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Ana Luísa Maulvault, Lúcia H M L M Santos, Carolina Camacho, Patrícia Anacleto, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Albert Serra-Compte, Damià Barceló, Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz, Rui Rosa, Mário Diniz, António Marques
The presence of antidepressants, such as venlafaxine (VFX), in marine ecosystems is increasing, thus, potentially posing ecological and human health risks. The inherent mechanisms of VFX uptake and elimination still require further understanding, particularly accounting for the impact of climate change-related stressors, such as warming and acidification. Hence, the present work aimed to investigate, for the first time, the effects of increased seawater temperature (ΔT°C = +5 °C) and pCO2 levels (ΔpCO2 ∼1000 μatm, equivalent to ΔpH = -0...
June 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Felizitas C Wermter, Bastian Maus, Hans-O Pörtner, Wolfgang Dreher, Christian Bock
Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) from taurine to water (TauCEST) can be used for in vivo mapping of taurine concentrations as well as for measurements of relative changes in intracellular pH (pHi ) at temperatures below 37°C. Therefore, TauCEST offers the opportunity to investigate acid-base regulation and neurological disturbances of ectothermic animals living at low temperatures, and in particular to study the impact of ocean acidification (OA) on neurophysiological changes of fish. Here, we report the first in vivo application of TauCEST imaging...
June 22, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Lucas Z Passamani, Amanda A Bertolazi, Alessandro C Ramos, Claudete Santa-Catarina, Jay J Thelen, Vanildo Silveira
Somatic embryogenesis is an important biological process in several plant species, including sugarcane. Proteomics approaches have shown that H+ pumps are differentially regulated during somatic embryogenesis; however, the relationship between H+ flux and embryogenic competence is still unclear. This work aimed to elucidate the association between extracellular H+ flux and somatic embryo maturation in sugarcane. We performed a microsomal proteomics analysis and analyzed changes in extracellular H+ flux and H+ pump (P-H+ -ATPase, V-H+ -ATPase and H+ -PPase) activity in embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Jun Zhao, Xing Zhou, Anqi Jiang, Juanzi Fan, Tao Lan, Jinbo Zhang, Zucong Cai
Soil disinfestation is an important agricultural practice to conquer soil-borne diseases and thereby ensure crop productivity. Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) had been developed as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical soil disinfestation (CSD). However, the differences between CSD and RSD on soil-borne pathogen suppression and fungal community structure remain poorly understood. In this work, five treatments, i.e., untreated soil (CK), CSD with 0.5 t ha-1 dazomet (DZ), RSD with 10 t ha-1 ethanol (ET), 15 t ha-1 sugarcane bagasse (SB), and 15 t ha-1 bean dregs (BD), were performed to investigate their influences on disinfestation efficiency, fungal abundance, diversity, and community structure via quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing...
June 21, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
I van der Pluijm, J Burger, P M van Heijningen, A IJpma, N van Vliet, C Milanese, K Schoonderwoerd, W Sluiter, L J Ringuette, D H W Dekkers, I Que, E L Kaijzel, L Te Riet, E MacFarlane, D Das, R van der Linden, M Vermeij, J A Demmers, P G Mastroberardino, E C Davis, H Yanagisawa, H Dietz, R Kanaar, J Essers
Aim: Thoracic aortic aneurysms are a life-threatening condition often diagnosed too late. To discover novel robust biomarkers, we aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying aneurysm formation. Methods and Results: In Fibulin-4R/R mice, the extracellular matrix protein Fibulin-4 is 4-fold reduced, resulting in progressive ascending aneurysm formation and early death around 3 months of age. We performed proteomics and genomics studies on Fibulin-4R/R mouse aortas...
June 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Regina C Zweng, Marguerite S Koch, George Bowes
Fleshy macroalgae may increase photosynthesis with greater CO2 availability under ocean acidification (OA) and outcompete calcifying macroalgae important for tropical reef accretion. Macroalgae use energy-dependent carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to take up HCO3 - , the dominant inorganic carbon for marine photosynthesis, but carbon-use strategies may depend on the pCO2 , pH and irradiance. We examined photosynthesis in eight tropical macroalgae across a range of irradiances (0-1200 μmol photon m-2 s-1 ), pH levels (7...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anthony E Rathburn, Jake Willingham, Wiebke Ziebis, Ashley M Burkett, Bruce H Corliss
The negative consequences of fossil fuel burning for the oceans will likely include warming, acidification and deoxygenation, yet predicting future deoxygenation is difficult. Sensitive proxies for oxygen concentrations in ancient deep-ocean bottom-waters are needed to learn from patterns of marine deoxygenation during global warming conditions in the geological past. Understanding of past oxygenation effects related to climate change will better inform us about future patterns of deoxygenation. Here we describe a new, quantitative biological proxy for determining ocean paleo-oxygen concentrations: the surface area of pores (used for gas exchange) in the tests of deep-sea benthic foraminifera collected alive from 22 locations (water depths: 400 to 4100 m) at oxygen levels ranging from ~ 2 to ~ 277 μmol/l...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander I Makarkov, Aakash R Patel, Valentine Bainov, Brian J Ward
BACKGROUND: Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) antibodies are often used as a correlate of protection for influenza. However, these manual assays are labor-intensive and difficult to standardize due to variability in biologic reagents used and subjective interpretation of the results. METHODS: Sera with known HAI and MN titers were used to assess a novel test based on the inhibition of fluorescence 'dequenching'. Whole influenza virions (A/California/07/2009 (H1N1), A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2) and B/Brisbane/60/2008) labelled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine perchlorate (DiD) were exposed to serial dilutions of serum and mixed with turkey red blood cells followed by acidification of the media (pH 5...
June 18, 2018: Vaccine
Vicente Pastor-Poquet, Stefano Papirio, Jean-Philippe Steyer, Eric Trably, Renaud Escudié, Giovanni Esposito
During high-solids anaerobic digestion (HS-AD) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), an important total solid (TS) removal occurs, leading to the modification of the reactor content mass/volume, in contrast to 'wet' anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, HS-AD mathematical simulations need to be approached differently than 'wet' AD simulations. This study aimed to develop a modelling tool based on the anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) capable of simulating the TS and the reactor mass/volume dynamics in HS-AD of OFMSW...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Justina Kazokaitė, Raymon Niemans, Virginija Dudutienė, Holger M Becker, Jānis Leitāns, Asta Zubrienė, Lina Baranauskienė, Gabor Gondi, Reinhard Zeidler, Jurgita Matulienė, Kaspars Tārs, Ala Yaromina, Philippe Lambin, Ludwig J Dubois, Daumantas Matulis
Human carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX has emerged as a promising anticancer target and a diagnostic biomarker for solid hypoxic tumors. Novel fluorinated CA IX inhibitors exhibited up to 50 pM affinity towards the recombinant human CA IX, selectivity over other CAs, and direct binding to Zn(II) in the active site of CA IX inducing novel conformational changes as determined by X-ray crystallography. Mass spectrometric gas-analysis confirmed the CA IX-based mechanism of the inhibitors in a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated CA IX knockout in HeLa cells...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Ruiwen Cao, Yongliang Liu, Qing Wang, Zhijun Dong, Dinglong Yang, Hui Liu, Wen Ran, Yi Qu, Jianmin Zhao
Mounting evidence has demonstrated the combined effects of ocean acidification (OA) and other environmental stressors on marine organisms. Although metal pollution is widely distributed in coasts and estuaries, the combined effects of OA and metal pollution have received little attention until recent years. In this study, the accumulation and subcellular distribution of cadmium (Cd) and the physiological responses of the oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated after 31 days of exposure to OA and Cd, either alone or in combination...
June 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alejandra Orihuel, Lucrecia Terán, Jenny Renaut, Graciela M Vignolo, André M De Almeida, María L Saavedra, Silvina Fadda
Human infection by Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia (E.) coli (EHEC) occurs through the ingestion of contaminated foods such as milk, vegetable products, water-based drinks, and particularly minced meats. Indeed EHEC is a pathogen that threatens public health and meat industry. The potential of different Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strains to control EHEC in a meat-based medium was evaluated by using a simple and rapid method and by analyzing the growth kinetics of co-cultures (LAB-EHEC) in a meat-based medium...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Paul W Gabrielson, Jeffery R Hughey, Guillermo Diaz-Pulido
An essential suite of coral reef ecosystem engineers is coralline red algae. Among these, the smooth, encrusting Porolithon onkodes has historically been considered the most important and common reef building species worldwide. We assess P. onkodes biodiversity by performing a genomic analysis of the lectotype specimen collected in 1892 from the Tami Islands, Gulf of Huon, east of New Guinea. Comparisons of DNA sequences from the lectotype specimen to those deposited in GenBank and to newly generated sequences from both field-collected and historical specimens demonstrate that at least 20 distinct species are passing under P...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Joana P Guedes, Cátia S Pereira, Lígia R Rodrigues, Manuela Côrte-Real
Prostate cancer and osteosarcoma are the second most common type of cancer affecting men and the fifth most common malignancy among adolescents, respectively. The use of non-toxic natural or natural-derived products has been one of the current strategies for cancer therapy, owing to the reduced risks of induced-chemoresistance development and the absence of secondary effects. In this perspective, lactoferrin (Lf), a natural protein derived from milk, emerges as a promising anticancer agent due to its well-recognized cytotoxicity and anti-metastatic activity...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Xiaowen Liu, Sophia Montissol, Amy Uber, Sarah Ganley, Anne V Grossestreuer, Katherine Berg, Stanley Heydrick, Michael W Donnino
(1) Background: Thiamine is an important cofactor for multiple metabolic processes. Its role in cancer has been debated for years. Our aim is to determine if thiamine can convert the cellular metabolic state of breast cancer cells from anaerobic to aerobic, thus reducing their growth. (2) Methods: Breast cancer (MCF7) and non-tumorigenic (MCF10A) cell lines were treated with various doses of thiamine and assessed for changes in cell growth. The mechanism of this relationship was identified through the measurement of enzymatic activity and metabolic changes...
June 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chern Chiuh Woo, Kavita Kaur, Wei Xin Chan, Xing Qi Teo, Teck Hock Philip Lee
Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) gene is frequently upregulated in various types of cancer including lung, prostate and brain. It catabolizes glycine to yield 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate, an important substrate in one-carbon metabolism for nucleotide synthesis. In this study, we used exon splicing modulating steric hindrance antisense oligonucleotide (shAON) to suppress GLDC expression and investigated its effect on pyruvate metabolism via hyperpolarized carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The MRS technique allows us to study in vivo metabolic flux in tumor tissues with/without GLDC-shAON intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Laura A Enzor, Cheryl Hankins, Deborah N Vivian, William S Fisher, Mace G Barron
Projected increases in ocean p CO2 levels are anticipated to affect calcifying organisms more rapidly and to a greater extent than other marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification (OA) have been documented in numerous species of corals in laboratory studies, largely tested using flow-through exposure systems. We developed a recirculating ocean acidification exposure system that allows precise p CO2 control using a combination of off-gassing measures including aeration, water retention devices, venturi injectors, and CO2 scrubbing...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Ashok Aspatwar, Holger M Becker, Nanda Kumar Parvathaneni, Milka Hammaren, Aleksandra Svorjova, Harlan Barker, Claudiu T Supuran, Ludwig Dubois, Philippe Lambin, Mataleena Parikka, Seppo Parkkila, Jean-Yves Winum
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX is a hypoxia inducible enzyme that is highly expressed in solid tumours. Therefore, it has been considered as an anticancer target using specific chemical inhibitors. The nitroimidazoles DTP338 and DTP348 have been shown to inhibit CA IX in nanomolar range in vitro and reduce extracellular acidification in hypoxia, and impair tumour growth. We screened these compounds for toxicity using zebrafish embryos and measured their in vivo effects on human CA IX in Xenopus oocytes. In the toxicity screening, the LD50 for both compounds was 3...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Hanjun Zhao, Kelvin K W To, Hin Chu, Qiulu Ding, Xiaoyu Zhao, Cun Li, Huiping Shuai, Shuofeng Yuan, Jie Zhou, Kin-Hang Kok, Shibo Jiang, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Limited efficacy of current antivirals and antiviral-resistant mutations impairs anti-influenza treatment. Here, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiviral effect of three defective interfering genes (DIG-3) of influenza virus. Viral replication is significantly reduced in cell lines transfected with DIG-3. Mice treated with DIG-3 encoded by jetPEI-vector, as prophylaxis and therapeutics against A(H7N7) virus, respectively, have significantly better survivals (80% and 50%) than control mice (0%). We further develop a dual-functional peptide TAT-P1, which delivers DIG-3 with high efficiency and concomitantly exerts antiviral activity by preventing endosomal acidification...
June 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Lara-Antonia Beer, Helma Tatge, Nicole Reich, Michel Tenspolde, Alexandra Olling, Sebastian Goy, Klemens Rottner, Alexi Kirilov Alekov, Ralf Gerhard
Toxin A and Toxin B (TcdA/TcdB) are large glucosyltransferases produced by Clostridium difficile. TcdB but not TcdA induces reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated early cell death when applied at high concentrations. We found that non-glucosylated Rac1 is essential for induction of early cell death since inhibition of Rac1 impedes this effect. Early cell death only occurs when TcdB is rapidly endocytosed. This was shown by generation of chimeras using the trunk of TcdB from a hypervirulent strain. TcdB from hypervirulent strain has been described to translocate from endosomes at higher pH values and thus, meaning faster than reference type TcdB...
June 14, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
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