp-a-study-of-norwegian-children-and-their-parents-followed-from-infancy-to-adulthood
#20
Wendy Nilsen, Anne Kjeldsen, Evalill Bølstad Karevold, Anni Skipstein, Maren Sand Helland, Kristin Gustavson, Frøydis Enstad, Silje Baardstu, Espen Røysamb, Kristin S Mathiesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
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