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Gut microbiota and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434196/role-of-gut-microbiota-bile-acids-and-their-crosstalk-in-the-effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#1
Haijun Liu, Cheng Hu, Xueli Zhang, Weiping Jia
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide and has become one of the greatest threats to global health. Bariatric surgery was initially designed to achieve weight loss and subsequently was noted to induce improvements or remission of type 2 diabetes. Currently, these bariatric operations such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are the most effective procedures for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide. However, the specific mechanism mediating the beneficial effects of metabolic surgery has remained largely unknown...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434033/the-gut-microbiome-as-a-target-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hyperglycaemia-in-type-2-diabetes-from-current-human-evidence-to-future-possibilities
#2
REVIEW
Louise Brunkwall, Marju Orho-Melander
The totality of microbial genomes in the gut exceeds the size of the human genome, having around 500-fold more genes that importantly complement our coding potential. Microbial genes are essential for key metabolic processes, such as the breakdown of indigestible dietary fibres to short-chain fatty acids, biosynthesis of amino acids and vitamins, and production of neurotransmitters and hormones. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated to support a role for gut microbiota (analysed from faecal samples) in glycaemic control and type 2 diabetes...
April 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432876/effect-of-pistachio-consumption-on-the-modulation-of-urinary-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-in-prediabetic-subjects
#3
Pablo Hernández-Alonso, Daniel Cañueto, Simona Giardina, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Nicolau Cañellas, Xavier Correig, Mònica Bulló
The specific nutritional composition of nuts could affect different metabolic pathways involved in a broad range of metabolic diseases. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio nuts modifies the urine metabolome in prediabetic subjects. We designed a randomized crossover clinical trial in 39 prediabetic subjects. They consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429701/-microbiota-and-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Yüksel Altuntaş, Adnan Batman
The role of gut bacteria in the pathogenesis and treatment of various diseases has been a focus of attention in the last 10 years. Prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases continues to increase, in spite of technological developments and treatment alternatives. Microbial dysbiosis, described as the decrease of useful bacteria and the increase of harmful bacteria, has been associated with diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. In microbial dysbiosis, increase of harmful metabolites and changes to composition of bile acids occur via carbohydrate and protein fermentation...
April 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425154/rifaximin-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-an-open-label-pilot-study
#5
Jeremy F L Cobbold, Stephen Atkinson, Julian R Marchesi, Ann Smith, Sann N Wai, Julie Stove, Fariba Shojaee-Moradie, Nicola Jackson, A Margot Umpleby, Julie Fitzpatrick, E Louise Thomas, Jimmy D Bell, Elaine Holmes, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Robert D Goldin, Michael S Yee, Quentin M Anstee, Mark R Thursz
AIM: Gut microbial dysbiosis is implicated in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We investigated downstream effects of gut microbiota modulation on markers of hepatic inflammation, steatosis, and hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with NASH using Rifaximin therapy. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven NASH and elevated aminotransferase values were included in this open-label pilot study, all receiving 6 weeks Rifaximin 400 mg twice daily, followed by a 6 week observation period...
April 20, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407784/relationships-between-gut-microbiota-plasma-metabolites-and-metabolic-syndrome-traits-in-the-metsim-cohort
#6
Elin Org, Yuna Blum, Silva Kasela, Margarete Mehrabian, Johanna Kuusisto, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Zeneng Wang, Mika Ala-Korpela, Stanley L Hazen, Markku Laakso, Aldons J Lusis
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is a complex and metabolically active community that directly influences host phenotypes. In this study, we profile gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 531 well-phenotyped Finnish men from the Metabolic Syndrome In Men (METSIM) study. RESULTS: We investigate gut microbiota relationships with a variety of factors that have an impact on the development of metabolic and cardiovascular traits. We identify novel associations between gut microbiota and fasting serum levels of a number of metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, lipids, and glucose...
April 13, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397877/indolepropionic-acid-and-novel-lipid-metabolites-are-associated-with-a-lower-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-finnish-diabetes-prevention-study
#7
Vanessa D de Mello, Jussi Paananen, Jaana Lindström, Maria A Lankinen, Lin Shi, Johanna Kuusisto, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Seppo Auriola, Marko Lehtonen, Olov Rolandsson, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Elise Nordin, Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Rikard Landberg, Johan G Eriksson, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Kati Hanhineva, Matti Uusitupa
Wide-scale profiling technologies including metabolomics broaden the possibility of novel discoveries related to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). By applying non-targeted metabolomics approach, we investigated here whether serum metabolite profile predicts T2D in a well-characterized study population with impaired glucose tolerance by examining two groups of individuals who took part in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS); those who either early developed T2D (n = 96) or did not convert to T2D within the 15-year follow-up (n = 104)...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396623/modified-mediterranean-diet-for-enrichment-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-potential-adjunctive-therapeutic-to-target-immune-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#8
Jamie Joseph, Colin Depp, Pei-An B Shih, Kristen S Cadenhead, Geert Schmid-Schönbein
Growing interest in gut and digestive processes and their potential link to brain and peripheral based inflammation or biobehavioral phenotypes has led to an increasing number of basic and translational scientific reports focused on the role of gut microbiota within the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the effect of dietary modification on specific gut metabolites, in association with immune, metabolic, and psychopathological functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders has not been well characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-prediabetic-individuals
#9
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 years) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390093/understanding-the-role-of-the-gut-ecosystem-in-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Wanping Aw, Shinji Fukuda
Diabetes mellitus is a type of metabolic disorder patients are unable to regulate glycemia. It is currently worldwide public health issue and is a burden to society due to its disabling and common complications. Diabetes is multi-factorial and also induces the onset of other diseases. In this report, we will review the labyrinth encompassing the gut microbiota and gut microbiota derived metabolites on type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. There has been exceptional improvements in Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing and mass spectrometry technologies throughout these years and this has allowed the comprehensive collection of information on our unique gut ecosystem...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389566/microbial-metabolites-in-health-and-disease-navigating-the-unknown-in-search-of-function
#11
Kristina B Martinez, Vanessa A Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota has been implicated in the development of a number of chronic gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. These include inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, metabolic (i.e. obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes), and neurological diseases. The advanced understanding of host-microbe interactions has largely been due to new technologies such as 16S rRNA sequencing to identify previously unknown microbial communities and more importantly their functional characteristics through metagenomic sequencing, and other multi-omic technologies such as metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388917/influence-of-diet-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-implications-for-human-health
#12
REVIEW
Rasnik K Singh, Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Kristina M Lee, Derya Ucmak, Kirsten Wong, Michael Abrouk, Benjamin Farahnik, Mio Nakamura, Tian Hao Zhu, Tina Bhutani, Wilson Liao
Recent studies have suggested that the intestinal microbiome plays an important role in modulating risk of several chronic diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. At the same time, it is now understood that diet plays a significant role in shaping the microbiome, with experiments showing that dietary alterations can induce large, temporary microbial shifts within 24 h. Given this association, there may be significant therapeutic utility in altering microbial composition through diet...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386350/change-in-gut-microbiota-is-correlated-with-alterations-in-the-surface-molecule-expression-of-monocytes-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-surgery-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-patients
#13
Hui Chen, Lei Qian, Qiangsheng Lv, Jianxiu Yu, Wei Wu, Haixin Qian
Objectives: Persistent low-grade chronic inflammation is common in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity. To date, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate gut microbiota and the expression of monocyte surface molecules in obese T2D subjects who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Methods: Twenty-four T2D patients were enrolled. Gut microbiota was assessed by measuring bacterial DNA. The phenotypes and biological functions of monocytes, and the expression of monocyte surface molecules were examined by flow cytometry...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386305/a-fermented-whole-grain-prevents-lipopolysaccharides-induced-dysfunction-in-human-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#14
Laura Giusti, Morena Gabriele, Giuseppe Penno, Monia Garofolo, Vincenzo Longo, Stefano Del Prato, Daniela Lucchesi, Laura Pucci
Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG), on early EPCs exposed to LPS...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379454/intervention-strategies-for-cesarean-section-induced-alterations-in-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis
#15
Angela Moya-Pérez, Pauline Luczynski, Ingrid B Renes, Shugui Wang, Yuliya Borre, C Anthony Ryan, Jan Knol, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract is an essential process that modulates host physiology and immunity. Recently, researchers have begun to understand how and when these microorganisms colonize the gut and the early-life factors that impact their natural ecological establishment. The vertical transmission of maternal microbes to the offspring is a critical factor for host immune and metabolic development. Increasing evidence also points to a role in the wiring of the gut-brain axis. This process may be altered by various factors such as mode of delivery, gestational age at birth, the use of antibiotics in early life, infant feeding, and hygiene practices...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372330/the-gut-microbiota-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Chunmei Jiang, Guangning Li, Pengru Huang, Zhou Liu, Bin Zhao
The gut microbiota comprises a complex community of microorganism species that resides in our gastrointestinal ecosystem and whose alterations influence not only various gut disorders but also central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with impaired cognition and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Most notably, the microbiota-gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication system that is not fully understood, but includes neural, immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365886/obstructive-sleep-apnea-induced-hypertension-role-of-the-gut-microbiota
#17
REVIEW
David J Durgan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a significant risk factor for systemic hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. While this relationship has been firmly established, a detailed understanding of how OSA leads to hypertension is lacking. This review will examine the emerging idea that the gut microbiota plays a role in the development of hypertension, including that associated with OSA. RECENT FINDINGS: Disruption of the normal composition of the gut microbiota, termed dysbiosis, has been identified in a number of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360349/gut-microbiota-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
W H Wilson Tang, Takeshi Kitai, Stanley L Hazen
Significant interest in recent years has focused on gut microbiota-host interaction because accumulating evidence has revealed that intestinal microbiota play an important role in human health and disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Changes in the composition of gut microbiota associated with disease, referred to as dysbiosis, have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to alterations in gut microbiota composition, the metabolic potential of gut microbiota has been identified as a contributing factor in the development of diseases...
March 31, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356137/ethnic-and-diet-related-differences-in-the-healthy-infant-microbiome
#19
Jennifer C Stearns, Michael A Zulyniak, Russell J de Souza, Natalie C Campbell, Michelle Fontes, Mateen Shaikh, Malcolm R Sears, Allan B Becker, Piushkumar J Mandhane, Padmaja Subbarao, Stuart E Turvey, Milan Gupta, Joseph Beyene, Michael G Surette, Sonia S Anand
BACKGROUND: The infant gut is rapidly colonized by microorganisms soon after birth, and the composition of the microbiota is dynamic in the first year of life. Although a stable microbiome may not be established until 1 to 3 years after birth, the infant gut microbiota appears to be an important predictor of health outcomes in later life. METHODS: We obtained stool at one year of age from 173 white Caucasian and 182 South Asian infants from two Canadian birth cohorts to gain insight into how maternal and early infancy exposures influence the development of the gut microbiota...
March 29, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356129/the-effects-of-probiotic-and-synbiotic-supplementation-on-metabolic-syndrome-indices-in-adults-at-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Nazila Kassaian, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Awat Feizi, Parvaneh Jafari, Masoud Amini
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity has been rising dramatically; however, their pathogenesis is particularly intriguing. Recently, dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has emerged as a new candidate that may be linked to metabolic diseases. We hypothesize that selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota by probiotic or synbiotic supplementation may improve metabolic dysfunction and prevent diabetes in prediabetics. In this study, a synthesis and study of synbiotics will be carried out for the first time in Iran...
March 29, 2017: Trials
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