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Gut microbiota and diabetes

Marion Soto, Clémence Herzog, Julian A Pacheco, Shiho Fujisaka, Kevin Bullock, Clary B Clish, C Ronald Kahn
Obesity and diabetes in humans are associated with increased rates of anxiety and depression. To understand the role of the gut microbiome and brain insulin resistance in these disorders, we evaluated behaviors and insulin action in brain of mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO) with and without antibiotic treatment. We find that DIO mice have behaviors reflective of increased anxiety and depression. This is associated with decreased insulin signaling and increased inflammation in in the nucleus accumbens and amygdala...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Jacques Amar
When analyzing the microbiota-host crosstalk, we have to consider three participants in this dialogue: the gut microbiota, the intestinal barrier and bacterial translocation. Experimental data demonstrate that host microbiota crosstalk plays a causal on the regulation of blood pressure, glucose metabolism and the development of atherosclerosis. Host microbiota crosstalk is associated in humans with main cardiovascular risk factors notably hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Host microbiota crosstalk is associated in humans with the onset of cardiovascular diseases...
June 13, 2018: La Presse Médicale
Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Edi Prifti, Eugeni Belda, Farid Ichou, Brandon D Kayser, Maria Carlota Dao, Eric O Verger, Lyamine Hedjazil, Jean-Luc Bouillot, Jean-Marc Chevallier, Nicolas Pons, Emmanuelle Le Chatelier, Florence Levenez, Stanislav Dusko Ehrlich, Joel Dore, Jean-Daniel Zucker, Karine Clément
OBJECTIVES: Decreased gut microbial gene richness (MGR) and compositional changes are associated with adverse metabolism in overweight or moderate obesity, but lack characterisation in severe obesity. Bariatric surgery (BS) improves metabolism and inflammation in severe obesity and is associated with gut microbiota modifications. Here, we characterised severe obesity-associated dysbiosis (ie, MGR, microbiota composition and functional characteristics) and assessed whether BS would rescue these changes...
June 13, 2018: Gut
Carla R Taddei, Ramon V Cortez, Rosiane Mattar, Maria Regina Torloni, Silvia Daher
This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Izaskun Garcia-Mantrana, Marta Selma-Royo, Cristina Alcantara, María C Collado
There is increasing evidence for the interaction between gut microbiome, diet, and health. It is known that dysbiosis is related to disease and that most of the times this imbalances in gut microbial populations can be promoted through diet. Western dietary habits, which are characterized by high intakes of calories, animal proteins, saturated fats, and simple sugars have been linked with higher risk of obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the impact of dietary patterns, dietary components, and nutrients on gut microbiota in healthy people...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Li Zhao, Yi Chen, Fangzhen Xia, Buatikamu Abudukerimu, Wen Zhang, Yuyu Guo, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
In addition to improving glucose metabolism, liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, has weight-loss effects. The underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. This study was performed to explore whether liraglutide could lower weight by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota in simple obese and diabetic obese rats. In our study, Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were randomly treated with liraglutide or normal saline for 12 weeks. The biochemical parameters and metabolic hormones were measured...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Xiang Li, Joseph A DiDonato, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in gut microbiota have been linked to host insulin resistance, diabetes and impaired amino acid metabolism. We investigated whether changes in gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its nutrient precursors (choline and L-carnitine) were associated with improvements in glucose metabolism and diabetes-related amino acids in a weight-loss diet intervention. DESIGN: We included 504 overweight and obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four energy-reduced diets varying in macronutrient intake...
June 2, 2018: Gut
Susan Westfall, Nikita Lomis, Satya Prakash
Aging and chronic disease development are multifactorial processes involving the cumulative effects of metabolic distress, inflammation, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics. Recently, variations in the gut microbiota have been associated with age-related phenotypes and probiotics have shown promise in managing chronic disease progression. In this study, novel probiotic and synbiotic formulations are shown to combinatorially extend longevity in male Drosophila melanogaster through mechanisms of gut-brain-axis communication with implications in chronic disease management...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Medha Priyadarshini, Guadalupe Navarro, Brian T Layden
The G protein-coupled receptors, free fatty acid (FFA) receptors 2 and 3 (FFA2 and FFA3), belonging to the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) class, sense a distinct class of nutrients, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These receptors participate in both immune and metabolic regulation. The latter includes a role in regulating secretion of metabolic hormones. It was only recently that their role in pancreatic β cells was recognized; these receptors are known now to affect not only insulin secretion but also β-cell survival and proliferation...
June 1, 2018: Endocrinology
Junping Zheng, Xubing Yuan, Chen Zhang, Peiyuan Jia, Siming Jiao, Xiaoming Zhao, Heng Yin, Yuguang Du, Hongtao Liu
BACKGROUND: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidative reagent for clinical diseases, shows potential application to diabetes and other metabolic diseases. However, it is unknown how NAC modulates the gut microbiota of mice with metabolic syndrome. In present study, we aim to demonstrate the preventive effect of NAC on intestinal dysbiosis and glucose metabolic disorder. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed with normal chow diet (NCD), NCD plus NAC, high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD plus NAC for five months...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
Patrice D Cani, Benedicte F Jordan
Overweight and obesity are associated with increased risk of developing metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. However, besides these metabolic diseases, excess body weight is also associated with different cancers, including gastrointestinal cancers, such as liver, pancreatic and colon cancers. Inflammation is a common feature of both obesity and cancer; however, the origin of this inflammation has been largely debated. Over the past decade, growing evidence has shown that the composition of the gut microbiota and its activity might be associated not only with the onset of inflammation but also with metabolic disorders and cancer...
May 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Fengna Chu, Mingchao Shi, Yue Lang, Donghui Shen, Tao Jin, Jie Zhu, Li Cui
The gut environment and gut microbiome dysbiosis have been demonstrated to significantly influence a range of disorders in humans, including obesity, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). The etiology of MS is not clear, and it should involve both genetic and extrinsic factors. The extrinsic factors responsible for predisposition to MS remain elusive. Recent studies on MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have found that gastrointestinal microbiota may play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Leila Khalili, Beitullah Alipour, Mohammad Asghari Jafar-Abadi, Ismail Faraji, Tohid Hassanalilou, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, Elnaz Vaghef-Mehrabany, Mahmood Alizadeh Sani
Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to the gut microbiota with numerous molecular mechanisms. Modulating the gut microbiota by probiotics could be effective in management of T2DM. The aim of the present trial was to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus casei on glycemic control and serum sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and fetuin-A in patients with T2DM. Methods: Forty patients with T2DM (n = 20 for each group) were divided into intervention (probiotic) and placebo groups...
May 27, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Qian Yang, Shi Lin Lin, Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
Manipulation of the gut microbiota presents a new opportunity to combat chronic diseases. Randomized controlled trials of probiotics suggest some associations with adiposity, lipids and insulin resistance, but no trials with hard outcomes have been conducted. We used separate-sample Mendelian randomization to obtain estimates of the associations of 27 gut microbiota genera with ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adiposity, lipids and insulin resistance, based on summary data from CARDIoGRAAMplusC4D and other consortiums...
May 25, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Kec Bouter, G J Bakker, E Levin, A V Hartstra, R S Kootte, S D Udayappan, S Katiraei, L Bahler, P W Gilijamse, V Tremaroli, M Stahlman, F Holleman, N A W van Riel, H J Verberne, J A Romijn, G M Dallinga-Thie, M J Serlie, M T Ackermans, E M Kemper, K Willems van Dijk, F Backhed, A K Groen, M Nieuwdorp
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been associated with beneficial metabolic effects. However, the direct effect of oral butyrate on metabolic parameters in humans has never been studied. In this first in men pilot study, we thus treated both lean and metabolic syndrome male subjects with oral sodium butyrate and investigated the effect on metabolism. METHODS: Healthy lean males (n = 9) and metabolic syndrome males (n = 10) were treated with oral 4 g of sodium butyrate daily for 4 weeks...
May 25, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Marjo Tuomainen, Jaana Lindström, Marko Lehtonen, Seppo Auriola, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Markku Peltonen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Vanessa D de Mello, Kati Hanhineva
We recently reported using non-targeted metabolic profiling that serum indolepropionic acid (IPA), a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, was associated with a lower likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the present study, we established a targeted quantitative method using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS) and measured the serum concentrations of IPA in all the participants from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), who had fasting serum samples available from the 1-year study follow-up (n = 209 lifestyle intervention and n = 206 control group)...
May 25, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Xiaolin Tong, Jia Xu, Fengmei Lian, Xiaotong Yu, Yufeng Zhao, Lipeng Xu, Menghui Zhang, Xiyan Zhao, Jian Shen, Shengping Wu, Xiaoyan Pang, Jiaxing Tian, Chenhong Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Linhua Wang, Bing Pang, Feng Chen, Zhiping Peng, Jing Wang, Zhong Zhen, Chao Fang, Min Li, Limei Chen, Liping Zhao
Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement...
May 22, 2018: MBio
Eleonora Scorletti, Paul R Afolabi, Elizabeth A Miles, Debbie E Smith, Amal Almehmadi, Albandri Alshathry, Helen E Moyses, Geraldine F Clough, Mark Wright, Janisha Patel, Laure Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne, Philip C Calder, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of fat-related conditions ranging from simple fatty liver, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. There is growing evidence that NAFLD is a multisystem disease, affecting several extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. Furthermore, since the gut and liver are linked anatomically via the portal vein, disturbances of the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) can affect the liver. OBJECTIVES: In patients with NAFLD, we are testing the effects of a synbiotic which is the combination of a prebiotic (fructooligosaccharides; 4 g/day) and a probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp...
May 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío I López Roa, Saray Quintero-Fabián, Marina A Sánchez-Sánchez, Barbara Vizmanos, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
Gut microbiota (GM) plays several crucial roles in host physiology and influences several relevant functions. In more than one respect, it can be said that you "feed your microbiota and are fed by it." GM diversity is affected by diet and influences metabolic and immune functions of the host's physiology. Consequently, an imbalance of GM, or dysbiosis, may be the cause or at least may lead to the progression of various pathologies such as infectious diseases, gastrointestinal cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, and even obesity and diabetes...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Marc R Bomhof, Jill A Parnell, Hena R Ramay, Pam Crotty, Kevin P Rioux, Chris S Probert, Saumya Jayakumar, Maitreyi Raman, Raylene A Reimer
PURPOSE: In obesity and diabetes the liver is highly susceptible to abnormal uptake and storage of fat. In certain individuals hepatic steatosis predisposes to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease marked by hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Although the precise pathophysiology of NASH is unknown, it is believed that the gut microbiota-liver axis influences the development of this disease. With few treatment strategies available for NASH, exploration of gut microbiota-targeted interventions is warranted...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
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