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Muscle catabolism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222580/acute-and-delayed-responses-of-steroidal-hormones-blood-lactate-and-biomarkers-of-muscle-damage-after-a-resistance-training-session-time-of-day-effects
#1
Achraf Ammar, Hamdi Chtourou, Mouna Turki, Omar Hammouda, Ahmed Chaari, Mariem Boudaya, Tarak Driss, Fatma Ayedi, Nizar Souissi
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of time-of-days (TOD) on some biochemical and hormonal responses after resistance training sessions. METHODS: Ten trained subjects (22±2 years) performed, in randomized order, three resistance-training-sessions at 07h:00, 13h:00 and 17h:00. Each training-session included six upper and lower body resistance exercises with 3×10 repetitions. Blood lactate (Lac), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T) were collected at rest, 3min and 48h after each-session...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219767/the-biochemical-alterations-underlying-post-burn-hypermetabolism
#2
REVIEW
Christopher Auger, Osai Samadi, Marc G Jeschke
A severe burn can trigger a hypermetabolic state which lasts for years following the injury, to the detriment of the patient. The drastic increase in metabolic demands during this phase renders it difficult to meet the body's nutritional requirements, thus increasing muscle, bone and adipose catabolism and predisposing the patient to a host of disorders such as multi-organ dysfunction and sepsis, or even death. Despite advances in burn care over the last 50 years, due to the multifactorial nature of the hypermetabolic phenomenon it is difficult if not impossible to precisely identify and pharmacologically modulate the biological mediators contributing to this substantial metabolic derangement...
February 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213823/long-term-resistance-exercise-induced-muscular-hypertrophy-is-associated-with-autophagy-modulation-in-rats
#3
Insu Kwon, Yongchul Jang, Joon-Yong Cho, Young C Jang, Youngil Lee
Elevation of anabolism and concurrent suppression of catabolism are critical metabolic adaptations for muscular hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise (RE). Here, we investigated if RE-induced muscular hypertrophy is acquired by modulating a critical catabolic process autophagy. Male Wistar Hannover rats (14 weeks old) were randomly assigned to either sedentary control (SC, n = 10) or resistance exercise (RE, n = 10). RE elicited significant hypertrophy of flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles in parallel with enhancement in anabolic signaling pathways (phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR, and p70S6K)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201935/partition-and-metabolic-fate-of-dietary-glycerol-in-muscles-and-liver-of-juvenile-tilapia
#4
Diego Vicente da Costa, Jorge Dias, Rita Colen, Priscila Vieira Rosa, Sofia Engrola
This study investigated the effect of dietary glycerol on the metabolism of juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine its metabolic fate. The experimental diets contained 0% (Group CON), 5% (Group G5) and 15% glycerol (Group G15) and were fed for 40 d to apparent satiation, three times a day. For the metabolism trials, six fish from each treatment were randomly chosen and tube-fed with five pellets labelled with (14)C-glycerol [(14)C(U)] in order to evaluate the absorption, catabolism, retention and partition of glycerol in muscle and liver...
April 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198733/clinical-relevance-of-sarcopenia-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#5
Ranjani N Moorthi, Keith G Avin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we review sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aim to present how definitions of sarcopenia from the general population may pertain to those with CKD, its assessment by clinicians and emerging therapies for sarcopenia in CKD. For this review, we limit our description and recommendations to patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. RECENT FINDINGS: Poorer parameters of lean mass, strength and physical function are associated with worsening patient-centered outcomes such as limiting mobility, falls and mortality in CKD; however, the magnitude of these associations are different in those with and without CKD...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177129/role-of-parp-activity-in-lung-cancer-induced-cachexia-effects-on-muscle-oxidative-stress-proteolysis-anabolic-markers-and-phenotype
#6
Alba Chacon-Cabrera, Mercè Mateu-Jimenez, Klaus Langohr, Clara Fermoselle, Elena García-Arumí, Antoni L Andreu, Jose Yelamos, Esther Barreiro
Strategies to treat cachexia are still at its infancy. Enhanced muscle protein breakdown and ubiquitin-proteasome system are common features of cachexia associated with chronic conditions including lung cancer (LC). Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP), which play a major role in chromatin structure regulation, also underlie maintenance of muscle metabolism and body composition. We hypothesized that protein catabolism, proteolytic markers, muscle fiber phenotype, and muscle anabolism may improve in respiratory and limb muscles of LC-cachectic Parp-1-deficient (Parp-1(-/-) ) and Parp-2(-/-) mice...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166119/muscle-protein-turnover-and-the-molecular-regulation-of-muscle-mass-during-hypoxia
#7
Stefan M Pasiakos, Claire E Berryman, Christopher T Carrigan, Andrew J Young, John W Carbone
Effects of environmental hypoxia on fat-free mass are well studied. Negative energy balance, increased nitrogen excretion and fat-free mass loss are commonly observed in lowlanders sojourning at high altitude. Reductions in fat-free mass can be minimized if energy consumption matches energy expenditure. However, in non-research settings, achieving energy balance during high altitude sojourns is unlikely and myofibrillar protein mass is usually lost, but the mechanisms accounting for the loss of muscle mass are not clear...
February 4, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163294/metabolic-suppression-by-3-iodothyronamine-induced-muscle-cell-atrophy-via-activation-of-foxo-proteasome-signaling-and-downregulation-of-akt1-s6k-signaling
#8
Hyunwoo Ju, Taewan Kim, Chan-Moon Chung, Junsoo Park, Takeshi Nikawa, Kyoungsook Park, Inho Choi
The homeostasis of muscle properties depends on both physical and metabolic stresses. Whereas physical stress entails metabolic response for muscle homeostasis, the latter does not necessarily involve the former and may thus solely affect the homeostasis. We here report that metabolic suppression by the hypometabolic agent 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) induced muscle cell atrophy without physical stress. We observed that the oxygen consumption rate of C2C12 myotubes decreased 40% upon treatment with 75 μM T1AM for 6 h versus 10% in the vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) control...
February 3, 2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161871/the-role-of-tgf%C3%AE-in-bone-muscle-crosstalk
#9
REVIEW
Jenna N Regan, Trupti Trivedi, Theresa A Guise, David L Waning
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of bone-derived factors in regulation of skeletal muscle function is an important emerging aspect of research into bone-muscle crosstalk. Implications for this area of research are far reaching and include understanding skeletal muscle weakness in cancer, osteoporosis, cachexia, rare diseases of bone, and aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research shows that bone-derived factors can lead to changes in the skeletal muscle. These changes can either be anabolic or catabolic, and we focus this review on the role of TGFβ in driving oxidative stress and skeletal muscle weakness in the setting of osteolytic cancer in the bone...
February 4, 2017: Current Osteoporosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158895/mimicking-exercise-in-three-dimensional-bioengineered-skeletal-muscle-to-investigate-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-physiological-adaptation
#10
REVIEW
Andreas M Kasper, Daniel C Turner, Neil R W Martin, Adam P Sharples
Bioengineering of skeletal muscle in-vitro in order to produce highly aligned myofibres in relevant three dimensional (3D) matrices have allowed scientists to model the in-vivo skeletal muscle niche. This review discusses essential experimental considerations for developing bioengineered muscle in order to investigate exercise mimicking stimuli. We identify current knowledge in the use of electrical stimulation and co-culture with motor neurons to enhance skeletal muscle maturation and contractile function in bioengineered systems in-vitro...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130275/modulation-of-mtor-signaling-as-a-strategy-for-the-treatment-of-pompe-disease
#11
Jeong-A Lim, Lishu Li, Orian S Shirihai, Kyle M Trudeau, Rosa Puertollano, Nina Raben
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) coordinates biosynthetic and catabolic processes in response to multiple extracellular and intracellular signals including growth factors and nutrients. This serine/threonine kinase has long been known as a critical regulator of muscle mass. The recent finding that the decision regarding its activation/inactivation takes place at the lysosome undeniably brings mTOR into the field of lysosomal storage diseases. In this study, we have examined the involvement of the mTOR pathway in the pathophysiology of a severe muscle wasting condition, Pompe disease, caused by excessive accumulation of lysosomal glycogen...
January 27, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129889/sarcopenia-but-not-excess-weight-or-increased-caloric-intake-is-associated-with-coronary-subclinical-atherosclerosis-in-the-very-elderly
#12
Alessandra M Campos, Filipe A Moura, Simone N Santos, Wladimir M Freitas, Andrei C Sposito
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Excess weight is a widespread condition related to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sarcopenia is a catabolic pathway common of the aging process and also associated with CHD. In the elderly, both changes occur concurrently and it remains unclear the relative contribution on CHD risk. We aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia, excess weight, or both are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and/or endothelial dysfunction in very elderly individuals...
January 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127425/novel-metabolic-and-physiological-functions-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Shihai Zhang, Xiangfang Zeng, Man Ren, Xiangbing Mao, Shiyan Qiao
It is widely known that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) are not only elementary components for building muscle tissue but also participate in increasing protein synthesis in animals and humans. BCAA (isoleucine, leucine and valine) regulate many key signaling pathways, the most classic of which is the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway. This signaling pathway connects many diverse physiological and metabolic roles. Recent years have witnessed many striking developments in determining the novel functions of BCAA including: (1) Insufficient or excessive levels of BCAA in the diet enhances lipolysis...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120165/investigating-the-link-of-acad10-deficiency-to-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Kaitlyn Bloom, Al-Walid Mohsen, Anuradha Karunanidhi, Dina El Demellawy, Miguel Reyes-Múgica, Yudong Wang, Lina Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Chikara Otsubo, Kimi Tobita, Radhika Muzumdar, Zhenwei Gong, Emir Tas, Shrabani Basu, Jie Chen, Michael Bennett, Charles Hoppel, Jerry Vockley
The Native American Pima population has the highest incidence of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) of any reported population, but the pathophysiologic mechanism is unknown. Genetic studies in Pima Indians have linked acyl-CoA dehydrogenase 10 (ACAD10) gene polymorphisms, among others, to this predisposition. The gene codes for a protein with a C-terminus region that is structurally similar to members of a family of flavoenzymes-the acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs)-that catalyze α,β-dehydrogenation reactions, including the first step in mitochondrial FAO (FAO), and intermediary reactions in amino acids catabolism...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114403/proline-metabolism-is-essential-for-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-survival-in-the-tsetse-vector
#15
Brian S Mantilla, Letícia Marchese, Aitor Casas-Sánchez, Naomi A Dyer, Nicholas Ejeh, Marc Biran, Frédéric Bringaud, Michael J Lehane, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Ariel M Silber
Adaptation to different nutritional environments is essential for life cycle completion by all Trypanosoma brucei sub-species. In the tsetse fly vector, L-proline is among the most abundant amino acids and is mainly used by the fly for lactation and to fuel flight muscle. The procyclic (insect) stage of T. b. brucei uses L-proline as its main carbon source, relying on an efficient catabolic pathway to convert it to glutamate, and then to succinate, acetate and alanine as the main secreted end products. Here we investigated the essentiality of an undisrupted proline catabolic pathway in T...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112773/combination-of-recreational-soccer-and-caloric-restricted-diet-reduces-markers-of-protein-catabolism-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#16
M Vieira de Sousa, R Fukui, P Krustrup, S Dagogo-Jack, M E Rossi da Silva
BACKGROUND: Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109823/divergent-regulation-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-genes-in-cultured-atlantic-salmon-myotubes-under-different-models-of-catabolism-and-anabolism
#17
Daniel Garcia de la Serrana, Eduardo N Fuentes, Samuel A M Martin, Ian A Johnston, Daniel J Macqueen
Much attention has been given to insulin-like growth factor (Igf) pathways that regulate the balance of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in response to a range of extrinsic and intrinsic signals. However, we have a less complete understanding of how the same signals modulate muscle mass upstream of such signalling, through a family of functionally-diverse Igf-binding proteins (Igfbps) that modify the availability of Igfs to the cell receptor Igf1r. We exposed cultured myotubes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L...
January 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105733/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-sickle-cell-disease
#18
REVIEW
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Nan Nitra Than, Han Ni, Jaspal Singh, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd Said, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis)...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104196/a-new-weapon-in-the-fight-against-postcardiac-surgery-muscle-catabolism
#19
EDITORIAL
Andrea Montisci, Antonio Miceli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#20
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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