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Muscle catabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646031/metabolism-and-acetylation-contribute-to-leucine-mediated-inhibition-of-cardiac-glucose-uptake
#1
Edith Renguet, Audrey Ginion, Roselle Gélinas, Laurent Bultot, Julien Auquier, Isabelle Robillard Frayne, Caroline Daneault, Jean-Louis Vanoverschelde, Christine Des Rosiers, Louis Hue, Sandrine Horman, Christophe Beauloye, Luc Bertrand
High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells suggest that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts...
June 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637074/-nutrition-in-cancer-effective-in-prevention-and-treatment
#2
Jann Arends
Nutritional effects on cancer occurrence and on treatment outcome in cancer patients may depend on food preferences and on the quantity of foods supplied. However, it has been difficult to reliably show beneficial effects of specific dietary concepts on cancer incidence. On the other hand, obesity as a result of chronic overfeeding has been linked firmly to an increased risk of a number of cancers as well as on cancer recurrence after treatment. Metabolic consequences of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome may be responsible for inducing and/or promoting cancer growth and should be antagonized by regular moderate physical activity in healthy subjects and in cancer survivors...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634643/acute-high-caffeine-exposure-increases-autophagic-flux-and-reduces-protein-synthesis-in-c2c12-skeletal-myotubes
#3
M A Hughes, R M Downs, G W Webb, C L Crocker, S T Kinsey, Bradley L Baumgarner
Caffeine is a highly catabolic dietary stimulant. High caffeine concentrations (1-10 mM) have previously been shown to inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein degradation in various mammalian cell lines. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of short-term caffeine exposure on cell signaling pathways that regulate protein metabolism in mammalian skeletal muscle cells. Fully differentiated C2C12 skeletal myotubes either received vehicle (DMSO) or 5 mM caffeine for 6 h. Our analysis revealed that caffeine promoted a 40% increase in autolysosome formation and a 25% increase in autophagic flux...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633000/nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-patients-with-cancer
#4
Kristen Lach, Sarah J Peterson
Oncology patients often experience the classic signs of malnutrition-weight loss as well as fat and muscle wasting, which have been associated with poor tolerance to treatment and increased morbidity and mortality. Nutrition status may be an important factor in determining tolerance to treatment and outcomes associated with it. Thus, identification of those with preexisting malnutrition or who are at risk for developing malnutrition is crucial not only at time of cancer diagnosis but also throughout the treatment course so that nutrition interventions may be implemented to prevent development or worsening of malnutrition in this high-risk population...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629794/uncoupling-effect-of-palmitate-is-exacerbated-in-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-of-sea-acclimatized-king-penguins-aptenodytes-patagonicus
#5
Benjamin Rey, Claude Duchamp, Damien Roussel
In king penguin juveniles, the environmental transition from a terrestrial to a marine habitat, occurring at fledging, drastically stimulates lipid catabolism and the remodelling of muscle mitochondria to sustain extensive swimming activity and thermoregulation in the cold circumpolar oceans. However, the exact nature of these mechanisms remains only partially resolved. Here we investigated, in vitro, the uncoupling effect of increasing doses of fatty acids in pectoralis muscle intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated, either from terrestrial never-immersed or experimentally cold water immersed pre-fledging king penguins or from sea-acclimatized fledged penguins...
June 17, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621016/acute-effects-of-phenylbutyrate-on-glutamine-branched-chain-amino-acid-and-protein-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscles-of-rats
#6
Milan Holecek, Melita Vodenicarovova, Pavel Siman
Phenylbutyrate (PB) acts as chemical chaperone and histone deacetylase inhibitor, which is used to decrease ammonia in urea cycle disorders and has been investigated for use in the treatment of a number of lethal illnesses. We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to examine the effects of PB on glutamine (GLN), branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine) and protein metabolism in rats. In the first study, animals were sacrificed one hour after three injections of PB (300mg/kg b...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613908/metabolomics-analysis-of-effects-of-commercial-soy-based-protein-products-in-red-drum-sciaenops-ocellatus
#7
Fabio Casu, Aaron M Watson, Justin Yost, John W Leffler, Thomas Gibson Gaylord, Frederic T Barrows, Paul A Sandifer, Michael R Denson, Daniel W Bearden
We investigated the metabolic effects of four different commercial soy-based protein products on red drum fish (Sciaenops ocellatus) using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics along with unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) to evaluate metabolic profiles in liver, muscle, and plasma tissues. Specifically, during a 12 week feeding trial, juvenile red drum maintained in an indoor recirculating aquaculture system were fed four different commercially available soy formulations, containing the same amount of crude protein, and two reference diets as performance controls: a 60% soybean meal diet that had been used in a previous trial in our lab and a natural diet...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613103/quantification-of-igg-monoclonal-antibody-clearance-in-tissues
#8
Miro J Eigenmann, Ludivine Fronton, Hans Peter Grimm, Michael B Otteneder, Ben-Fillippo Krippendorff
Monoclonal antibodies are an important therapeutic entity, and knowledge of antibody pharmacokinetics has steadily increased over the years. Despite this effort, little is known about the extent of IgG antibody degradation in different tissues of the body. While studies have been published identifying sites of degradation with the use of residualizing and non-residualizing radiolabels, quantitative tissue clearances have not yet been derived. Here, we show that in physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models we can combine mouse data of Indium-111 and Iodine-125 labeled antibodies with prior physiological knowledge to determine tissue-specific intrinsic clearances...
June 14, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604513/severe-sarcopenia-and-increased-fat-stores-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-kidney-or-intestine-failure
#9
Richard S Mangus, Weston J Bush, Chandrashekhar A Kubal, Christina Miller
OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. METHODS: Children younger than age 19 with end stage liver, kidney or intestine failure and with pre-transplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575008/plasma-metabolome-and-skin-proteins-in-charcot-marie-tooth-1a-patients
#10
Beatriz Soldevilla, Carmen Cuevas-Martín, Clara Ibáñez, Fulvio Santacatterina, María A Alberti, Carolina Simó, Carlos Casasnovas, Celedonio Márquez-Infante, Teresa Sevilla, Samuel I Pascual, María Sánchez-Aragó, Carmen Espinos, Francesc Palau, José M Cuezva
OBJECTIVE: Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) disease is the most common inherited neuropathy that lacks of therapy and of molecular markers to assess disease severity. Herein, we have pursued the identification of potential biomarkers in plasma samples and skin biopsies that could define the phenotype of CMT1A patients at mild (Mi), moderate (Mo) and severe (Se) stages of disease as assessed by the CMT neuropathy score to contribute to the understanding of CMT pathophysiology and eventually inform of the severity of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574481/leucine-supplementation-differently-modulates-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-mitochondrial-function-and-metabolic-profiles-at-the-different-stage-of-insulin-resistance-in-rats-on-high-fat-diet
#11
Rui Liu, Hui Li, Wenjuan Fan, Qiu Jin, Tingting Chao, Yuanjue Wu, Junmei Huang, Liping Hao, Xuefeng Yang
The available findings concerning the association between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)-particularly leucine-and insulin resistance are conflicting. BCAAs have been proposed to elicit different or even opposite effects, depending on the prevalence of catabolic and anabolic states. We tested the hypothesis that leucine supplementation may exert different effects at different stages of insulin resistance, to provide mechanistic insights into the role of leucine in the progression of insulin resistance. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal chow diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with 1...
June 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552492/age-associated-loss-of-opa1-in-muscle-impacts-muscle-mass-metabolic-homeostasis-systemic-inflammation-and-epithelial-senescence
#12
Caterina Tezze, Vanina Romanello, Maria Andrea Desbats, Gian Paolo Fadini, Mattia Albiero, Giulia Favaro, Stefano Ciciliot, Maria Eugenia Soriano, Valeria Morbidoni, Cristina Cerqua, Stefan Loefler, Helmut Kern, Claudio Franceschi, Stefano Salvioli, Maria Conte, Bert Blaauw, Sandra Zampieri, Leonardo Salviati, Luca Scorrano, Marco Sandri
Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs during aging, but its impact on tissue senescence is unknown. Here, we find that sedentary but not active humans display an age-related decline in the mitochondrial protein, optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), that is associated with muscle loss. In adult mice, acute, muscle-specific deletion of Opa1 induces a precocious senescence phenotype and premature death. Conditional and inducible Opa1 deletion alters mitochondrial morphology and function but not DNA content. Mechanistically, the ablation of Opa1 leads to ER stress, which signals via the unfolded protein response (UPR) and FoxOs, inducing a catabolic program of muscle loss and systemic aging...
June 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549989/overweight-in-elderly-people-induces-impaired-autophagy-in-skeletal-muscle
#13
Yaiza Potes, Beatriz de Luxán-Delgado, Susana Rodriguez-González, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira Guimarães, Juan J Solano, María Fernández-Fernández, Manuel Bermúdez, Jose A Boga, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Ana Coto-Montes
Sarcopenia is the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging. Changes in body composition, especially in skeletal muscle and fat mass are crucial steps in the development of chronic diseases. We studied the effect of overweight on skeletal muscle tissue in elderly people without reaching obesity to prevent this extreme situation. Overweight induces a progressive protein breakdown reflected as a progressive withdrawal of anabolism against the promoted catabolic state leading to muscle wasting...
May 23, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548960/severe-hypertriglyceridemia-due-to-two-novel-loss-of-function-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-mutations-c310r-e396v-in-a-chinese-family-associated-with-recurrent-acute-pancreatitis
#14
Yu Lun, Xiaofang Sun, Ping Wang, Jingwei Chi, Xu Hou, Yangang Wang
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is widely expressed in skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles as well as adipose tissue and involved in the catabolism of triglyceride. Herein we have systematically characterized two novel loss-of-function mutations in LPL from a Chinese family in which afflicted members were manifested by severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis. DNA sequencing revealed that the proband was a heterozygote carrying a novel c.T928C (p.C310R) mutation in exon 6 of the LPL gene. Another member of the family was detected to be a compound heterozygote who along with the c...
May 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536426/toll-like-receptor-4-mediates-lewis-lung-carcinoma-induced-muscle-wasting-via-coordinate-activation-of-protein-degradation-pathways
#15
Guohua Zhang, Zhelong Liu, Hui Ding, Hongyu Miao, Jose M Garcia, Yi-Ping Li
Cancer-induced cachexia, characterized by muscle wasting, is a lethal metabolic syndrome with undefined etiology. Current consensus is that multiple factors contribute to cancer-induced muscle wasting, and therefore therapy requires combinational strategies. Here, we show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates cancer-induced muscle wasting by directly activating muscle catabolism as well as stimulating an innate immune response in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), and targeting TLR4 alone effectively abrogate muscle wasting...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536182/glucagon-s-effect-on-liver-protein-metabolism-in-vivo
#16
Guillaume Kraft, Katie C Coate, Jason J Winnick, Dominique Dardevet, E Patrick Donahue, Alan D Cherrington, Phillip E Williams, Mary Courtney Moore
The postprandial state is characterized by a storage of nutrients in the liver, muscle and adipose tissue for later utilization. In the case of a protein rich meal, amino acids (AA) stimulate glucagon secretion by the α-cell. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of the rise in glucagon on AA metabolism, particularly in the liver. We used a conscious catheterized dog model to recreate a postprandial condition using a pancreatic clamp. Portal infusions of glucose, AA and insulin were used to achieve postprandial levels while portal glucagon infusion either maintained the basal level or increased it by 3 fold...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534027/current-concepts-and-unresolved-questions-in-dietary-protein-requirements-and-supplements-in-adults
#17
REVIEW
Stuart M Phillips
Protein needs for otherwise healthy individuals older than 19 years are defined by the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) at 0.80 g protein/kg/day. There is no recommendation in the current RDA for subpopulations of older adults or people in various pathological situations. Despite the lack of a separate recommendation, there exists a growing body of evidence that is strongly suggestive of an increased need and/or benefit for protein in older persons. That is, intakes beyond the RDA are, in older persons, associated with benefits...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529141/z-505-hydrochloride-an-orally-active-ghrelin-agonist-attenuates-the-progression-of-cancer-cachexia-via-anabolic-hormones-in-colon-26-tumor-bearing-mice
#18
Makoto Yoshimura, Yoshihiro Shiomi, Yuta Ohira, Mineo Takei, Takao Tanaka
Cancer cachexia is a progressive wasting syndrome characterized by anorexia and weight loss, specifically muscle wasting and fat depletion. There is no therapeutic agent for treatment of this syndrome. We investigated the anti-cachexia effects of Z-505 hydrochloride (Z-505), a new oral growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a) agonist, using a mouse model of cancer cachexia. We performed a calcium flux assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing human GHSR1a to quantify the agonistic activity of Z-505...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526870/time-course-responses-of-circulating-micrornas-to-three-resistance-training-protocols-in-healthy-young-men
#19
Shufang Cui, Biao Sun, Xin Yin, Xia Guo, Dingming Chao, Chunni Zhang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Xi Chen, Jizheng Ma
Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) in human plasma have been described as a potential marker of exercise. The present study investigated the effects of three acute resistance training (RT) protocols on the time-course changes of the c-miRNAs profiles in young males. The subjects (n = 45) were randomly divided into three groups: muscular strength endurance (SE), muscular hypertrophy (MH) and maximum strength (MS). Venous blood samples were obtained before exercise and immediately, 1 h and 24 h after each RT protocol to assess the following biological parameters: c-miRNAs, anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and muscle damage markers...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506762/the-nuclear-phosphatase-scp4-regulates-foxo-transcription-factors-during-muscle-wasting-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Xinyan Liu, Rizhen Yu, Lijing Sun, Giacomo Garibotto, Xia Lin, Yanlin Wang, Sandhya S Thomas, Rongshan Li, Zhaoyong Hu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and related inflammatory responses stimulate protein-energy wasting, a complication causing loss of muscle mass. Primarily, muscle wasting results from accelerated protein degradation via autophagic/lysosomal and proteasomal pathways, but mechanisms regulating these proteolysis pathways remain unclear. Since dephosphorylation of FoxOs regulates ubiquitin/proteasome protein metabolism, we tested whether a novel nuclear phosphatase, the small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) 4, regulates FoxOs signaling and, in turn, muscle wasting...
May 12, 2017: Kidney International
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