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Acidification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455419/further-aspects-of-toxoplasma-gondii-elimination-in-the-presence-of-metals
#1
Laís Pessanha de Carvalho, Edésio José Tenório de Melo
Toxoplasma gondii, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, infects nucleated cells and then resides and multiplies within a parasitophorous vacuole. For this purpose, the parasite secretes many virulence factors for the purpose of invading and subverting the host microbicidal defenses in order to facilitate its survival in the intracellular milieu. Essential metals are structural components of proteins and enzymes or cofactors of enzymatic reactions responsible for these parasitic survival mechanisms. However, an excess of non-essential or essential metals can lead to parasite death...
February 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454817/investigating-the-feasibility-of-a-reuse-scenario-for-textile-fibres-recovered-from-end-of-life-tyres
#2
Daniele Landi, Silvia Gigli, Michele Germani, Marco Marconi
The management of end-of-life tyres (ELTs) is regulated by several national and international legislations aiming to promote the recovery of materials and energy from this waste. The three main materials used in tyres are considered: rubber (main product), which is currently reused in other closed-loop applications; steel, which is used for the production of virgin materials; and textile fibres (approximately 10% by weight of ELTs), which are mainly incinerated for energy recovery (open-loop scenario). This study aims to propose and validate a new closed-loop scenario for textile fibres based on material reuse for bituminous conglomerates...
February 14, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449116/chronic-impacts-of-oxytetracycline-on-mesophilic-anaerobic-digestion-of-excess-sludge-inhibition-of-hydrolytic-acidification-and-enrichment-of-antibiotic-resistome
#3
Zhe Tian, Yu Zhang, Min Yang
We evaluated the chronic impact of oxytetracycline (OTC) on performance and antibiotic resistance development during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of antibiotic-containing biomass. Mesophilic AD was conducted in a completely stirred tank reactor by constantly feeding municipal excess sludge spiked with increasing concentrations of OTC (0-1000 mg L -1 ) under a solid retention time of 20 days over a period of 265 days. Results showed that methane generation of mesophilic AD was inhibited when the OTC concentration in digested sludge was increased to around 18,000 mg kg -1 (OTC dose, 1000 mg L -1 ), due to the inhibition of fermenting and acidogenic bacteria...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448933/the-curious-case-of-vacuolar-atpase-regulation-of-signaling-pathways
#4
REVIEW
Sahithi Pamarthy, Arpita Kulshrestha, Gajendra K Katara, Kenneth D Beaman
The Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is a proton pump responsible for controlling the intracellular and extracellular pH of cells. The structure of V-ATPase has been highly conserved among all eukaryotic cells and is involved in diverse functions across species. V-ATPase is best known for its acidification of endosomes and lysosomes and is also important for luminal acidification of specialized cells. Several reports have suggested the involvement of V-ATPase in maintaining an alkaline intracellular and acidic extracellular pH thereby aiding in proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells respectively...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448022/photosynthesis-and-mineralogy-of-jania-rubens-at-low-ph-high-pco-2-a-future-perspective
#5
Lucia Porzio, Maria Cristina Buia, Viviana Ferretti, Maurizio Lorenti, Manuela Rossi, Marco Trifuoggi, Alessandro Vergara, Carmen Arena
Corallinales (Rhodophyta) are high Mg-calcite macroalgae and are considered among the most vulnerable organisms to ocean acidification (OA). These sensitive species play fundamental roles in coastal systems as food source and settlement promoters as well as being involved in reef stabilization, and water carbonate balance. At present only a few studies are focused on erect calcifying macroalgae under low pH/high pCO 2 and the contrasting results make difficult to predict the ecological consequences of the OA on the coralline algae...
February 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445023/ocean-acidification-but-not-warming-alters-sex-determination-in-the-sydney-rock-oyster-saccostrea-glomerata
#6
Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Maria Byrne, Michael Dove, Ross A Coleman, Hans-O Pörtner, Elliot Scanes, Patti Virtue, Mitchell Gibbs, Pauline M Ross
Whether sex determination of marine organisms can be altered by ocean acidification and warming during this century remains a significant, unanswered question. Here, we show that exposure of the protandric hermaphrodite oyster, Saccostrea glomerata to ocean acidification, but not warming, alters sex determination resulting in changes in sex ratios. After just one reproductive cycle there were 16% more females than males. The rate of gametogenesis, gonad area, fecundity, shell length, extracellular pH and survival decreased in response to ocean acidification...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444098/integrating-nutrient-bioavailability-and-co-production-links-when-identifying-sustainable-diets-how-low-should-we-reduce-meat-consumption
#7
Tangui Barré, Marlène Perignon, Rozenn Gazan, Florent Vieux, Valérie Micard, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Nicole Darmon
BACKGROUND: Reducing the consumption of meat and other animal-based products is widely advocated to improve the sustainability of diets in high-income countries. However, such reduction may impair nutritional adequacy, since the bioavailability of key nutrients is higher when they come from animal- vs plant-based foods. Meat reduction may also affect the balance between foods co-produced within the same animal production system. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of introducing nutrient bioavailability and co-production links considerations on the dietary changes needed - especially regarding meat ‒ to improve diet sustainability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442257/effect-of-long-term-fertilization-strategies-on-bacterial-community-composition-in-a-35-year-field-experiment-of-chinese-mollisols
#8
Mingchao Ma, Jing Zhou, Marc Ongena, Wenzheng Liu, Dan Wei, Baisuo Zhao, Dawei Guan, Xin Jiang, Jun Li
Bacteria play vital roles in soil biological fertility; however, it remains poorly understood about their response to long-term fertilization in Chinese Mollisols, especially when organic manure is substituted for inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer. To broaden our knowledge, high-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR were used to explore the impacts of inorganic fertilizer and manure on bacterial community composition in a 35-year field experiment of Chinese Mollisols. Soils were collected from four treatments: no fertilizer (CK), inorganic phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer (PK), inorganic P, K, and N fertilizer (NPK), and inorganic P and K fertilizer plus manure (MPK)...
February 13, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438275/hydrogel-based-fluorescent-dual-ph-and-oxygen-sensors-loaded-in-96-well-plates-for-high-throughput-cell-metabolism-studies
#9
Shanshan Wu, Siying Wu, Zheyuan Yi, Fei Zeng, Weizhen Wu, Yuan Qiao, Xingzhong Zhao, Xing Cheng, Yanqing Tian
In this study, we developed fluorescent dual pH and oxygen sensors loaded in multi-well plates for in-situ and high-throughput monitoring of oxygen respiration and extracellular acidification during microbial cell growth for understanding metabolism. Biocompatible PHEMA-co-PAM materials were used as the hydrogel matrix. A polymerizable oxygen probe (OS2) derived from PtTFPP and a polymerizable pH probe (S2) derived from fluorescein were chemically conjugated into the matrix to solve the problem of the probe leaching from the matrix...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437232/fermented-nut-based-vegan-food-characterization-of-a-home-made-product-and-scale-up-to-an-industrial-pilot-scale-production
#10
Giulia Tabanelli, Federica Pasini, Ylenia Riciputi, Lucia Vannini, Giorgia Gozzi, Federica Balestra, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Fausto Gardini, Chiara Montanari
Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435645/congruence-between-pm-h-atpase-and-nadph-oxidase-during-root-growth-a-necessary-probability
#11
Arkajo Majumdar, Rup Kumar Kar
Plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase (NOX) are two key enzymes responsible for cell wall relaxation during elongation growth through apoplastic acidification and production of ˙OH radical via O2˙-, respectively. Our experiments revealed a putative feed-forward loop between these enzymes in growing roots of Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek seedlings. Thus, NOX activity was found to be dependent on proton gradient generated across PM by H+-ATPase as evident from pharmacological experiments using carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; protonophore) and sodium ortho-vanadate (PM H+-ATPase inhibitor)...
February 12, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433278/interactions-and-phase-behaviors-in-mixed-solutions-of-%C3%AE%C2%BA-carrageenan-and-myofibrillar-protein-extracted-from-alaska-pollock-surimi
#12
Tao Zhang, Xiaoqi Xu, Zhaojie Li, Yuming Wang, Yong Xue, Changhu Xue
In the present work, we provide insight into electrostatic interactions and phase behaviors in mixtures of myofibrillar protein (MP) and κ-carrageenan (KC) of various pHs (8.0-3.0) and biopolymer weight ratios [R, from 1:1 to 20:1; total concentration=0.05% (w/w)] through turbidimetric analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential analysis, and optical microscopy. At R=1: 1, critical pH values (i.e., pHc, pHΦ1, and pHΦ2), which indicate phase transitions interrelated to the formation of soluble or insoluble MP-KC complexes, were observed at pH7...
March 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433125/meridional-overturning-circulation-conveys-fast-acidification-to-the-deep-atlantic-ocean
#13
Fiz F Perez, Marcos Fontela, Maribel I García-Ibáñez, Herlé Mercier, Anton Velo, Pascale Lherminier, Patricia Zunino, Mercedes de la Paz, Fernando Alonso-Pérez, Elisa F Guallart, Xose A Padin
Since the Industrial Revolution, the North Atlantic Ocean has been accumulating anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and experiencing ocean acidification, that is, an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (a reduction in pH) and a reduction in the concentration of carbonate ions. The latter causes the 'aragonite saturation horizon'-below which waters are undersaturated with respect to a particular calcium carbonate, aragonite-to move to shallower depths (to shoal), exposing corals to corrosive waters...
February 12, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430920/long-term-experimental-acidification-drives-watershed-scale-shift-in-dissolved-organic-matter-composition-and-flux
#14
Michael D SanClements, Ivan J Fernandez, Robert A Lee, Joshua A Roberti, Mary Beth Adams, Garret A Rue, Diane M McKnight
Over the last several decades dissolved organic carbon concentrations (DOC) in surface waters have increased throughout much of the northern hemisphere. Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the drivers of this phenomenon including decreased sulfur (S) deposition working via an acidity- change mechanism. Using fluorescence spectroscopy and data from two long-term (24+ years at completion of this study) whole watershed acidification experiments, that is, the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine (BBWM) and Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia (FEF) allowed us to control for factors other than the acidity-change mechanism (e...
February 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430723/artisanal-tanneries-potential-application-of-inoculants-formulated-with-lactic-acid-bacteria
#15
María A Correa Deza, Gladys I Martos, Marta Nuñez, Mario Fiori, Carla L Gerez, Graciela Font
In artisanal tanneries, the skins are immersed in cereals fermented by natural microbial flora in order to reduce the pH of the skin, an essential condition for carrying out the final step. The environmental thermal variation alters the fermentation process and affects the quality of the final product. The aim of this work was to isolate lactic acid bacteria from cereals mixture fermented in an artisanal tannery and to evaluate in vitro the acidifying activity of the strains as a first step for the formulation of a starter culture...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428857/microbial-communities-associated-with-uranium-in-situ-recovery-mining-process-are-related-to-acid-mine-drainage-assemblages
#16
Thomas Coral, Michaël Descostes, Hélène De Boissezon, Rizlan Bernier-Latmani, Luiz Felippe de Alencastro, Pierre Rossi
A large fraction (47%) of the world's uranium is mined by a technique called "In Situ Recovery" (ISR). This mining technique involves the injection of a leaching fluid (acidic or alkaline) into a uranium-bearing aquifer and the pumping of the resulting solution through cation exchange columns for the recovery of dissolved uranium. The present study reports the in-depth alterations brought to autochthonous microbial communities during acidic ISR activities. Water samples were collected from a uranium roll-front deposit that is part of an ISR mine in operation (Tortkuduk, Kazakhstan)...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428745/technological-characterization-of-lactobacillus-in-semihard-artisanal-goat-cheeses-from-different-mediterranean-areas-for-potential-use-as-nonstarter-lactic-acid-bacteria
#17
Zhaoxu Meng, Lanwei Zhang, Liang Xin, Kai Lin, HuaXi Yi, Xue Han
The potential of 25 Lactobacillus isolates from 8 semihard artisanal goat cheeses manufactured in 4 different Mediterranean areas was examined for use as nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. The isolates were identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Sixteen strains belonged to Lactobacillus paracasei and 9 to Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The isolates were first screened for salt tolerance, exopolysaccharide and diacetyl production, proteolytic and lipolytic activity, and acidification and autolyzing capacities...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428653/performance-and-microbial-shift-during-acidification-of-a-real-pharmaceutical-wastewater-by-using-an-anaerobic-sequencing-batch-reactor-ansbr
#18
Ilda Vergili, Ugur Golebatmaz, Yasemin Kaya, Z Beril Gönder, Halil Hasar, Gulsum Yilmaz
In this study, a lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used for the acidification of a pharmaceutical wastewater sourced from etodolac chemical synthesis tanks. The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR), and etodolac and sulfate concentrations on the acidification rate and microbial community in AnSBR were investigated at 35 °C with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 37 h, a pH of 5, and OLRs up to 5.2 kgCOD/m3·day. The AnSBR accomplished a 60% acidification ratio and 50-60% etodolac removal at OLRs up to 2...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428529/sensitivity-to-ocean-acidification-differs-between-populations-of-the-sydney-rock-oyster-role-of-filtration-and-ion-regulatory-capacities
#19
Laura S Stapp, Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Christian Bock, Pauline M Ross, Hans O Pörtner, G Lannig
Understanding mechanisms of intraspecific variation in resilience to environmental drivers is key to predict species' adaptive potential. Recent studies show a higher CO2 resilience of Sydney rock oysters selectively bred for increased growth and disease resistance ('selected oysters') compared to the wild population. We tested whether the higher resilience of selected oysters correlates with an increased ability to compensate for CO2-induced acid-base disturbances. After 7 weeks of exposure to elevated seawater PCO2 (1100 μatm), wild oysters had a lower extracellular pH (pHe = 7...
December 18, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427960/performance-and-genome-centric-metagenomics-of-thermophilic-single-and-two-stage-anaerobic-digesters-treating-cheese-wastes
#20
Alessandra Fontana, Stefano Campanaro, Laura Treu, Panagiotis G Kougias, Fabrizio Cappa, Lorenzo Morelli, Irini Angelidaki
The present research is the first comprehensive study regarding the thermophilic anaerobic degradation of cheese wastewater, which combines the evaluation of different reactor configurations (i.e. single and two-stage continuous stirred tank reactors) on the process efficiency and the in-depth characterization of the microbial community structure using genome-centric metagenomics. Both reactor configurations showed acidification problems under the tested organic loading rates (OLRs) of 3.6 and 2.4 g COD/L-reactor day and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 15 days...
February 7, 2018: Water Research
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