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orbital blood flow

Chunyan Li, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Anton Reiner
Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the ventromedial part of the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) mediate vasodilation of orbital and choroidal blood vessels, via their projection to the nitrergic pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) neurons that innervate these vessels. We recently showed that the baroresponsive part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) innervates choroidal control parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of SSN in rats. As this projection provides a means by which blood pressure (BP) signals may modulate choroidal blood flow (ChBF), we investigated if activation of baroresponsive NTS evokes ChBF increases in rat eye, using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) to measure ChBF transclerally...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
F Heran Dreyfus, O Galatoire, P Koskas, F Lafitte, E Nau, O Bergès
Orbito-palpebral vascular pathology represents 10% of all the diseases of this area. The lesion may be discovered during a brain CT scan or MRI, or because it causes clinical symptoms such as orbital mass, visual or oculomotor alteration, pain, proptosis, or acute bleeding due to a complication of the lesion (hemorrhage, thrombosis). We present these lesions using an anatomical, clinical, imaging and therapeutic approach. We distinguish four different entities. Vascular tumors have common imaging characteristics (hypersignal on T2 sequence, contrast enhancement, abnormal vascularization well depicted with ultrasound and Doppler, and possible bleeding)...
October 18, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Yawen Sun, Wenwei Cao, Weina Ding, Yao Wang, Xu Han, Yan Zhou, Qun Xu, Yong Zhang, Jianrong Xu
Abnormal reductions in cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been identified in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI). However, little is known about the pattern of CBF reduction in relation with the degree of cognitive impairment. CBF measured with three-dimensional (3D) Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) helps detect functional changes in subjects with SVCI. We aimed to compare CBF maps in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) subjects with and without cognitive impairment and to detect the relationship of the regions of CBF reduction in the brain with the degree of cognitive impairment according to the z-score...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Tong Wu, Tünde Mester, Shivani Gupta, Fengyuan Sun, Terry J Smith, Raymond S Douglas
BACKGROUND: Increased numbers of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, known as fibrocytes, populate the peripheral circulation, orbit, and thyroid of patients with Graves' disease (GD). These cells have been implicated in the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. They can differentiate into myofibroblasts or adipocytes, produce inflammatory cytokines, and remodel tissue. This study sought to determine whether thyrotropin (TSH) and CD40 ligand (CD40L), implicated in the pathogenesis of GD, induce interleukin-12 (IL-12) in human fibrocytes...
October 18, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Ferit Dogan, Kenan Sonmez, Rahim Con, Dilek Sen Dokumaci, Eyüp Sabri Seyhanli
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the presence of any stage retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) alters central retinal artery (CRA) and ophthalmic artery (OA) blood flow parameters in premature infants. The patients were divided into two groups according to the development of ROP; those who have ROP were defined as group I, those without ROP were defined as group II. Ninety eyes of 45 patients in group I and 40 eyes of 20 patients in group II were investigated. The blood flows in the CRA and OA were measured using ultrasound color doppler imaging (CDI) that allows to evaluate the peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), and resistivity index (RI)...
September 3, 2016: International Ophthalmology
A Sadeghi-Tari, M Jamshidian-Tehrani, A Nabavi, S Sharif-Kashani, E Elhami, N Hassanpour, K Ameli Zamani
PurposeTo evaluate the effect of smoking on retrobulbar blood flow parameters by color Doppler imaging in patients with thyroid eye disease.Patients and methodsIn this observational case series, blood flow parameters in the ophthalmic artery, superior ophthalmic vein, central retinal artery, and vein were determined by color Doppler imaging in patients with thyroid eye disease. Patients were grouped as smokers and non-smokers. Never smokers and those who had stopped smoking for at least 1 year before onset of ophthalmopathy were considered as non-smokers...
August 19, 2016: Eye
Gijsbert J Hötte, Peter J Schaafsma, Charl P Botha, Piotr A Wielopolski, Huibert J Simonsz
PURPOSE: Little is known about the way orbital fat slides and/or deforms during eye movements. We compared two deformation algorithms from a sequence of MRI volumes to visualize this complex behavior. METHODS: Time-dependent deformation data were derived from motion-MRI volumes using Lucas and Kanade Optical Flow (LK3D) and nonrigid registration (B-splines) deformation algorithms. We compared how these two algorithms performed regarding sliding and deformation in three critical areas: the sclera-fat interface, how the optic nerve moves through the fat, and how the fat is squeezed out under the tendon of a relaxing rectus muscle...
July 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Dragoş Cătălin Jianu, Silviana Nina Jianu, Ligia Petrica, Andrei Gheorghe Marius Motoc, Traian Flavius Dan, Dorela CodruŢa Lăzureanu, Mihnea Munteanu
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathies (AIONs) represent a segmental infarction of the optic nerve head (ONH) supplied by the posterior ciliary arteries (PCAs). Blood supply blockage can occur with or without arterial inflammation. For this reason, there are two types of AIONs: non-arteritic (NA-AION), and arteritic (A-AION), the latter is almost invariably due to giant cell arteritis (GCA). GCA is a primary vasculitis that predominantly affects extracranial medium-sized arteries, particularly the branches of the external carotid arteries (including superficial temporal arteries - TAs)...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Xin Zheng, Weiying Dai, David C Alsop, Gottfried Schlaug
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance or diminish cortical excitability levels depending on the polarity of the stimulation. One application of non-invasive brain-stimulation has been to modulate a possible inter-hemispheric disinhibition after a stroke. This disinhibition model has been developed mainly for the upper extremity motor system, but it is not known whether the language/speech-motor system shows a similar inter-hemispheric interaction...
July 25, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Raksha Urs, Jeffrey A Ketterling, Ronald H Silverman
PURPOSE: Ophthalmic ultrasound imaging is currently performed with mechanically scanned single-element probes. These probes have limited capabilities overall and lack the ability to image blood flow. Linear-array systems are able to detect blood flow, but these systems exceed ophthalmic acoustic intensity safety guidelines. Our aim was to implement and evaluate a new linear-array-based technology, compound coherent plane-wave ultrasound, which offers ultrafast imaging and depiction of blood flow at safe acoustic intensity levels...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yu-Jie Wu, Xin Wei, Man-Yi Xiao, Wei Xiong
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of orbital decomposition (OD) surgery in combination with horse chestnut seed extract (HCSE), as compared to OD alone, in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). METHODS: Sixty-two orbits from 62 TAO patients were randomly assigned to OD or OD+HCSE at 1:1 ratio (31 received OD alone, 31 received OD+HCSE). Forty-two orbits from 21 healthy subjects were used as controls. Complete ophthalmic examination and color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) were performed before surgery and 3mo post-surgery on all 62 orbits from the TAO patients...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Brian D Plourde, Lauren J Vallez, Biyuan Sun, Brittany B Nelson-Cheeseman, John P Abraham, Cezar S Staniloae
Simulations were made of the pressure and velocity fields throughout an artery before and after removal of plaque using orbital atherectomy plus adjunctive balloon angioplasty or stenting. The calculations were carried out with an unsteady computational fluid dynamic solver that allows the fluid to naturally transition to turbulence. The results of the atherectomy procedure leads to an increased flow through the stenotic zone with a coincident decrease in pressure drop across the stenosis. The measured effect of atherectomy and adjunctive treatment showed decrease the systolic pressure drop by a factor of 2...
September 2016: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, David J Gee
Particle suspensions are common to biological fluid flows; for example, flow of red- and white-blood cells, and platelets. In medical technology, current and proposed methods for drug delivery use membrane-bounded liquid capsules for transport via the microcirculation. In this paper, we consider a 3D linear elastic particle inserted into a Newtonian fluid and investigate the time-dependent deformation using a numerical simulation. Specifically, a boundary element technique is used to investigate the motion and deformation of initially spherical or spheroidal particles in bounded linear shear flow...
September 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xia Zhe, Kang Liu, Yun-Feng Mu, Shun Qi, Yi-Bin Xi, Ping Du, Yi Huan, Qing-Rong Tan, Hong Yin, Hai-Tao Zhao, Ya-Li Ge, Ying-Juan Chang
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in resting state in patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 3 months after trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rCBF was measured in 30 patients with acute PTSD and 36 healthy controls. RESULTS: Survivors with acute PTSD showed decreased rCBF, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale score correlated negatively with the rCBF, and rCBF at resting state decreased in acute PTSD...
September 2016: Academic Radiology
Hulya Gungel, Cigdem Altan, Deniz Oygar Baylancicek, Yesim Karagoz, Tanju Kisbet
PURPOSE: To evaluate using Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) how pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) affects orbital circulation in diffuse diabetic macular edema (DME) associated with either the epiretinal membrane (ERM) or taut posterior hyaloid (TPH). METHODS: The sample included 46 eyes of 42 patients with DME associated with the ERM (n = 22, Group 1) or TPH (n = 24, Group 2). All participants received panretinal laser photocoagulation and antivascular endothelial growth factor injections preoperatively and underwent 23-gauge PPV combined with ERM or TPH removal and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling...
June 1, 2016: Current Eye Research
Amanda Rey, Lorena Castillo, Agnieszka Dyrda, Xavier Maseras, Ignasi Jürgens
BACKGROUND: We report the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) characteristics and variations in a patient with subretinal fluid secondary to a carotid cavernous fistula. CASE PRESENTATION: A 59-year-old man presented with blurred vision in his right eye. Venous congestion of the epiescleral and retinal vessels were observed. EDI-OCT disclosed macular subretinal fluid with an increase of choroidal thickness up to 341 μm. Brain and orbital computerized tomography showed an enlarged right superior ophthalmic vein...
2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Sijie Fang, Yazhuo Huang, Shuaiwei Wang, Yidan Zhang, Xuerui Luo, Luyan Liu, Sisi Zhong, Xingtong Liu, Dan Li, Rui Liang, Piccioni Miranda, Ping Gu, Huifang Zhou, Xianqun Fan, Bin Li
CONTEXT: The development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is associated with self-immune dysfunction. Recent findings in TAO and Graves' disease indicate that IL-17A may also be involved in the autoimmunity of TAO. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the pathogenic function of IL-17A-producing T cells in TAO. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Blood samples and orbital fibroblasts (OFs) were collected from TAO patients and healthy subjects...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jason E Kisser, Allyssa J Allen, Leslie I Katzel, Carrington R Wendell, Eliot L Siegel, David Lefkowitz, Shari R Waldstein
Hypertension confers increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. These associations have been attributed, in part, to cerebral hypoperfusion. Here we posit that relations of higher blood pressure to lower levels of cerebral perfusion may be potentiated by a prior head injury. Participants were 87 community-dwelling older adults - 69% men, 90% white, mean age=66.9years, 27.6% with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) defined as a loss of consciousness ≤30min resulting from an injury to the head, and free of major medical (other than hypertension), neurological or psychiatric comorbidities...
June 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Julia Fuhrmann, Rabie Jouni, Jenny Alex, Heike Zöllner, Jan Wesche, Andreas Greinacher, Tamam Bakchoul
BACKGROUND: The NOD/SCID mouse model is a unique and sophisticated method to study the survival of human platelets (PLTs) in vivo. Meanwhile, several research groups adopted this model to analyze a wide range of PLT antibodies. Differences exist between the research groups regarding the method of PLT injection, the amount and route of antibody injection, and the preparation of blood samples collected from the animal, making it difficult to compare results between studies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We compared the survival of human PLTs infused into NOD/SCID mice via the tail vein or the retro-orbital plexus...
April 18, 2016: Transfusion
Shau-Ming Wei, Daniel P Eisenberg, Katherine G Nabel, Philip D Kohn, J Shane Kippenhan, Dwight Dickinson, Bhaskar Kolachana, Karen F Berman
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important modulator of constitutive stress responses mediated by limbic frontotemporal circuits, and its gene contains a functional polymorphism (Val(66)Met) that may influence trait stress sensitivity. Reports of an association of this polymorphism with anxiety-related personality traits have been controversial and without clear neurophysiological support. We, therefore, determined the relationship between resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and a well-validated measure of anxiety-related personality, the TPQ Harm Avoidance (HA) scale, as a function ofBDNFVal(66)Met genotype...
March 21, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
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