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Acidification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212568/an-anthocyanin-rich-strawberry-extract-induces-apoptosis-and-ros-while-decreases-glycolysis-and-fibrosis-in-human-uterine-leiomyoma-cells
#1
Md Soriful Islam, Francesca Giampieri, Milijana Janjusevic, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Luca Mazzoni, Stefania Greco, Stefano Raffaele Giannubilo, Andrea Ciavattini, Bruno Mezzetti, Franco Capocasa, Mario Castellucci, Maurizio Battino, Pasquapina Ciarmela
Uterine leiomyomas are highly prevalent benign tumors in reproductive aged women. Unfortunately, medical treatments are still limited and no preventive therapies have been developed. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of strawberry extract on uterine leiomyoma cells. Leiomyoma and myometrial cells were treated with strawberry (cultivar Alba) extract (250 μg/ml) for 48 h to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative phosphorylation (OCR, oxygen consumption rate) and glycolysis (ECAR, extracellular acidification rate) as well as fibrosis associated gene and/or protein expression...
February 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212462/climate-change-contaminant-interactions-in-marine-food-webs-towards-a-conceptual-framework
#2
Juan José Alava, William W L Cheung, Peter S Ross, Rashid U Sumaila
Climate change is reshaping the way in which contaminants move through the global environment, in large part by changing the chemistry of the oceans and affecting the physiology, health and feeding ecology of marine biota. Climate change-associated impacts on structure and function of marine food webs, with consequent changes in contaminant transport, fate and effects, is likely to have significant repercussions to those human populations that rely on fisheries resources for food, recreation or culture. Published studies on climate change-contaminant interactions with a focus on food web bioaccumulation were systematically reviewed to explore how climate change and ocean acidification may impact contaminant levels in marine food webs...
February 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212418/experimental-evidence-of-formation-of-transparent-exopolymer-particles-tep-and-poc-export-provoked-by-dust-addition-under-current-and-high-pco2-conditions
#3
Justine Louis, Maria Luiza Pedrotti, Frédéric Gazeau, Cécile Guieu
The evolution of organic carbon export to the deep ocean, under anthropogenic forcing such as ocean warming and acidification, needs to be investigated in order to evaluate potential positive or negative feedbacks on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and therefore on climate. As such, modifications of aggregation processes driven by transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) formation have the potential to affect carbon export. The objectives of this study were to experimentally assess the dynamics of organic matter, after the simulation of a Saharan dust deposition event, through the measurement over one week of TEP abundance and size, and to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on TEP formation and carbon export following a dust deposition event...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211495/characterization-of-biocarbon-source-recovery-and-microbial-community-shifts-from-waste-activated-sludge-by-conditioning-with-cornstover-assessment-of-cellulosic-compositions
#4
Kaili Wen, Aijuan Zhou, Jiaguang Zhang, Zhihong Liu, Guoying Wang, Wenzong Liu, Aijie Wang, Xiuping Yue
Most studies on the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion have focused on operating conditions, pretreatments and characteristic adjustments. Conditioning by extra carbon sources (ECS), normally added in a solid form, has been reported to be an efficient approach. However, this has caused considerable waste of monomeric sugars in the hydrolysate. In this study, the effects of two added forms (pretreated straw (S) and hydrolyzed liquid (L)) of cornstover (CS) on WAS acidification were investigated...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211339/phytoextraction-of-contaminated-urban-soils-by-panicum-virgatum-l-enhanced-with-application-of-a-plant-growth-regulator-bap-and-citric-acid
#5
Matthew Aderholt, Dale L Vogelien, Marina Koether, Sigurdur Greipsson
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA...
February 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209995/rna-seq-based-transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-reveal-stress-responses-and-programmed-cell-death-induced-by-acetic-acid-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Yachen Dong, Jingjin Hu, Linlin Fan, Qihe Chen
As a typical harmful inhibitor in cellulosic hydrolyzates, acetic acid not only hinders bioethanol production, but also induces cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Herein, we conducted both transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to investigate the global responses under acetic acid stress at different stages. There were 295 up-regulated and 427 down-regulated genes identified at more than two time points during acetic acid treatment (150 mM, pH 3.0). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly involved in intracellular homeostasis, central metabolic pathway, transcription regulation, protein folding and stabilization, ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process, vesicle-mediated transport, protein synthesis, MAPK signaling pathways, cell cycle, programmed cell death, etc...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208067/low-ph-conditions-impair-module-capacity-to-regenerate-in-a-calcified-colonial-invertebrate-the-bryozoan-cryptosula-pallasiana
#7
Chiara Lombardi, Paul D Taylor, Silvia Cocito, Camilla Bertolini, Piero Calosi
Many aquatic animals grow into colonies of repeated, genetically identical, modules (zooids). Zooid interconnections enable colonies to behave as integrated functional units, while plastic responses to environmental changes may affect individual zooids. Plasticity includes the variable partitioning of resources to sexual reproduction, colony growth and maintenance. Maintenance often involves regeneration, which is also a routine part of the life history in some organisms, such as bryozoans. Here we investigate changes in regenerative capacity in the encrusting bryozoan Cryptosula pallasiana when cultured at different seawater pCO2 levels...
February 7, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205573/extracellular-protonation-modulates-cell-cell-interaction-mechanics-and-tissue-invasion-in-human-melanoma-cells
#8
Verena Hofschröer, Kevin Alexander Koch, Florian Timo Ludwig, Peter Friedl, Hans Oberleithner, Christian Stock, Albrecht Schwab
Detachment of cells from the primary tumour precedes metastatic progression by facilitating cell release into the tissue. Solid tumours exhibit altered pH homeostasis with extracellular acidification. In human melanoma, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 is an important modifier of the tumour nanoenvironment. Here we tested the modulation of cell-cell-adhesion by extracellular pH and NHE1. MV3 tumour spheroids embedded in a collagen matrix unravelled the efficacy of cell-cell contact loosening and 3D emigration into an environment mimicking physiological confinement...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205566/linking-gene-expression-to-productivity-to-unravel-long-and-short-term-responses-of-seagrasses-exposed-to-co2-in-volcanic-vents
#9
Irene Olivé, João Silva, Chiara Lauritano, Monya M Costa, Miriam Ruocco, Gabriele Procaccini, Rui Santos
Ocean acidification is a major threat for marine life but seagrasses are expected to benefit from high CO2. In situ (long-term) and transplanted (short-term) plant incubations of the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa were performed near and away the influence of volcanic CO2 vents at Vulcano Island to test the hypothesis of beneficial effects of CO2 on plant productivity. We relate, for the first time, the expression of photosynthetic, antioxidant and metal detoxification-related genes to net plant productivity (NPP)...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204970/a-carbonic-anhydrase-serves-as-an-important-acid-base-regulator-in-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-exposed-to-elevated-co2-implication-for-physiological-responses-of-mollusk-to-ocean-acidification
#10
Xiudan Wang, Mengqiang Wang, Zhihao Jia, Limei Qiu, Lingling Wang, Anguo Zhang, Linsheng Song
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have been demonstrated to play an important role in acid-base regulation in vertebrates. However, the classification and modulatory function of CAs in marine invertebrates, especially their responses to ocean acidification remain largely unknown. Here, a cytosolic α-CA (designated as CgCAII-1) was characterized from Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and its molecular activities against CO2 exposure were investigated. CgCAII-1 possessed a conserved CA catalytic domain, with high similarity to invertebrate cytoplasmic or mitochondrial α-CAs...
February 16, 2017: Marine Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203119/higher-phagocytic-activity-of-thioglycollate-elicited-peritoneal-macrophages-is-related-to-metabolic-status-of-the-cells
#11
Sofia Pavlou, Luxi Wang, Heping Xu, Mei Chen
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal macrophages are widely used in immunological studies. The cells can be collected under non-elicited (resident) or elicited (e.g., with Brewer thioglycollate broth injection) conditions, and their phenotype and functions differ. Recent studies have shown that macrophage phenotype and function are related to their metabolic states, and metabolic reprogramming has been an emerging concept for controlling macrophage function. In this study, we examined the metabolic state of resident and elicited macrophages and investigated how their metabolic state may affect cell function, including phagocytosis...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202683/adult-exposure-to-ocean-acidification-is-maladaptive-for-larvae-of-the-sydney-rock-oyster-saccostrea-glomerata-in-the-presence-of-multiple-stressors
#12
Laura M Parker, Wayne A O'Connor, Maria Byrne, Ross A Coleman, Patti Virtue, Michael Dove, Mitchell Gibbs, Lorraine Spohr, Elliot Scanes, Pauline M Ross
Parental effects passed from adults to their offspring have been identified as a source of rapid acclimation that may allow marine populations to persist as our surface oceans continue to decrease in pH. Little is known, however, whether parental effects are beneficial for offspring in the presence of multiple stressors. We exposed adults of the oyster Saccostrea glomerata to elevated CO2 and examined the impacts of elevated CO2 (control = 392; 856 µatm) combined with elevated temperature (control = 24; 28°C), reduced salinity (control = 35; 25) and reduced food concentration (control = full; half diet) on their larvae...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202652/effects-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-and-temperature-on-locomotion-and-the-repeatability-of-lateralization-in-a-keystone-marine-mollusc
#13
Paolo Domenici, Rodrigo Torres, Patricio H Manríquez
Recent work has shown that the behaviour of marine organisms can be affected by elevated PCO2 , although little is known about the effect of multiple stressors. We therefore investigated the effect of elevated PCO2  and temperature on locomotion and behaviour during prey searching in the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, a predator characteristic of the southeastern Pacific coast. Movement duration, decision time, route finding and lateralization were measured using a T-maze tank with a prey positioned behind a barrier...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199836/bcr-and-endosomal-tlr-signals-synergize-to-increase-aid-expression-and-establish-central-b-cell-tolerance
#14
Masayuki Kuraoka, Pilar B Snowden, Takuya Nojima, Laurent Verkoczy, Barton F Haynes, Daisuke Kitamura, Garnett Kelsoe
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required to purge autoreactive immature and transitional-1 (immature/T1) B cells at the first tolerance checkpoint, but how AID selectively removes self-reactive B cells is unclear. We now show that B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and endosomal Toll-like receptor (TLR) signals synergize to elicit high levels of AID expression in immature/T1 B cells. This synergy is restricted to ligands for endocytic TLR and requires phospholipase-D activation, endosomal acidification, and MyD88...
February 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198181/mineralogical-plasticity-acts-as-a-compensatory-mechanism-to-the-impacts-of-ocean-acidification
#15
Jonathan Y S Leung, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio)...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198085/the-alternative-sigma-factor-%C3%AF-b-plays-a-crucial-role-in-adaptive-strategies-of-clostridium-difficile-during-gut-infection
#16
Nicolas Kint, Claire Janoir, Marc Monot, Sandra Hoys, Olga Soutourina, Bruno Dupuy, Isabelle Martin-Verstraete
Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhoea associated with antibiotherapy. Exposed to stresses in the gut, C. difficile can survive by inducing protection, detoxification, and repair systems. In several firmicutes, most of these systems are controlled by the general stress response involving σ(B) . In this work, we studied the role of σ(B) in the physiopathology of C. difficile. We showed that the survival of the sigB mutant during the stationary phase was reduced. Using a transcriptome analysis, we showed that σ(B) controls the expression of ∼25% of genes including genes involved in sporulation, metabolism, cell surface biogenesis, and the management of stresses...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193528/cellular-acidification-as-a-new-approach-to-cancer-treatment-and-to-the-understanding-and-therapeutics-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Salvador Harguindey, Daniel Stanciu, Jesús Devesa, Khalid Alfarouk, Rosa Angela Cardone, Julian David Polo Orozco, Pablo Devesa, Cyril Rauch, Gorka Orive, Eduardo Anitua, Sébastien Roger, Stephan J Reshkin
During the last few years, the understanding of the dysregulated hydrogen ion dynamics and reversed proton gradient of cancer cells has resulted in a new and integral pH-centric paradigm in oncology, a translational model embracing from cancer etiopathogenesis to treatment. The abnormalities of intracellular alkalinization along with extracellular acidification of all types of solid tumors and leukemic cells have never been described in any other disease and now appear to be a specific hallmark of malignancy...
February 10, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192486/ocean-acidification-modulates-expression-of-genes-and-physiological-performance-of-a-marine-diatom
#18
Yahe Li, Shufang Zhuang, Yaping Wu, Honglin Ren, Fangyi Chen, Xin Lin, Kejian Wang, John Beardall, Kunshan Gao
Ocean Acidification (OA) is known to affect various aspects of physiological performances of diatoms, but little is known about the underlining molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we show that in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the expression of key genes associated with photosynthetic light harvesting as well as those encoding Rubisco, carbonic anhydrase, NADH dehydrogenase and nitrite reductase, are modulated by OA (1000 μatm, pHnbs 7.83). Growth and photosynthetic carbon fixation were enhanced by elevated CO2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188988/ocean-acidification-adversely-influences-metabolism-extracellular-ph-and-calcification-of-an-economically-important-marine-bivalve-tegillarca-granosa
#19
Xinguo Zhao, Wei Shi, Yu Han, Saixi Liu, Cheng Guo, Wandong Fu, Xueliang Chai, Guangxu Liu
Oceanic uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere has significantly reduced surface seawater pH and altered the carbonate chemistry within, leading to global Ocean Acidification (OA). The blood clam, Tegillarca granosa, is an economically and ecologically significant marine bivalve that is widely distributed along the coastal and estuarine areas of Asia. To investigate the physiological responses to OA, blood clams were exposed to ambient and three reduced seawater pH levels (8.1, 7.8, 7.6 and 7.4) for 40 days, respectively...
February 1, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188857/sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-and-translational-studies-of-anxiety-disorders
#20
Marco Battaglia
Heightened concentrations of CO2 in inhaled air provoke temporary acidification of the brain, followed by compensatory hyperventilation and increased arousal/anxiety. These responses are likely to map a basic, latent general alarm/avoidance system that is largely shared across mammals, and are sources of individual differences. By showing paroxysmal respiratory and emotional responses to CO2 challenges, humans with panic and separation anxiety disorders lie at one extreme of the distribution for CO2 sensitivity...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
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