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Niamh Reilly
The recent unprecedented focus on ending impunity for conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) is positive in many respects. However, it has narrowed the scope of Security Council Resolution 1325 and the women, peace, and security (WPS) agenda it established in 2000. Through a critical discursive genealogy of the interrelation of two UN agendas-protection of civilians in armed conflict and women, peace, and security-the author traces how CRSV emerged as the defining issue of the latter while the transformative imperative of making women's participation central to every UN endeavor for peace and security has failed to gain traction...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
Lee E Voth-Gaeddert, Matthew Stoker, Devin Cornell, Daniel B Oerther
Guatemala has the sixth worst stunting rate with 48% of children under five years of age classified as stunted according to World Health Organization standards. This study utilizes two different yet complimentary system-analysis approaches to analyze correlations among environmental and demographic variables, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), and child height-for-age (stunting metric) in Guatemala. Two descriptive models constructed around applicable environmental and demographic factors on child height-for-age and EED were analyzed using Network Analysis (NA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Piotr E Marszalek
The Perkins group has recently developed a number of improved atomic force microscopy cantilevers using the focused ion beam technology. They compared the performance of these cantilevers in "real-life" biophysical single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements on protein unfolding, and the results of this comparison are reported in this issue of Biophysical Journal.
January 9, 2018: Biophysical Journal
F Charles Mace
Here I summarize John A. "Tony" Nevin's evolution as a translational author. All of his publications were classified by title and content as being primarily experimental analysis of behavior or translational. Translational works were subtyped as interpretative, descriptive research, or experimental research. During the first 20 years of his publication career, Tony published exclusively experimental analysis of behavior work. In 1982, he began a series of interpretative translational analyses on topics of significant social importance...
January 10, 2018: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
L Ganry, B Hersant, M SidAhmed-Mezi, G Dhonneur, J P Meningaud
INTRODUCTION: Preoperative anxiety may lead to medical and surgical complications, behavioral problems and emotional distress. The most common means of prevention are based on using medication and, more recently, hypnosis. The aim of our study was to determine whether a virtual reality (VR) program presenting natural scenes could be part of a new therapy to reduce patients' preoperative anxiety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our prospective pilot study consisted of a single-blind trial in skin cancer surgery at the Henri Mondor Teaching Hospital in France...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Alison M Rhodes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Chukwuweike U Gwam, Jennifer I Etcheson, Nicole E George, Jaydev B Mistry, Nequesha Mohamed, Aamir Patel, Peace N Gwam, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Ronald E Delanois
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a progressive debilitating disease affecting more than 27 million Americans. Treatment is often aimed at reducing pain and slowing disease progression. However, patients with significant barriers to healthcare may elect to visit the emergency department (ED) due to OA-related knee pain. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed analysis of 1) patient demographics; 2) payor type; 3) charges; and 4) discharge status of patients presenting to the emergency department with a primary diagnosis of knee OA...
December 22, 2017: Surgical Technology International
Caroline Westerlund, Carol Tishelman, Inger Benkel, Carl Johan Fürst, Ulla Molander, Birgit H Rasmussen, Sylvia Sauter, Olav Lindqvist
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness of palliative care (PC) in a general Swedish population. DESIGN: We developed an e-survey based on a similar study conducted in Northern Ireland, consisting of 10 questions. Closed questions were primarily analyzed using descriptive statistics. Open questions were subject to inductive qualitative analysis. SUBJECTS: The study utilized a population sample of 7684 persons aged 18-66, of which 2020 responded, stratified by gender, age and region...
January 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
Peter L Kerkhof, Richard A Peace, Neal Handly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Charles R Doarn, Rifat Latifi, Ronald K Poropatich, Natasa Sokolovich, Donald Kosiak, Filip Hostiuc, Claudiu Zoicas, Adrian Buciu, Raed Arafat
BACKGROUND: Disasters, whether natural or manmade, are unpredictable. While there may be some forewarning as in natural disasters like a hurricane, response is often suboptimal. There is a need for an integrated and structured action for all three well defined phases of disaster management (pre-, during, and postdisaster) that must be addressed to ameliorate the impact on life and the necessary steps for recovery. Over the past several decades, telemedicine has been integrated in some form of disaster response...
January 3, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Naiema Taliep, Sandy Lazarus, Anthony V Naidoo
Exceptionally high levels of interpersonal violence have triggered a call by many experts for the need to determine effective ways to address the onset and effects of exposure to interpersonal violence. The specific aim of this study was to identify and draw on existing promising practices to make a more informed decision on strategies to develop a contextually relevant intervention that focused on the promotion of positive forms of masculinity to create safety and peace. This study used a qualitative meta-synthesis (QMS) technique to integrate and interpret findings from various intervention studies that focused on males and/or gender...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Rebecca B Hershow, Madhura Bhadra, Nguyen Vu Tuyet Mai, Teerada Sripaipan, Tran Viet Ha, Vivian F Go
Although the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Southeast Asia is one of the highest in the world, IPV remains understudied in the region, especially among women living with HIV (WLWH). This study aims to understand how gender and violence norms influence how WLWH interpret and prioritize violence as a health issue. We also explore whether HIV disclosure was seen as a trigger for IPV. We conducted in-depth interviews with 20 WLWH (median age = 35.5 years; range = 28-54 years) in northern Vietnam...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Hannah E Fraley, Teri Aronowitz, Emily J Jones
Human trafficking is a global, multibillion-dollar industry. Most victims are female and more than half are children. At-risk youth continue to attend school with school nurses on the frontline of this health crisis. Using the Peace and Power Conceptual Model, a mixed-methods study was conducted to explore school nurses' awareness, attitudes, and role perceptions in the prevention of commercial sexual exploitation of children. Six peace-power versus power-over power themes and 4 subthemes were identified: "exposure/knowledge, "collaboration," "role boundaries," and "creating respite space...
December 27, 2017: ANS. Advances in Nursing Science
Dorothea Hilhorst, Holly Porter, Rachel Gordon
Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender...
January 2018: Disasters
Farida Anwar, Douglas P Fry, Ingrida Grigaitytė
It is not as difficult to prevent and reduce violence as commonly assumed. The examination of peaceful societies and nonviolent social movements provides insight on how core values and norms like humility, respect for others, love and caring, forgiveness, and patience are fundamental in promoting peace. Additionally, nonviolent attitudes actualized through nonviolent models and non-punitive childrearing practices can help socialize children to become nonviolent adults. At the group level, the commitment to nonviolence by individuals using methods of sit-ins, boycotts, strikes, work slow-downs, civil disobedience, marches, and demonstrations in struggles against violence and oppression can bring about positive social change...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Andrew K Sobering, Joshua B Stevens, Janice L Smith, Beverly Nelson, Tyhiesia Donald, Sarah H Elsea
It is a matter of course that in high-income countries, infants born with features suggestive of Down syndrome (DS) are offered genetic testing for confirmation of a clinical diagnosis. Benefits of a definitive diagnosis include an end to the diagnostic odyssey, informed prognosis, opportunities for caregiver support, inclusion to social support networks, and more meaningful genetic counseling. The healthcare experience for families of children born with DS in low- and middle-income nations is in stark contrast with such a level of care...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Jonathan M Marron, Angel M Cronin, Tammy I Kang, Jennifer W Mack
BACKGROUND: The majority of patients desire all available prognostic information, but some physicians hesitate to discuss prognosis. The objective of the current study was to examine outcomes of prognostic disclosure among the parents of children with cancer. METHODS: The authors surveyed 353 parents of children with newly diagnosed cancer at 2 tertiary cancer centers, and each child's oncologist. Using multivariable logistic regression, the authors assessed associations between parental report of elements of prognosis discussions with the oncologist (quality of information/communication and prognostic disclosure) and potential consequences of these discussions (trust, hope, peace of mind, prognostic understanding, depression, and anxiety)...
December 26, 2017: Cancer
María Florencia Scaia, Leonel Morandini, Cristobal Alejandro Noguera, Martín Roberto Ramallo, Gustavo Manuel Somoza, Matías Pandolfi
Aggression is an extremely complex behaviour and female aggression is understudied when compared to males. Despite the fact that it has been suggested that conflict among females may be more frequently resolved peacefully, in many species females show high levels of aggression. We used Cichlasoma dimerus to describe dynamics and conflict outcome in intrasexual agonistic encounters. We performed encounters of two sex-matched animals in a neutral arena and we recorded agonistic interactions during one hour. All aggressive and submissive behaviours were described and quantified to perform the ethogram...
December 19, 2017: Behavioural Processes
Oliver Weigelt, Christine J Syrek
Unfinished tasks have been identified as a significant job stressor that impairs employee recovery after work. Classic experimental research by Ovsiankina has shown that people tend to resume yet unfinished tasks to satisfy their need for closure. We apply this notion to current working life and examine supplemental work after hours as a means to achieve peace of mind. We investigate how progress towards goal accomplishment through supplemental work may facilitate recovery in terms of psychological detachment, relaxation, autonomy, and mastery experiences...
December 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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