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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102439/reconstruction-of-radionuclide-intakes-for-the-residents-of-east-urals-radioactive-trace-1957-2011
#1
Evgenia I Tolstykh, Lyudmila M Peremyslova, Marina O Degteva, Bruce A Napier
The East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) was formed after a chemical explosion in the radioactive waste-storage facility of the Mayak Production Association in 1957 (Southern Urals, Russia) and resulted in an activity dispersion of 7.4 × 10(16) Bq into the atmosphere. Internal exposure due to ingestion of radionuclides with local foodstuffs was the main factor of public exposure at the EURT. The EURT cohort, combining residents of most contaminated settlements, was formed for epidemiological study at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Russia (URCRM)...
January 19, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093118/surgical-fires-and-operative-burns-lessons-learned-from-a-33-year-review-of-medical-litigation
#2
Asad J Choudhry, Nadeem N Haddad, Mohammad A Khasawneh, Daniel C Cullinane, Martin D Zielinski
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to understand the setting and litigation outcomes of surgical fires and operative burns. METHODS: Westlaw, an online legal research data-set, was utilized. Data were collected on patient, procedure, and case characteristics. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine cases were identified; 114 (82%) operative burns and 25 (18%) surgical fires. Median plaintiff (patient) age was 46 (IQR:28-59). Most common site of operative burn was the face (26% [n = 36])...
December 12, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089550/assessment-of-microplastic-sorbed-contaminant-bioavailability-through-analysis-of-biomarker-gene-expression-in-larval-zebrafish
#3
Victoria A Sleight, Adil Bakir, Richard C Thompson, Theodore B Henry
Microplastics (MPs) are prevalent in marine ecosystems. Because toxicants (termed here "co-contaminants") can sorb to MPs, there is potential for MPs to alter co-contaminant bioavailability. Our objective was to demonstrate sorption of two co-contaminants with different physicochemistries [phenanthrene (Phe), log10Kow=4.57; and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), log10Kow=3.67] to MPs; and assess whether co-contaminant bioavailability was increased after MP settlement. Bioavailability was indicated by gene expression in larval zebrafish...
January 12, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088232/utilization-of-mobile-phones-for-accessing-menstrual-regulation-services-among-low-income-women-in-bangladesh-a-qualitative-analysis
#4
Chelsea Jordan Messinger, Ilias Mahmud, Sushama Kanan, Yamin Tauseef Jahangir, Malabika Sarker, Sabina Faiz Rashid
BACKGROUND: As many as one-third of all pregnancies in Bangladesh are unplanned, with nearly one-half of these pregnancies ending in either menstrual regulation (MR) or illegal clandestine abortion. Although MR is provided free of charge, or at a nominal cost, through the public sector and various non-profits organizations, many women face barriers in accessing safe, affordable MR and post-MR care. Mobile health (mHealth) services present a promising platform for increasing access to MR among low-income women at risk for clandestine abortion...
January 14, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088106/uv-a-induced-delayed-development-in-the-larvae-of-coral-seriatopora-caliendrum
#5
Jie Zhou, Tung-Yung Fan, John Beardall, Kunshan Gao
Coral reefs are vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400nm). Not only do the fluxes of UVR fluctuate daily, they are also increasing due to global ocean and atmospheric changes. The deleterious effects of UVR on scleractinian corals have been intensively studied, but much less is known about the response of corals in the early pre-settlement phase. In this study, we tested how UVR exposure affects survival and development of Seriatopora caliendrum larvae and examined the photophysiological changes induced in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077103/determinants-of-quality-of-shared-sanitation-facilities-in-informal-settlements-case-study-of-kisumu-kenya
#6
Sheillah Simiyu, Mark Swilling, Sandy Cairncross, Richard Rheingans
BACKGROUND: Shared facilities are not recognised as improved sanitation due to challenges of maintenance as they easily can be avenues for the spread of diseases. Thus there is need to evaluate the quality of shared facilities, especially in informal settlements, where they are commonly used. A shared facility can be equated to a common good whose management depends on the users. If users do not work collectively towards keeping the facility clean, it is likely that the quality may depreciate due to lack of maintenance...
January 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075362/transparency-of-mandatory-information-disclosure-and-concerns-of-health-services-providers-and-consumers
#7
Yu-Hua Yan, Chih-Ming Kung, Shih-Chieh Fang, Yi Chen
BACKGROUND: This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer's perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. METHODS: We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384). RESULTS: Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074315/the-roundworm-strongyloides-stercoralis-in-children-dogs-and-soil-inside-and-outside-a-segregated-settlement-in-eastern-slovakia-frequent-but-hardly-detectable-parasite
#8
G Štrkolcová, M Goldová, E Bocková, J Mojžišová
A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the Strongyloides stercoralis infections in children and dogs inside and outside the segregated settlement in Medzev, Eastern Slovakia, and a survey of the soil within the settlement was included. Applying the Koga agar plate (KAP) culture method and microscopy examination of stool samples collected from 60 Roma and 21 nonRoma children, no larvae of S. stercoralis were detected but eggs of three nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis) and cysts of two protozoan endoparasites (Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp...
January 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072444/predator-effects-on-reef-fish-settlement-depend-on-predator-origin-and-recruit-density
#9
Cassandra E Benkwitt
During major life-history transitions animals often experience high mortality rates due to predation, making predator avoidance particularly advantageous during these times. There is mixed evidence from a limited number of studies, however, regarding how predator presence influences settlement of coral-reef fishes and it is unknown how other potentially mediating factors, including predator origin (native versus non-native) or interactions among conspecific recruits, mediate the non-consumptive effects of predators on reef fish settlement...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070923/the-cascade-of-hiv-care-among-refugees-and-nationals-in-nakivale-refugee-settlement-in-uganda
#10
K N O'Laughlin, J Kasozi, D J Rabideau, R A Parker, E Mulogo, Z M Faustin, K E Greenwald, S Doraiswamy, R P Walensky, I V Bassett
OBJECTIVES: Refugees living in Uganda come from HIV-endemic countries, and many remain in refugee settlements for over a decade. Our objective was to evaluate the HIV care cascade in Nakivale Refugee Settlement and to assess correlates of linkage to care. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled individuals accessing clinic-based HIV testing in Nakivale Refugee Settlement from March 2013 to July 2014. Newly HIV-diagnosed clients were followed for 3 months post-diagnosis...
January 10, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070855/place-and-child-health-the-interaction-of-population-density-and-sanitation-in-developing-countries
#11
Payal Hathi, Sabrina Haque, Lovey Pant, Diane Coffey, Dean Spears
A long literature in demography has debated the importance of place for health, especially children's health. In this study, we assess whether the importance of dense settlement for infant mortality and child height is moderated by exposure to local sanitation behavior. Is open defecation (i.e., without a toilet or latrine) worse for infant mortality and child height where population density is greater? Is poor sanitation is an important mechanism by which population density influences child health outcomes? We present two complementary analyses using newly assembled data sets, which represent two points in a trade-off between external and internal validity...
January 9, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070466/resistance-to-starvation-of-first-stage-juveniles-of-the-caribbean-spiny-lobster
#12
Alí Espinosa-Magaña, Enrique Lozano-Álvarez, Patricia Briones-Fourzán
The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus) of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI). Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding) and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle) in a warm and a cold season...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070284/do-settlement-dynamics-influence-competitive-interactions-between-an-alien-tunicate-and-its-native-congener
#13
Sarah Bouchemousse, Laurent Lévêque, Frédérique Viard
Variation in density of early stages, that is, larvae and juveniles, is a major determinant of the distribution and abundance of the adult population of most marine invertebrates. These early stages thus play a key role in competitive interactions, and, more specifically, in invasion dynamics when biologically similar native and non-native species (NNS) come into contact in the same habitat. We examined the settlement dynamics and settlement rate of two important members of the fouling community that are common on human-made infrastructures around the world: Ciona robusta (formerly known as Ciona intestinalis type A) and C...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068073/spatially-explicit-mapping-of-heat-health-risk-utilizing-environmental-and-socioeconomic-data
#14
Kejia Hu, Xuchao Yang, Jieming Zhong, Fangrong Fei, Jiaguo Qi
Extreme heat events, a leading cause of weather-related fatality worldwide, are expected to intensify, last longer, and occur more frequently in the near future. In heat health risk assessments, a spatiotemporal mismatch usually exists between hazard (heat stress) data and exposure (population distribution) data. Such mismatch is present because demographic data are generally updated every couple of years and unavailable at the subcensus unit level, which hinders the ability to diagnose human risks. In the present work, a human settlement index based on multi-sensor remote sensing data, including nighttime light, vegetation index, and digital elevation model data, was used for heat exposure assessment on a per-pixel basis...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067812/estimating-the-cost-and-payment-for-sanitation-in-the-informal-settlements-of-kisumu-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Sheillah Simiyu, Mark Swilling, Richard Rheingans, Sandy Cairncross
Lack of sanitation facilities is a common occurrence in informal settlements that are common in most developing countries. One challenge with sanitation provision in these settlements is the cost and financing of sanitation. This study aimed at estimating the cost of sanitation, and investigating the social and economic dynamics within Kisumu's informal settlements that hinder provision and uptake of sanitation facilities. Primary data was collected from residents of the settlements, and using logistic and hedonic regression analysis, we identify characteristics of residents with sanitation facilities, and estimate the cost of sanitation as revealed in rental prices...
January 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067115/macro-porous-hydrogel-scaffolds-for-3-d-cell-culture-and-tissue-engineering
#16
Changjiang Fan, Dong-An Wang
Hydrogels have been promising candidate scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering due to their tissue-like physical properties and capability for homogeneous cell loading. However, the encapsulated cells are generally entrapped and constrained in the submicron- or nano-sized gel networks, seriously limiting cell growth and tissue formation. Meanwhile, the spatially-confined settlement inhibits attachment and spreading of anchorage dependent cells, leading to their apoptosis. In recent years, macro-porous hydrogels have attracted increasing attention in use as cell delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds...
January 8, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062932/prevalence-and-quality-of-individual-placement-and-support-ips-supported-employment-in-the-united-states
#17
Annalee Johnson-Kwochka, Gary R Bond, Deborah R Becker, Robert E Drake, Mary Ann Greene
The individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment for people with serious mental illness is an evidence-based practice. Factors including a national learning community promoting IPS and enforcement of the Supreme Court's Olmstead decision have spurred the growth of IPS nationwide. In this study we first evaluated the national prevalence and quality of IPS programs. We then evaluated the impact of learning community membership and Olmstead settlements on IPS program penetration and quality across the United States...
January 6, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062421/intraoperative-oct-assisted-descemetopexy-with-stromal-vent-incisions-and-intracameral-gas-injection-for-case-of-non-resolving-descemet-s-membrane-detachment
#18
Archita Singh, Murugesan Vanathi, Suman Sahu, Saranya Devi
Descemet's membrane detachment (DMD) though uncommon in the present day scenario of advancing surgical techniques is a significant complication that requires prompt diagnosis and management. A middle-aged man presented to our hospital with poor gain of vision following cataract surgery. There was significant corneal oedema with DMD which was confirmed on anterior segment optical coherence tomography. We describe a modified continuous intraoperative-guided approach for the management of DMD in cases with oedematous hazy corneas...
January 6, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062150/influence-of-dynamic-coupled-hydro-bio-mechanical-processes-on-response-of-municipal-solid-waste-and-liner-system-in-bioreactor-landfills
#19
Krishna R Reddy, Girish Kumar, Rajiv K Giri
A two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical model is presented to predict the response of municipal solid waste (MSW) of conventional as well as bioreactor landfills undergoing coupled hydro-bio-mechanical processes. The newly developed and validated 2-D coupled mathematical modeling framework combines and simultaneously solves a two-phase flow model based on the unsaturated Richard's equation, a plain-strain formulation of Mohr-Coulomb mechanical model and first-order decay kinetics biodegradation model. The performance of both conventional and bioreactor landfill was investigated holistically, by evaluating the mechanical settlement, extent of waste degradation with subsequent changes in geotechnical properties, landfill slope stability, and in-plane shear behavior (shear stress-displacement) of composite liner system and final cover system...
January 3, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062095/the-liver-transcriptome-of-suckermouth-armoured-catfish-pterygoplichthys-anisitsi-loricariidae-identification-of-expansions-in-defensome-gene-families
#20
Thiago E Parente, Daniel A Moreira, Maithê G P Magalhães, Paula C C de Andrade, Carolina Furtado, Brian J Haas, John J Stegeman, Mark E Hahn
Pterygoplichthys is a genus of related suckermouth armoured catfishes native to South America, which have invaded tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Physiological features, including an augmented resistance to organic xenobiotics, may have aided their settlement in foreign habitats. The liver transcriptome of Pterygoplichthys anisitsi was sequenced and used to characterize the diversity of mRNAs potentially involved in the responses to natural and anthropogenic chemicals. In total, 66,642 transcripts were assembled...
January 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
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