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Cancer causes prevention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050199/pre-clinical-pharmacology-of-azd3965-a-selective-inhibitor-of-mct1-dlbcl-nhl-and-burkitt-s-lymphoma-anti-tumor-activity
#1
Nicola J Curtis, Lorraine Mooney, Lorna Hopcroft, Filippos Michopoulos, Nichola Whalley, Haihong Zhong, Clare Murray, Armelle Logie, Mitchell Revill, Kate F Byth, Amanda D Benjamin, Mike A Firth, Stephen Green, Paul D Smith, Susan E Critchlow
Tumors frequently display a glycolytic phenotype with increased flux through glycolysis and concomitant synthesis of lactate. To maintain glycolytic flux and prevent intracellular acidification, tumors efflux lactate via lactate transporters (MCT1-4). Inhibitors of lactate transport have the potential to inhibit glycolysis and tumor growth. We developed a small molecule inhibitor of MCT1 (AZD3965) and assessed its activity across a panel of cell lines. We explored its antitumor activity as monotherapy and in combination with doxorubicin or rituximab...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049530/risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-among-otolaryngology-patients-vs-general-surgery-and-plastic-surgery-patients
#2
John D Cramer, Amanda E Dilger, Alex Schneider, Stephanie Shintani Smith, Sandeep Samant, Urjeet A Patel
Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, is the number 1 cause of preventable death in surgical patients. Current guidelines from the American College of Chest Physicians provide VTE prevention recommendations that are specific to individual surgical subspecialties; however, no guidelines exist for otolaryngology. Objective: To examine the rate of VTE for various otolaryngology procedures compared with an established average-risk field (general surgery) and low-risk field (plastic surgery)...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048633/in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-anti-primary-effusion-lymphoma-activities-of-fucoidan-extracted-from-cladosiphon-okamuranus-tokida
#3
Chie Ishikawa, Naoki Mori
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is characterized by lymphomatous effusion in body cavities and poor prognosis. There is still no effective treatment for PEL. Fucoidan, a major sulfated polysaccharide isolated from brown seaweeds, has an attractive array of bioactivities such as cancer inhibition. However, the effects of fucoidan on PEL cells remain unclear. We investigated the anti-PEL effects of fucoidan obtained from Cladosiphon okamuranus Tokida cultivated in Okinawa...
September 20, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047408/the-efficacy-of-the-kampo-medicine-rikkunshito-for-chemotherapy-induced-anorexia-rich-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Takuya Inoue, Hironori Takagi, Yuki Owada, Yuzuru Watanabe, Takumi Yamaura, Mitsuro Fukuhara, Satoshi Muto, Naoyuki Okabe, Yuki Matsumura, Takeo Hasegawa, Jun Osugi, Mika Hoshino, Mitsunori Higuchi, Yutaka Shio, Hiroshi Yokouchi, Kenya Kanazawa, Katsuya Ohbuchi, Takahisa Fukushima, Mitsuru Munakata, Hiroyuki Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin is a key drug in lung cancer therapy. However, cisplatin is also well known to induce gastrointestinal disorders, such as chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, anorexia, and weight loss. These symptoms sometimes affect patients' quality of life and make continuation of chemotherapy difficult. Anorexia is a cause of concern for patients with cancer because a persistent loss of appetite progresses to cancer cachexia. Although evidence-based management for chemotherapy has recently been established, there is room for improvement...
October 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047085/redox-dependent-calpain-signaling-in-airway-and-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-copd
#5
Laszlo Kovacs, Yunchao Su
The calcium-dependent cytosolic, neutral, thiol endopeptidases, calpains, perform limited cleavage of their substrates thereby irreversibly changing their functions. Calpains have been shown to be involved in several physiological processes such as cell motility, proliferation, cell cycle, signal transduction, and apoptosis. Overactivation of calpain or mutations in the calpain genes contribute to a number of pathological conditions including neurodegenerative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and lung diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046738/colorectal-cancer-incidence-in-path_mlh1-carriers-subjected-to-different-follow-up-protocols-a-prospective-lynch-syndrome-database-report
#6
Toni Seppälä, Kirsi Pylvänäinen, Dafydd Gareth Evans, Heikki Järvinen, Laura Renkonen-Sinisalo, Inge Bernstein, Elke Holinski-Feder, Paola Sala, Annika Lindblom, Finlay Macrae, Ignacio Blanco, Rolf Sijmons, Jacqueline Jeffries, Hans Vasen, John Burn, Sigve Nakken, Eivind Hovig, Einar Andreas Rødland, Kukatharmini Tharmaratnam, Wouter H de Vos Tot Nederveen Cappel, James Hill, Juul Wijnen, Mark Jenkins, Maurizio Genuardi, Kate Green, Fiona Lalloo, Lone Sunde, Miriam Mints, Lucio Bertario, Marta Pineda, Matilde Navarro, Monika Morak, Ian M Frayling, John-Paul Plazzer, Julian R Sampson, Gabriel Capella, Gabriela Möslein, Jukka-Pekka Mecklin, Pål Møller
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a high incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in carriers of pathogenic MLH1 variants (path_MLH1) despite follow-up with colonoscopy including polypectomy. METHODS: The cohort included Finnish carriers enrolled in 3-yearly colonoscopy (n = 505; 4625 observation years) and carriers from other countries enrolled in colonoscopy 2-yearly or more frequently (n = 439; 3299 observation years). We examined whether the longer interval between colonoscopies in Finland could explain the high incidence of CRC and whether disease expression correlated with differences in population CRC incidence...
2017: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046030/-immunopathology-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
Nora Ernestina Martínez-Aguilar, María Eugenia Vargas-Camaño, Rogelio Ramsés Hernández-Pliego, Genny Margarita Chaia-Semerena, María Rosario Pérez-Chavira
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable condition that has a complex pathophysiology and an even more complex immunopathological process. The purpose of this review was to analyze COPD immunopathological aspects, which was addressed by undertaking a literature search for the most relevant documents indexed in the PubMed database over the last 10 years. Different conclusions could be drawn: in COPD immunopathology there are immune and non-immune inflammatory changes with oxidative stress imbalance, there are alterations in the protease/anti-protease ratio caused by direct and indirect genetic and epigenetic-environmental defects; COPD produces irreversible tissue damage and chronic inflammation with tissue repair alteration, which induces chronic obstruction of the airway, bronchitis and systemic damage...
July 2017: Revista Alergia Mexico: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Mexicana de Alergia e Inmunología, A.C
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046007/-dietary-recommendations-in-metabolic-vascular-syndrome
#8
Katharina Lechner, Nicole Erickson, Benjamin Lechner, Florian Horn
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death globally. Poor diet constitutes a key factor in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease and has become the leading risk factor for disability and death worldwide. Therefore, addressing suboptimal nutrition is of key prognostic relevance in primary and secondary prevention of metabolic vascular syndrome.Metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional network of acquired cardiometabolic risk factors closely related to insulin resistance (IR) and concomitant hyperinsulinemia...
October 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045918/cervical-cancer-cells-hela-response-to-photodynamic-therapy-using-a-zinc-phthalocyanine-photosensitizer
#9
Natasha Hodgkinson, Cherie Ann Kruger, Mpho Mokwena, Heidi Abrahamse
Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the leading cause of cancer related deaths among females. Conventional treatment for early cervical cancer is radical hysterectomy. In locally advanced cancer the treatment of choice is concurrent chemo radiation. Although such treatment methods show promise, they do have adverse side effects. To minimize these effects, as well as prevent cancer re-occurrence, new treatment methods are being investigated. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the selective uptake of a photosensitizer (PS) by cancer cells, illumination with light of an appropriate wavelength that triggers a photochemical reaction leading to the generation of reactive oxygen and subsequent tumor regression...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045188/rapid-evolution-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-patients-treated-with-nivolumab
#10
Grenye O'Malley, Hanna J Lee, Samir Parekh, Matthew D Galsky, Cardinale B Smith, Philip Friedlander, Robert T Yanagisawa, Emily J Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of thyroid dysfunction in a series of patients with cancer treated with the immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, nivolumab. METHODS: Cases of thyroid dysfunction after initiation of checkpoint inhibitor treatment were identified from the Division of Endocrinology clinical practice at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York from April 2016 to February 2017. Charts were reviewed to identify patients treated with nivolumab with new onset of thyroid dysfunction...
October 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044724/tea-polyphenols-for-the-prevention-of-uvb-induced-skin-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Pooja Sharma, Mary Katherine Montes de Oca, Amena R Alkeswani, Sarah F McClees, Tanushree Das, Craig A Elmets, Farrukh Afaq
Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer with increasing incidence rate and public health burden. Solar Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes an array of damaging cellular and molecular events that eventually lead to the development of skin cancer. Despite increased awareness about sun protection, the exposure rate remains high with less than 15% of men and 30% of women using sunscreen on a regular basis. Therefore, there is an imperative need for the development of novel preventive approaches. Skin cancer chemoprevention using phytochemicals either as dietary supplements or by topical applications has gained considerable attention due to their low toxicity, availability, and anti-carcinogenic properties...
October 16, 2017: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042957/ursolic-acid-inhibits-breast-cancer-growth-by-inhibiting-proliferation-inducing-autophagy-and-apoptosis-and-suppressing-inflammatory-responses-via-the-pi3k-akt-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways-in-vitro
#12
Juan Luo, Yan-Ling Hu, Hong Wang
Breast cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women worldwide, develops from breast tissue. Chemotherapy is the most commonly used therapy to treat breast cancer. However, a number of natural plant-derived products have been suggested as alternative therapies to treat different types of cancer, such as breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-tumor effects of ursolic acid and its effect on apoptosis and inflammation in breast cancer cells. The anti-cancer effects of ursolic acid were evaluated in vitro using flow cytometry, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042620/an-integrin-targeted-highly-diffusive-construct-for-photodynamic-therapy
#13
Oliver J Klein, Hushan Yuan, Nicholas H Nowell, Charalambos Kaittanis, Lee Josephson, Conor L Evans
Targeted antineoplastic agents show great promise in the treatment of cancer, having the ability to impart cytotoxicity only to specific tumor types. However, these therapies do not experience uniform uptake throughout tumors, leading to sub-lethal cell killing that can impart treatment resistance, and cause problematic off-target effects. Here we demonstrate a photodynamic therapy construct that integrates both a cyclic RGD moiety for integrin-targeting, as well as a 5 kDa PEG chain that passivates the construct and enables its rapid diffusion throughout tumors...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042416/nicotine-prevents-and-reverses-paclitaxel-induced-mechanical-allodynia-in-a-mouse-model-of-cipn
#14
S Lauren Kyte, Wisam Toma, Deniz Bagdas, Julie A Meade, Lesley D Schurman, Aron H Lichtman, Zhi-Jian Chen, Egidio Del Fabbro, Xianjun Fang, John W Bigbee, M Imad Damaj, David A Gewirtz
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a consequence of peripheral nerve fiber dysfunction or degeneration, continues to be a dose-limiting and debilitating side effect during and/or after cancer chemotherapy. Paclitaxel, a taxane commonly used to treat breast, lung, and ovarian cancers, causes CIPN in 59-78% of cancer patients. Novel interventions are needed due to the current lack of effective CIPN treatments. Our studies were designed to investigate if nicotine can prevent and/or reverse paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in a mouse model of CIPN, while ensuring that nicotine will not stimulate lung tumor cell proliferation or interfere with the anti-tumor properties of paclitaxel...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040431/prevention-of-breast-cancer-induced-osteolytic-bone-resorption-by-benzyl-isothiocyanate
#15
Subrata K Pore, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Joseph D Latoche, Carolyn J Anderson, Yongli Shuai, Shivendra V Singh
Osteolytic bone resorption is the primary cause of pain and suffering (e.g., pathological bone fracture) in women with metastatic breast cancer. The current standard of care for patients with bone metastasis for reducing the incidence of skeletal complications includes bisphosphonates and a humanized antibody (denosumab). However, a subset of patients on these therapies still develops new bone metastasis or experience adverse effects. Moreover, some bisphosphonates have poor oral bioavailability. Therefore, orally-bioavailable and non-toxic inhibitors of breast cancer-induced osteolytic bone resorption are still clinically desirable...
October 11, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039371/regional-monitoring-of-cervical-cancer
#16
Mihaela Crisan-Vida, Oana Sorina Lupse, Lacramioara Stoicu-Tivadar, Daniela Salvari, Radu Catanet, Elena Bernad
Cervical cancer is one of the most important causes of death in women in fertile age in Romania. In order to discover high-risk situations in the first stages of the disease it is important to enhance prevention actions, and ICT, respectively cloud computing and Big Data currently support such activities. The national screening program uses an information system that based on data from different medical units gives feedback related to the women healthcare status and provides statistics and reports. In order to ensure the continuity of care it is updated with HL7 CDA support and cloud computing...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038726/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-toward-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-among-medical-students-at-northern-border-university-arar-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia
#17
Mohammed Ali Alhowaish, Jawaher Ali Alhowaish, Yasser Hamoud Alanazi, Muharib Mana Alshammari, Mushref Saeid Alshammari, Nasser Ghadeer Alshamari, Abdulaziz Sael Alshammari, Meshael Kareem Almutairi, Sultan Abdullah Algarni
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Health care workers' risk of occupational exposure to HBV is a chief concern, particularly with young students in the health profession. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge regarding symptoms, risk factors and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection among medical students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 01, 2016 to May 30, 2017 on medical students at the Northern Border University (Arar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)...
September 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038425/mre11-and-exo1-nucleases-degrade-reversed-forks-and-elicit-mus81-dependent-fork-rescue-in-brca2-deficient-cells
#18
Delphine Lemaçon, Jessica Jackson, Annabel Quinet, Joshua R Brickner, Shan Li, Stephanie Yazinski, Zhongsheng You, Grzegorz Ira, Lee Zou, Nima Mosammaparast, Alessandro Vindigni
The breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 have emerged as key stabilizing factors for the maintenance of replication fork integrity following replication stress. In their absence, stalled replication forks are extensively degraded by the MRE11 nuclease, leading to chemotherapeutic sensitivity. Here we report that BRCA proteins prevent nucleolytic degradation by protecting replication forks that have undergone fork reversal upon drug treatment. The unprotected regressed arms of reversed forks are the entry point for MRE11 in BRCA-deficient cells...
October 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038291/cystine-uptake-through-the-cystine-glutamate-antiporter-xct-triggers-glioblastoma-cell-death-under-glucose-deprivation
#19
Takeo Goji, Kazuhiko Takahara, Manabu Negishi, Hironori Katoh
Oncogenic signaling in cancer cells alters glucose uptake and utilization to supply sufficient energy and biosynthetic intermediates for survival and sustained proliferation. Oncogenic signaling also prevents oxidative stress and cell death caused by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, elevated glucose metabolism in cancer cells, especially in glioblastoma, results in the cells becoming sensitive to glucose deprivation (i.e. in high glucose dependence), which rapidly induces cell death...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038236/efficacy-of-prophylactic-treatment-for-oxycodone-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-among-patients-with-cancer-pain-point-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#20
Hiroaki Tsukuura, Masayuki Miyazaki, Tatsuya Morita, Mihoko Sugishita, Hiroshi Kato, Yuka Murasaki, Bishal Gyawali, Yoko Kubo, Masahiko Ando, Masashi Kondo, Kiyofumi Yamada, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Yuichi Ando
BACKGROUND: Although opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) often result in analgesic undertreatment in patients with cancer, no randomized controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of prophylactic antiemetics for preventing OINV. We conducted this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic treatment with prochlorperazine for preventing OINV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cancer patients who started to receive oral oxycodone were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either prochlorperazine 5 mg or placebo prophylactically, given three times daily for 5 days...
October 16, 2017: Oncologist
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