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Muscle catabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147966/polyamine-concentration-is-increased-in-thoracic-ascending-aorta-of-patients-with-bicuspid-aortic-valve
#1
Amalia Forte, Mario Grossi, Ciro Bancone, Marilena Cipollaro, Marisa De Feo, Per Hellstrand, Lo Persson, Bengt-Olof Nilsson, Alessandro Della Corte
Polyamines are cationic molecules synthesized via a highly regulated pathway, obtained from the diet or produced by the gut microbiota. They are involved in general molecular and cellular phenomena that play a role also in vascular disease. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital malformation associated to a greater risk of thoracic ascending aorta (TAA) aneurysm, whose pathogenesis is not yet well understood. We focused on differential analysis of key members of polyamine pathway and on polyamine concentration in non-dilated TAA samples from patients with either stenotic tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) or BAV (diameter ≤ 45 mm), vs...
November 17, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146139/how-to-prevent-renal-cachexia-a-clinical-randomized-pilot-study-testing-oral-supplemental-nutrition-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#2
Michael Zilles, Christoph Betz, Oliver Jung, Stefan Gauer, Renate Hammerstingl, Astrid Wächtershäuser, Thomas J Vogl, Helmut Geiger, Aida Asbe-Vollkopf, Rainer U Pliquett
OBJECTIVE: End-stage renal disease associates with catabolism and sarcopenia. Hypothetically, peroral supplemental nutrition over 6 months prevents catabolism in hemodialysis patients. DESIGN: Prospective randomized pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00687050). SUBJECTS: Twenty-three hemodialysis patients (15 males and 7 females) with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of 2 ambulatory hemodialysis centers...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138805/extracellular-polysaccharides-purified-from-aureobasidium-pullulans-sm%C3%A2-2001-polycan-inhibit-dexamethasone%C3%A2-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-mice
#3
Jong-Min Lim, Young Joon Lee, Hyung-Rae Cho, Dong-Chan Park, Go-Woon Jung, Sae Kwang Ku, Jae-Suk Choi
The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle‑preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM‑2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)‑induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA‑induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137319/effects-of-growth-hormone-on-cardiac-remodeling-and-soleus-muscle-in-rats-with-aortic-stenosis-induced-heart-failure
#4
Aline R R Lima, Luana U Pagan, Ricardo L Damatto, Marcelo D M Cezar, Camila Bonomo, Mariana J Gomes, Paula F Martinez, Daniele M Guizoni, Dijon H S Campos, Felipe C Damatto, Katashi Okoshi, Marina P Okoshi
Background: Skeletal muscle wasting is often observed in heart failure (HF). The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis is impaired in HF. In this study, we evaluated the effects of GH on soleus muscle and cardiac remodeling in rats with aortic stenosis (AS)-induced HF. Methods: AS was created by placing a stainless-steel clip on the ascending aorta. After clinically detecting HF, GH (2 mg/kg/day) was subcutaneously injected for 14 days (AS-GH group)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130715/relationship-of-long-term-macronutrients-intake-on-anabolic-catabolic-hormones-in-female-elite-volleyball-players
#5
Juan Mielgo Ayuso, Michael C Zpurdos, Aritz Urdampilleta, Julio Calleja González, Jesús Seco, Alfredo Córdova
INTRODUCTION: Specific macronutrient distribution and training can alter acute and chronic hormone behavior and, subsequently, sport performance. OBJECTIVE: The main aim was to examine relationships between dietary intake and anabolic/catabolic hormone response in elite female volleyball players during a 29-week season. METHODS: Twenty-two elite female volleyballers (26.4 ± 5.6 years; 178 ± 9 cm; 67.1 ± 7.5 kg) had dietary intake (seven-day dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire), blood concentration of anabolic/catabolic hormones concentration, physical performance, and body composition assessed at four time points: a) T1: baseline/pre-testing; b) T2: eleven weeks after T1; c) T3: ten weeks after T2; and d) T4: eight weeks after T3...
October 24, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109401/smad3-initiates-oxidative-stress-and-proteolysis-that-underlies-diaphragm-dysfunction-during-mechanical-ventilation
#6
Huibin Tang, Catherine L Kennedy, Myung Lee, Yang Gao, Hui Xia, Francesca Olguin, Danielle A Fraga, Kelsey Ayers, Sehoon Choi, Michael Kim, Amir Tehrani, Yasser A Sowb, Thomas A Rando, Joseph B Shrager
Prolonged use of mechanical ventilation (MV) leads to atrophy and dysfunction of the major inspiratory muscle, the diaphragm, contributing to ventilator dependence. Numerous studies have shown that proteolysis and oxidative stress are among the major effectors of ventilator-induced diaphragm muscle dysfunction (VIDD), but the upstream initiator(s) of this process remain to be elucidated. We report here that periodic diaphragm contraction via phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) substantially reduces MV-induced proteolytic activity and oxidative stress in the diaphragm...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098797/acylated-ghrelin-treatment-normalizes-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-and-akt-phosphorylation-in-rat-chronic-heart-failure
#7
Rocco Barazzoni, Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Sandra Palus, Pierandrea Vinci, Giulia Ruozi, Michela Zanetti, Annamaria Semolic, Nicole Ebner, Stephan von Heahling, Gianfranco Sinagra, Mauro Giacca, Jochen Springer
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with skeletal muscle abnormalities contributing to exercise intolerance, muscle loss, and negative impact on patient prognosis. A primary role has been proposed for mitochondrial dysfunction, which may be induced by systemic and tissue inflammation and further contribute to low insulin signalling. The acylated form of the gastric hormone ghrelin (AG) may improve mitochondrial oxidative capacity and insulin signalling in both healthy and diseased rodent models...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097038/impact-of-the-calcium-form-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-upon-human-skeletal-muscle-protein-metabolism
#8
D J Wilkinson, T Hossain, M C Limb, B E Phillips, J Lund, J P Williams, M S Brook, J Cegielski, A Philp, S Ashcroft, J A Rathmacher, N J Szewczyk, K Smith, P J Atherton
BACKGROUND & AIMS: β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is purported as a key nutritional supplement for the preservation of muscle mass in health, disease and as an ergogenic aid in exercise. Of the two available forms of HMB (calcium (Ca-HMB) salt or free acid (FA-HMB)) - differences in plasma bioavailability have been reported. We previously reported that ∼3 g oral FA-HMB increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and reduced muscle protein breakdown (MPB). The objective of the present study was to quantify muscle protein metabolism responses to oral Ca-HMB...
October 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089899/mtor-as-a-key-regulator-in-maintaining-skeletal-muscle-mass
#9
REVIEW
Mee-Sup Yoon
Maintenance of skeletal muscle mass is regulated by the balance between anabolic and catabolic processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, and is known to play vital roles in protein synthesis. Recent findings have continued to refine our understanding of the function of mTOR in maintaining skeletal muscle mass. mTOR controls the anabolic and catabolic signaling of skeletal muscle mass, resulting in the modulation of muscle hypertrophy and muscle wastage...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081600/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-multisystem-pathology-insights-into-the-role-of-tnf%C3%AE
#10
REVIEW
Massimo Tortarolo, Daniele Lo Coco, Pietro Veglianese, Antonio Vallarola, Maria Teresa Giordana, Gabriella Marcon, Ettore Beghi, Marco Poloni, Michael J Strong, Anand M Iyer, Eleonora Aronica, Caterina Bendotti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered a multifactorial, multisystem disease in which inflammation and the immune system play important roles in development and progression. The pleiotropic cytokine TNFα is one of the major players governing the inflammation in the central nervous system and peripheral districts such as the neuromuscular and immune system. Changes in TNFα levels are reported in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and nerve tissues of ALS patients and animal models. However, whether they play a detrimental or protective role on the disease progression is still not clear...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066728/ghrelin-rescues-skeletal-muscle-catabolic-profile-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#11
Marie Sjögren, Ana I Duarte, Andrew C McCourt, Liliya Shcherbina, Nils Wierup, Maria Björkqvist
Accumulating evidence suggests altered energy metabolism as a key feature in Huntington's disease (HD) pathology. Hyper-catabolism, including weight loss and muscle atrophy, is seen in HD patients and HD mouse models. Metabolic hormones are key players, not only in energy metabolism, but also in neurodegenerative processes. Ghrelin, a gut peptide-hormone, plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism, stimulating appetite, and affects brain function and increases neuronal survival. The R6/2 mouse model of HD has previously been shown to exhibit progressive weight loss, dysregulated glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle atrophy and altered body composition...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056169/unacylated-ghrelin-a-novel-regulator-of-muscle-intermediate-metabolism-with-potential-beneficial-effects-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#12
Gianluca Gortan Cappellari, Michela Zanetti, Pierandrea Vinci, Gianfranco Guarnieri, Rocco Barazzoni
In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), malnutrition with loss of skeletal muscle mass has a negative impact on morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that a cluster of oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance directly contributes to skeletal muscle catabolism by favoring protein breakdown over synthesis. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone discovered and initially studied in its acylated orexigenic form. More recently, a role of unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) has been described to reduce skeletal muscle mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, inflammation, and insulin resistance both in experimental models and in clinical studies...
November 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053957/cdk4-phosphorylates-ampk%C3%AE-2-to-inhibit-its-activity-and-repress-fatty-acid-oxidation
#13
Isabel C Lopez-Mejia, Sylviane Lagarrigue, Albert Giralt, Laia Martinez-Carreres, Nadège Zanou, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Judit Castillo-Armengol, Carine Chavey, Meritxell Orpinell, Brigitte Delacuisine, Anita Nasrallah, Caterina Collodet, Lianjun Zhang, Benoît Viollet, D Grahame Hardie, Lluis Fajas
The roles of CDK4 in the cell cycle have been extensively studied, but less is known about the mechanisms underlying the metabolic regulation by CDK4. Here, we report that CDK4 promotes anaerobic glycolysis and represses fatty acid oxidation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by targeting the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We also show that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is specifically induced by AMPK complexes containing the α2 subunit. Moreover, we report that CDK4 represses FAO through direct phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPKα2...
October 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046370/excessive-glucocorticoids-induced-muscle-murf1-overexpression-is-independent-of-akt-foxo1-pathway
#14
Xiao Juan Wang, Jing Jing Xiao, Lei Liu, Hong Chao Jiao, Hai Lin
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent proteolysis plays a major role in the muscle catabolic action of glucocorticoids (GCs). Atrogin-1 and muscle-specific RING finger protein 1 (MuRF1), two E3 ubiquitin ligases, are uniquely expressed in muscle. It has been previously demonstrated GCs treatment induced MuRF1 and atrogin-1 over expression. However, it is yet unclear whether the higher pharmacological dose of GCs induced muscle protein catabolism through MuRF1 and atrogin-1. In the present study, the role of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 in C2C12 cells protein metabolism during excessive dexamethasone (DEX) was studied...
October 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045496/at-same-leucine-intake-a-whey-plant-protein-blend-is-not-as-effective-as-whey-to-initiate-a-transient-post-prandial-muscle-anabolic-response-during-a-catabolic-state-in-mini-pigs
#15
Aurélia Revel, Marianne Jarzaguet, Marie-Agnès Peyron, Isabelle Papet, Noureddine Hafnaoui, Carole Migné, Laurent Mosoni, Sergio Polakof, Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux, Didier Rémond, Dominique Dardevet
BACKGROUND: Muscle atrophy has been explained by an anabolic resistance following food intake and an increase of dietary protein intake is recommended. To be optimal, a dietary protein has to be effective not only to initiate but also to prolong a muscle anabolic response in a catabolic state. To our knowledge, whether or not a dairy or a dairy/plant protein blend fulfills these criterions is unknown in a muscle wasting situation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was, in a control and a catabolic state, to measure continuously muscle anabolism in term of intensity and duration in response to a meal containing casein (CAS), whey (WHEY) or a whey/ plant protein blend (BLEND) and to evaluate the best protein source to elicit the best post prandial anabolism according to the physio-pathological state...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044624/effect-of-chronic-alcohol-abuse-on-anabolic-and-catabolic-signaling-pathways-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#16
Boris S Shenkman, Svetlana P Belova, Olga E Zinovyeva, Nudlya D Samkhaeva, Timur M Mirzoev, Natalia A Vilchinskaya, Erzhena G Altaeva, Olga V Turtikova, Tatiana Y Kostrominova, Tatiana L Nemirovskaya
BACKGROUND: Animal studies showed that alcoholic myopathy is characterized by the reduction of myofiber cross sectional area (CSA) and by impaired anabolic signaling. The goal of the current study was to compare changes in CSA and fiber type composition with modifications in anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways at the early stages of alcohol misuse in humans. METHODS: Skeletal muscle samples from seven male patients with chronic alcohol abuse (AL; 47.7±2.0 years old; alcohol misuse duration 7...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044196/exercise-and-high-fat-feeding-remodel-transcript-metabolite-interactive-networks-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#17
Joaquín Pérez-Schindler, Aditi Kanhere, Lindsay Edwards, J William Allwood, Warwick B Dunn, Simon Schenk, Andrew Philp
Enhanced coverage and sensitivity of next-generation 'omic' platforms has allowed the characterization of gene, metabolite and protein responses in highly metabolic tissues, such as, skeletal muscle. A limitation, however, is the capability to determine interaction between dynamic biological networks. To address this limitation, we applied Weighted Analyte Correlation Network Analysis (WACNA) to RNA-seq and metabolomic datasets to identify correlated subnetworks of transcripts and metabolites in response to a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and/or exercise...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040226/propranolol-and-oxandrolone-therapy-accelerated-muscle-recovery-in-burned-children
#18
Tony Chao, Craig Porter, David N Herndon, Aikaterina Siopi, Henry Ideker, Ronald P Mlcak, Labros S Sidossis, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Severe burns result in prolonged hypermetabolism and skeletal muscle catabolism. Rehabilitative exercise training (RET) programs improved muscle mass and strength in severely burned children. The combination of RET with β-blockade or testosterone analogues showed improved exercise-induced benefits on body composition and muscle function. However, the effect of RET combined with multiple drug therapy on muscle mass, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and protein turnover are unknown...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034492/transcriptome-analyses-reveal-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-fatty-acid-composition-traits-in-pigs
#19
J Zhang, L Cui, J Ma, C Chen, B Yang, L Huang
Fatty acid composition is associated with meat quality in pigs as well as with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in humans. Liver and muscle are important tissues for fatty acid metabolism. In this study, we evaluated correlations between liver and muscle transcriptomes and fatty acid composition traits in muscle and abdominal fat tissues in 335 F2 pigs from a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population. Transcripts significantly correlated with fatty acid composition traits were enriched for genes involved in the categories of triglyceride catabolic process, mitochondrial function, hematological and immune system, and disease such as Type II diabetes...
October 16, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033844/syngeneic-b16f10-melanoma-causes-cachexia-and-impaired-skeletal-muscle-strength-and-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#20
Fabrício A Voltarelli, Fernando T Frajacomo, Camila de Souza Padilha, Mayra T J Testa, Paola S Cella, Diogo F Ribeiro, Donizete X de Oliveira, Luciana C Veronez, Gabriela S Bisson, Felipe A Moura, Rafael Deminice
Muscle wasting has been emerging as one of the principal components of cancer cachexia, leading to progressive impairment of work capacity. Despite early stages melanomas rarely promotes weight loss, the appearance of metastatic and/or solid tumor melanoma can leads to cachexia development. Here, we investigated the B16F10 tumor-induced cachexia and its contribution to muscle strength and locomotor-like activity impairment. C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5 × 10(4) B16F10 melanoma cells or PBS as a Sham negative control...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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