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Gut microbiota and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086768/probiotic-mixture-improves-fatty-liver-disease-by-virtue-of-its-action-on-lipid-profiles-leptin-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#1
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072592/metabolic-syndrome-associated-osteoarthritis
#2
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam, Francis Berenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071010/the-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-the-pathogenesis-of-metabolic-diseases
#3
Iwona Węgielska, Joanna Suliburska
The incidence of metabolic diseases is increasing rapidly all over the world. This situation has led researchers to attempt to explain the pathomechanisms of these disorders and to develop specific recommendations for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Recent studies show clear evidence of the role of human intestinal microbiota in health and in predispositions to diseases. Gut microbiota affect a number of complex metabolic reactions, significantly altering the functioning of the human body...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069756/inside-out-hiv-the-gut-microbiome-and-the-mucosal-immune-system
#4
REVIEW
Jay Liu, Brett Williams, Daniel Frank, Stephanie M Dillon, Cara C Wilson, Alan L Landay
The components of the human gut microbiome have been found to influence a broad array of pathologic conditions ranging from heart disease to diabetes and even to cancer. HIV infection upsets the delicate balance in the normal host-microbe interaction both through alterations in the taxonomic composition of gut microbial communities as well as through disruption of the normal host response mechanisms. In this article we review the current methods of gut microbiome analysis and the resulting data regarding how HIV infection might change the balance of commensal bacteria in the gut...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069754/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-type-1-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Alexandra Paun, Christopher Yau, Jayne S Danska
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. The rapid rise in T1D incidence during the past 50 y suggests environmental factors contribute to the disease. The trillion symbiotic microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (i.e., the microbiota) influence numerous aspects of host physiology. In this study we review the evidence linking perturbations of the gut microbiome to pancreatic autoimmunity. We discuss data from rodent models demonstrating the essential role of the gut microbiota on the development and function of the host's mucosal and systemic immune systems...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061847/role-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolites-on-gut-homeostasis-and-human-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Lan Lin, Jianqiong Zhang
BACKGROUND: A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health. METHODS: This paper reviews the effects on immunity of gut microbe-derived nucleic acids, and gut microbial metabolites, as well as the involvement of commensals in the gut homeostasis...
January 6, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045079/the-impact-of-gastric-atrophy-on-the-incidence-of-diabetes
#7
Tse-Ya Yu, Jung-Nan Wei, Chun-Heng Kuo, Jyh-Ming Liou, Mao-Shin Lin, Shyang-Rong Shih, Cyue-Huei Hua, Yenh-Chen Hsein, Ya-Wen Hsu, Lee-Ming Chuang, Mei-Kuei Lee, Ching-Hsiang Hsiao, Ming-Shiang Wu, Hung-Yuan Li
Gastric atrophy results in lower plasma ghrelin, higher gastrin secretion, a change in gut microbiota, and altered dietary nutrient absorption, which may be associated with the incidence of diabetes. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major cause of gastric atrophy and is associated with diabetes in some reports. Since there is no study which investigates the impact of gastric atrophy on diabetes, we conduct a prospective cohort study to examine the relationship between H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and incident diabetes...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042926/the-potential-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-your-health-current-status-and-future-challenges
#8
Stitaya Sirisinha
Our health and probably also our behaviors and mood depend not only on what we eat or what we do (lifestyle behaviors), but also on what we host. It is well established for decades that all vertebrates including humans are colonized by a wide array of bacteria, fungi, eukaryotic parasites and viruses, and that, at steady state (homeostasis), this community of microbes establishes a friendly mutual relationship with the host. The term microbiota was originally meant to represent an ecological community of commensals and potentially pathogenic microbes that live within our bodies, but it is now used interchangeably with the term microbiome which was initially meant to represent a collective genome of the microbiota...
December 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034467/maternal-health-and-the-placental-microbiome
#9
REVIEW
Elise Pelzer, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, Marloes Dekker Nitert
Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia...
December 2, 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034292/the-effect-of-pullulan-on-the-growth-and-acidifying-activity-of-selected-stool-microflora-of-human
#10
Anna Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Małgorzata Gniewosz, Marek Kieliszek, Anna Bzducha-Wróbel
BACKGROUND: Pullulan is a microbial polysaccharide of low energy value, which can component of low-calorie foods and in dietary snacks for diabetics. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of pullulan on the growth and fermentation activity of selected human intestinal bacteria. METHODS: Commercial pullulan purchased from Focubase (China) of a molecular weight of 100,000 Da constituted as experimental material. Food grade pullulan 99% purity. Two control media were prepared: the first standard RCM composed of (g/100 ml): 0...
December 29, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027925/impact-of-prebiotics-on-metabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-a-mouse-model-of-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Lourdes Fernández de Cossío, Célia Fourrier, Julie Sauvant, Amandine Everard, Lucile Capuron, Patrice D Cani, Sophie Layé, Nathalie Castanon
Mounting evidence shows that the gut microbiota, an important player within the gut-brain communication axis, can affect metabolism, inflammation, brain function and behavior. Interestingly, gut microbiota composition is known to be altered in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), who also often display neuropsychiatric symptoms. The use of prebiotics, which beneficially alters the microbiota, may therefore be a promising way to potentially improve physical and mental health in MetS patients. This hypothesis was tested in a mouse model of MetS, namely the obese and type-2 diabetic db/db mice, which display emotional and cognitive alterations associated with changes in gut microbiota composition and hippocampal inflammation compared to their lean db/+ littermates...
December 24, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013341/emerging-role-of-intestinal-microbiota-and-microbial-metabolites-in-metabolic-control
#12
EDITORIAL
Hilde Herrema, Richard G IJzerman, Max Nieuwdorp
The role of the intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites in the maintenance of host health and development of metabolic disease has gained significant attention over the past decade. Mechanistic insight revealing causality, however, is scarce. Work by Ussar and co-workers demonstrates that a complex interaction between microbiota, host genetics and environmental factors is involved in metabolic disease development in mice. In addition, Perry and co-workers show that the microbial metabolite acetate augments insulin resistance in rats...
December 24, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009106/metabolic-effects-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Reza Mobini, Valentina Tremaroli, Marcus Ståhlman, Fredrik Karlsson, Max Levin, Maria Ljungberg, Maja Sohlin, Heléne Bertéus Forslund, Rosie Perkins, Fredrik Bäckhed, Per-Anders Jansson
AIMS: To investigate the metabolic effects of 12-week oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in patients with type 2 diabetes on insulin therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind trial, we randomized 46 patients with type 2 diabetes to placebo or a low (10(8) CFU/day) or high dose (10(10) CFU/day) of L. reuteri DSM 17938 for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the effect of supplementation on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Secondary endpoints were insulin sensitivity (assessed by glucose clamp), liver fat content, body composition, body fat distribution, fecal microbiota composition and serum bile acids...
December 23, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008783/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-ncdc17-ameliorates-type-2-diabetes-by-improving-gut-function-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-and-streptozotocintreated-rats
#14
S Singh, R K Sharma, S Malhotra, R Pothuraju, U K Shandilya
Restoration of dysbiosed gut microbiota through probiotic may have profound effect on type 2 diabetes. In the present study, rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for 3 weeks and injected with low dose streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. Diabetic rats were then fed Lactobacillus rhamnosus NCDC 17 and L. rhamnosus GG with HFD for six weeks. L. rhamnosus NCDC 17 improved oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical parameters (fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, free fatty acids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in blood and liver), bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in cecum, expression of glucagon like peptide-1 producing genes in cecum, and adiponection in epididymal fat, while decreased propionate proportions (%) in caecum, and expression of tumour necrosis factor-α and interlukin-6 in epididymal fat of diabetic rats as compared to diabetes control group...
December 23, 2016: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004036/the-microbial-hypothesis-contributions-of-adenovirus-infection-and-metabolic-endotoxaemia-to-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Amos Tambo, Mohsin H K Roshan, Nikolai P Pace
The global obesity epidemic, dubbed "globesity" by the World Health Organisation, is a pressing public health issue. The aetiology of obesity is multifactorial incorporating both genetic and environmental factors. Recently, epidemiological studies have observed an association between microbes and obesity. Obesity-promoting microbiome and resultant gut barrier disintegration have been implicated as key factors facilitating metabolic endotoxaemia. This is an influx of bacterial endotoxins into the systemic circulation, believed to underpin obesity pathogenesis...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999002/metformin-is-associated-with-higher-relative-abundance-of-mucin-degrading-akkermansia-muciniphila-and-several-short-chain-fatty-acid-producing-microbiota-in-the-gut
#16
Jacobo de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Noel T Mueller, Vanessa Corrales-Agudelo, Eliana P Velásquez-Mejía, Jenny A Carmona, José M Abad, Juan S Escobar
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest the beneficial effects of metformin on glucose metabolism may be microbially mediated. We examined the association of type 2 diabetes, metformin, and gut microbiota in community-dwelling Colombian adults. On the basis of previous research, we hypothesized that metformin is associated with higher levels of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing and mucin-degrading microbiota. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were selected from a larger cohort of 459 participants...
January 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991713/roles-of-the-gut-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-overview
#17
REVIEW
L Fändriks
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors (central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension), indicating an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The gastrointestinal tract is seldom discussed as an organ system of principal importance for metabolic diseases. The present overview connects various metabolic research lines into an integrative physiological context in which the gastrointestinal tract is included. Strong evidence for the involvement of the gut in the metabolic syndrome derives from the powerful effects of weight-reducing (bariatric) gastrointestinal surgery...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989963/tuning-constitutive-and-pathological-inflammation-in-the-gut-via-the-interaction-of-dietary-nitrate-and-polyphenols-with-host-microbiome
#18
Bárbara Rocha, Carla Nunes, João Laranjinha
Chronic inflammation is currently recognized as a critical process in modern-era epidemics such as diabetes, obesity and neurodegeneration. However, little attention is paid to the constitutive inflammatory pathways that operate in the gut and that are mandatory for local welfare and the prevention of such multi-organic diseases. Hence, the digestive system, while posing as a barrier between the external environment and the host, is crucial for the balance between constitutive and pathological inflammatory events...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983481/the-intestinal-proteome-of-diabetic-and-control-children-is-enriched-with-different-microbial-and-host-proteins
#19
Elsa Pinto, Marisol Anselmo, Manuela Calha, Andrew Bottrill, Isabel Duarte, Peter Andrew, Maria Leonor Faleiro
In this study the intestinal microbial proteome of children with established type 1 diabetes (T1D) was compared with the proteome of healthy children (Control) with the aim to identify differences in the activity of the intestinal microbiota that will not only contribute to a deeper knowledge of the functionality of the gut in these children but may also provide new approaches to improve the Control of the disease. Fecal protein extracts collected from three T1D children (aged of 9.3 ± 0.6) and three Control children (aged of 9...
December 15, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980091/metabolism-of-bile-acids-in-the-post-prandial-state
#20
REVIEW
Jarlei Fiamoncini, Rui Curi, Hannelore Daniel
The modulation of energy expenditure by dietary administration of cholic acid in mice promoted interest in studying bile acid(s) (BA) as adjuvants in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Bile acids can modulate intermediary metabolism by acting directly on nuclear as well as G-protein-coupled receptors or indirectly through changes in gut microbiota. Despite the potential of BA to affect intermediary metabolism, plasma kinetics and changes in individual BA in blood in the post-prandial state have been neglected for a long time...
December 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
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