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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207358/constraints-on-the-precautionary-principle-and-the-problem-of-uncertainty
#1
Espen D Stabell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202023/logical-fallacies-in-animal-model-research
#2
REVIEW
Espen A Sjoberg
BACKGROUND: Animal models of human behavioural deficits involve conducting experiments on animals with the hope of gaining new knowledge that can be applied to humans. This paper aims to address risks, biases, and fallacies associated with drawing conclusions when conducting experiments on animals, with focus on animal models of mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers using animal models are susceptible to a fallacy known as false analogy, where inferences based on assumptions of similarities between animals and humans can potentially lead to an incorrect conclusion...
February 15, 2017: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185274/clarithromycin-trimethoprim-and-penicillin-and-oxidative-nucleic-acid-modifications-in-humans-randomised-controlled-trials
#3
Emil List Larsen, Vanja Cejvanovic, Laura Kofoed Kjaer, Morten Thorup Pedersen, Sara Daugaard Popik, Lina Kallehave Hansen, Jon Traerup Andersen, Espen Jimenez-Solem, Kasper Broedbaek, Morten Petersen, Allan Weimann, Trine Henriksen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Enghusen Poulsen
AIMS: In vitro studies have demonstrated that formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the effect of bactericidal antibiotics. The formation of ROS is not restricted to bacteria, but also occurs in mammalian cells. Oxidative stress is linked to several diseases. This study investigates whether antibiotic drugs induce oxidative stress in healthy humans as a possible mechanism for adverse reactions to the antibiotic drugs. METHODS: This study contains information from two randomised, controlled trials...
February 10, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179077/mercury-and-selenium-in-free-ranging-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-in-the-river-skienselva-watercourse-southern-norway
#4
Asle Økelsrud, Espen Lydersen, Clara Moreno, Eirik Fjeld
Selenium (Se), mercury (Hg), and stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) have been investigated in free-ranging brown trout (Salmo trutta) from five large lakes/hydropower reservoirs within the River Skienselva watercourse, Southern Norway. The main purpose of the study was to investigate geographical patterns of the two elements within this large catchment. We also wanted to investigate whether Hg concentration in trout were negatively associated to their Se content, hence indicating an ameliorating effect of Se on Hg bioaccumulation...
February 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175262/pre-pregnancy-mental-distress-and-musculoskeletal-pain-and-sickness-absence-during-pregnancy-a-twin-cohort-study
#5
Karoline B Seglem, Ragnhild Ørstavik, Fartein A Torvik, Line C Gjerde, Espen Røysamb, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Kristian Tambs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167074/emerging-pathogens-in-the-fish-farming-industry-and-sequencing-based-pathogen-discovery
#6
Torstein Tengs, Espen Rimstad
The use of large scale DNA/RNA sequencing has become an integral part of biomedical research. Reduced sequencing costs and the availability of efficient computational resources has led to a revolution in how problems concerning genomics and transcriptomics are addressed. Sequencing-based pathogen discovery represents one example of how genetic data can now be used in ways that were previously considered infeasible. Emerging pathogens affect both human and animal health due to a multitude of factors, including globalization, a shifting environment and an increasing human population...
February 3, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166612/acute-exercise-activates-p38-mapk-and-increases-the-expression-of-telomere-protective-genes-in-cardiac-muscle
#7
Andrew T Ludlow, Laila Gratidao, Lindsay W Ludlow, Espen E Spangenburg, Stephen M Roth
Age is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Telomere length is shorter in the hearts of aged mice compared to young mice, and short telomere length has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One year of voluntary wheel running exercise attenuates the age-associated loss of telomere length and results in altered gene expression of telomere length maintaining and genome stabilizing proteins in heart tissue of mice. Understanding the early adaptive response of the heart to an endurance exercise bout is paramount to understanding the impact of endurance exercise on heart tissue and cells...
February 6, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161472/novel-serum-and-bile-protein-markers-predict-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-disease-severity-and-prognosis
#8
Mette Vesterhus, Anders Holm, Johannes Roksund Hov, Ståle Nygård, Erik Schrumpf, Espen Melum, Liv Wenche Thorbjørnsen, Vemund Paulsen, Knut Lundin, Inge Dale, Odd Helge Gilja, Serge J L B Zweers, Morten Vatn, Frank G Schaap, Peter L M Jansen, Thor Ueland, Helge Røsjø, Bjørn Moum, Cyriel Y Ponsioen, Kirsten Muri Boberg, Martti Färkkilä, Tom H Karlsen, Fridtjof Lund-Johansen
BACKGROUND&AIMS: We aimed to identify novel protein biomarkers of disease severity and prognosis in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). METHODS: Using a bead-based array targeting 63 proteins, we profiled a derivation panel of Norwegian endoscopic retrograde cholangiography-bile samples (55 PSC, 20 disease controls) and a Finnish validation panel (34 PSC, 10 disease controls). Selected identified proteins were measured in serum from two Norwegian PSC cohorts (n=167 [1992-2006] and n=138 [2008-2012]), inflammatory bowel disease (n=96) and healthy controls (n=100)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159440/one-year-sobriety-improves-satisfaction-with-life-executive-functions-and-psychological-distress-among-patients-with-polysubstance-use-disorder
#9
Egon Hagen, Aleksander H Erga, Katrin P Hagen, Sverre M Nesvåg, James R McKay, Astri J Lundervold, Espen Walderhaug
INTRODUCTION: Polysubstance use disorder is prevalent in treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorder (SUD), with a higher risk of developing comorbid psychiatric symptoms, more pervasive deficits in cognitive functions, and inferior treatment results. The present study investigates if individuals with polysubstance use disorder who achieve at least one year of abstinence show greater improvements in satisfaction with life, executive functions, and psychological distress, compared to relapsers and controls...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146606/the-cyp3a-biomarker-4%C3%AE-hydroxycholesterol-does-not-improve-tacrolimus-dose-predictions-early-after-kidney-transplantation
#10
Elisabet Størset, Kristine Hole, Karsten Midtvedt, Stein Bergan, Espen Molden, Anders Åsberg
AIMS: Tacrolimus is a cornerstone in modern immunosuppressive therapy after kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus dosing is challenged by considerable pharmacokinetic variability, both between patients and over time after transplantation, partly due to variability in cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the endogenous CYP3A marker 4β-hydroxycholesterol (4βOHC) for tacrolimus dose individualization early after kidney transplantation. METHODS: Data were obtained from 79 adult kidney transplant recipients who contributed a total of 625 4βOHC measurements and 1999 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations during the first two months after transplantation...
February 1, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131521/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Alastair Forbes, Johanna Escher, Xavier Hébuterne, Stanisław Kłęk, Zeljko Krznaric, Stéphane Schneider, Raanan Shamir, Kalina Stardelova, Nicolette Wierdsma, Anthony E Wiskin, Stephan C Bischoff
INTRODUCTION: The ESPEN guideline presents a multidisciplinary focus on clinical nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODOLOGY: The guideline is based on extensive systematic review of the literature, but relies on expert opinion when objective data were lacking or inconclusive. The conclusions and 64 recommendations have been subject to full peer review and a Delphi process in which uniformly positive responses (agree or strongly agree) were required...
December 31, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127073/-juvenile-onset-muscular-diseases
#12
Petra Aden, Ellen J Annexstad, Espen Lien, Jasmina Majkic Tajsic, Nanette Mjellem, Magnhild Rasmussen
Children with muscular diseases constitute an important group in paediatric neurology. Some of the conditions are very serious and require extensive interdisciplinary treatment and facilitation. There is some degree of optimism regarding the possibility of causal treatment in some of the conditions.
January 2017: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121800/effects-of-hit-on-physiological-and-hormonal-adaptions-in-well-trained-cyclists
#13
Øystein Sylta, Espen Tønnessen, Øyvind Sandbakk, Daniel Hammarström, Jørgen Danielsen, Knut Skovereng, Bent R Rønnestad, Stephen Seiler
PURPOSE: Investigate development of specific performance adaptions and hormonal responses every 4 week during a 12-week HIT period in groups with different interval-training prescriptions. METHODS: Sixty-three well-trained cyclists performing a 12-week intervention consisting of 2-3 HIT sessionsweek in addition to ad libitum low intensity training. Groups were matched for total training load, but increasing HIT (INC) group (n=23) performed interval-sessions as 4x16 min in week 1-4, 4x8 min in week 5-8 and 4x4 min in week 9-12...
January 23, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116541/gravity-compensation-method-for-combined-accelerometer-and-gyro-sensors-used-in-cardiac-motion-measurements
#14
Magnus Reinsfelt Krogh, Giang M Nghiem, Per Steinar Halvorsen, Ole Jakob Elle, Ole-Johannes Grymyr, Lars Hoff, Espen W Remme
A miniaturized accelerometer fixed to the heart can be used for monitoring of cardiac function. However, an accelerometer cannot differentiate between acceleration caused by motion and acceleration due to gravity. The accuracy of motion measurements is therefore dependent on how well the gravity component can be estimated and filtered from the measured signal. In this study we propose a new method for estimating the gravity, based on strapdown inertial navigation, using a combined accelerometer and gyro. The gyro was used to estimate the orientation of the gravity field and thereby remove it...
January 23, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115187/semi-automatic-3d-morphological-reconstruction-of-neurons-with-densely-branching-morphology-application-to-retinal-aii-amacrine-cells-imaged-with-multi-photon-excitation-microscopy
#15
Bas-Jan Zandt, Are Losnegård, Erlend Hodneland, Margaret Lin Veruki, Arvid Lundervold, Espen Hartveit
BACKGROUND: Accurate reconstruction of the morphology of single neurons is important for morphometric studies and for developing compartmental models. However, manual morphological reconstruction can be extremely time-consuming and error-prone and algorithms for automatic reconstruction can be challenged when applied to neurons with a high density of extensively branching processes. NEW METHOD: We present a procedure for semi-automatic reconstruction specifically adapted for densely branching neurons such as the AII amacrine cell found in mammalian retinas...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107521/differential-roles-of-axin1-and-axin2-in-tankyrase-inhibitor-induced-formation-of-degradasomes-and-%C3%AE-catenin-degradation
#16
Tor Espen Thorvaldsen, Nina Marie Pedersen, Eva Maria Wenzel, Harald Stenmark
Inhibition of the tankyrase enzymes (TNKS1 and TNKS2) has recently been shown to induce highly dynamic assemblies of β-catenin destruction complex components known as degradasomes, which promote degradation of β-catenin and reduced Wnt signaling activity in colorectal cancer cells. AXIN1 and AXIN2/Conductin, the rate-limiting factors for the stability and function of endogenous destruction complexes, are stabilized upon TNKS inhibition due to abrogated degradation of AXIN by the proteasome. Since the role of AXIN1 versus AXIN2 as scaffolding proteins in the Wnt signaling pathway still remains incompletely understood, we sought to elucidate their relative contribution in the formation of degradasomes, as these protein assemblies most likely represent the morphological and functional correlates of endogenous β-catenin destruction complexes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104812/antibody-secreting-plasma-cells-persist-for-decades-in-human-intestine
#17
Ole J B Landsverk, Omri Snir, Raquel Bartolomé Casado, Lisa Richter, Jeff E Mold, Pedro Réu, Rune Horneland, Vemund Paulsen, Sheraz Yaqub, Einar Martin Aandahl, Ole M Øyen, Hildur Sif Thorarensen, Mehran Salehpour, Göran Possnert, Jonas Frisén, Ludvig M Sollid, Espen S Baekkevold, Frode L Jahnsen
Plasma cells (PCs) produce antibodies that mediate immunity after infection or vaccination. In contrast to PCs in the bone marrow, PCs in the gut have been considered short lived. In this study, we studied PC dynamics in the human small intestine by cell-turnover analysis in organ transplants and by retrospective cell birth dating measuring carbon-14 in genomic DNA. We identified three distinct PC subsets: a CD19(+) PC subset was dynamically exchanged, whereas of two CD19(-) PC subsets, CD45(+) PCs exhibited little and CD45(-) PCs no replacement and had a median age of 11 and 22 yr, respectively...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081385/catheter-related-bloodstream-infections-in-adults-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition
#18
Siri Tribler, Christopher F Brandt, Mark Hvistendahl, Michael Staun, Per Brøbech, Claus E Moser, Palle B Jeppesen
BACKGROUND: A common complication in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). The CRBSI incidence has been advocated as an outcome parameter assessing the quality of care. This study aimed to illustrate how the use of different CRBSI definitions affects the reported incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an observational study based on the Copenhagen intestinal failure database, all clinically reported CRBSIs from 2002-2013 were compared with data from the affiliated microbiological database according to recommended CRBSI criteria...
January 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074217/-nutrition-in-dementia
#19
D Volkert
BACKGROUND: In the course of dementia sooner or later nutritional problems appear, and the question arises which interventions are effective in ensuring adequate nutrition and thus may contribute to the maintenance of health, functionality and independence. OBJECTIVE: This overview presents the state of knowledge regarding nutrition in dementia. METHODS: This work is based on the present guidelines of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) on nutrition in dementia, which systematically investigated relevant available evidence...
February 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061830/age-nutrition-chirugie-anc-study-impact-of-a-geriatric-intervention-on-the-screening-and-management-of-undernutrition-in-elderly-patients-operated-on-for-colon-cancer-a-stepped-wedge-controlled-trial
#20
Marine Dupuis, Elisabetta Kuczewski, Laurent Villeneuve, Sylvie Bin-Dorel, Max Haine, Claire Falandry, Thomas Gilbert, Guillaume Passot, Olivier Glehen, Marc Bonnefoy
BACKGROUND: Undernutrition prior to major abdominal surgery is frequent and increases morbidity and mortality, especially in older patients. The management of undernutrition reduces postoperative complications. Nutritional management should be a priority in patient care during the preoperative period. However undernutrition is rarely detected and the guidelines are infrequently followed. Preoperative undernutrition screening should allow a better implementation of the guidelines. METHODS/DESIGN: The ANC ("Age Nutrition Chirurgie") study is an interventional, comparative, prospective, multicenter, randomized protocol based on the stepped wedge trial design...
January 7, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
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