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Muscle catabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345251/cancer-associated-cachexia
#1
REVIEW
Vickie E Baracos, Lisa Martin, Murray Korc, Denis C Guttridge, Kenneth C H Fearon
Cancer-associated cachexia is a disorder characterized by loss of body weight with specific losses of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Cachexia is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes, including elevated energy expenditure, excess catabolism and inflammation. Cachexia is highly associated with cancers of the pancreas, oesophagus, stomach, lung, liver and bowel; this group of malignancies is responsible for half of all cancer deaths worldwide. Cachexia involves diverse mediators derived from the cancer cells and cells within the tumour microenvironment, including inflammatory and immune cells...
January 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315328/pgc-1%C3%AE-regulates-alanine-metabolism-in-muscle-cells
#2
Yukino Hatazawa, Kun Qian, Da-Wei Gong, Yasutomi Kamei
The skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, depositing energy as protein/amino acids, which are degraded in catabolic conditions such as fasting. Alanine is synthesized and secreted from the skeletal muscle that is used as substrates of gluconeogenesis in the liver. During fasting, the expression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors, is increased in the liver and regulates gluconeogenesis. In the present study, we observed increased mRNA expression of PGC-1α and alanine aminotransferase 2 (ALT2) in the skeletal muscle during fasting...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311302/fenofibrate-prevents-skeletal-muscle-loss-in-mice-with-lung-cancer
#3
Marcus D Goncalves, Seo-Kyoung Hwang, Chantal Pauli, Charles J Murphy, Zhe Cheng, Benjamin D Hopkins, David Wu, Ryan M Loughran, Brooke M Emerling, Guoan Zhang, Douglas T Fearon, Lewis C Cantley
The cancer anorexia cachexia syndrome is a systemic metabolic disorder characterized by the catabolism of stored nutrients in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that is particularly prevalent in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of skeletal muscle results in functional impairments and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to characterize the changes in systemic metabolism in a genetically engineered mouse model of NSCLC. We show that a portion of these animals develop loss of skeletal muscle, loss of adipose tissue, and increased inflammatory markers mirroring the human cachexia syndrome...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288771/s-allyl-cysteine-regulates-the-tnf%C3%AE-induced-muscle-wasting-by-suppressing-proteolysis-and-regulating-the-inflammatory-molecules-in-skeletal-muscle-myotubes
#4
Vikas Dutt, Vikram Saini, Prachi Gupta, Nirmaljeet Kaur, Manju Bala, Ravindra Gujar, Anita Grewal, Sanjeev Gupta, Anita Dua, Ashwani Mittal
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of inflammatory molecules are the key players in muscle wasting/atrophy leading to human morbidity. TNFα is a well-known pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting under diverse clinical settings. S-allyl cysteine (SAC), an active component of garlic (Allium sativum), has established anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in various cell types. However, the impact of SAC on skeletal muscle pathology remains unexplored. Owing to the known anti-inflammatory properties of SAC, we investigate whether pre-treatment with SAC has a protective role in TNFα induced atrophy in cultured myotubes...
December 27, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288718/kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-15-regulator-of-bcaa-metabolism-and-circadian-protein-rhythmicity
#5
REVIEW
Liyan Fan, Paishiun N Hsieh, David R Sweet, Mukesh K Jain
Regulation of nutrient intake, utilization, and storage exhibits a circadian rhythmicity that allows organisms to anticipate and adequately respond to changes in the environment across day/night cycles. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are important modulators of metabolism and metabolic health - for example, their catabolism yields carbon substrates for gluconeogenesis during periods of fasting. Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) has recently emerged as a critical transcriptional regulator of BCAA metabolism, and the absence of this transcription factor contributes to severe pathologies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and heart failure...
December 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284736/carotid-atheroma-from-men-has-significantly-higher-levels-of-inflammation-and-iron-metabolism-enabled-by-macrophages
#6
Xi-Ming Yuan, Liam J Ward, Claes Forssell, Nabeel Siraj, Wei Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Men differ from women in the manifestation of atherosclerosis and iron metabolism. Intraplaque hemorrhage and hemoglobin (Hb) catabolism by macrophages are associated with atherosclerotic lesion instability. The study aims were to investigate sex differences in (1) lesion severity in relation to blood Hb, (2) iron homeostasis in human carotid plaques, and (3) macrophage polarization within atheroma. METHODS: The carotid artery samples from 39 men and 23 women were immunostained with cell markers for macrophages, smooth muscle cells, ferritin, and TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1), which were further analyzed according to sex in relation to iron, Hb, and lipids in circulation...
December 28, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258769/calcium-and-vitamin-d-in-human-health-hype-or-real
#7
REVIEW
Sunil J Wimalawansa, DSc Mohammed S Razzaque, Nasser M Al-Daghri
The incidence and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency are increasing worldwide. It is estimated that over 50% of population in the world have low in vitamin D (i.e., hypovitaminosis D; levels below 30 ng/mL). 80% of our vitamin D requirement comes from the ultraviolet rays from sunlight, and for the remainder, we rely from the diet and supplements. The latter become important when one is exposing to less than optimal amounts of sunlight, inability of the skin to generate vitamin D efficiently, and/or having secondary causes that leads to increase catabolism of vitamin D...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247844/strategies-of-biochemical-adaptation-for-hibernation-in-a-south-american-marsupial-dromiciops-gliroides-4-regulation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-complex-and-metabolic-fuel-selection
#8
Sanoji Wijenayake, Bryan E Luu, Jing Zhang, Shannon N Tessier, Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Roberto F Nespolo, Kenneth B Storey
Mammalian hibernation is characterized by extensive adjustments to metabolism that typically include suppression of carbohydrate catabolism and a switch to triglycerides as the primary fuel during torpor. A crucial locus of control in this process is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that gates carbohydrate entry into the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Within the complex, the E1 enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the main regulatory site and is subject to inhibitory phosphorylation at three serine residues (S232, S293, S300)...
December 13, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242278/ampk-in-skeletal-muscle-function-and-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Rasmus Kjøbsted, Janne R Hingst, Joachim Fentz, Marc Foretz, Maria-Nieves Sanz, Christian Pehmøller, Michael Shum, André Marette, Remi Mounier, Jonas T Treebak, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Benoit Viollet, Louise Lantier
Skeletal muscle possesses a remarkable ability to adapt to various physiologic conditions. AMPK is a sensor of intracellular energy status that maintains energy stores by fine-tuning anabolic and catabolic pathways. AMPK's role as an energy sensor is particularly critical in tissues displaying highly changeable energy turnover. Due to the drastic changes in energy demand that occur between the resting and exercising state, skeletal muscle is one such tissue. Here, we review the complex regulation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and its consequences on metabolism (e...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239106/er-stress-in-skeletal-muscle-remodeling-and-myopathies
#10
REVIEW
Dil Afroze, Ashok Kumar
Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue in the human body that undergoes extensive adaptation in response to environmental cues, such as physical activity, metabolic perturbation, and disease conditions. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in protein folding and calcium homeostasis in many mammalian cell types including skeletal muscle. However, overload of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER lumen cause stress, which results in the activation of a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
December 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229387/mir-124-3p-affects-the-formation-of-intramuscular-fat-through-alterations-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-consumption-in-sheep
#11
Yangyang Pan, Jiongjie Jing, Liying Qiao, Jianhua Liu, Junxing Zhao, Lixia An, Baojun Li, Weiwei Wang, Chen Liang, Wenzhong Liu
Intramuscular fat is used to determine meat quality in animals; however, factors affecting branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, which fuels adipogenesis and lipogenesis, remain unclear. To better understand the post-transcriptional influence on BCAA catabolism during adipogenesis, we investigated the role of miR-124-3p. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated from skeletal muscle of sheep, and induced to differentiate. We determined the roles of miR-124-3p and its predicted target, branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha polypeptide (BCKDHA), in adipogenic differentiation and lipogenesis of SVFs after overexpressing or inhibiting miR-124-3p or BCKDHA, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#12
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218435/educational-review-measurement-of-gfr-in-special-populations
#13
Guido Filler, Misan Lee
IMPORTANCE: Changes in kidney function are typically followed by the sequential estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Formulae for eGFR work well on a population basis, but there are well-known conditions where they do not work. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing literature on special populations in the pediatric age range and provide recommendations on how to estimate GFR in these populations. FINDINGS: The reliability of creatinine depends on muscle mass, while cystatin C (not widely available) is limited by inflammation and changes in protein catabolism...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203735/histomorphologic-changes-of-esophageal-mucosa-in-experimental-third-degree-stricture
#14
Volodymyr O Shaprynskyi, Yevgeniy V Shaprinskiy, Yaroslav V Karyi, Serhii A Lysenko
INTRODUCTION: Nowadays the level of early and late complications after the operations for esophageal corrosive strictures such as esophago-organ anastomotic leak, development of infections, pneumonia, pleural empyema, mediastinitis, peritonitis, postoperative corrosive stricture development etc. remains rather high. Besides, postoperative mortality rate is high as well - 3.5-30 %. For that reason, an experimental model of esophageal stricture was suggested and ultrastructural mucosal changes in the stricture itself were studied to elaborate the unified pathogenic approach in treatment of esophageal stricture and improvement of its results...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202452/systemic-inflammation-is-associated-with-exaggerated-skeletal-muscle-protein-catabolism-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients
#15
Serpil M Deger, Adriana M Hung, Jorge L Gamboa, Edward D Siew, Charles D Ellis, Cindy Booker, Feng Sha, Haiming Li, Aihua Bian, Thomas G Stewart, Roy Zent, William E Mitch, Naji N Abumrad, T Alp Ikizler
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation and muscle wasting are highly prevalent and coexist in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). We aimed to determine the effects of systemic inflammation on skeletal muscle protein metabolism in MHD patients. METHODS: Whole body and skeletal muscle protein turnover were assessed by stable isotope kinetic studies. We incorporated expressions of E1, E214K, E3αI, E3αII, MuRF-1, and atrogin-1 in skeletal muscle tissue from integrin β1 gene KO CKD mice models...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200899/effects-of-exercise-on-obesity-induced-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle
#16
REVIEW
Jun-Won Heo, Mi-Hyun No, Dong-Ho Park, Ju-Hee Kang, Dae Yun Seo, Jin Han, P Darrell Neufer, Hyo-Bum Kwak
Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198019/muscle-proteolytic-system-modulation-through-the-effect-of-taurine-on-mice-bearing-muscular-atrophy
#17
Rania M Khalil, Walied S Abdo, Ahmed Saad, Eman G Khedr
Skeletal muscle atrophy occurs in different catabolic conditions and mostly accompanied with upregulation of Muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) gene which is one of the master regulatory genes in muscle atrophy. Taurine amino acid is widely distributed in different tissues and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study aimed to investigate the potential influence of taurine on muscle atrophy induced by reduced mechanical loading. Twenty-eight Albino mice were used, and divided equally into four groups: group I (control); group II (immobilization); group III (immobilization + taurine); and group IV (taurine)...
December 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191950/metabolic-re-patterning-in-copd-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Charalambos Michaeloudes, Chih-Hsi Kuo, Gulam Haji, Donna K Finch, Andrew J Halayko, Paul Kirkham, Kian Fan Chung, Ian M Adcock
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airways are characterised by thickening of airway smooth muscle, partly due to airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) hyperplasia. Metabolic reprogramming involving increased glycolysis and glutamine catabolism supports the biosynthetic and redox balance required for cellular growth. We examined whether COPD ASMCs show a distinct metabolic phenotype that may contribute to increased growth.We performed an exploratory intracellular metabolic profile analysis of ASMCs from healthy nonsmokers, healthy smokers and COPD patients, under unstimulated or growth conditions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and fetal bovine serum (FBS)...
November 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189940/the-relationship-between-dietary-protein-content-body-condition-and-%C3%AE-15n-in-a-mammalian-omnivore
#19
Kelli L Hughes, John P Whiteman, Seth D Newsome
Seasonal reductions in food availability may cause animals to catabolize endogenous tissue and the resulting loss of lean mass can hinder their ability to forage and reproduce. While several studies have considered nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) as an indicator of catabolism, relationships between protein intake, body condition, and tissue δ15N have not been assessed simultaneously in controlled conditions. We conducted a feeding experiment on laboratory mice (Mus musculus) to test the effects of low (5%) versus high (30-40%) dietary protein content on lean mass, fat mass, and tissue δ15N...
November 30, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147966/polyamine-concentration-is-increased-in-thoracic-ascending-aorta-of-patients-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#20
Amalia Forte, Mario Grossi, Ciro Bancone, Marilena Cipollaro, Marisa De Feo, Per Hellstrand, Lo Persson, Bengt-Olof Nilsson, Alessandro Della Corte
Polyamines are cationic molecules synthesized via a highly regulated pathway, obtained from the diet or produced by the gut microbiota. They are involved in general molecular and cellular phenomena that play a role also in vascular disease. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital malformation associated to a greater risk of thoracic ascending aorta (TAA) aneurysm, whose pathogenesis is not yet well understood. We focused on differential analysis of key members of polyamine pathway and on polyamine concentration in non-dilated TAA samples from patients with either stenotic tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) or BAV (diameter ≤ 45 mm), vs...
November 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
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