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Ewa Szara, Tomasz Sosulski, Magdalena Szymańska, Katarzyna Szyszkowska
A considerable area of soils with low abundance of plant-available phosphorus and relatively low consumption of phosphorus fertilisers recorded in Poland over the last 20-25 years suggests that the dispersion of phosphates from arable soils in Poland can be low. The literature, however, provides reports on a considerable share of Polish agriculture in phosphorus pollution of Baltic Sea waters. The literature provides no data concerning phosphorus sorption parameters of arable soils in Poland. Due to this, the study involved the analysis of sorption properties: 1-point phosphorus sorption index (PSI) and degree of phosphorus saturation, based on molar ratio P, Al, and Fe determined by the Mehlich-3 method (DPS-1M3  = P / (Al + Fe) and DPS-2M3  = P / Al), 59 soils representing the main types of texture of soils in Poland, characterised by variable content of plant-available phosphorus by Egner-Riehm DL, organic carbon, and soil pH...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shawna A Foo, Dione Deaker, Maria Byrne
The impact of ocean acidification on marine invertebrate eggs and consequences for sperm chemotaxis are unknown. In the sea urchins Heliocidaris tuberculata and H. erythrogramma , with small (93µm) and large (393µm) eggs, respectively, we documented the effect of decreased pH on the egg jelly coat, an extracellular matrix that increases target size for sperm and contains sperm attracting molecules. In near future conditions (pH 7.8, 7.6) the jelly coat of H. tuberculata decreased by 11 and 21%, reducing egg target size by 9 and 17%, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Kwang-Sook Park, Byoung-Ju Kim, Eugene Lih, Wooram Park, Soo-Hong Lee, Yoon Ki Joung, Dong Keun Han
Artificial scaffolds made up of various synthetic biodegradable polymers have been reported to have many advantages including cheap manufacturing, easy scale up, high mechanical strength, convenient manipulation, and molding into an unlimited variety of shapes. However, the synthetic biodegradable polymers still have the insufficiency for cartilage regeneration owing to their acidic degradation products. To reduce acidification by degradation of synthetic polymers, we incorporated magnesium hydroxide (MH) nanoparticles into porous polymer scaffold not only to effectively neutralize the acidic hydrolysate but also to minimize the structural disturbance of scaffolds...
April 16, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Ilann Bourgeois, Joël Savarino, Nicolas Caillon, Helene Angot, Albane Barbero, Franck Delbart, Didier Voisin, Jean-Christophe Clement
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for life on Earth, but in excess, it can lead to environmental issues (e.g., N saturation, loss of biodiversity, acidification of lakes, etc.). Understanding the nitrogen budget (i.e., inputs and outputs) is essential to evaluate the prospective decay of the ecosystem services (e.g., freshwater quality, erosion control, loss of high patrimonial-value plant species, etc.) that subalpine headwater catchments provide, especially as these ecosystems experience high atmospheric nitrogen deposition...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mohamed A Farag, Achim Meyer, Sara E Ali, Mohamed A Salem, Patrick Giavalisco, Hildegard Westphal, Ludger A Wessjohann
Chronic exposure to ocean acidification and elevated sea-surface temperatures pose significant stress to marine ecosystems. This in turn necessitates costly acclimation responses in corals in both the symbiont and host, with a re-organization of cell metabolism and structure. A large-scale untargeted metabolomics approach comprising gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was applied to profile the metabolite composition of the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and its dinoflagellate symbiont...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Roberto Caricato, M Elena Giordano, Trifone Schettino, M Giulia Lionetto
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a ubiquitous metalloenzyme, whose functions in animals span from respiration to pH homeostasis, electrolyte transport, calcification, and biosynthetic reactions. CA is sensitive to trace metals in a number of species. In mussels, a previous study demonstrated CA activity and protein expression to be enhanced in digestive gland by cadmium exposure. The aim of the present work was to investigate the functional meaning, if any, of this response. To this end the study addressed the possible involvement of CA in the lysosomal system response of digestive gland cells to metal exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yu Chen, Xiaoting Yan, Jian Zhao, Huaiyu Feng, Puwang Li, Zongrui Tong, Ziming Yang, Sidong Li, Jueying Yang, Shaohua Jin
In the current study, a novel semi-dissolution/acidification/sol-gel transition (SD-A-SGT) method was explored for the preparation of polyelectrolyte complexing (PEC) composite hydrogels with natural polymers only. A chitosan (CS) powder was uniformly dispersed in a solution of poly(glutamic acid) (PGA) and alginate (SA) to form a semi-dissolved slurry mixture that was then exposed to an gaseous acidic atmosphere. CS was gradually dissolved and interacted with PGA and SA to form a CS/PGA/SA PEC composite hydrogel with a homogeneous structure...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Lúcia H M L M Santos, José Ricardo Paula, Carolina Camacho, Vasco Pissarra, Fabiola Fogaça, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Damià Barceló, Sara Rodriguez-Mozaz, António Marques, Mário Diniz, Rui Rosa
Antidepressants, such as venlafaxine (VFX), which are considered emerging environmental pollutants, are increasingly more present in the marine environment, and recent evidence suggest that they might have adverse effects on fish behaviour. Furthermore, altered environmental conditions associated to climate change (e.g. warming and acidification) can also have a determinant role on fish behaviour, fitness and survival. Yet, the underlying interactions between these environmental stressors (pharmaceuticals exposure and climate change) are still far from being fully understood...
April 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kenichi Shibata, Kohei Obase, Kiminori Itoh, Takashi Amemiya
Starvation is one of the most common forms of stress experienced in the wild life. Such conditions associate the other forms of stress such as acid, heat, oxidation, and so on. Organisms acclimate to such stresses and acquire the stress tolerances, which often trade-off their growth rates. To investigate whether starvation and the associated stresses may cause the changes in the growth and the central carbon metabolism, we stock-cultured the yeast S. cerevisiae on YNB agar plates up to a month and subsequently cultured in YNB broth...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Marian Y Hu, Etienne Lein, Markus Bleich, Frank Melzner, Meike Stumpp
AIM: Experimental simulation of near-future ocean acidification (OA) has been demonstrated to affect growth and development of echinoderm larval stages through energy allocation towards ion and pH compensatory processes. To date, it remains largely unknown how major pH regulatory systems and their energetics are affected by trans-generational exposure to near-future acidification levels. METHODS: Here we used the common sea star Asterias rubens in a reciprocal transplant experiment comprising different combinations of OA scenarios, in order to study trans-generational plasticity using morphological and physiological endpoints...
April 16, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Keach Murakami, Yasuomi Ibaraki
Time courses of photochemical reflectance index (PRI) of an attached cucumber leaf during a dark-light transition were compared to those of photochemical yields of photosystem II (YII ) to discuss the feasibility of PRI imaging for estimating the efficiency of photosynthetic light use. YII and PRI were simultaneously evaluated with a pulse-amplitude modulation chlorophyll fluorometer and a low-cost imaging system consisted of digital cameras and band-pass filters, respectively. YII decreased immediately after the transition and then increased under various photon flux densities...
April 16, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Alida Musatti, Chiara Mapelli, Manuela Rollini, Roberto Foschino, Claudia Picozzi
Baker’s yeast intolerance is rising among Western populations, where Saccharomyces cerevisiae is spread in fermented food and food components. Zymomonas mobilis is a bacterium commonly used in tropical areas to produce alcoholic beverages, and it has only rarely been considered for dough leavening probably because it only ferments glucose, fructose and sucrose, which are scarcely present in flour. However, through alcoholic fermentation, similarly to S. cerevisiae , it provides an equimolar mixture of ethanol and CO₂ that can rise a dough...
April 16, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Xufeng Yang, Liang Xue, Yunxiao Li, Ping Han, Xiangyu Liu, Longjun Zhang, Wei-Jun Cai
Human-induced changes to carbon fluxes across the land-ocean interface can influence the global carbon cycle, yet the impacts of rapid urbanization and establishment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on coastal ocean carbon cycles are poorly known. This is unacceptable as at present ~64% of global municipal wastewater is treated before discharge. Here, we report surface water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and sedimentary organic carbon concentrations and their isotopic compositions in the rapidly urbanized Jiaozhou Bay in northeast China as well as carbonate parameters in effluents of three large WWTPs around the bay...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Huijun Wu, Shun Wang, Liangmin Gao, Ling Zhang, Zengwei Yuan, Tingyu Fan, Kaiping Wei, Li Huang
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) play a critical role in agricultural production and cause many environmental disturbances. By combing life cycle assessment (LCA) method with the mass balance principle of substance flow analysis (SFA), this study establishes a nutrient-derived environmental impact assessment (NEIA) model to analyze the environmental impacts caused by nutrient-containing substances of agricultural production in China during 1978-2015. The agricultural production system is composed of crop farming and livestock breeding, and the environmental impacts include energy consumption, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Modong Tan, Satoshi Yamaguchi, Motonao Nakamura, Teruyuki Nagamune
G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many diseases and important biological phenomena; elucidating the mechanisms underlying regulation of their signal transduction potentially provides both novel targets for drug discovery and insight into living systems. A proton-sensing GPCR, ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1), has been reported to be related to acidosis and diseases that cause tissue acidification, but the mechanism of proton-induced activation of OGR1-mediated signal transduction in acidic conditions remains unclear...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Guang Gao, Anthony S Clare, Eleni Chatzidimitriou, Craig Rose, Gary Caldwell
Ulva is increasingly viewed as a food source in the world. Here, Ulva rigida was cultured at two levels of temperature (14, 18 °C), pH (7.95, 7.55, corresponding to low and high pCO2 ), and nitrate conditions (6 μmol L-1 , 150 μmol L-1 ), to investigate the effects of ocean warming, acidification, and eutrophication on food quality of Ulva species. High temperature increased the content of each amino acid. High nitrate increased the content of all amino acids except aspartic acid and cysteine. High temperature, pCO2 , and nitrate also increased the content of most fatty acids...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Satoru Tomita, Toshihide Nakamura, Sanae Okada
This study revealed the compositional characteristics of sunki, a traditional, unsalted, lactic acid-fermented pickle produced using turnip leaf in Kiso district, Japan. Comprehensive compositional analysis by two metabolomic approaches based on NMR and solid-phase microextraction-GC/MS methods was used to determine its chemical composition by annotating 54 water-soluble and 62 volatile compounds. Principal component analysis showed that samples had different compositions, depending on the agricultural processing factory and production year...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Hua Lin, Chao Zhang, Hao Zhang, Yuan-Zheng Xia, Chuan-Yang Zhang, Jie Luo, Lei Yang, Ling-Yi Kong
BACKGROUND: Physakengose G (PG) is a new compound first isolated from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii, an anticarcinogenic traditional Chinese medicine. PG has shown promising anti-tumor effects, but its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the anti-cancer effects of PG on human osteosarcoma cells and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis rates, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) formation were determined by flow cytometry...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Erin E Cuyler, Robert H Byrne
A simple protocol was developed to measure seawater calcium carbonate saturation states (Ωspec ) spectrophotometrically. Saturation states are typically derived from the separate measurement of two other carbon system parameters, with each requiring unique instrumentation and often complex measurement protocols. Using the new protocol, the only required equipment is a thermostatted laboratory spectrophotometer. For each seawater sample, spectrophotometric measurements of pH (visible absorbance) are made in paired optical cells, one with and one without added nitric acid...
August 22, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Teresa Cunha-Oliveira, Luciana L Ferreira, Ana Raquel Coelho, Cláudia M Deus, Paulo J Oliveira
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a widely used anticancer drug that could be even more effective if its clinical dosage was not limited because of delayed cardiotoxicity. Beating stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are a preferred in vitro model to further uncover the mechanisms of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objective was to use cultured induced-pluripotent stem cell(iPSC)-derived mouse cardiomyocytes (Cor.At) to investigate the effects of DOX on cell and mitochondrial metabolism, as well as on stress responses. Non-proliferating and beating Cor...
April 10, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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