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Gut microbiota and diabetes

Juan Bai, Ying Zhu, Ying Dong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to investigate how bitter melon powder (BMP) could affect obesity-associated inflammatory responses to ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance, and investigated whether its anti-inflammatory properties were effected by modulating the gut microbiota...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rinki Murphy, Peter Tsai, Mia Jüllig, Amy Liu, Lindsay Plank, Michael Booth
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether specific gut microbiota is associated with remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after distinct types of bariatric surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study is to examine gut microbiota changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgery in obese patients with T2D. METHODS: Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of DNA fragments using Illumina HiSeq2000 was obtained from stool samples collected from 14 obese T2D patients pre-operatively (while on very low calorie diet) and 1 year after randomisation to laparoscopic SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7)...
October 13, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Anna Heintz-Buschart, Patrick May, Cédric C Laczny, Laura A Lebrun, Camille Bellora, Abhimanyu Krishna, Linda Wampach, Jochen G Schneider, Angela Hogan, Carine de Beaufort, Paul Wilmes
The gastrointestinal microbiome is a complex ecosystem with functions that shape human health. Studying the relationship between taxonomic alterations and functional repercussions linked to disease remains challenging. Here, we present an integrative approach to resolve the taxonomic and functional attributes of gastrointestinal microbiota at the metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic levels. We apply our methods to samples from four families with multiple cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM)...
October 10, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Sonakshi Bhattacharjee, Nils Kalbfuss, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa
Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in diseases that are ascribed to alter metabolism eventually resulting in conditions including obesity, type-2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Of the many factors to which this rise has been attributed, including diet, physical activity, and inflammation, several studies have correlated these disease states with alterations in gut microbiota. Simultaneously, studies have demonstrated the ability of parasites to alter microbial communities within their shared niche, leading to alterations in inflammatory processes...
October 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
Peijun Tian, Baolong Li, Canxia He, Wei Song, Aiju Hou, Sicong Tian, Xinyu Meng, Kaikai Li, Yujuan Shan
The antidiabetic effects of Lactobacillus. paracasei subsp. paracasei G15 and Lactobacillus. casei Q14 in high fat diet and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats were evaluated in this study. The strains were separated from Chinese traditional fermented dairy food. Administration of G15 and Q14 for 6 weeks significantly improved the glucose tolerance and reduced the HbA1c levels in T2D rats. The probiotic treatment reduced the intestinal mucosal permeability and improved the epithelial barrier function through modification of the gut microbiota, which in turn lowered circulating LPS and inflammation cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-8, and eventually alleviated the inflammatory status and islet β-cell dysfunction...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
Cicely Proctor, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
The consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar can lead to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. In the human gut, the trillions of harmless microorganisms harboured in the host's gastrointestinal tract are called the 'gut microbiota'. Consumption of a diet high in fat and sugar changes the healthy microbiota composition which leads to an imbalanced microbial population in the gut, a phenomenon known as "gut dysbiosis". It has been shown that certain types of gut microbiota are linked to the pathogenesis of obesity...
October 5, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Allison L Richards, Michael B Burns, Adnan Alazizi, Luis B Barreiro, Roger Pique-Regi, Ran Blekhman, Francesca Luca
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the gut microbiota in healthy and disease states. However, establishing the causality of host-microbiota interactions in humans is still challenging. Here, we describe a novel experimental system to define the transcriptional response induced by the microbiota in human cells and to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying host-gut microbiota interactions. In primary human colonic epithelial cells, we identified over 6,000 genes that change expression at various time points following co-culturing with the gut microbiota of a healthy individual...
July 2016: MSystems
Elahe Kia, Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Danielle Middleton, Anna Lau, David W Waite, Gillian Lewis, Yih-Kai Chan, Marta Silvestre, Garth J S Cooper, Sally D Poppitt, Michael W Taylor
In studies of the human microbiome, faecal samples are frequently used as a non-invasive proxy for the study of the intestinal microbiota. To obtain reliable insights, the need for bacterial DNA of high quality and integrity following appropriate faecal sample collection and preservation steps is paramount. In a study of dietary mineral balance in the context of type 2 diabetes (T2D), faecal samples were collected from healthy and T2D individuals throughout a 13-day residential trial. These samples were freeze-dried, then stored mostly at -20°C from the trial date in 2000/2001 until the current research in 2014...
2016: PloS One
Yao-Jong Yang, Bor-Shyang Sheu
As a barrier, gut commensal microbiota can protect against potential pathogenic microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. Crosstalk between gut microbes and immune cells promotes human intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of many human metabolic disorders like obesity, hepatic steatohepatitis, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Certain microbes, such as butyrate-producing bacteria, are lower in T2D patients. The transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but the exact pathogenesis remains unclear...
February 16, 2016: Microorganisms
Fraser W Scott, Lynley Pound, Christopher Patrick, Chandra Eberhard, Jennifer Crookshank
The rise in new cases of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically susceptible individuals over the past half century has been attributed to numerous environmental "triggers" or promoters such as enteroviruses, diet, and most recently, gut bacteria. No single cause has been identified in humans, likely because there are several pathways by which one can develop T1D. There is renewed attention to the role of the gut and its immune system in T1D pathogenesis based largely on recent animal studies demonstrating that altering the gut microbiota affects diabetes incidence...
September 13, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Thierry Pédron, Giulia Nigro, Philippe J Sansonetti
Metagenomic analysis of the human intestinal microbiome has provided a wealth of information that allowed an exceptionally detailed description of its microbial content and physiological potential. It also set the basis for studies allowing correlation of alterations in the balance of this microbiota and the occurrence of a certain number of emerging diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases, obesity and diabetes, and possibly colorectal cancer. The time has come to give the intestinal microbiota in symbiosis with its host an experimental dimension...
November 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Myung-Shik Lee
Low-grade systemic inflammation in adipose tissues or liver, is an important etiologic factor in insulin resistance. LPS is an important element causing such metabolic inflammation, and intestinal flora is considered a major source of systemic LPS. We studied changes of intestinal microbiota associated with high-fat diet (HFD) that causes insulin resistance and metabolic stress. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that HFD significantly decreased the abundance of a mucin-degrading bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila compared to control diet...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chia-Chen Lu, Yun-Fei Ko, Shun-Fu Tseng, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
Obesity is reaching global epidemic proportions as a result of factors such as high-calorie diets and lack of physical exercise. Obesity is now considered to be a medical condition, which not only contributes to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, but also negatively affects longevity and quality of life. To combat this epidemic, anti-obesogenic approaches are required that are safe, widely available and inexpensive. Several plants and mushrooms that are consumed in traditional Chinese medicine or as nutraceuticals contain antioxidants, fibre and other phytochemicals, and have anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects through the modulation of diverse cellular and physiological pathways...
September 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Xueran Mei, Xiaoyu Zhang, Zhanguo Wang, Ziyang Gao, Gang Liu, Huiling Hu, Liang Zou, Xueli Li
Phlorizin exists in a number of fruits and foods and exhibits many bioactivities. The mechanism of its antidiabetic effect has been known as it can competitively inhibit sodium-glucose symporters (SGLTs). However, phlorizin has a wide range of two-phase metabolism in systemic circulation and shows poor oral bioavailability. An alternative mechanism may involve gut microbiota in intestine. Sixteen obese mice with type 2 diabetes (db/db) and eight age-matched control mice (db/+) were divided into three groups: diabetic group treated with phlorizin (DMT group), vehicle-treated diabetic group (DM group), and normal control group (CC group)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, André F Carvalho, Javier R Caso, Yolanda Sanz, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: In steady state conditions intestinal immune homeostasis is maintained by a sophisticated bidirectional dialogue between the microbiota and the intestinal immune system. This "cross talk" is enabled by the presence of highly adapted secretory cells, sampling cells and pattern recognition receptors in the gastric epithelium. METHODS: Herein we discuss the mechanisms involved in the breakdown of intestinal homeostasis and the development of systemic immune activation and neuroinflammation with a view to discussing the importance of these processes, in tandem with genetic and environmental factors, in the pathophysiology of (auto)immune diseases...
September 14, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Cristina Diaz-Perdigones, Francisco J Tinahones
In recent years, many studies have related gut microbiome to development of highly prevalent diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. Obesity itself is associated to changes in the composition of gut microbiome, with a trend to an overgrowth of microorganisms more efficiently obtaining energy from diet. There are several mechanisms that relate microbiota to the onset of insulin resistance and diabetes, including changes in bowel permeability, endotoxemia, interaction with bile acids, changes in the proportion of brown adipose tissue, and effects associated to use of drugs like metformin...
September 12, 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Xinfeng Yan, Bo Feng, Peicheng Li, Zhaosheng Tang, Lin Wang
Background. Emerging evidences have shown a close interplay between obesity, diabetes, and intestinal flora disturbance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, exemplified by sitagliptin, is highly efficacious in treating type 2 diabetes (T2DM), yet little is known if sitagliptin exerts beneficial effects on microbiota associated with obesity and T2DM. We evaluated changes of gut microbiota following the induction of obesity and T2DM in a streptozotocin treated high fat/high carbohydrate fed (HF/HC-STZ) rat model and explored the effect of sitagliptin on gut microbiota for HF/HC-STZ rats...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
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