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Obinna Elijah Nworie, Junhao Qin, Chuxia Lin
A batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of six low-molecular-weight organic acids on the mobilization of arsenic and trace metals from a range of contaminated soils. The results showed that the organic acids behaved differently when reacting with soil-borne As and trace metals. Oxalic acid and acetic acid had the strongest and weakest capacity to mobilize the investigated elements, respectively. The solubilisation of iron oxides by the organic acids appears to play a critical role in mobilizing other trace metals and As...
August 21, 2017: Toxics
Nam Hee Kim, Tae Jin Cho, Min Suk Rhee
Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to be underestimated by previous studies. This review examined a number of scientific reports and articles about the microbiological safety of salt-cured foods, which included salted, brined, pickled, and/or marinated vegetables, meat, and seafood...
2017: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Nicola J Curtis, Lorraine Mooney, Lorna Hopcroft, Filippos Michopoulos, Nichola Whalley, Haihong Zhong, Clare Murray, Armelle Logie, Mitchell Revill, Kate F Byth, Amanda D Benjamin, Mike A Firth, Stephen Green, Paul D Smith, Susan E Critchlow
Tumors frequently display a glycolytic phenotype with increased flux through glycolysis and concomitant synthesis of lactate. To maintain glycolytic flux and prevent intracellular acidification, tumors efflux lactate via lactate transporters (MCT1-4). Inhibitors of lactate transport have the potential to inhibit glycolysis and tumor growth. We developed a small molecule inhibitor of MCT1 (AZD3965) and assessed its activity across a panel of cell lines. We explored its antitumor activity as monotherapy and in combination with doxorubicin or rituximab...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
Pasquier Virgil, Sans Jofre Pierre, Lebeau Oanez, Liorzou Celine, Rabineau Marina
RATIONALE: Natural stable isotopes ratios (d(13) Corg and (15) N vales) and associated elemental concentrations (i.e. total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents) preserved in marine sediments are frequently used for the determination of paleoenvironmental processes such as the origin of organic matter. Previous studies highlighted biases in the determination of such geochemical proxies due to pre-analysis acid treatment methods. This study is the first systematic comparison of the effect of acid treatment methods on bulk organic matter using a unique sedimentary system, under two contrasting climatic contexts (i...
October 19, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Xin Wang, Guénola Drillon, Taewoo Ryu, Christian R Voolstra, Manuel Aranda
Scleractinian corals are the foundation species of the coral-reef ecosystem. Their calcium carbonate skeletons form extensive structures that are home to millions of species, making coral reefs one of the most diverse ecosystems of our planet. However, our understanding of how reef-building corals have evolved the ability to calcify and become the ecosystem builders they are today is hampered by uncertain relationships within their subclass Hexacorallia. Corallimorpharians have been proposed to originate from a complex scleractinian ancestor that lost the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification, suggesting the possibility for corals to lose and gain the ability to calcify in response to increasing ocean acidification...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Stephanie Mangan, Mauricio A Urbina, Helen S Findlay, Rod W Wilson, Ceri Lewis
Ocean acidification (OA) studies typically use stable open-ocean pH or CO2 values. However, species living within dynamic coastal environments can naturally experience wide fluctuations in abiotic factors, suggesting their responses to stable pH conditions may not be reflective of either present or near-future conditions. Here we investigate the physiological responses of the mussel Mytilus edulis to variable seawater pH conditions over short- (6 h) and medium-term (2 weeks) exposures under both current and near-future OA scenarios...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Zhang Bo, Chen Sitong, Guo Weiming, Zhang Weijing, Wang Lin, Yang Li, Zhang Jianguo
The generally thought unstable diol compound tetrazyl gem-diol (1, H2DTMdiol·2H2O), was firstly obtained in crystalline form by culturing the filtrate for ten days after acidification and filtration of aqueous solution of potassium salt of ketone (2, [K(HDTMone)·2H2O]n). The stability of this novel gem-diol compound is found owning to the hydrogen bonds with lattice water molecules and electrophilic tetrazolyl groups. Meanwhile, the undissolved ketone (3, H2DTMone) was separated during the filtration in the process of gem-diol compound production...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Geniane Schneider, Paulo Antunes Horta, Emiliano Nicolas Calderon, Clovis Castro, Adalto Bianchini, Camilla Reis Augusto da Silva, Isabel Brandalise, José Bonomi Barufi, João Silva, Ana Claudia Rodrigues
Coastal areas face high variability of seawater pH. Ocean acidification (OA) and local stressors are enhancing this variability, which poses a threat to marine life. However, these organisms present potential phenotypic plasticity that can offer physiological and structural tools to survive in these extreme conditions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of elevated CO2 levels and consequent pH reduction on the physiology, anatomy and ultrastructure of the seagrass Halodule wrightii. A mesocosm study was conducted in an open system during a 30-day experiment, where different concentrations of CO2 were simulated following the natural variability observed in coastal reef systems...
October 18, 2017: Protoplasma
Zhaoxiu Zhou, Shuang Liu, Yanfen Zhang, Xiantao Yang, Yuan Ma, Zhu Guan, Yun Wu, Lihe Zhang, Zhenjun Yang
In this study, through covalent conjugation and lipid material entrapment, a combined modification strategy was established for effective delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA). Single strands of siRNA targeting to BRAF(V600E) gene (siMB3) conjugated with cRGD peptide at 3'-terminus or 5'-terminus via cleavable disulfide bond was synthesized and then annealed with corresponding strands to obtain single and bis-cRGD-siRNA conjugates. A cationic lipid material (CLD) developed by our laboratory was mixed with the conjugates to generate nanocomplexes; their uniformity and electrical property were revealed by particle size and zeta potential measurement...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Dou Wang, Fei Shen, Gang Yang, Yanzong Zhang, Shihuai Deng, Jing Zhang, Yongmei Zeng, Tao Luo, Zili Mei
Hydrothermally-pretreated rice straw (HPRS) from various pretreatment temperatures was anaerobically-digested in whole slurry. Results indicated promoting pretreatment temperature significantly deconstructed rice straw, and facilitated the conversion of insoluble fractions to soluble fractions. Although 306.6 mL/g TS biogas was maximally yielded in HPRS-90 and HPRS-180, respectively, via digestion in whole slurry, it was only 3% promotion compared to the unpretreated rice straw. HPRS-210 yielded 208.5 mL/g TS biogas, which was 30% reduction with longer lag period of 19...
October 5, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Deok-Gyun You, Hye-Ra Lee, Won-Ki Kim, Hyung Jung Kim, Gi Young Lee, Young Do Yoo
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)‑encoded protein p7 is a viroporin that acts as an ion channel and is indispensable for HCV particle production. Although the main target of HCV p7 is the endoplasmic reticulum, it also targets mitochondria. HCV‑infected cells show mitochondrial depolarization and ATP depletion; however, the function of HCV p7 in mitochondria is not fully understood. The present study demonstrated that treatment of isolated mouse liver mitochondria with the synthesized HCV p7 protein induced mitochondrial dysfunction...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Myrina Boulais, Kyle John Chenevert, Ashley Taylor Demey, Elizabeth S Darrow, Madison Raine Robison, John Park Roberts, Aswani Volety
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have been rising during the past century, leading to ocean acidification (OA). Coastal and estuarine habitats experience annual pH variability that vastly exceeds the magnitude of long-term projections in open ocean regions. Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reproduction season coincides with periods of low pH occurrence in estuaries, thus we investigated effects of moderate (pH 7.5, pCO2 2260 µatm) and severe OA (pH 7.1, pCO2 5584 µatm; and 6.7, pCO2 18480 µatm) on oyster gametogenesis, fertilization, and early larval development successes...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ja-Myung Kim, Oliver Baars, François M M Morel
A poorly studied but potentially important consequence of the CO2-induced acidification of the surface ocean is a possible change in the bioavailability of trace metals, which play a critical role in the productivity and population dynamics of marine ecosystems. We report laboratory and field experiments designed to compare quantitatively the effects of acidification on the bioavailability of Zn, a metal essential to the growth of phytoplankton and on the extent of its complexation by model and natural ligands...
November 28, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Frank Alexander, Sebastian Eggert, Joachim Wiest
Sensor-based cellular microphysiometry is a technique that allows non-invasive, label-free, real-time monitoring of living cells that can greatly improve the predictability of toxicology testing by removing the influence of biochemical labels. In this work, the Intelligent Mobile Lab for In Vitro Diagnostics (IMOLA-IVD) was utilized to perform cellular microphysiometry on 3D multicellular spheroids. Using a commercial 3D printer, 3 × 3 microwell arrays were fabricated to maintain nine previously cultured HepG2 spheroids on a single BioChip...
October 14, 2017: Cytotechnology
José-Carlos Fernández-Morales, Martin Morad
Ischemic heart disease is an arrhythmogenic condition, accompanied by hypoxia, acidosis, and impaired Ca(2+) signaling. Here we report on effects of acute hypoxia and acidification in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes cultures. RESULTS: Two populations of neonatal cardiomyocyte were identified based on inactivation kinetics of L-type ICa: rapidly-inactivating ICa (τ~20ms) myocytes (prevalent in 3-4-day cultures), and slow-inactivating ICa (τ≥40ms) myocytes (dominant in 7-day cultures). Acute hypoxia (pO2<5mmHg for 50-100s) suppressed ICa reversibly in both cell-types to different extent and with different kinetics...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Yonggen Jia, Jean-Baptiste Marq, Hugo Bisio, Damien Jacot, Christina Mueller, Lu Yu, Jyoti Choudhary, Mathieu Brochet, Dominique Soldati-Favre
Toxoplasma gondii encodes three protein kinase A catalytic (PKAc1-3) and one regulatory (PKAr) subunits to integrate cAMP-dependent signals. Here, we show that inactive PKAc1 is maintained at the parasite pellicle by interacting with acylated PKAr. Either a conditional knockdown of PKAr or the overexpression of PKAc1 blocks parasite division. Conversely, down-regulation of PKAc1 or stabilisation of a dominant-negative PKAr isoform that does not bind cAMP triggers premature parasite egress from infected cells followed by serial invasion attempts leading to host cell lysis...
October 13, 2017: EMBO Journal
Liuyu Xu, Hongyun Li, Longchao Wu, Shiming Huang
Aerobic glycolysis, also known as Warburg effect, is a key hallmark of cancers. The Y-box-binding protein 1 (YBX1) is a well-known oncoprotein implicated in multiple malignant phenotypes of cancers. Meanwhile, little is known about the oncogenic functions and mechanisms of YBX1 in bladder cancer. Based on gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of TCGA RNAseq data, we find that YBX1 was profoundly involved in the glycolysis part of glucose metabolism. Loss- and gain-of-function studies show that YBX1 can enhance glycolysis as revealed by expression of glycolytic enzymes, glucose uptake, lactate secretion and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR)...
September 12, 2017: Oncotarget
Tulip Chakraborty, Michelle Gabriel, Ali Amiri, Domenico Santoro, John Walton, D Scott Smith, Madhumita B Ray, George Nakhla
In this work, recovery of aluminum from coagulated primary sludge and its reuse potential as secondary coagulant were investigated. The recovery process consisted of releasing the particle-bounded aluminum from primary sludge by acidification (HCl or H2SO4), followed by separation using centrifugation for dissolved coagulant recovery. The recovered coagulant was then reused for treating primary wastewater and overall coagulation efficiency was determined. While with fresh alum, the removal efficiencies of total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorous, and total nitrogen were 85%, 65%, 80% and 33%, respectively, a drop in removal efficiency of total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand was observed for recovered aluminum (85% to 60% and 65% to 50%, respectively)...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Jonathan Y S Leung, Sean D Connell, Ivan Nagelkerken, Bayden D Russell
Many marine organisms produce calcareous shells as the key structure for defence, but the functionality of shells may be compromised by ocean acidification and warming. Nevertheless, calcifying organisms may adaptively modify their shell properties in response to these impacts. Here, we examined how reduced pH and elevated temperature affect shell mechanical and geochemical properties of common grazing gastropods from intertidal to subtidal zones. Given the greater environmental fluctuations in the intertidal zone, we hypothesized that intertidal gastropods would exhibit more plastic responses in shell properties than subtidal gastropods...
October 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Daniel R Colman, Saroj Poudel, Trinity L Hamilton, Jeff R Havig, Matthew J Selensky, Everett L Shock, Eric S Boyd
Oxygen-dependent microbial oxidation of sulfur compounds leads to the acidification of natural waters. How acidophiles and their acidic habitats evolved, however, is largely unknown. Using 16S rRNA gene abundance and composition data from 72 hot springs in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, we show that hyperacidic (pH<3.0) hydrothermal ecosystems are dominated by a limited number of archaeal lineages with an inferred ability to respire O2. Phylogenomic analyses of 584 existing archaeal genomes revealed that hyperacidophiles evolved independently multiple times within the Archaea, each coincident with the emergence of the ability to respire O2, and that these events likely occurred in the recent evolutionary past...
October 13, 2017: ISME Journal
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