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M Margaret Knudson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jacinta Nwamaka Nwogu, Qing Ma, Chinedum Peace Babalola, Waheed Adeola Adedeji, Gene D Morse, Babafemi Taiwo
Neurological complications associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a matter of great concern. While antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are the cornerstone of HIV treatment and typically produce neurological benefit, some ARV drugs have limited CNS penetration while others have been associated with neurotoxicity. CNS penetration is a function of several factors including sieving role of blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers and activity of innate drug transporters. Other factors are related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the specific ARV agent or mediated by drug interactions, local inflammation, and blood flow...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
Alaaddin M Salih, Jasim M Ahmed, Jamal F Mohamed, Musaab M Alfaki
Given the persistent recurrence of armed conflict, influential actors owe it to the affected communities to take action. The legitimacy of health professionals to mitigate the effects of conflict relates to their ability to save lives and address the physical and mental consequences of armed conflict during which thousands of lives may be lost. Medical professionals have unique and potentially far-reaching skills. These become crucial during wartime and disasters in terms of providing medical services and humanitarian aid...
October 24, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Shang-Ju Li, Abraham Flaxman, Riyadh Lafta, Lindsay Galway, Tim K Takaro, Gilbert Burnham, Amy Hagopian
OBJECTIVES: We estimated war-related Iraqi mortality for the period 1980 through 1993. METHOD: To test our hypothesis that deaths reported by siblings (even dating back several decades) would correspond with war events, we compared sibling mortality reports with the frequency of independent news reports about violent historic events. We used data from a survey of 4,287 adults in 2000 Iraqi households conducted in 2011. Interviewees reported on the status of their 24,759 siblings...
2016: PloS One
Sapna Kaul, Rochelle R Smits-Seemann, Eduardo R Zamora, Holly Spraker-Perlman, Kevin J Boyle, Anne C Kirchhoff
PURPOSE: Examine whether survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer value recommended post-treatment care using focus groups and a willingness to pay (WTP) survey. WTP, a measure of value, indicates the dollar amount individuals are willing to pay to use a service. METHODS: Participants were recruited through the Utah Cancer Registry. N = 28 survivors diagnosed with cancer at ages 15-39 and currently aged ≥18 participated in focus groups, and N = 4 in phone interviews (participation rate = 50%)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Christopher Didigwu Nwani, Peace Onas Somdare, Juliana Adimonye Ukonze, Vincent Chikwendu Ejere, Alfreda O Nwadinigwe, Jacinta Chinedu Nwani, Gregory Ejike Odo, Ogechi Nnabuchi Ugbor
In this study, African Catfish (also known as Sharptooth Catfish) Clarias gariepinus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of fenthion of 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg/L for 21 d and allowed to recover for 7 d to investigate the potential for hematological changes. Whole blood was sampled on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 postexposure and after a 7-d recovery period. During exposure, fenthion caused a reduction in red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume. There was an increase in white blood cell counts but no significant difference in mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin...
December 2016: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Stanley A Terman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
John M Janzen
This study, with a focus on Central and Southern Africa, offers an overview of best practices and theoretical debates in the anthropology of violence, including the ethnography of situations where violence is pervasive and active efforts are made to deal with it. Although the multiple sites of recent violence in this region are unique in their scale, intensity, and cause, the literature review suggests a typical course of events of patterns of violence and trauma, construction of memory, efforts at mediation and healing, or persisting conflict and confronting the aftermath of violence at home or in exile...
September 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Kelsey M Flint, Sarah J Schmiege, Larry A Allen, Timothy J Fendler, John Rumsfeld, David Bekelman
CONTEXT: Health status (i.e., symptoms, function, and quality of life) is an important palliative care outcome in patients with heart failure, however patterns of health status over time (i.e. trajectories) are not well described. OBJECTIVES: To identify health status trajectories in outpatients with heart failure, and assess whether depression, symptom burden, or sense of peace predict health status trajectory. METHODS: Observational study utilizing data from the Patient-Centered Disease Management for Heart Failure trial...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Michael M Neeki, Christine Au, Aurora Richard, Carlos Peace, Sharon Jaques, Jens Johansson
PURPOSE: We aimed to describe a case of an incarcerated adolescent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting as acute psychosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective case report followed with chart and literature review. MAIN FINDINGS: An adolescent with ADEM presented with drastic behavior and personality changes that led to her incarceration for serious charges. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis leads to neuropsychiatric effects and can be seen with magnetic resonance imaging as a large mass effect that may result in a poor prognosis...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Jie W Weiss, Michele Mouttapa, Lola Sablan-Santos, Jasmine DeGuzman Lacsamana, Lourdes Quitugua, Sora Park Tanjasiri
This study employed a Multi-Attribute Utility (MAU) model to examine the Pap test decision-making process among Pacific Islanders (PI) residing in Southern California. A total of 585 PI women were recruited through social networks from Samoan and Tongan churches, and Chamorro family clans. A questionnaire assessed Pap test knowledge, beliefs and past behaviour. The three MAU parameters of subjective value, subjective probability and momentary salience were measured for eight anticipated consequences of having a Pap test (e...
October 15, 2016: Health Education Research
E M Wachelder, V R M P Moulaert, C van Heugten, T Gorgels, D T Wade, J A Verbunt
BACKGROUND: Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have cognitive and emotional problems. As a cardiac arrest is also an obvious life-threatening event, other psychological sequelae associated with surviving such as spirituality may also affect quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between spirituality, coping and quality of life in cardiac patients both with and without a cardiac arrest. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, participants received a questionnaire by post...
October 11, 2016: Resuscitation
Niro Kandasamy, Karen Soldatic, Dinesha Samararatne
This article draws on grounded qualitative research with rural Tamil women who acquired a disability during the civil war in Sri Lanka and conceptualizes an intersectionality-peace framework. Three main themes were developed from the interviews: narratives of conflict, survival outcomes of social assistance and mobilization of cross-ethnic relationships. With the support of a local women's disability advocacy organization, Tamil women with disabilities were enabled to overcome social stigma and claim a positive identity as women with disabilities...
October 13, 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Anne Spichler Moffarah, Mayar Al Mohajer, Bonnie L Hurwitz, David G Armstrong
The skin is colonized by a diverse collection of microorganisms which, for the most part, peacefully coexist with their hosts. Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) encompass a variety of conditions; in immunocompromised hosts, SSTIs can be caused by diverse microorganisms-most commonly bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, mycobacteria, and protozoa. The diagnosis of SSTIs is difficult because they may commonly masquerade as other clinical syndromes or can be a manifestation of systemic disease. In immunocompromised hosts, SSTI poses a major diagnostic challenge, and clinical dermatological assessment should be initially performed; to better identify the pathogen and to lead to appropriate treatment, etiology should include cultures of lesions and blood, biopsy with histology, specific microbiological analysis with special stains, molecular techniques, and antigen-detection methodologies...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Augustin Amour, Nick Barton, Anthony W J Cooper, Graham Inglis, Craig Jamieson, Christopher N Luscombe, Josie Morrell, Simon Peace, David Perez, Paul Rowland, Christopher J Tame, Sorif Uddin, Giovanni Vitulli, Natalie Wellaway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Laura Vandeweghe, Ellen Moens, Caroline Braet, Wendy Van Lippevelde, Leentje Vervoort, Sandra Verbeken
BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. METHODS: Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10)...
October 4, 2016: BMC Public Health
Hyun Woo Kim, John D McCarthy
Extensive research has shown individual religiosity to have an impact upon U.S. protest participation. But very little work has examined the role of religious density in a community on the likelihood of protest mobilization. Our research links the religious density across 62 counties in New York State to various protest mobilization issues during the period of 1960-1995. In this research, we develop a theory of socially organized sentiments to examine religious influences on overall protest event mobilizations in local communities, a specific example of a more general theory that can link community structure to multiple forms of civic engagement...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Ulf Liebe, Cordula Hundeshagen, Heiko Beyer, Stephan von Cramon-Taubadel
In stated preference studies it is assumed that individuals' answers reflect true preferences and are stable over time. We test these two assumptions of validity and reliability using as an example a choice experiment study on ethical consumption that measures preferences for a Peace Product jointly produced by Israeli and Palestinian producers as well as for organic products. In a web survey conducted in Germany, we investigate the validity assumption by manipulating the question context and presenting one group of respondents with questions on anti-Semitic and anti-Arabic attitudes before the choice tasks, and presenting another group with these questions after the choice tasks...
November 2016: Social Science Research
Tuomas Eerola, Jonna K Vuoskoski, Hannu Kautiainen
The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrew W Cairns, Raymond R Bond, Dewar D Finlay, Cathal Breen, Daniel Guldenring, Robert Gaffney, Anthony G Gallagher, Aaron J Peace, Pat Henn
INTRODUCTION: The 12-lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) presents a plethora of information and demands extensive knowledge and a high cognitive workload to interpret. Whilst the ECG is an important clinical tool, it is frequently incorrectly interpreted. Even expert clinicians are known to impulsively provide a diagnosis based on their first impression and often miss co-abnormalities. Given it is widely reported that there is a lack of competency in ECG interpretation, it is imperative to optimise the interpretation process...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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