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Muscle catabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819168/resistance-training-regulates-gene-expression-of-molecules-associated-with-intramyocellular-lipids-glucose-signaling-and-fiber-size-in-old-rats
#1
Manoel Benício Teixeira Ribeiro, Vinicius Guzzoni, Jeffrey M Hord, Gisele Nunes Lopes, Rita de Cássia Marqueti, Rosângela Vieira de Andrade, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre-de-Araujo, João Luiz Q Durigan
Sarcopenia is a complex multifactorial process, some of which involves fat infiltration. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation is postulated to play a role on sarcopenia during aging, which is believed to be due alterations in glucose homeostasis in the skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia, along with intramuscular lipids, is associated with physical inactivity. Resistance training (RT) has been indicated to minimize the age-induced muscle skeletal adaptations. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of RT on mRNA levels of regulatory components related to intramyocellular lipid, glucose metabolism and fiber size in soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of aged rats...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814844/comparison-between-parameters-of-muscle-performance-and-inflammatory-biomarkers-of-non-sarcopenic-and-sarcopenic-elderly-women
#2
Lygia Paccini Lustosa, Patrícia Parreira Batista, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira, Aline Scianni, Giane Amorim Ribeiro-Samora
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a multifactorial geriatric syndrome with complex interrelationships. Increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators increase the catabolic stimuli of the musculature, thereby causing a decrease in mass and muscular function. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knee extensors test (by isokinetic dynamometer) and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNFR1) between sarcopenics and non-sarcopenics community-dwelling elderly women residents of Brazil...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814665/fatty-acid-oxidation-by-the-osteoblast-is-required-for-normal-bone-acquisition-in-a-sex-and-diet-dependent-manner
#3
Soohyun P Kim, Zhu Li, Meredith L Zoch, Julie L Frey, Caitlyn E Bowman, Priyanka Kushwaha, Kathleen A Ryan, Brian C Goh, Susanna Scafidi, Julie E Pickett, Marie-Claude Faugere, Erin E Kershaw, Daniel L J Thorek, Thomas L Clemens, Michael J Wolfgang, Ryan C Riddle
Postnatal bone formation is influenced by nutritional status and compromised by disturbances in metabolism. The oxidation of dietary lipids represents a critical source of ATP for many cells but has been poorly studied in the skeleton, where the prevailing view is that glucose is the primary energy source. Here, we examined fatty acid uptake by bone and probed the requirement for fatty acid catabolism during bone formation by specifically disrupting the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2), an obligate enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809062/carbon-nitrogen-and-sulphur-isotopic-fractionation-in-captive-juvenile-hooded-seal-cystophora-cristata-application-for-diet-analysis
#4
Marianna Pinzone, Mario Acquarone, Loreen Huyghebaert, Nicolas Sturaro, Loïc N Michel, Ursula Siebert, Krishna Das
RATIONALE: Intrinsic biogeochemical markers, such as stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur are increasingly used to trace the trophic ecology of marine top predators. However, insufficient knowledge of fractionation processes in tissues continues to hamper the use of these markers. METHODS: We performed a controlled feeding experiment with eight juvenile hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) that were held on a herring-based diet (Clupea harengus) for two years...
August 15, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804461/the-effect-of-resistance-exercise-on-inflammatory-and-myogenic-markers-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Emma L Watson, Joao L Viana, David Wimbury, Naomi Martin, Neil J Greening, Jonathan Barratt, Alice C Smith
Background: Muscle wasting is a common complication of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and is clinically important given its strong association with morbidity and mortality in many other chronic conditions. Exercise provides physiological benefits for CKD patients, however the molecular response to exercise remains to be fully determined. We investigated the inflammatory and molecular response to resistance exercise before and after training in these patients. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that investigated the effect of 8 week progressive resistance training on muscle mass and strength compared to non-exercising controls...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797239/nutrient-supply-affects-the-mrna-expression-profile-of-the-porcine-skeletal-muscle
#6
Tainã Figueiredo Cardoso, Raquel Quintanilla, Joan Tibau, Marta Gil, Emilio Mármol-Sánchez, Olga González-Rodríguez, Rayner González-Prendes, Marcel Amills
BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of muscle fat deposition in pigs is not well known. So far, we have only identified a limited number of genes involved in the absorption, transport, storage and catabolism of lipids. Such information is crucial to interpret, from a biological perspective, the results of genome-wide association analyses for intramuscular fat content and composition traits. Herewith, we have investigated how the ingestion of food changes gene expression in the gluteus medius muscle of Duroc pigs...
August 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796827/impact-of-ghrelin-on-body-composition-and-muscle-function-in-a-long-term-rodent-model-of-critical-illness
#7
Neil E Hill, Kevin G Murphy, Saima Saeed, Rahul Phadke, Darren Chambers, Duncan R Wilson, Stephen J Brett, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple injuries or sepsis requiring intensive care treatment invariably develop a catabolic state with resultant loss of lean body mass, for which there are currently no effective treatments. Recovery can take months and mortality is high. We hypothesise that treatment with the orexigenic and anti-inflammatory gastric hormone, ghrelin may attenuate the loss of body mass following critical illness and improve recovery. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall derivative zymosan to induce a prolonged peritonitis and consequent critical illness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796194/a-murine-model-of-persistent-inflammation-immune-suppression-and-catabolism-syndrome
#8
Amanda M Pugh, Nicholas J Auteri, Holly S Goetzman, Charles C Caldwell, Vanessa Nomellini
Critically ill patients that survive sepsis can develop a Persistent Inflammation, Immunosuppression, and Catabolism Syndrome (PICS), which often leads to extended recovery periods and multiple complications. Here, we utilized a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) method in mice with the goal of creating a model that concurrently displays all the characteristics of PICS. We observed that, after eight days, mice that survive the CLP develop persistent inflammation with significant myelopoiesis in the bone marrow and spleen...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777879/sarcopenia-in-hiding-the-risk-and-consequence-of-underestimating-muscle-dysfunction-in-nash
#9
Rahima A Bhanji, Praveena Narayanan, Alina M Allen, Harmeet Malhi, Kymberly D Watt
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Up to one third of individuals with NAFLD will develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with progression to cirrhosis and is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. It is seen in up to 60% of patients with end-stage liver disease and portends a poor prognosis...
August 4, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771594/patients-experiencing-statin-induced-myalgia-exhibit-a-unique-program-of-skeletal-muscle-gene-expression-following-statin-re-challenge
#10
Marshall B Elam, Gipsy Majumdar, Khyobeni Mozhui, Ivan C Gerling, Santiago R Vera, Hannah Fish-Trotter, Robert W Williams, Richard D Childress, Rajendra Raghow
Statins, the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase inhibitors, are widely prescribed for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Although statins are generally well tolerated, up to ten percent of statin-treated patients experience myalgia symptoms, defined as muscle pain without elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) levels. Myalgia is the most frequent reason for discontinuation of statin therapy. The mechanisms underlying statin myalgia are not clearly understood. To elucidate changes in gene expression associated with statin myalgia, we compared profiles of gene expression in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with statin myalgia who were undergoing statin re-challenge (cases) versus those of statin-tolerant controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767703/simulated-space-radiation-sensitizes-bone-but-not-muscle-to-the-catabolic-effects-of-mechanical-unloading
#11
Andrew R Krause, Toni L Speacht, Yue Zhang, Charles H Lang, Henry J Donahue
Deep space travel exposes astronauts to extended periods of space radiation and mechanical unloading, both of which may induce significant muscle and bone loss. Astronauts are exposed to space radiation from solar particle events (SPE) and background radiation referred to as galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). To explore interactions between skeletal muscle and bone under these conditions, we hypothesized that decreased mechanical load, as in the microgravity of space, would lead to increased susceptibility to space radiation-induced bone and muscle loss...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766915/metabolomics-analysis-reveals-distinct-profiles-of-nonmuscle-invasive-and-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#12
Divya Sahu, Yair Lotan, Bryan Wittmann, Bruce Neri, Donna E Hansel
Urothelial carcinoma is the most common form of bladder cancer, but pathway changes that occur with stage-wise progression have not been well defined. We used a metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolic pathways uniquely altered in normal urothelium, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We performed global metabolomic profiling using GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and LC-MS platforms to identify metabolite signatures between normal urothelium and high-grade urothelial carcinoma of different stages...
August 1, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760433/branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-in-treatment-of-liver-cirrhosis-updated-views-on-how-to-attenuate-their-harmful-effects-on-cataplerosis-and-ammonia-formation
#13
REVIEW
Milan Holeček
Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) supplementation is common for patients with liver cirrhosis due to decreased levels of BCAA in the blood plasma of these patients, which plays a role in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and cachexia. The unique pharmacologic properties of BCAA also are a factor for use as supplementation in this population. In the present article, BCAA is shown to provide nitrogen to alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG) for synthesis of glutamate, which is a substrate for ammonia detoxification to glutamine (GLN) in the brain and muscles...
September 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751584/kynurenines-tryptophan-s-metabolites-in-exercise-inflammation-and-mental-health
#14
REVIEW
Igor Cervenka, Leandro Z Agudelo, Jorge L Ruas
Kynurenine metabolites are generated by tryptophan catabolism and regulate biological processes that include host-microbiome signaling, immune cell response, and neuronal excitability. Enzymes of the kynurenine pathway are expressed in different tissues and cell types throughout the body and are regulated by cues, including nutritional and inflammatory signals. As a consequence of this systemic metabolic integration, peripheral inflammation can contribute to accumulation of kynurenine in the brain, which has been associated with depression and schizophrenia...
July 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751550/novel-targeted-therapies-for-cancer-cachexia
#15
REVIEW
Josep M Argilés, Francisco Javier López-Soriano, Britta Stemmler, Sílvia Busquets
Anorexia and metabolic alterations are the main components of the cachectic syndrome. Glucose intolerance, fat depletion, muscle protein catabolism and other alterations are involved in the development of cancer cachexia, a multi-organ syndrome. Nutritional approach strategies are not satisfactory in reversing the cachectic syndrome. The aim of the present review is to deal with the recent therapeutic targeted approaches that have been designed to fight and counteract wasting in cancer patients. Indeed, some promising targeted therapeutic approaches include ghrelin agonists, selective androgen receptor agonists, β-blockers and antimyostatin peptides...
July 27, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743971/muscle-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-molecular-pathways-and-biomarkers-involved-in-extreme-ultimate-ph-and-meat-defect-occurrence-in-chicken
#16
Stéphane Beauclercq, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Christophe Praud, Estelle Godet, Anne Collin, Sophie Tesseraud, Sonia Métayer-Coustard, Marie Bourin, Marco Moroldo, Frédéric Martins, Sandrine Lagarrigue, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Cécile Berri
The processing ability and sensory quality of chicken breast meat are highly related to its ultimate pH (pHu), which is mainly determined by the amount of glycogen in the muscle at death. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying glycogen and meat pHu variations and to identify predictive biomarkers of these traits, a transcriptome profiling analysis was performed using an Agilent custom chicken 8 × 60 K microarray. The breast muscle gene expression patterns were studied in two chicken lines experimentally selected for high (pHu+) and low (pHu-) pHu values of the breast meat...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743484/oxidative-stress-enhances-and-modulates-protein-s-nitrosation-in-smooth-muscle-cells-exposed-to-s-nitrosoglutathione
#17
E Belcastro, W Wu, I Fries-Raeth, A Corti, A Pompella, P Leroy, I Lartaud, C Gaucher
Among S-nitrosothiols showing reversible binding between NO and -SH group, S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) represents potential therapeutics to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) associated with reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability. It also induces S-nitrosation of proteins, responsible for the main endogenous storage form of NO. Although oxidative stress parallels CVD development, little is known on the ability of GSNO to restore NO supply and storage in vascular tissues under oxidative stress conditions. Aortic rat smooth muscle cells (SMC) were stressed in vitro with a free radical generator (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH)...
July 23, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742713/does-prolonged-enteral-feeding-with-supplemental-omega-3-fatty-acids-impact-on-recovery-post-esophagectomy-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-trial
#18
Laura A Healy, Aoife Ryan, Suzanne L Doyle, Éadaoin Bríd Ní Bhuachalla, Samantha Cushen, Ricardo Segurado, Thomas Murphy, Narayanasamy Ravi, Claire L Donohoe, John V Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) hypothesized that prolonged enteral nutrition (EN) with supplemental eicosapentanoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid with immune and anabolic properties, may impact on clinical and nutritional outcomes. BACKGROUND: Esophagectomy is associated with significant weight loss and catabolism, and negatively impacts quality of life (QL). Strategies to counter sustained catabolism have therapeutic rationale. METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT was powered on a 5% difference in lean body mass (LBM) at 1 month...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740214/compensatory-anabolic-signaling-in-the-sarcopenia-of-experimental-chronic-arthritis
#19
Robert D Little, Iván Prieto-Potin, Sandra Pérez-Baos, Amanda Villalvilla, Paula Gratal, Flavia Cicuttini, Raquel Largo, Gabriel Herrero-Beaumont
Inflammatory activity in rheumatoid arthritis may alter the regulation of muscle mass leading to a secondary sarcopenia, commonly termed rheumatoid cachexia (RC). We characterized alterations to muscle structure and various pro-inflammatory, catabolic and regenerative markers in an animal model of RC. Antigen induced arthritis (AiA) was performed in 20 male adult rabbits. AiA animals exhibited significantly less weight gain, a markedly elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP), lighter muscles with shorter cross-sectional diameter and increased myonuclei when compared to controls...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737243/investigating-the-genetic-regulation-of-the-expression-of-63-lipid-metabolism-genes-in-the-pig-skeletal-muscle
#20
R González-Prendes, R Quintanilla, M Amills
A comprehensive and systematic view of the genetic regulation of lipid metabolism genes is still lacking in pigs. Herewith, we have investigated the genetic regulation of 63 porcine genes with crucial roles in the uptake, transport, synthesis and catabolism of lipids. With this aim, we have performed an expression QTL (eQTL) scan in 104 pigs with available genotypes for the Illumina Porcine SNP60 chip and microarray measurements of gene expression in the gluteus medius muscle. Analysis of the data with gemma software revealed 13 cis- and 18 trans-eQTL modulating the expression of 19 loci...
July 24, 2017: Animal Genetics
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