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Gut microbiota and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818268/-metformin-resistant-folic-acid-producing-probiotics-or-folic-acid-against-metformin-s-adverse-effects-like-diarrhea
#1
Abdullah Olgun
Metformin, first line medication in the treatment of type2 diabetes by millions of patients worldwide, causes gastrointestinal adverse effects (i.e. diarrhea) in approximately 30% of patients, frequently leading to discontinuation. Interestingly, metformin was reported to increase life span in a microscopic worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, by decreasing folate and methionine production of bacteria that this worm uses as a food source. Metformin can be expected to have a similar effect on some microorganisms of human gut microbiota...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815303/effect-of-barley-supplementation-on-the-fecal-microbiota-caecal-biochemistry-and-key-biomarkers-of-obesity-and-inflammation-in-obese-db-db-mice
#2
Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, David A Mills, Kevin Murphy, Giuliana Noratto
PURPOSE: Barley is a low-glycemic index grain that can help diabetic and obese patients. The effect of barley intake depends on the host and the associated gut microbiota. This study investigated the effect of barley intake on the fecal microbiota, caecal biochemistry, and key biomarkers of obesity and inflammation. METHODS: Obese db/db mice were fed diets with and without barley during 8 weeks; lean mice were used as lean controls. Fecal microbiota was evaluated using 16S marker gene sequencing in a MiSeq instrument; several markers of caecal biochemistry, obesity, and inflammation were also evaluated using standard techniques...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814977/worse-inflammatory-profile-in-omnivores-than-in-vegetarians-associates-with-the-gut-microbiota-composition
#3
Ana Carolina Franco-de-Moraes, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Everton Padilha Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
AIMS: To describe the abundance of major phyla and some genera in the gut microbiota of individuals according to dietary habits and examine their associations with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile. METHODS: A total of 268 non-diabetic individuals were stratified into groups of dietary types (strict vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and omnivores). The taxonomic composition and phylogenetic structure of the microbiota were obtained through the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#4
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797248/the-role-of-bariatric-surgery-to-treat-diabetes-current-challenges-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Carel W le Roux, Alexander Kokkinos
Bariatric surgery is emerging as a powerful weapon against severe obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Given its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to treat T2DM, especially in light of accumulating evidence that surgery with gastrointestinal manipulations may result in T2DM remission (metabolic surgery). The major mechanisms mediating the weight loss-independent effects of bariatric surgery comprise effects on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and incretin responses, changes in bile acid composition and flow, modifications of gut microbiota, intestinal glucose metabolism and increased brown adipose tissue metabolic activity...
August 10, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793934/statin-therapy-causes-gut-dysbiosis-in-mice-through-a-pxr-dependent-mechanism
#6
Jose A Caparrós-Martín, Ricky R Lareu, Joshua P Ramsay, Jörg Peplies, F Jerry Reen, Henrietta A Headlam, Natalie C Ward, Kevin D Croft, Philip Newsholme, Jeffery D Hughes, Fergal O'Gara
BACKGROUND: Statins are a class of therapeutics used to regulate serum cholesterol and reduce the risk of heart disease. Although statins are highly effective in removing cholesterol from the blood, their consumption has been linked to potential adverse effects in some individuals. The most common events associated with statin intolerance are myopathy and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the pathological mechanism through which statins cause these adverse effects is not well understood...
August 9, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790923/gut-microbiome-response-to-sucralose-and-its-potential-role-in-inducing-liver-inflammation-in-mice
#7
Xiaoming Bian, Liang Chi, Bei Gao, Pengcheng Tu, Hongyu Ru, Kun Lu
Sucralose is the most widely used artificial sweetener, and its health effects have been highly debated over the years. In particular, previous studies have shown that sucralose consumption can alter the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome plays a key role in processes related to host health, such as food digestion and fermentation, immune cell development, and enteric nervous system regulation. Inflammation is one of the most common effects associated with gut microbiome dysbiosis, which has been linked to a series of human diseases, such as diabetes and obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782784/lactobacillus-casei-ccfm419-attenuates-type-2-diabetes-via-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-mechanism
#8
Gang Wang, Xiangfei Li, Jianxin Zhao, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen
Probiotics, as dietary supplements, transmit their major effects through the regulation of gut microbiota. According to a previous study, one possible mechanism of Lactobacillus casei CCFM419 protection against diabetes may involve gut flora. To test this hypothesis, high fat and streptozotocin-induced C57BL/6J mice were fed L. casei CCFM419 at 10(8), 10(9), and 10(10) colony forming units (CFU). Compared to untreated mice, 10(9) CFU of L. casei CCFM419 attenuated several symptoms of diabetes, including fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance...
August 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770326/the-effects-of-metformin-on-gut-microbiota-and-the-immune-system-as-research-frontiers
#9
REVIEW
Michael Pollak
Recent studies have revealed that metformin influences gut microbiota and the immune system although neither is a classic target of the drug. This research has revealed complexity not previously appreciated, and opened new research directions. The extent to which immunomodulatory effects and actions on the microbiota are related to each other and account for effects on host energy metabolism remains to be determined. These sites of action may be relevant not only to the efficacy of metformin for its established use in type 2 diabetes, but also to proposed novel indications in oncology and other diseases...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768836/s-equol-activates-camp-signaling-at-the-plasma-membrane-of-ins-1-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-protects-against-streptozotocin-induced-hyperglycemia-by-increasing-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-male-mice
#10
Hiroko Horiuchi, Atsuko Usami, Rie Shirai, Naoki Harada, Shinichi Ikushiro, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Yoshihisa Nakano, Hiroshi Inui, Ryoichi Yamaji
Background:S-equol, which is enantioselectively produced from daidzein by gut microbiota, has been suggested as a chemopreventive agent against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.Objective: We investigated the effects of S-equol on pancreatic β-cell function.Methods: β-Cell growth and insulin secretion were evaluated with male Institute of Cancer Research mice and isolated pancreatic islets from the mice, respectively. The mechanisms by which S-equol stimulated β-cell response were examined in INS-1 β-cells...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765690/diarrhea-after-bariatric-procedures-diagnosis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Yves M Borbély, Alice Osterwalder, Dino Kröll, Philipp C Nett, Roman A Inglin
Diarrhea after bariatric procedures, mainly those with malabsorptive elements including Roux-Y Gastric Bypass and Biliopancreatic Diversion, is common and an essential determinant of quality of life and micro- and macronutrient deficiencies. Bariatric surgery is the only sustainably successful method to address morbid obesity and its comorbidities, particularly gaining more and more importance in the specific treatment of diabetic patients. Approximately half a million procedures are annually performed around the world, with numbers expected to rise drastically in the near future...
July 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765642/anti-diabetic-effects-of-clostridium-butyricum-cgmcc0313-1-through-promoting-the-growth-of-gut-butyrate-producing-bacteria-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#12
Lingling Jia, Dongyao Li, Ninghan Feng, Muhammad Shamoon, Zhenghua Sun, Lei Ding, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Jia Sun, Yong Q Chen
Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have decreased butyrate-producing bacteria. We hypothesized that supplementation with butyrate-producing bacteria may exert beneficial effects on T2D. The current study investigated the effects of well-characterized butyrate-producing bacteria Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313.1 (CB0313.1) on hyperglycemia and associated metabolic dysfunction in two diabetic mouse models. CB0313.1 was administered daily by oral gavage to leptin (db/db) mice for 5 weeks starting from 3 weeks of age, and to HF diabetic mice induced by high fat diet (HFD) plus streptozotocin (STZ) in C57BL/6J mice for 13 weeks starting from 4 weeks of age...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759308/vasopressin-deletion-is-associated-with-sex-specific-shifts-in-the-gut-microbiome
#13
Christopher T Fields, Benoit Chassaing, Matthew J Paul, Andrew T Gewirtz, Geert J de Vries
Brattleboro rats harbor a spontaneous deletion of the arginine-vasopressin (Avp) gene. In addition to diabetes insipidus, these rats exhibit low levels of anxiety and depressive behaviors. Recent work on the gut-brain axis has revealed that gut microbiota can influence anxiety behaviors. Therefore, we studied the effects of Avp gene deletion on gut microbiota. Since Avp gene expression is sexually different, we also examined how Avp deletion affects sex differences in gut microbiota. Males and females show modest but differentiated shifts in taxa abundance across 3 separate Avp deletion genotypes: wildtype (WT), heterozygous (Het) and AVP-deficient Brattleboro (KO) rats...
July 31, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757611/gut-microbiota-metabolites-for-sweetening-type-i-diabetes
#14
Thamer Aljutaily, Marta Consuegra-Fernández, Fernando Aranda, Francisco Lozano, Eduardo Huarte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754711/10-oxo-12-z-octadecenoic-acid-a-linoleic-acid-metabolite-produced-by-gut-lactic-acid-bacteria-enhances-energy-metabolism-by-activation-of-trpv1
#15
Minji Kim, Tomoya Furuzono, Kanae Yamakuni, Yongjia Li, Young-Il Kim, Haruya Takahashi, Ryuji Ohue-Kitano, Huei-Fen Jheng, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Yuriko Kano, Rina Yu, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Kunitoshi Uchida, Jun Yamazaki, Makoto Tominaga, Teruo Kawada, Tsuyoshi Goto
Gut microbiota can regulate the host energy metabolism; however, the underlying mechanisms that could involve gut microbiota-derived compounds remain to be understood. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of KetoA [10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid]-a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria-on whole-body energy metabolism and found that dietary intake of KetoA could enhance energy expenditure in mice, thereby protecting mice from diet-induced obesity. By using Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell patch-clamp methods, KetoA was noted to potently activate transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and enhance noradrenalin turnover in adipose tissues...
July 28, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739439/the-association-of-type-ii-diabetes-with-gut-microbiota-composition
#16
Fatemeh Navab-Moghadam, Mansour Sedighi, Mohammad E Khamseh, Fariba Alaei-Shahmiri, Malihe Talebi, Shabnam Razavi, Nour Amirmozafari
It is known that type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans could be linked to the composition of gut microbiota. The aim of this study was to evaluate three faecal bacterial species, including Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in patients with T2D. This case control study included 18 patients with T2D and 18 matched persons without diabetes. The concentrations of B. fragilis, B. longum and F. prausnitzii were determined by quantitative Real-Time PCR. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the gut bacterial composition in patients with T2D was partially different from that in the healthy individuals...
July 21, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739098/effects-of-bariatric-surgery-on-energy-homeostasis
#17
REVIEW
Wei Li, Denis Richard
Bariatric surgery represents the most efficient therapy for severe obesity. It reduces the size of fat stores or the amount of body fat gain. The bariatric surgery procedures currently used include Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, which are the most commonly performed procedures. Other procedures are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion. The latter represents the most effective surgery for treatment of severe obesity as well as type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery reduces energy intake by restricting the size of the stomach reservoir and causing malabsorption, as in the case of biliopancreatic diversion...
August 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736228/dbz-is-a-putative-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-that-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-gut-dysbiosis
#18
Pengfei Xu, Fan Hong, Jialin Wang, Jing Wang, Xia Zhao, Sheng Wang, Tingting Xue, Jingwei Xu, Xiaohui Zheng, Yonggong Zhai
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor PPARγ is an effective pharmacological target for some types of metabolic syndrome, including obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, the current PPARγ-targeting thiazolidinedione drugs have undesirable side effects. Danshensu Bingpian Zhi (DBZ), also known as tanshinol borneol ester derived from Salvia miltiorrhiza, is a synthetic derivative of natural compounds used in traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory activity...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732571/examining-the-gut-bacteriome-virome-and-mycobiome-in-glucose-metabolism-disorders-are-we-on-the-right-track
#19
REVIEW
Charikleia Stefanaki, Melpomeni Peppa, George Mastorakos, George P Chrousos
Human gut microbiome is defined as the gene complement of the gut microbial community, measured via laboratory metagenomic techniques. It includes bacteriome, virome and mycobiome, which represent, respectively, the assemblages of bacteria, viruses and fungi, living in the human gut. Gut microbiota function as a living "organ" that interacts with the gastro-intestinal environment, provides nutrients and vitamins to the organism and transduces hormonal messages, essentially influencing the main metabolic pathways, including drug metabolism...
August 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#20
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
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