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Acidification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241534/integrating-extracellular-flux-measurements-and-genome-scale-modeling-reveals-differences-between-brown-and-white-adipocytes
#1
Alfred K Ramirez, Matthew D Lynes, Farnaz Shamsi, Ruidan Xue, Yu-Hua Tseng, C Ronald Kahn, Simon Kasif, Jonathan M Dreyfuss
White adipocytes are specialized for energy storage, whereas brown adipocytes are specialized for energy expenditure. Explicating this difference can help identify therapeutic targets for obesity. A common tool to assess metabolic differences between such cells is the Seahorse Extracellular Flux (XF) Analyzer, which measures oxygen consumption and media acidification in the presence of different substrates and perturbagens. Here, we integrate the Analyzer's metabolic profile from human white and brown adipocytes with a genome-scale metabolic model to predict flux differences across the metabolic map...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239726/camp-signaling-regulates-dna-hydroxymethylation-by-augmenting-the-intracellular-labile-ferrous-iron-pool
#2
Vladimir Camarena, David W Sant, Tyler C Huff, Sushimita Mustafi, Ryan K Muir, Allegra T Aron, Christopher J Chang, Adam R Renslo, Paula Monje, Gaofeng Wang
It is widely accepted that cAMP regulates gene transcription principally by activating the protein kinase A (PKA)-targeted transcription factors. Here, we show that cAMP enhances the generation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in multiple cell types. 5hmC is converted from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by Tet methylcytosine dioxygenases, for which Fe(II) is an essential cofactor. The promotion of 5hmC was mediated by a prompt increase of the intracellular labile Fe(II) pool (LIP). cAMP enhanced the acidification of endosomes for Fe(II) release to the LIP likely through RapGEF2...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238016/-imaging-of-bone-and-joint-destruction
#3
Junichi Kikuta, Masaru Ishii
  Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing giant polykaryons that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursors. We have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing in vivo behavior of osteoclasts and their precursors with intravital two-photon microscopy. By means of the system, we found that sphingosine-1-phosphate, a lipid mediator enriched in blood, controlled the migratory behavior of osteoclast precursors. We also developed pH-sensing chemical fluorescent probes to detect localized acidification by bone-resorbing osteoclasts on the bone surface in vivo, and identified two distinct functional states of differentiated osteoclasts, 'bone-resorptive' and 'non-resorptive'...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237845/human-cytomegalovirus-replication-is-inhibited-by-the-autophagy-inducing-compounds-trehalose-and-smer28-through-distinctively-different-mechanisms
#4
Alex E Clark, Maite Sabalza, Philip L S M Gordts, Deborah H Spector
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the top viral cause of birth defects worldwide, and current therapies have high toxicity. We previously published that the mTOR-independent autophagy-inducing disaccharide trehalose inhibits HCMV replication in multiple cell types. Here, we examine the mechanism of inhibition and introduce the autophagy inducer SMER28 as an additional inhibitor of HCMV acting through a different mechanism. We find that trehalose induces vacuolation and acidification of vacuoles, and that debris, including debris consistent in appearance with abnormal virions, is present in multivesicular bodies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236144/technological-properties-assessment-and-two-component-systems-distribution-of-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains-isolated-from-fermented-milk
#5
Tong Hu, Yishuang Zhang, Yanhua Cui, Chunyu Zhao, Xu Jiang, Xirong Zhu, Yu Wang, Xiaojun Qu
Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the economically most representatives of lactic acid bacteria, which is widely used as a starter to produce fermented milk products. In this study, 22 S. thermophilus strains were isolated from 26 fermented milk samples. Most isolates showed the ability to ferment a broad range of carbohydrates. Interestingly, eight strains are galactose positive, which is a desirable property in various industrial dairy fermentations. Four different nucleotide sequences were found in the galR-galK intergenic regions...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233864/dephining-membrane-identity
#6
Gerald R V Hammond
How do organelles coordinate their unique molecular identities between their cytosolic-facing surface membranes and their interior? In this issue, Naufer et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201702179) discover an intriguing link between phagosome acidification and lipid signposts on their outer membrane.
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232611/ocean-acidification-increases-the-toxic-effects-of-tio2-nanoparticles-on-the-marine-microalga-chlorella-vulgaris
#7
Bin Xia, Qi Sui, Xuemei Sun, Qian Han, Bijuan Chen, Lin Zhu, Keming Qu
Concerns about the environmental effects of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on marine ecosystems are increasing. Meanwhile, ocean acidification (OA) has become a global environmental problem. However, the combined effects of NPs and OA on marine organisms are still not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of OA (pH values of 7.77 and 7.47) on the bioavailability and toxicity of TiO2 NPs to the marine microalga Chlorella vulgaris. The results showed that OA enhanced the growth inhibition of algal cells caused by TiO2 NPs...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231785/the-role-of-endomembrane-localized-vha-c-in-plant-growth
#8
Aimin Zhou, Tetsuo Takano, Shenkui Liu
In plant cells, the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), a large multisubunit endomembrane proton pump, plays an important role in acidification of subcellular organelles, pH and ion homeostasis, and endocytic and secretory trafficking. V-ATPase subunit c (VHA-c) is essential for V-ATPase assembly, and is directly responsible for binding and transmembrane transport of protons. In previous studies, we identified a PutVHA-c gene from Puccinellia tenuiflora, and investigated its function in plant growth. Subcellular localization revealed that PutVHA-c is mainly localized in endosomal compartments...
December 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231714/acid-induced-multicolor-fluorescence-of-pyridazine-derivative
#9
Mengwei Li, Yuan Yuan, Yulan Chen
Smart luminescent materials that are responsive to external stimuli have received considerable attention. Here we report a new D-A type 1,2-pyridiazine derivative (TPP) exhibiting turn-on fluorescence upon acid both in solution and in solid state. The protonation of the 1,2-pyridiazine ring caused a variation in the emission colors of the acidification species from blue (406 nm) to orange-red (630 nm) with a huge Δλem (224 nm). As a result, a synthetic rainbow of emission in solution could be achieved from one single molecule, and white photoluminescence was readily tuned by controlled protonation...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226589/hydrochlorothiazide-and-acute-urinary-acidification-the-voltage-hypothesis-of-enac-dependent-h-secretion-refuted
#10
Niklas Ayasse, Pauline I A de Bruijn, Peder Berg, Mads V Sørensen, Jens Leipziger
AIM: The 'voltage hypothesis' of H+ secretion states that urinary acidification following increased Na+ delivery to the collecting duct (CD) is ENaC-dependent leading to transepithelial voltage-dependent increase in H+ secretion. We recently showed that furosemide acidifies the urine independently of ENaC activity. If the voltage hypothesis holds, hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) must acidify the urine. We here tested the acute effect of HCT on urine pH under normal and high ENaC expression...
December 11, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224872/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-liquid-dairy-manure-prediction-and-mitigation
#11
Søren O Petersen
The handling and use of manure on livestock farms contributes to emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CH4 and N2O, especially with liquid manure management. Dairy farms are diverse with respect to manure management, with practices ranging from daily spreading to long-term storage for more efficient recycling of manure nutrients for crop production. Opportunities for GHG mitigation will depend on the baseline situation with respect to handling and storage, and therefore prediction and mitigation at the farm level requires a dynamic description of housing systems and storage conditions, and use of treatment technologies...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222976/enhanced-electrocatalytic-activity-and-stability-of-monodisperse-pt-nanocomposites-for-direct-methanol-fuel-cells
#12
Sinan Eris, Zeynep Daşdelen, Fatih Sen
Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are one of the most important fuel cells operating at low temperature using methanol as fuel and they need very efficient catalysts to activate the methanol. Generally, the most efficient fuel cell catalysts are platinum-based nanoparticles that can be used by different supporting materials such as different as prepared and functionalized carbon derivatives. For this purpose, herein, the carbon black has been mainly functionalized with an acidification process in order to increase the electrical conductivity and heterogeneous electron transfer rate of supporting materials...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222488/different-carotenoid-conformations-have-distinct-functions-in-light-harvesting-regulation-in-plants
#13
Nicoletta Liguori, Pengqi Xu, Ivo H M van Stokkum, Bart van Oort, Yinghong Lu, Daniel Karcher, Ralph Bock, Roberta Croce
To avoid photodamage plants regulate the amount of excitation energy in the membrane at the level of the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). It has been proposed that the energy absorbed in excess is dissipated via protein conformational changes of individual LHCs. However, the exact quenching mechanism remains unclear. Here we study the mechanism of quenching in LHCs that bind a single carotenoid species and are constitutively in a dissipative conformation. Via femtosecond spectroscopy we resolve a number of carotenoid dark states, demonstrating that the carotenoid is bound to the complex in different conformations...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222433/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-plasticity-under-global-change
#14
Emma M Gibbin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Piero Calosi
Marine ecosystems are currently in a state of flux, with ocean warming and acidification occurring at unprecedented rates. Phenotypic plasticity underpins acclimatory responses by shifting the mean phenotype in a population, which may buffer the negative effects of global change. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity evolves across multiple generations. We tested this by reciprocally-transplanting the polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica between control and global change scenarios (ocean warming and acidification in isolation and combined) over five generations...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218518/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-glut-inhibitors-using-a-seahorse-extracellular-flux-analyzer
#15
Changyong Wei, Monique Heitmeier, Paul W Hruz, Mala Shanmugam
Glucose is metabolized through anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Perturbing glucose uptake and its subsequent metabolism can alter both glycolytic and OXPHOS pathways and consequently lactate and/or oxygen consumption. Production and secretion of lactate, as a consequence of glycolysis, leads to acidification of the extracellular medium. Molecular oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, facilitating oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. The alterations in extracellular acidification and/or oxygen consumption can thus be used as indirect readouts of glucose metabolism and assessing the impact of inhibiting glucose transport through specific glucose transporters (GLUTs)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#16
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215197/enrichment-of-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-in-bean-sprouts-exploring-biosynthesis-of-plant-metabolite-using-common-household-reagents
#17
Theerasak Rojanarata, Samarwadee Plianwong, Praneet Opanasopit, Tanasait Ngawhirunpat
The enrichment of plant foods with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is currently an interesting issue in the field of nutraceuticals and can be used as an experiment for upper-division undergraduate students. Here, an interdisciplinary hands-on experiment to produce GABA-enriched mung bean sprouts using common household reagents is described. Based on the GABA biosynthesis pathways, two key factors, being the availability of l-glutamic acid and the acidification of the germination environment, were chosen for the study of the effects on the enhancement of GABA levels...
December 7, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212728/coral-calcification-mechanisms-facilitate-adaptive-responses-to-ocean-acidification
#18
Verena Schoepf, Christopher P Jury, Robert J Toonen, Malcolm T McCulloch
Ocean acidification (OA) is a pressing threat to reef-building corals, but it remains poorly understood how coral calcification is inhibited by OA and whether corals could acclimatize and/or adapt to OA. Using a novel geochemical approach, we reconstructed the carbonate chemistry of the calcifying fluid in two coral species using both a pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) proxy (δ11B and B/Ca, respectively). To address the potential for adaptive responses, both species were collected from two sites spanning a natural gradient in seawater pH and temperature, and then subjected to three pHT levels (8...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209318/the-major-chromoblastomycosis-etiologic-agent-fonsecaea-pedrosoi-activates-the-nlrp3-inflammasome
#19
Raffael Júnio Araújo de Castro, Isaque Medeiros Siqueira, Márcio Sousa Jerônimo, Angelina Maria Moreschi Basso, Paulo Henrique de Holanda Veloso Junior, Kelly Grace Magalhães, Luiza Chaves Leonhardt, Stephan Alberto Machado de Oliveira, Pedro Henrique Bürgel, Aldo Henrique Tavares, Anamélia Lorenzetti Bocca
Fonsecaea pedrosoi is the main etiologic agent of chromoblastomycosis (CBM), one of the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis in tropical and subtropical countries. CBM is a poorly characterized chronic infection that commonly starts after transcutaneous inoculation of conidia and saprophytic hyphae of F. pedrosoi. Recently, we have shown that unlike conidia, hyphae and muriform cells (the parasitic morphotype) of F. pedrosoi promotes an intense inflammatory response pattern in vivo, which comprises the production of an inflammasome-derived cytokine, IL-1β...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209295/extractive-fermentation-of-lactic-acid-in-lactic-acid-bacteria-cultivation-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Majdiah Othman, Arbakariya B Ariff, Leonardo Rios-Solis, Murni Halim
Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for their fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Nevertheless, lactic acid fermentation often suffers end-product inhibition which decreases the cell growth rate. The inhibition of lactic acid is due to the solubility of the undissociated lactic acid within the cytoplasmic membrane and insolubility of dissociated lactate, which causes acidification of cytoplasm and failure of proton motive forces...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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