Read by QxMD icon Read

Muscle catabolism

M Clara F do Amaral, James Frisbie, David L Goldstein, Carissa M Krane
Cope's gray treefrog (Dryophytes chrysoscelis) is one of few freeze-tolerant frogs that mobilize glycerol as a cryoprotectant, yet cold and freezing-induced accumulation of this and other osmolytes has received little attention in this species. This study investigated the development of freeze tolerance in D. chrysoscelis, analyzing the response of the cryoprotectant system to cold acclimation, freezing, and thawing. Glycerol production was low and unresponsive to acclimation temperature, or duration of acclimation to 5 °C, except for one cold-acclimated frog that presented elevated glycerol in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Sergio Polakof, Didier Rémond, Jérémie David, Dominique Dardevet, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux
OBJECTIVES: High-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHS) overfeeding is one of the main factors responsible for the increased prevalence of metabolic disorders. Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including insulin resistance (IR). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether elevated BCAA levels are the cause or the consequence of IR and to determine the mechanisms and tissues involved in such a phenotype. METHODS: We performed a 2-mo follow-up on minipigs overfed an HFHS diet and focused on kinetics fasting and postprandial (PP) BCAA levels and BCAA catabolism in key tissues...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
Adam J Chicco, Catherine H Le, Erich Gnaiger, Hans C Dreyer, Jonathan B Muyskens, Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Austin D Hocker, Jessica E Prenni, Lisa M Wolfe, Nathan M Sindt, Andrew T Lovering, Andrew W Subudhi, Robert C Roach
Metabolic responses to hypoxia play important roles in cell survival strategies and disease pathogenesis in humans.  However, the homeostatic adjustments that balance changes in energy supply and demand to maintain organismal function under chronic low oxygen conditions remain incompletely understood, making it difficult to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive responses in hypoxia-related pathologies.  We integrated metabolomic and proteomic profiling with mitochondrial respirometry and blood gas analyses to comprehensively define the physiological responses of skeletal muscle energy metabolism to 16 days of high-altitude hypoxia (5260 m) in healthy volunteers from the AltitudeOmics project...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Y Jiang, S Tang, C Wang, Y Wang, Y Qin, Y Wang, J Zhang, H Song, S Mi, F Yu, W Xiao, Q Zhang, X Ding
Improvement in growth and fatness traits are the main objectives in pig all breeding programs. Tenth rib backfat thickness (10RIBBFT) and days to 100 kg (D100), which are good predictors of carcass lean content and growth rate, respectively, are economically important traits and also main breeding target traits in pigs. To investigate the genetic mechanisms of 10RIBBFT and D100 of pigs, we sampled 1,137 and 888 pigs from 2 Yorkshire populations of American and British origin, respectively, and conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) through combined analysis and meta-analysis, to identify SNPs associated with 10RIBBFT and D100...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jamie A Meadows, Graham G Willsey, Matthew J Wargo
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa can metabolize carnitine and O-acylcarnitines, which are abundant in host muscle and other tissues. Acylcarnitines are metabolized to carnitine and a fatty acid. The liberated carnitine and its catabolic product, glycine betaine, can be used as osmoprotectants, to induce the secreted phospholipase C PlcH, and as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy sources. P. aeruginosa is incapable of de novo synthesis of carnitine and acylcarnitines, therefore they must be imported from an exogenous source...
March 8, 2018: Microbiology
Lu Zhang, Yuanyuan Ge, Jin Li, Jia Hao, Hui Wang, Jun He, Xiu-Mei Gao, Yan-Xu Chang
Columbianetin-β-d-glucopyranoside (CBG) and its metabolite columbianetin (CBN) are the bioactive constituents of Angelicae pubescentis radix (APR). They exhibit the anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of CBG has not been reported to date. Both high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methods were developed and validated for the study of ADME of CBG...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Olivier L Mantha, Sergio Polakof, Jean-François Huneau, François Mariotti, Nathalie Poupin, Daniel Zalko, Helene Fouillet
Little is known about how diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance affect protein and amino acid (AA) metabolism in tissues. The natural relative abundances of the heavy stable isotopes of C (δ 13C) and N (δ 15N) in tissue proteins offer novel and promising biomarkers of AA metabolism. They, respectively, reflect the use of dietary macronutrients for tissue AA synthesis and the relative metabolic use of tissue AA for oxidation v. protein synthesis. In this study, δ 13C and δ 15N were measured in the proteins of various tissues in young adult rats exposed perinatally and/or fed after weaning with a normal- or a high-fat (HF) diet, the aim being to characterise HF-induced tissue-specific changes in AA metabolism...
March 5, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Clara Maria Pinheiro-Dardis, Vânia Ortega Gutierres, Renata Pires Assis, Sabrina Messa Peviani, Gabriel Borges Delfino, João Luiz Quagliotti Durigan, Tania de Fátima Salvini, Amanda Martins Baviera, Iguatemy Lourenço Brunetti
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in biomarkers of skeletal muscle proteolysis (atrogin-1, muscle RING finger-1 protein [MuRF-1]) and inflammation (nuclear factor kappa-B) in skeletal muscles of rats under two catabolic conditions, diabetes mellitus (DM) and acute joint inflammation, and the effects of insulin therapy. Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into groups without diabetes - normal (N), saline (NS), or ι-carrageenan (NCa) injection into the tibiotarsal joint - and groups with diabetes - diabetes (D), plus insulin (DI), saline (DS), or ι-carrageenan (DCa) injection into the tibiotarsal joint, or ι-carrageenan injection and treatment with insulin (DCaI)...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Ju-Ryoung Kim, Jong Jin Yoo, Hyun Ah Kim
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease in older people and is characterized by the progressive destruction of articular cartilage, synovial inflammation, changes in subchondral bone and peri-articular muscle, and pain. Because our understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of OA remains incomplete, we haven't discovered a cure for OA yet. This review appraises novel therapeutics based on recent progress in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OA, including pro-inflammatory and pro-catabolic mediators and the relevant signalling mechanisms...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yufeng Zhang, Kathleen Eyster, David L Swanson
A prominent example of seasonal phenotypic flexibility is the winter increase in thermogenic capacity (=summit metabolism, [Formula: see text]) in small birds, which is often accompanied by increases in pectoralis muscle mass and lipid catabolic capacity. Temperature or photoperiod may be drivers of the winter phenotype, but their relative impacts on muscle remodeling or lipid transport pathways are little known. We examined photoperiod and temperature effects on pectoralis muscle expression of myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, and its tolloid-like protein activators (TLL-1 and TLL-2), and sarcolemmal and intracellular lipid transporters in dark-eyed juncos Junco hyemalis ...
February 2018: Current Zoology
Minjun Xu, Yasuyuki Kitaura, Daichi Shindo, Yoshiharu Shimomura
Branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) kinase (BDK) suppresses the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism by inactivation of the BCKDH complex. The muscle-specific BDK-deficient (BDK-mKO) mice showed accelerated BCAA oxidation in muscle and decreased endurance capacity after training (Xu et al. PLoS One. 12 (2017) e0180989). We here report that BCAA supplementation overcompensated endurance capacity in BDK-mKO mice after training.
March 1, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Yuki Mizuguchi, Midori Yatabe, Noriko Morishima, Satoshi Morimoto, Atsuhiro Ichihara
Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic process contributing to the regulation of nutrient homeostasis and cellular remodeling. Studies revealed that the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB) plays a key role in lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic pathways. The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is a multifunctional protein playing a pivotal role in regulation of the tissue renin-angiotensin system and is known as an essential constituent of vacuolar H+ -ATPase, considered to be necessary for the autophagy-lysosome pathway...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Hui Chang, Shanfeng Jiang, Xiufeng Ma, Xin Peng, Jie Zhang, Zhe Wang, Shenhui Xu, Huiping Wang, Yunfang Gao
Previous hibernation studies demonstrated that such a natural model of skeletal muscle disuse causes limited muscle atrophy and a significant fast-to-slow fiber type shift. However, the underlying mechanism as defined in a large-scale analysis remains unclarified. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based quantitative analysis were used to examine proteomic changes in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) of Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Although the wet weights and fiber cross-sectional area of the EDL muscle showed no significant decrease, the percentage of slow type fiber was 61% greater (P < 0...
February 13, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Richelle V Curtis, Julie J M Kim, John Doelman, John P Cant
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of branched-chain AA (BCAA) supplementation when glucose is infused postruminally into lactating dairy cows consuming a diet low in crude protein (CP) and to test the hypothesis that low BCAA concentrations are responsible for the poor stimulation of milk protein yield by glucose. Twelve early-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 15% and 12% CP diets in a switchback design of 6-wk periods. Cows consuming the 12% CP diet received 96-h continuous jugular infusions of saline and 1 kg/d of glucose with 0, 75, or 150 g/d of BCAA in a Latin square sequence of treatments...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Eva Pigna, Alessandra Renzini, Emanuela Greco, Elena Simonazzi, Stefania Fulle, Rosa Mancinelli, Viviana Moresi, Sergio Adamo
BACKGROUND: Denervation triggers numerous molecular responses in skeletal muscle, including the activation of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress, leading to progressive muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) mediates skeletal muscle response to denervation, suggesting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to neurogenic muscle atrophy. However, the effects of HDAC4 inhibition in skeletal muscle in response to long-term denervation have not been described yet...
February 24, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Angelika K Sawicka, Dace Hartmane, Patrycja Lipinska, Ewa Wojtowicz, Wieslawa Lysiak-Szydlowska, Robert A Olek
Skeletal muscle wasting, associated with aging, may be regulated by the inflammatory cytokines as well as by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). l-carnitine possesses anti-inflammatory properties and increases plasma IGF-1 concentration, leading to the regulation of the genes responsible for protein catabolism and anabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week l-carnitine supplementation on serum inflammatory markers, IGF-1, body composition and skeletal muscle strength in healthy human subjects over 65 years of age...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
Alon Eliakim
The Pediatric Exercise Science "Year That Was" section aims to highlight the most important (to the author's opinion) manuscripts that were published in 2017 in the field of endocrinology and pediatric exercise science. This year's selection includes studies showing that 1) in pubertal swimmers, there is a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) during intense training (a catabolic-type hormonal response) with an anabolic "rebound" characterized by a significant increase of these growth factors during training tapering down...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Alessandra Castegna, Alessio Menga
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of glutamine by condensing ammonium to glutamate. In the circulatory system, glutamine carries ammonia from muscle and brain to the kidney and liver. In brain reduction of GS activity has been suggested as a mechanism mediating neurotoxicity in neurodegenerative disorders. In cancer, the delicate balance between glutamine synthesis and catabolism is a critical event. In vitro evidence, confirmed in vivo in some cases, suggests that reduced GS activity in cancer cells associates with a more invasive and aggressive phenotype...
February 19, 2018: Genes
Gabriella B Oliveira, Luciana C A Regitano, Aline S M Cesar, James M Reecy, Karina Y Degaki, Mirele D Poleti, Andrezza M Felício, James E Koltes, Luiz L Coutinho
BACKGROUND: The amount of intramuscular fat can influence the sensory characteristics and nutritional value of beef, thus the selection of animals with adequate fat deposition is important to the consumer. There is growing knowledge about the genes and pathways that control the biological processes involved in fat deposition in muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) belong to a well-conserved class of non-coding small RNAs that modulate gene expression across a range of biological functions in animal development and physiology...
February 7, 2018: BMC Genomics
Josephine Gade, Anne Marie Beck, Christian Bitz, Britt Christensen, Tobias Wirenfeldt Klausen, Anders Vinther, Arne Astrup
INTRODUCTION: Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, sarcopaenia, burdens many older adults. The process is accelerated with bed rest, protein intakes below requirements and the catabolic effect of certain illnesses. Thus, acutely ill, hospitalised older adults are particularly vulnerable. Protein supplementation can preserve muscle mass and/or strength and, combining this with resistance exercise training (RT), may have additional benefits. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of protein supplementation as an addition to offering RT among older adults while admitted to the geriatric ward and after discharge...
February 1, 2018: BMJ Open
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"