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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918574/fecal-sludge-management-in-developing-urban-centers-a-review-on-the-collection-treatment-and-composting
#1
Emmanuel Alepu Odey, Zifu Li, Xiaoqin Zhou, Loissi Kalakodio
The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915873/a-prospective-cohort-study-on-ambient-air-pollution-and-respiratory-morbidities-including-childhood-asthma-in-adolescents-from-the-western-cape-province-study-protocol
#2
Toyib Olaniyan, Mohamed Jeebhay, Martin Röösli, Rajen Naidoo, Roslynn Baatjies, Nino Künzil, Ming Tsai, Mark Davey, Kees de Hoogh, Dilys Berman, Bhawoodien Parker, Joy Leaner, Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from existing literature that ambient air pollutant exposure in early childhood likely plays an important role in asthma exacerbation and other respiratory symptoms, with greater effect among asthmatic children. However, there is inconclusive evidence on the role of ambient air pollutant exposures in relation to increasing asthma prevalence as well as asthma induction in children. At the population level, little is known about the potential synergistic effects between pollen allergens and air pollutants since this type of association poses challenges in uncontrolled real life settings...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915849/exposure-rate-of-vzv-among-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-in-sri-lanka-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Saluwadana Walawwe Pavithra Lakmini Daulagala, Faseeha Noordeen, Mohamed Mukthar Fathina Fara, Chathura Rathnayake, Kapila Gunawardana
BACKGROUND: Varicella or chickenpox was not a notifiable disease until 2005 in Sri Lanka and only a few studies have been conducted on the epidemiology of VZV infection in the country. The anti-VZV IgG sero-prevalence among antenatal women is extremely limited and thus a selected group of antenatal clinic attendees were chosen to determine the exposure rate to VZV infection. METHODS: Women attending the antenatal clinic at Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka were selected for the study and 3 mL of venous blood was collected from 181 participants and the demographic data was obtained through a pre-tested questionnaire...
September 16, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915462/abundance-of-large-old-trees-in-wood-pastures-of-transylvania-romania
#4
Tibor Hartel, Jan Hanspach, Cosmin I Moga, Lucian Holban, Árpád Szapanyos, Réka Tamás, Csaba Hováth, Kinga-Olga Réti
Wood-pastures are special types of agroforestry systems that integrate trees with livestock grazing. Wood pastures can be hotspots for large old tree abundance and have exceptional natural values; but they are declining all over Europe. While presence of large old trees in wood-pastures can provide arguments for their maintenance, actual data on their distribution and abundance are sparse. Our study is the first to survey large old trees in Eastern Europe over such a large area. We surveyed 97 wood-pastures in Transylvania (Romania) in order to (i) provide a descriptive overview of the large old tree abundance; and (ii) to explore the environmental determinants of the abundance and persistence of large old trees in wood-pastures...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914326/negative-attitudes-related-to-violence-against-women-gender-and-ethnic-differences-among-youth-living-in-serbia
#5
Bosiljka Djikanovic, Željka Stamenkovic, Vesna Bjegovic Mikanovic, Dejana Vukovic, Vladimir S Gordeev, Natasa Maksimovic
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify to what extent negative attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women are present among young women and men living in Serbia, in Roma and non-Roma settlements. METHODS: We used the data from the 2010 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in Serbia, for the respondents who were 15-24 years old. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between judgmental attitudes, socio-demographic factors and life satisfaction...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910201/reentry-high-altitude-pulmonary-edema-in-the-himalayas
#6
Santosh Baniya, Christopher Holden, Buddha Basnyat
Baniya, Santosh, Christopher Holden, and Buddha Basnyat. Reentry high altitude pulmonary edema in the Himalayas. High Alt Med Biol. 16:000-000, 2017.-Reentry high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a subset of HAPE, is a well recognized, life-threatening illness documented almost exclusively in the North and South Americans, who live at high altitude (>2500 m) and return to their homes after a brief sojourn of days to months at lower altitude. This phenomenon has not been reported in Sherpas or other people of Tibetan origin in Nepal or India...
September 14, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906480/disaster-governance-for-community-resilience-in-coastal-towns-chilean-case-studies
#7
Paula Villagra, Carolina Quintana
This study aimed to further our understanding of a characteristic of Community Resilience known as Disaster Governance. Three attributes of Disaster Governance-redundancy, diversity, and overlap-were studied in four coastal towns in southern Chile that are at risk of tsunamis. Overall, we explored how different spatial structures of human settlements influence Disaster Governance. Using the Projective Mapping Technique, the distribution of emergency institutions (N = 32) and uses given to specific sites (e...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904144/low-recruitment-due-to-altered-settlement-substrata-as-primary-constraint-for-coral-communities-under-ocean-acidification
#8
Katharina E Fabricius, Sam H C Noonan, David Abrego, Lindsay Harrington, Glenn De'ath
The future of coral reefs under increasing CO2 depends on their capacity to recover from disturbances. To predict the recovery potential of coral communities that are fully acclimatized to elevated CO2, we compared the relative success of coral recruitment and later life stages at two volcanic CO2 seeps and adjacent control sites in Papua New Guinea. Our field experiments showed that the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral recruitment rates were up to an order of magnitude greater than the effects on the survival and growth of established corals...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902894/what-determines-sclerobiont-colonization-on-marine-mollusk-shells
#9
Vanessa Ochi Agostini, Matias do Nascimento Ritter, Alexandre José Macedo, Erik Muxagata, Fernando Erthal
Empty mollusk shells may act as colonization surfaces for sclerobionts depending on the physical, chemical, and biological attributes of the shells. However, the main factors that can affect the establishment of an organism on hard substrates and the colonization patterns on modern and time-averaged shells remain unclear. Using experimental and field approaches, we compared sclerobiont (i.e., bacteria and invertebrate) colonization patterns on the exposed shells (internal and external sides) of three bivalve species (Anadara brasiliana, Mactra isabelleana, and Amarilladesma mactroides) with different external shell textures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900783/effect-of-mass-housing-settlement-type-on-the-comfortable-open-areas-in-terms-of-noise
#10
Neşe Yüğrük Akdağ, Gülay Zorer Gedik, Fatih Kiraz, Bekir Şener
The layout of the structures according to the noise source is an important parameter in terms of the level of noise reaching to both open usage areas and the structure surfaces. In this paper, it is aimed to reveal the effect of mass housing settlement type on the size of suitable open usage areas in terms of noise. Comfortable open usage areas in 25 mass housing alternatives are determined for the case of being affected by three different road noises. The reliability of the simulation results is validated by on-site noise level measurements...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898834/cometabolic-degradation-of-low-strength-coking-wastewater-and-the-bacterial-community-revealed-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#11
Jia Zhou, Haisong Li, Xiaolei Chen, Dongjin Wan, Wenning Mai, Changqing Sun
Cometabolism technology was employed to degrade low-strength coking wastewater (CWW) in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). The bacterial community compositions were monitored by high-throughput sequencing. Cometabolic substrate effectively improved the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency in glucose-added system (A1) compared to glucose-free system (A0). Meanwhile, A1 exhibited larger biomass, better settlement performance, and higher dehydrogenase activity (DHA). More importantly, high-throughput sequencing revealed that dominant populations in A1 were quite different with A0...
August 31, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898599/transcriptomic-basis-of-metamorphic-competence-in-the-salt-marsh-dwelling-polychaete-capitella-teleta
#12
Robert Burns, Jan Pechenik
Marine invertebrate larvae typically take hours to weeks after being released into the plankton before becoming "competent" to metamorphose. The mechanisms that govern this transition between the precompetent and metamorphically competent states are unknown. We studied gene expression patterns in precompetent and competent larvae of the salt-marsh-dwelling polychaete worm Capitella teleta (Blake, Grassle & Eckelbarger, 2009)-a species in which precompetent larvae are unusually easy to distinguish from competent larvae-to determine differences in gene expression associated with the onset of metamorphic competence...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895920/emt-and-treatment-resistance-in-pancreatic-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Nicola Gaianigo, Davide Melisi, Carmine Carbone
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the third leading cause of adult cancer mortality in the United States. The poor prognosis for patients with PC is mainly due to its aggressive course, the limited efficacy of active systemic treatments, and a metastatic behavior, demonstrated throughout the evolution of the disease. On average, 80% of patients with PC are diagnosed with metastatic disease, and the half of those who undergo surgery and adjuvant therapy develop liver metastasis within two years. Metastatic dissemination is an early event in PC and is mainly attributed to an evolutionary biological process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
September 12, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894643/status-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-red-panda-of-nepal
#14
Damber Bista, Saroj Shrestha, Ajaya Jang Kunwar, Sakshi Acharya, Shant Raj Jnawali, Krishna Prasad Acharya
Red pandas are known to be highly susceptible to endoparasites, which can have a prominent impact on the population dynamics of this endangered species. There are very limited published reports on prevalence and risk of parasites in wild populations of red panda, especially localized reports. This study attempts to provide an in-depth insight of the status of endoparasites in red pandas, which is critical for strengthening conservation efforts. A total of 272 fecal samples were collected through systematic sampling across the red panda distribution range in Nepal and coprological examination was completed using standard techniques...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894640/coral-larvae-for-restoration-and-research-a-large-scale-method-for-rearing-acropora-millepora-larvae-inducing-settlement-and-establishing-symbiosis
#15
F Joseph Pollock, Sefano M Katz, Jeroen A J M van de Water, Sarah W Davies, Margaux Hein, Gergely Torda, Mikhail V Matz, Victor H Beltran, Patrick Buerger, Eneour Puill-Stephan, David Abrego, David G Bourne, Bette L Willis
Here we describe an efficient and effective technique for rearing sexually-derived coral propagules from spawning through larval settlement and symbiont uptake with minimal impact on natural coral populations. We sought to maximize larval survival while minimizing expense and daily husbandry maintenance by experimentally determining optimized conditions and protocols for gamete fertilization, larval cultivation, induction of larval settlement by crustose coralline algae, and inoculation of newly settled juveniles with their dinoflagellate symbiont Symbiodinium...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894537/lifestyles-in-suburban-populations-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Samira Khayat, Mahrokh Dolatian, Ali Navidian, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Nasibeh Sharifi, Amir Kasaeian
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle and suburban population are important issues in the field of health. The living conditions of informal settlements can lead to acquisition of an unhealthy lifestyle. OBJECTIVE: This study has been designed to investigate the articles that have been published regarding lifestyle in suburban populations. METHODS: The present research was a systematic review of studies in databases including Iranmedex, Magiran, SID, Irandoc, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus, in 2017...
July 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893599/natural-products-and-morphogenic-activity-of-%C3%AE-proteobacteria-associated-with-the-marine-hydroid-polyp-hydractinia-echinata
#17
Huijuan Guo, Maja Rischer, Martin Sperfeld, Christiane Weigel, Klaus Dieter Menzel, Jon Clardy, Christine Beemelmanns
Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to profile the associated bacterial community of the marine hydroid Hydractinia echinata, a long-standing model system in developmental biology. 56 associated bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Three strains were selected for further in-depth chemical analysis leading to the identification of 17 natural products. Several γ-Proteobacteria were found to induce settlement of the motile larvae, but only six isolates induced the metamorphosis to the primary polyp stage within 24h...
July 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888650/detection-of-rat-hepatitis-e-virus-in-wild-norway-rats-rattus-norvegicus-and-black-rats-rattus-rattus-from-11-european-countries
#18
René Ryll, Samuel Bernstein, Elisa Heuser, Mathias Schlegel, Paul Dremsek, Maxi Zumpe, Sandro Wolf, Michel Pépin, Daniel Bajomi, Gabi Müller, Ann-Charlotte Heiberg, Carina Spahr, Johannes Lang, Martin H Groschup, Hermann Ansorge, Jona Freise, Sebastian Guenther, Kristof Baert, Francisco Ruiz-Fons, Jiri Pikula, Nataša Knap, Ιoannis Tsakmakidis, Chrysostomos Dovas, Stefania Zanet, Christian Imholt, Gerald Heckel, Reimar Johne, Rainer G Ulrich
Rat hepatitis E virus (HEV) is genetically only distantly related to hepeviruses found in other mammalian reservoirs and in humans. It was initially detected in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Germany, and subsequently in rats from Vietnam, the USA, Indonesia, China, Denmark and France. Here, we report on a molecular survey of Norway rats and Black rats (Rattus rattus) from 12 European countries for ratHEV and human pathogenic hepeviruses. RatHEV-specific real-time and conventional RT-PCR investigations revealed the presence of ratHEV in 63 of 508 (12...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885012/the-impact-of-the-major-baltic-inflow-of-december-2014-on-the-mercury-species-distribution-in-the-baltic-sea
#19
Joachim Kuss, Florian Cordes, Volker Mohrholz, Günther Nausch, Michael Naumann, Siegfried Krüger, Detlef Eckart Schulz-Bull
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea characterized by stagnation periods of several years. Oxygen consumption in its deep waters leads to the build-up of sulfide from sulfate reduction. Some of the microorganisms responsible for these processes also transform reactive ionic mercury to neurotoxic methylmercury. Episodic inflows of oxygenated saline water from the North Sea temporally re-establish oxic life in deep waters of the Baltic Sea. Thus, this sea is an especially important region to better understand mercury species distributions in connection with variable redox conditions...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882838/new-settlement-procedures-changing-the-way-the-nhs-resolves-negligence-claims
#20
Clare Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
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