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Muscle catabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286066/the-emerging-impact-of-malnutrition-on-surgical-patients-literature-review-and-potential-implications-on-cystectomy-for-bladder-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Conrad M Tobert, Jill M Hamilton-Reeves, Lyse A Norian, Chermaine Hung, Nathan A Brooks, Jeff M Holzbeierlein, Tracy M Downs, Douglas P Robertson, Ruth Grossman, Kenneth G Nepple
PURPOSE: Malnutrition is emerging as a significant factor in patient outcomes. A contemporary review of malnutrition for the urologist has not been performed. We provide a review of the available literature and current standards of care for malnutrition screening, assessment, and intervention with a focus on patients with bladder cancer treated with cystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our multi-disciplinary team conducted a PubMed search of available literature on malnutrition focusing on: definition and significance, importance to urologists, screening, assessment, diagnosis, immunologic and economic impact, and interventions...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263150/-rhabdomyolysis-caused-by-hyperemesis-gravidarum
#2
Lana Rashid Flachs Madsen, Marie Søgaard
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a condition of severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, accompanied by dehydration, electrolyte derangement and lack of nutrition. We describe a 26-year-old woman pregnant at 29 weeks of gestation, complaining about muscle pain and difficulties standing up after suffering from long-term HG followed by a weight loss of 35 kg. She had severe hypokalaemia and abnormally elevated muscle enzyme concentrations as a result of a massive catabolic process. We discuss severe HG as a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis and the importance of early aggressive resuscitation to avoid renal failure...
February 27, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257332/parathyroid-hormone-stimulates-adipose-tissue-browning-a-pathway-to-muscle-wasting
#3
Sandhya S Thomas, William E Mitch
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studying organ-to-organ communications (i.e. crosstalk) uncovers mechanisms regulating metabolism in several tissues. What is missing is identification of mediators of different catabolic conditions contributing to losses of adipose and muscle tissues. Identifying mediators involved in organ-to-organ crosstalk could lead to innovative therapeutic strategies because several disorders such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), cancer cachexia, and other catabolic conditions share signals of worsening metabolism and increased risk of mortality...
March 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251652/sirt1-may-play-a-crucial-role-in-overload-induced-hypertrophy-of-skeletal-muscle
#4
Erika Koltai, Zoltán Bori, Clovis Chabert, Hervé Dubouchaud, Hisashi Naito, Shuichi Machida, Kelvin Ja Davies, Zsolt Murlasits, Andrew C Fry, Istvan Boldogh, Zsolt Radak
Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well-studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in SIRT1 content and activity (P < 0...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247148/very-long-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-vlcad-deficiency-studies-on-treatment-effects-and-long-term-outcomes-in-mouse-models
#5
REVIEW
Sara Tucci
Very-long-chain-acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common disorder of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation, with an incidence of 1:50,000-1:100,000 in newborns. Catabolic situations contribute to the aggravation of symptoms and induce severe metabolic derangement. Treatment for VLCAD-deficiency includes avoidance of fasting and a long-chain fat-restricted and fat-modified diet in which LCFAs are fully or partially replaced by medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). The aim of this work was to investigate the outcome and the effects of long-term treatment in a mouse model of VLCAD-deficiency...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244700/the-influence-of-protein-provision-in-the-early-phase-of-intensive-care-on-clinical-outcomes-for-critically-ill-patients-on-mechanical-ventilation
#6
Joo Han Song, Ho Sun Lee, Song Yee Kim, Eun Young Kim, Jie Ye Jung, Young Ae Kang, Moo Suk Park, Young Sam Kim, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Kyung Soo Chung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mechanically ventilated patients often face progressive and rapid losses of body mass and muscle because of hypermetabolism and increased protein catabolism. To investigate the impact of adequate nutritional provision during the early phase of intensive care unit (ICU) admission on the clinical outcomes in patients with medical illnesses receiving mechanical ventilation support. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred and eleven mechanically ventilated patients admitted to a 30-bed medical ICU were included...
March 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222580/acute-and-delayed-responses-of-steroidal-hormones-blood-lactate-and-biomarkers-of-muscle-damage-after-a-resistance-training-session-time-of-day-effects
#7
Achraf Ammar, Hamdi Chtourou, Mouna Turki, Omar Hammouda, Ahmed Chaari, Mariem Boudaya, Tarak Driss, Fatma Ayedi, Nizar Souissi
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of time-of-days (TOD) on some biochemical and hormonal responses after resistance training sessions. METHODS: Ten trained subjects (22±2 years) performed, in randomized order, three resistance-training-sessions at 07h:00, 13h:00 and 17h:00. Each training-session included six upper and lower body resistance exercises with 3×10 repetitions. Blood lactate (Lac), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each-session...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219767/the-biochemical-alterations-underlying-post-burn-hypermetabolism
#8
REVIEW
Christopher Auger, Osai Samadi, Marc G Jeschke
A severe burn can trigger a hypermetabolic state which lasts for years following the injury, to the detriment of the patient. The drastic increase in metabolic demands during this phase renders it difficult to meet the body's nutritional requirements, thus increasing muscle, bone and adipose catabolism and predisposing the patient to a host of disorders such as multi-organ dysfunction and sepsis, or even death. Despite advances in burn care over the last 50 years, due to the multifactorial nature of the hypermetabolic phenomenon it is difficult if not impossible to precisely identify and pharmacologically modulate the biological mediators contributing to this substantial metabolic derangement...
February 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#9
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201935/partition-and-metabolic-fate-of-dietary-glycerol-in-muscles-and-liver-of-juvenile-tilapia
#10
Diego Vicente da Costa, Jorge Dias, Rita Colen, Priscila Vieira Rosa, Sofia Engrola
This study investigated the effect of dietary glycerol on the metabolism of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine its metabolic fate. The experimental diets contained 0% (Group CON), 5% (Group G5) and 15% glycerol (Group G15) and were fed for 40 d to apparent satiation, three times a day. For the metabolism trials, six fish from each treatment were randomly chosen and tube-fed with five pellets labelled with (14)C-glycerol [(14)C(U)] in order to evaluate the absorption, catabolism, retention and partition of glycerol in muscle and liver...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198733/clinical-relevance-of-sarcopenia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#11
Ranjani N Moorthi, Keith G Avin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aim to present how definitions of sarcopenia from the general population may pertain to those with CKD, its assessment by clinicians and emerging therapies for sarcopenia in CKD. For this review, we limit our description and recommendations to patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Poorer parameters of lean mass, strength and physical function are associated with worsening patient-centered outcomes such as limiting mobility, falls and mortality in CKD; however, the magnitude of these associations are different in those with and without CKD...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177129/role-of-parp-activity-in-lung-cancer-induced-cachexia-effects-on-muscle-oxidative-stress-proteolysis-anabolic-markers-and-phenotype
#12
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Mercè Mateu-Jimenez, Klaus Langohr, Clara Fermoselle, Elena García-Arumí, Antoni L Andreu, Jose Yelamos, Esther Barreiro
Strategies to treat cachexia are still at its infancy. Enhanced muscle protein breakdown and ubiquitin-proteasome system are common features of cachexia associated with chronic conditions including lung cancer (LC). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which play a major role in chromatin structure regulation, also underlie maintenance of muscle metabolism and body composition. We hypothesized that protein catabolism, proteolytic markers, muscle fiber phenotype, and muscle anabolism may improve in respiratory and limb muscles of LC-cachectic Parp-1-deficient (Parp-1(-/-) ) and Parp-2(-/-) mice...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166119/muscle-protein-turnover-and-the-molecular-regulation-of-muscle-mass-during-hypoxia
#13
Stefan M Pasiakos, Claire E Berryman, Christopher T Carrigan, Andrew J Young, John W Carbone
Effects of environmental hypoxia on fat-free mass are well studied. Negative energy balance, increased nitrogen excretion and fat-free mass loss are commonly observed in lowlanders sojourning at high altitude. Reductions in fat-free mass can be minimized if energy consumption matches energy expenditure. However, in non-research settings, achieving energy balance during high altitude sojourns is unlikely and myofibrillar protein mass is usually lost, but the mechanisms accounting for the loss of muscle mass are not clear...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163294/metabolic-suppression-by-3-iodothyronamine-induced-muscle-cell-atrophy-via-activation-of-foxo-proteasome-signaling-and-downregulation-of-akt1-s6k-signaling
#14
Hyunwoo Ju, Taewan Kim, Chan-Moon Chung, Junsoo Park, Takeshi Nikawa, Kyoungsook Park, Inho Choi
The homeostasis of muscle properties depends on both physical and metabolic stresses. Whereas physical stress entails metabolic response for muscle homeostasis, the latter does not necessarily involve the former and may thus solely affect the homeostasis. We here report that metabolic suppression by the hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) induced muscle cell atrophy without physical stress. We observed that the oxygen consumption rate of C2C12 myotubes decreased 40% upon treatment with 75 μM T1AM for 6 h versus 10% in the vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) control...
February 3, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161871/the-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-bone-muscle-crosstalk
#15
REVIEW
Jenna N Regan, Trupti Trivedi, Theresa A Guise, David L Waning
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of bone-derived factors in regulation of skeletal muscle function is an important emerging aspect of research into bone-muscle crosstalk. Implications for this area of research are far reaching and include understanding skeletal muscle weakness in cancer, osteoporosis, cachexia, rare diseases of bone, and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research shows that bone-derived factors can lead to changes in the skeletal muscle. These changes can either be anabolic or catabolic, and we focus this review on the role of TGFβ in driving oxidative stress and skeletal muscle weakness in the setting of osteolytic cancer in the bone...
February 4, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158895/mimicking-exercise-in-three-dimensional-bioengineered-skeletal-muscle-to-investigate-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-physiological-adaptation
#16
REVIEW
Andreas M Kasper, Daniel C Turner, Neil R W Martin, Adam P Sharples
Bioengineering of skeletal muscle in-vitro in order to produce highly aligned myofibres in relevant three dimensional (3D) matrices have allowed scientists to model the in-vivo skeletal muscle niche. This review discusses essential experimental considerations for developing bioengineered muscle in order to investigate exercise mimicking stimuli. We identify current knowledge in the use of electrical stimulation and co-culture with motor neurons to enhance skeletal muscle maturation and contractile function in bioengineered systems in-vitro...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130275/modulation-of-mtor-signaling-as-a-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-pompe-disease
#17
Jeong-A Lim, Lishu Li, Orian S Shirihai, Kyle M Trudeau, Rosa Puertollano, Nina Raben
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) coordinates biosynthetic and catabolic processes in response to multiple extracellular and intracellular signals including growth factors and nutrients. This serine/threonine kinase has long been known as a critical regulator of muscle mass. The recent finding that the decision regarding its activation/inactivation takes place at the lysosome undeniably brings mTOR into the field of lysosomal storage diseases. In this study, we have examined the involvement of the mTOR pathway in the pathophysiology of a severe muscle wasting condition, Pompe disease, caused by excessive accumulation of lysosomal glycogen...
March 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129889/sarcopenia-but-not-excess-weight-or-increased-caloric-intake-is-associated-with-coronary-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-the-very-elderly
#18
Alessandra M Campos, Filipe A Moura, Simone N Santos, Wladimir M Freitas, Andrei C Sposito
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Excess weight is a widespread condition related to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sarcopenia is a catabolic pathway common of the aging process and also associated with CHD. In the elderly, both changes occur concurrently and it remains unclear the relative contribution on CHD risk. We aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia, excess weight, or both are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and/or endothelial dysfunction in very elderly individuals...
March 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127425/novel-metabolic-and-physiological-functions-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Shihai Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Man Ren, Xiangbing Mao, Shiyan Qiao
It is widely known that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are not only elementary components for building muscle tissue but also participate in increasing protein synthesis in animals and humans. BCAA (isoleucine, leucine and valine) regulate many key signaling pathways, the most classic of which is the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. This signaling pathway connects many diverse physiological and metabolic roles. Recent years have witnessed many striking developments in determining the novel functions of BCAA including: (1) Insufficient or excessive levels of BCAA in the diet enhances lipolysis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120165/investigating-the-link-of-acad10-deficiency-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#20
Kaitlyn Bloom, Al-Walid Mohsen, Anuradha Karunanidhi, Dina El Demellawy, Miguel Reyes-Múgica, Yudong Wang, Lina Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Chikara Otsubo, Kimi Tobita, Radhika Muzumdar, Zhenwei Gong, Emir Tas, Shrabani Basu, Jie Chen, Michael Bennett, Charles Hoppel, Jerry Vockley
The Native American Pima population has the highest incidence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of any reported population, but the pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown. Genetic studies in Pima Indians have linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 10 (ACAD10) gene polymorphisms, among others, to this predisposition. The gene codes for a protein with a C-terminus region that is structurally similar to members of a family of flavoenzymes-the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs)-that catalyze α,β-dehydrogenation reactions, including the first step in mitochondrial FAO (FAO), and intermediary reactions in amino acids catabolism...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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