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Acidification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527378/life-cycle-assessment-of-superheated-steam-drying-technology-as-a-novel-cow-manure-management-method
#1
Mohammadmatin Hanifzadeh, Zahra Nabati, Pairote Longka, Pomthong Malakul, Defne Apul, Dong-Shik Kim
Common methods of managing dairy manure are directly applying it to the farm field as a fertilizer. For direct application without any type of treatment, the majority of nutrients in the manure run off to the local river and lake during precipitation periods. The algae bloom is one of the environmental outcomes due to eutrophication of the lakes, which may jeopardize the quality of drinking water. In this study, superheated steam drying (SSD) technology is investigated as an alternative manure management method...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526189/potential-impact-of-salinity-on-methane-production-from-food-waste-anaerobic-digestion
#2
Jianwei Zhao, Yiwen Liu, Dongbo Wang, Fei Chen, Xiaoming Li, Guangming Zeng, Qi Yang
Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) inhibited the production of methane from food waste anaerobic digestion. However, the details of how NaCl affects methane production from food waste remain unknown by now and the efficient approach to mitigate the impact of NaCl on methane production was seldom reported. In this paper, the details of how NaCl affects methane production was first investigated via a series of batch experiments. Experimental results showed the effect of NaCl on methane production was dosage dependent...
May 16, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522999/fermentation-ph-modulates-the-size-distributions-and-functional-properties-of-gluconobacter-albidus-tmw-2-1191-levan
#3
Tharalinee Ua-Arak, Frank Jakob, Rudi F Vogel
Bacterial levan has gained an increasing interest over the last decades due to its unique characteristics and multiple possible applications. Levan and other exopolysaccharides (EPSs) production are usually optimized to obtain the highest concentration or yield while a possible change of the molecular size and mass during the production process is mostly neglected. In this study, the molar mass and radius of levan samples were monitored during fermentations with the food-grade, levan-producing acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter (G...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522327/measurement-of-bacterial-capture-and-phagosome-maturation-of-kupffer-cells-by-intravital-microscopy
#4
Bas G J Surewaard, Paul Kubes
It is central to the field of bacterial pathogenesis to define how bacteria are killed by phagocytic cells. During phagocytosis, the microbe is localized to the phagolysosome where crucial defense mechanisms such as acidification and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are initiated. This process has extensively been studied in vitro, however many resident tissue phagocytes will phenotypically change upon isolation from their natural environment. Therefore, interrogation of phagocytosis and phagosomal function of cells in the context of their natural tissue environment enhances our understanding of the biological process in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518215/the-tlr9-signaling-pathway-regulates-mr1-mediated-bacterial-antigen-presentation-in-b-cells
#5
Jianyun Liu, Randy R Brutkiewicz
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are conserved T cells that express a semi-invariant TCR (Vα7.2 in humans and Vα19 in mice). The development of MAIT cells requires the antigen (Ag) presenting MHC-related protein 1 (MR1), as well as commensal bacteria. The mechanisms that regulate the functional expression of MR1 molecules and their loading with bacterial Ag in APCs are largely unknown. We have found that treating B cells with the TLR9 agonist CpG increases MR1 surface expression. Interestingly, activation of TLR9 by CpG-A (but not CpG-B) enhances MR1 surface expression...
May 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515794/influence-of-a-home-based-exercise-program-on-the-urine-ph-in-elderly-female-subjects-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Yuichiro Nishida, Keitaro Tanaka, Megumi Hara, Noriko Hirao, Hiroaki Tanaka, Takuro Tobina, Masaharu Ikeda, Hiroshi Yamato, Masanori Ohta
BACKGROUND: A low urine pH is a characteristic metabolic feature of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week home-based bench step exercise on the urine pH status of elderly female subjects. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 59 postmenopausal female subjects were randomized to either the exercise group (n = 29) or the control group (n = 30)...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515738/chloroplast-atp-synthase-modulation-of-the-thylakoid-proton-motive-force-implications-for-photosystem-i-and-photosystem-ii-photoprotection
#7
Atsuko Kanazawa, Elisabeth Ostendorf, Kaori Kohzuma, Donghee Hoh, Deserah D Strand, Mio Sato-Cruz, Linda Savage, Jeffrey A Cruz, Nicholas Fisher, John E Froehlich, David M Kramer
In wild type plants, decreasing CO2 lowers the activity of the chloroplast ATP synthase, slowing proton efflux from the thylakoid lumen resulting in buildup of thylakoid proton motive force (pmf). The resulting acidification of the lumen regulates both light harvesting, via the qE mechanism, and photosynthetic electron transfer through the cytochrome b6f complex. Here, we show that the cfq mutant of Arabidopsis, harboring single point mutation in its γ-subunit of the chloroplast ATP synthase, increases the specific activity of the ATP synthase and disables its down-regulation under low CO2...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514187/diphenhydramine-inhibits-voltage-gated-proton-channels-hv1-and-induces-acidification-in-leukemic-jurkat-t-cells-new-insights-into-the-pro-apoptotic-effects-of-antihistaminic-drugs
#8
Agustín Asuaje, Pedro Martín, Nicolás Enrique, Leandro Agustín Díaz Zegarra, Paola Smaldini, Guillermo Docena, Verónica Milesi
An established characteristic of neoplastic cells is their metabolic reprogramming, known as the Warburg effect, with greater reliance on energetically less efficient pathways (such as glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt) compared with oxidative phosphorylation. This results in an overproduction of acidic species that must be extruded to maintain intracellular homeostasis. We recently described that blocking the proton currents in leukemic cells mediated by Hv1 ion channels triggers a marked intracellular acidification and apoptosis induction...
May 17, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513777/population-dynamics-of-siderastrea-stellata-verrill-1868-from-rocas-atoll-rn-implications-for-predicted-climate-change-impacts-at-the-only-south-atlantic-atoll
#9
Barbara R Pinheiro, Natan S Pereira, Paula G F Agostinho, Manuel J F Montes
Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems...
May 15, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511941/effects-of-ocean-acidification-on-the-physiological-performance-and-carbon-production-of-the-antarctic-sea-ice-diatom-nitzschia-sp-ice-h
#10
Chang-Feng Qu, Fang-Ming Liu, Zhou Zheng, Yi-Bin Wang, Xue-Gang Li, Hua-Mao Yuan, Ning Li, Mei-Ling An, Xi-Xi Wang, Ying-Ying He, Lu-Lu Li, Jin-Lai Miao
Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from increasing atmospheric CO2 strongly influences marine ecosystems, particularly in the polar ocean due to greater CO2 solubility. Here, we grew the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia sp. ICE-H in a semicontinuous culture under low (~400ppm) and high (1000ppm) CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 resulted in a stimulated physiological response including increased growth rates, chlorophyll a contents, and nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates. Furthermore, high CO2 enhanced cellular particulate organic carbon production rates, indicating a greater shift from inorganic to organic carbon...
May 13, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511087/optional-use-of-cam-photosynthesis-in-two-c4-species-portulaca-cyclophylla-and-portulaca-digyna
#11
Joseph A M Holtum, Lillian P Hancock, Erika J Edwards, Klaus Winter
Low levels of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are demonstrated in two species with C4 photosynthesis, Portulaca cyclophylla and P. digyna. The expression of CAM in P. cyclophylla and P. digyna is facultative, i.e. optional. Well-watered plants did not accumulate acid at night and exhibited gas-exchange patterns consistent with C4 photosynthesis. CAM-type nocturnal acidification was reversible in that it was induced following drought and lost when droughted plants were rewatered. In P. cyclophylla, droughting was accompanied by a small but discernible net uptake of CO2 during the dark, whereas in P...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508039/naturally-acidified-habitat-selects-for-ocean-acidification-tolerant-mussels
#12
Jörn Thomsen, Laura S Stapp, Kristin Haynert, Hanna Schade, Maria Danelli, Gisela Lannig, K Mathias Wegner, Frank Melzner
Ocean acidification severely affects bivalves, especially their larval stages. Consequently, the fate of this ecologically and economically important group depends on the capacity and rate of evolutionary adaptation to altered ocean carbonate chemistry. We document successful settlement of wild mussel larvae (Mytilus edulis) in a periodically CO2-enriched habitat. The larval fitness of the population originating from the CO2-enriched habitat was compared to the response of a population from a nonenriched habitat in a common garden experiment...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508025/graphical-coding-data-and-operational-guidance-for-implementation-or-modification-of-a-labview%C3%A2-based-phstat-system-for-the-cultivation-of-microalgae
#13
Rachel L Golda, Mark D Golda, Tawnya D Peterson, Joseph A Needoba
The influence of pH on phytoplankton physiology is an important facet of the body of research on ocean acidification. We provide data developed during the design and implementation of a novel pHstat system capable of maintaining both static and dynamic pH environments in a laboratory setting. These data both help improve functionality of the system, and provide specific coding blocks for controlling the pHstat using a LabVIEW® virtual instrument (VI). The data in this paper support the research article "Development of an economical, autonomous pHstat system for culturing phytoplankton under steady state or dynamic conditions" (Golda et al...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507139/long-read-sequencing-uncovers-the-adaptive-topography-of-a-carnivorous-plant-genome
#14
Tianying Lan, Tanya Renner, Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Kimberly M Farr, Tien-Hao Chang, Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff, Haibao Tang, Rikky W Purbojati, Alexander Putra, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Victor A Albert
Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507056/parallel-in-vivo-monitoring-of-ph-in-gill-capillaries-and-muscles-of-fishes-using-microencapsulated-biomarkers
#15
Ekaterina Borvinskaya, Anton Gurkov, Ekaterina Shchapova, Boris Baduev, Zhanna Shatilina, Anton Sadovoy, Igor Meglinski, Maxim Timofeyev
Tracking physiological parameters in different organs within the same organism simultaneously and in real time can provide an outstanding representation of the organism's physiological status. The state-of-the-art technique of using encapsulated fluorescent molecular probes (microencapsulated biomarkers) is a unique tool that can serve as a platform for the development of new methods to obtain in vivo physiological measurements and is applicable to a broad range of organisms. Here, we describe a novel technique to monitor the pH of blood inside the gill capillaries and interstitial fluid of muscles by using microencapsulated biomarkers in a zebrafish model...
May 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504970/osteoclast-proton-pump-regulator-atp6v1c1-enhances-breast-cancer-growth-by-activating-the-mtorc1-pathway-and-bone-metastasis-by-increasing-v-atpase-activity
#16
Matthew McConnell, Shengmei Feng, Wei Chen, Guochun Zhu, Dejun Shen, Selvarangan Ponnazhagan, Lianfu Deng, Yi-Ping Li
It is known that V-ATPases (vacuolar H+-ATPase) are involved in breast cancer growth and metastasis. Part of this action is similar to their role in osteoclasts, where they're involved in extracellular acidification and matrix destruction; however, the roles of their subunits in cancer cell proliferation, signaling, and other pro-tumor actions are not well established. Analysis of TCGA data shows that V-ATPase subunit Atp6v1c1 is overexpressed or amplified in 34% of human breast cancer cases, with a 2-fold decrease in survival at 12 years...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502020/biogeochemical-zonation-of-sulfur-during-the-discharge-of-groundwater-to-lake-in-desert-plateau-dakebo-lake-nw-china
#17
Xiaosi Su, Geng Cui, Huang Wang, Zhenxue Dai, Nam-Chil Woo, Wenzhen Yuan
As one of the important elements of controlling the redox system within the hyporheic and hypolentic zone, sulfur is involved in a series of complex biogeochemical processes such as carbon cycle, water acidification, formation of iron and manganese minerals, redox processes of trace metal elements and a series of important ecological processes. Previous studies on biogeochemistry of the hyporheic and hypolentic zones mostly concentrated on nutrients of nitrogen and phosphorus, heavy metals and other pollutants...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495628/optimization-of-functional-nanoparticles-formation-in-associative-mixture-of-water-soluble-portion-of-farsi-gum-and-beta-lactoglobulin
#18
Mohammad Hadian, Seyed Mohammad Hashem Hosseini, Asgar Farahnaky, Gholam Reza Mesbahi
Electrostatic interaction between beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) and water-soluble fraction of Farsi gum (WSFPG) was studied under the influence of pH, β-Lg:WSFPG mixing ratio (MR) and total concentration (TC) through performing various experiments such as turbidity, particle size and zeta potential measurements. Changes in the relative viscosity during in-situ acidification were studied at various ionic strengths. Lower amounts of absorbance and sedimentation were observed by decreasing the MR. An increase in the TC increased the absorbance of complexed samples...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494297/episodic-acidification-of-5-rivers-in-canada-s-oil-sands-during-snowmelt-a-25-year-record
#19
A C Alexander, P A Chambers, D S Jeffries
Episodic acidification during snowmelt is a natural phenomenon that can be intensified by acidic deposition from heavy industry. In Canada's oil sands region, acid deposition is estimated to be as much as 5% of the Canadian total and large tracks of northeastern Alberta are considered acid-sensitive because of extensive peatland habitats with poorly weathered soils. To identify the frequency, duration and severity of acidification episodes during snowmelt (the predominant hydrological period for delivery of priority pollutants from atmospheric oil sands emissions to surface waters), a 25-year record (1989 to 2014) of automated water quality data (pH, temperature, conductivity) was assembled for 3 rivers along with a shorter record (2012-2014) for another 2 rivers...
May 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493190/preparation-of-a-new-fenton-like-catalyst-from-red-mud-using-molasses-wastewater-as-partial-acidifying-agent
#20
Guangtao Wei, Luhua Shao, Jihua Mo, Zhongmin Li, Linye Zhang
Using molasses wastewater as partial acidifying agent, a new Fenton-like catalyst (ACRM sm ) was prepared through a simple process of acidification and calcination using red mud as main material. With molasses wastewater, both the free alkali and the chemically bonded alkali in red mud were effectively removed under the action of H2SO4 and molasses wastewater, and the prepared ACRM sm was a near-neutral catalyst. The ACRM sm preparation conditions were as follows: for 3 g of red mud, 9 mL of 0.7 mol/L H2SO4 plus 2 g of molasses wastewater as the acidifying agent, calcination temperature 573 K, and calcination time 1 h...
May 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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