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Kelli N O'Laughlin, Shada A Rouhani, Julius Kasozi, Kelsy E Greenwald, Nicholas R Perkons, Zikama M Faustin, Ingrid V Bassett, Norma C Ware
Background: Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n  = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n  = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data...
2018: Conflict and Health
Katharina Heider, Juan Miguel Rodriguez Lopez, Jürgen Scheffran
Due to the availability of Web 2.0 technologies, volunteered geographic information (VGI) is on the rise. This new type of data is available on many topics and on different scales. Thus, it has become interesting for research. This article deals with the collective potential of VGI and remote sensing to detect peri-urbanization in the conservation zone of Mexico City. On the one hand, remote sensing identifies horizontal urban expansion, and on the other hand, VGI of ecological complaints provides data about informal settlements...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Scott Schlossberg, Michael J Chase, Curtice R Griffin
With populations of African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) declining across the continent, assessing the status of individual elephant populations is important for conservation. Angola's elephant population represents a key linkage between the larger populations of Namibia and Botswana. Elephants in Angola were decimated during the 1975-2002 Angolan civil war, but a 2005 survey showed that populations were recolonizing former habitats. Between 2005 and 2015, no research was permitted on elephants in Angola, but elsewhere in Africa many elephant populations experienced a poaching crisis...
2018: PloS One
Linda M Richter, Stephen J Lye, Kerrie Proulx
Forced displacement worldwide is at its highest in decades and millions of young children are living in conflict zones, in transitional or enduring refugee contexts, and in demographically diverse marginalized and informal settlements. There is a huge unmet need for delivering early childhood development interventions to ensure the safety and continued development of young children in these vulnerable contexts. In this paper, we discuss nurturing care as an important entry point for multisectoral collaborations to support families and reach young children...
March 2018: New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development
Erica Cristina da Silva Chagas, Arineia Soares Silva, Nelson Ferreira Fé, Lucas Silva Ferreira, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wagner Cosme Morhy Terrazas, Jorge Augusto Oliveira Guerra, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira de Souza, Henrique Silveira, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are vectors of Leishmania species, the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, which is one of the most important emerging infectious diseases in the Americas. In the state of Amazonas in Brazil, anthropogenic activities encourage the presence of these insects around rural homes. The present study aimed to describe the composition and distribution of sand fly species diversity among the ecotopes (intradomicile, peridomicile and forest) in an area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission and detect natural infection with Leishmania DNA to evaluate which vectors are inside houses and whether the presence of possible vectors represents a hazard of transmission...
March 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Colleen Edith Archer, M Corrie Schoeman, Christopher Charles Appleton, Samson Mukaratirwa, Karen J Hope, Glenda Beverly Matthews
This study investigated associations between Trypanosoma lewisi; Xenopsylla cheopis, a common cyclical vector of T. lewisi; Polyplax spinulosa, a reported mechanical vector; and Laelaps ecidnina and L. lamborni, two rodent mites of Rattus norvegicus in Durban. Three hundred and seventy nine R. norvegicus were live-trapped at 48 sites in 4 locality types of Durban during a one year period. Rats were euthanized, cardiac blood was taken to check for hemoparasites and ectoparasites were removed for identification...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
M Summa, H Henttonen, L Maunula
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host-species-specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could serve as carriers of HuNoVs, thereby transmitting the virus to humans directly or indirectly by contaminating foods. All samples, 115 avian and 100 rat faeces collected in springs 2009-2013 from dump sites, and 85 faeces from yellow-necked mice trapped in late autumn 2008 and 2009 after the rodents entered human settlements due to the first night frosts, were screened for HuNoV using real-time reverse transcription PCR...
March 12, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
Shi-Jin Feng, Zhen-Bai Bai, Hong-Xin Chen, Ben-Yi Cao, Shi-Feng Lu, Yun-Min Chen
A dual-permeability hydro-biodegradation model is developed to describe the leachate flow in municipal solid waste (MSW) and predict the long-term settlement induced by biodegradation in bioreactor landfills. The model is verified against Hydrus-1D and a recirculation experiment conducted in a full-scale landfill. Preferential flow and mass transfer between fissure and matrix can be reasonably modeled by the proposed model. A higher recirculation flow rate can speed up the stabilization process of landfill...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lindon W K Moodie, Gunnar Cervin, Rozenn Trepos, Christophe Labriere, Claire Hellio, Henrik Pavia, Johan Svenson
By combining the recently reported repelling natural dihydrostilbene scaffold with an oxime moiety found in many marine antifoulants, a library of nine antifouling hybrid compounds was developed and biologically evaluated. The prepared compounds were shown to display a low antifouling effect against marine bacteria but a high potency against the attachment and growth of microalgae down to MIC values of 0.01 μg/mL for the most potent hybrid. The mode of action can be characterized as repelling via a reversible non-toxic biostatic mechanism...
March 13, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Esteban Yefi-Quinteros, Catalina Muñoz-San Martín, Antonella Bacigalupo, Juana P Correa, Pedro E Cattan
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the agent of Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latin America. Many wild and domestic animals are naturally infected with T. cruzi; rodents are one of the groups which have been consistently detected infected in different countries. The aim of this work was to characterize blood T. cruzi load in naturally infected rodents from a Chagas disease endemic region in Chile. METHODS: Baited traps were set in domestic and peridomestic areas of rural dwellings...
March 12, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jihane Ben Farhat, Karl Blanchet, Pia Juul Bjertrup, Apostolos Veizis, Clément Perrin, Rebecca M Coulborn, Philippe Mayaud, Sandra Cohuet
BACKGROUND: Since 2015, Europe has been facing an unprecedented arrival of refugees and migrants: more than one million people entered via land and sea routes. During their travels, refugees and migrants often face harsh conditions, forced detention, and violence in transit countries. However, there is a lack of epidemiological quantitative evidence on their experiences and the mental health problems they face during their displacement. We aimed to document the types of violence experienced by migrants and refugees during their journey and while settled in Greece, and to measure the prevalence of anxiety disorders and access to legal information and procedures...
March 13, 2018: BMC Medicine
George Odwe, Chi-Chi Undie, Francis Obare
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda...
March 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Nishant Ganesh Kumar, Nicholas Hricz, Brian C Drolet
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel release (CTR) is the most common hand surgery operation performed in the United States. While serious complications are rare, they can be life-altering to patients. In some cases, patients will pursue malpractice claims against the surgeon. This study aimed to understand the patient, procedure, and surgeon factors involved in CTR malpractice litigation. METHODS: The Westlaw legal database was queried for all recorded CTR malpractice cases resulting in jury verdicts and settlements...
March 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
Viliam Kováč, Beáta Gavurová
AIM: Poverty and social exclusion is measured through different criteria and one of them is the health sector. The relationship between Roma population and the health sector is on the edge of researchers' interest in the Slovak Republic. The purpose of this paper is a quantification of the regional disparities in the development of mortality which is causally linked with selected infrastructural determinants - namely access to water and sewerage. These determinants differently participate in the structure of mortality in marginalised and segregated communities and they deepen regional disparities in health...
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
Yama Dixit, David A Hodell, Alena Giesche, Sampat K Tandon, Fernando Gázquez, Hari S Saini, Luke C Skinner, Syed A I Mujtaba, Vikas Pawar, Ravindra N Singh, Cameron A Petrie
Today the desert margins of northwest India are dry and unable to support large populations, but were densely occupied by the populations of the Indus Civilization during the middle to late Holocene. The hydroclimatic conditions under which Indus urbanization took place, which was marked by a period of expanded settlement into the Thar Desert margins, remains poorly understood. We measured the isotopic values (δ18 O and δD) of gypsum hydration water in paleolake Karsandi sediments in northern Rajasthan to infer past changes in lake hydrology, which is sensitive to changing amounts of precipitation and evaporation...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Janne Flora, Kasper Lambert Johansen, Bjarne Grønnow, Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen, Anders Mosbech
Information from a collaborative GPS tracking project, Piniariarneq, involving 17 occupational hunters from Qaanaaq and Savissivik, Northwest Greenland, is used to explore the resource spaces of hunters in Avanersuaq today. By comparison with historical records from the time of the Thule Trading Station and the decades following its closure, we reveal a marked variability in resource spaces over time. It is argued that the dynamics of resources and resource spaces in Thule are not underlain by animal distribution and migration patterns, or changes in weather and sea ice conditions alone; but also by economic opportunities, human mobility, settlement patterns, particular historical events and trajectories, and not least by economic and political interests developed outside the region...
March 8, 2018: Ambio
Ji Yun Jung, So Yoon Kim, Dong Gyu Kim, Choong Bai Kim, Kyong-Choun Chi, Won Kyung Kang, Won Lee
Purpose: The aim of this study is to prepare medical staff in order to prevent medical malpractice litigation through analysis of litigation cases related to the department of surgery in Korea. Methods: A total of 94 litigation cases related to the department of surgery, where a certain amount of payment was ordered to the defendant between 2005 through 2010, were analyzed. We examined time of occurrence, amount claimed and awarded in damages, plaintiff claims, and court opinion...
March 2018: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
I Úbeda-Pérez de Heredia
AIM: To demonstrate the effectiveness of early weight bearing with no immobilisation (functional therapy) applied to fractures of the fifth metatarsal. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective case and control observational study was performed among 382 fractures on the fifth metatarsal comparing functional, conservative-orthopaedic and surgical treatments. Fractures were classified according to the settlement on the distal, diaphyseal or proximal part of the bone, the recommended therapy and the treatment performed...
March 5, 2018: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Poh-Chin Lai, Si Chen, Chien-Tat Low, Ester Cerin, Robert Stimson, Pui Yun Paulina Wong
Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kirsten Hastrup, Anders Mosbech, Bjarne Grønnow
The North Water is a recurrent polynya in the High Arctic situated between Northwest Greenland and Ellesmere Island of Canada. The North Water makes a dynamic space, where various processes may enhance or obstruct each other, accelerating or halting particular modes of human-animal relations in the region, where life itself depends on the North Water. This will be discussed in four steps. The first step posits the North Water as a perceived oasis for explorers and whalers hailing from Europe or America in the nineteenth century...
March 7, 2018: Ambio
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