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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636630/accessibility-and-socio-economic-development-of-human-settlements
#1
Samiul Hasan, Xiaoming Wang, Yong Bing Khoo, Greg Foliente
Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631910/-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-nephrolithiasis-among-young-rural-residents
#2
A V Sin'kov, I N Volosatova, G M Sin'kova, L A Nikolaeva
AIM: To determine the prevalence of nephrolithiasis, assess the significance of known risk factors, and identify new risk factors for nephrolithiasis among young rural residents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 settlements of the Irkutsk rural district of the Irkutsk region and involved 408 inhabitants (93 men, 315 women) aged from 18 to 47 years. The selection of candidates for the study was randomized. The response of the population was 81...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630642/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practice-among-mothers-with-0-24%C3%A2-months-old-children-in-slum-areas-of-bahir-dar-city-ethiopia
#3
Yeshalem Mulugeta Demilew, Tadese Ejigu Tafere, Dereje Berhanu Abitew
BACKGROUND: Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the health, growth and development of children. However, infant feeding practice is suboptimal in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. The slum area is a heavily populated urban informal settlement characterized by substandard housing, squalor, with a lack of reliable sanitation services, supply of clean water, reliable electricity, law enforcement and other basic services. Residents of the slum area were poor and less educated...
2017: International Breastfeeding Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630533/smoke-screen-the-globalization-of-production-transnational-lobbying-and-the-international-political-economy-of-plain-tobacco-packaging
#4
Louise Curran, Jappe Eckhardt
In 2012 Australia became the first country in the world to introduce plain tobacco packaging in an effort to reduce tobacco consumption. This move was vehemently opposed by the tobacco industry, which challenged it on several levels: nationally, bilaterally and multilaterally at the World Trade Organization (WTO). The political behavior of the tobacco companies in this case is puzzling both in terms of scale, operating at multiple levels at the same time and in terms of the countries mobilized in their defence...
2017: Rev Int Polit Econ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629813/recruitment-failure-of-scleractinian-corals-in-a-subtropical-marginal-environment-three-year-monitoring-in-a-hong-kong-marine-park
#5
Apple Pui Yi Chui, Put Ang
Coral recruitment was monitored for three years, using terracotta tiles, in two core coral areas in Tung Ping Chau Marine Park where coral coverage is one of the richest in Hong Kong. Results revealed an extremely low recruitment success of corals, with only 10 recruits recorded on 384 tile pairs, equivalent to 0.19 recruits m(-2)yr(-1) throughout the study period. Recruits of Platygyra acuta pre-seeded on tiles that were subsequently grown in situ experienced very high mortality following settlement, with average mortality of 80% within half a month and <0...
June 16, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622371/high-tolerance-to-temperature-and-salinity-change-should-enable-scleractinian-coral-platygyra-acuta-from-marginal-environments-to-persist-under-future-climate-change
#6
Apple Pui Yi Chui, Put Ang
With projected changes in the marine environment under global climate change, the effects of single stressors on corals have been relatively well studied. However, more focus should be placed on the interactive effects of multiple stressors if their impacts upon corals are to be assessed more realistically. Elevation of sea surface temperature is projected under global climate change, and future increases in precipitation extremes related to the monsoon are also expected. Thus, the lowering of salinity could become a more common phenomenon and its impact on corals could be significant as extreme precipitation usually occurs during the coral spawning season...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622360/the-seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-in-israel-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#7
Ravit Bassal, Tamy Shohat, Zalman Kaufman, Batya Mannasse, Eilat Shinar, Doron Amichay, Mira Barak, Anat Ben-Dor, Adina Bar Haim, Daniel Cohen, Ella Mendelson, Yaniv Lustig
West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. A cross-sectional nationwide serologic survey was conducted using 3,145 serum samples collected by the national Israeli serum bank during 2011-2014, representing all age and population groups in Israel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619525/murine-and-human-pancreatic-tumor-exosome-recovery-in-mouse-serum-diagnostic-and-prognostic-potential-and-target-cell-delivery
#8
Ulrike Erb, Kun Zhao, Zhe Wang, Li Xiao, Margot Zöller
Exosomes (Exo), powerful intercellular communicators, are recovered in all body fluids, suggesting suitability for diagnosis and prognosis. Easy in vitro manipulation recommends Exo as drug vehicles. Aiming to consolidate diagnostic and therapeutic potential of Exo, we evaluated recovery and fate of tumor (TEX) and exogenous Exo in syngeneic and xenogeneic mice bearing a murine or a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A significant increase in serum (S)-TEX was observed 2 weeks after tumor cell application. Instead, S-TEX declined within 3-6 days after tumor excision...
June 12, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617001/providing-social-services-in-a-new-immigrant-settlement-city-a-qualitative-inquiry
#9
Nalini Junko Negi, Erin Maskell, Marci Goodman, Jenia Hooper, Jamie Roberts
Nationally, a new trend in migration has included the settlement of Latina/o immigrants in cities without an established community of Latinas/os. Social services become even more salient in this context in the absence of informal social networks of support. This study, guided by social ecological theory, advances our limited understanding of social services in new immigrant settlement destinations by elucidating contextual and structural factors endemic to the social service delivery process in these new immigrant destinations...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615043/-like-sugar-in-milk-reconstructing-the-genetic-history-of-the-parsi-population
#10
Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Qasim Ayub, Niraj Rai, Satya Prakash, Veena Mushrif-Tripathy, Massimo Mezzavilla, Ajai Kumar Pathak, Rakesh Tamang, Sadaf Firasat, Maere Reidla, Monika Karmin, Deepa Selvi Rani, Alla G Reddy, Jüri Parik, Ene Metspalu, Siiri Rootsi, Kurush Dalal, Shagufta Khaliq, Syed Qasim Mehdi, Lalji Singh, Mait Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Chris Tyler-Smith, Richard Villems, Kumarasamy Thangaraj
BACKGROUND: The Parsis are one of the smallest religious communities in the world. To understand the population structure and demographic history of this group in detail, we analyzed Indian and Pakistani Parsi populations using high-resolution genetic variation data on autosomal and uniparental loci (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA). Additionally, we also assayed mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms among ancient Parsi DNA samples excavated from Sanjan, in present day Gujarat, the place of their original settlement in India...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614397/what-was-the-population-of-great-zimbabwe-ce1000-1800
#11
Shadreck Chirikure, Thomas Moultrie, Foreman Bandama, Collett Dandara, Munyaradzi Manyanga
The World Heritage Site of Great Zimbabwe is one of the most iconic and largest archaeological settlements in Africa. It was the hub of direct and indirect trade which internally connected various areas of southern Africa, and externally linked them with East Africa and the Near and Far East. Archaeologists believe that at its peak, Great Zimbabwe had a fully urban population of 20,000 people concentrated in approximately 2.9 square kilometres (40 percent of 720 ha). This translates to a population density of 6,897, which is comparable with that of some of the most populous regions of the world in the 21st century...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611737/de-novo-biosynthesis-of-apigenin-luteolin-and-eriodictyol-in-the-actinomycete-streptomyces-albus-and-production-improvement-by-feeding-and-spore-conditioning
#12
Laura Marín, Ignacio Gutiérrez-Del-Río, Paula Yagüe, Ángel Manteca, Claudio J Villar, Felipe Lombó
Nutraceutical compounds as plant flavonoids play an important role in prevention and modulation of diverse heath conditions, as they exert interesting antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antitumor effects. They also possess anti-inflammatory activities in arthritis, cardiovascular disease or neurological diseases, as well as modulatory effects on the CYP450 activity on diverse drugs. Most flavonoids are bioactive molecules of plant origin, but their industrial production is sometimes hindered due to reasons as low concentration in the plant tissues, presence in only some species or as a complex mixture or inactive glycosides in plant vacuolae...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609467/land-cover-more-than-monthly-fire-weather-drives-fire-size-distribution-in-southern-qu%C3%A3-bec-forests-implications-for-fire-risk-management
#13
Jean Marchal, Steve G Cumming, Eliot J B McIntire
Fire activity in North American forests is expected to increase substantially with climate change. This would represent a growing risk to human settlements and industrial infrastructure proximal to forests, and to the forest products industry. We modelled fire size distributions in southern Québec as functions of fire weather and land cover, thus explicitly integrating some of the biotic interactions and feedbacks in a forest-wildfire system. We found that, contrary to expectations, land-cover and not fire weather was the primary driver of fire size in our study region...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605862/a-pilot-scale-microwave-technology-for-sludge-sanitization-and-drying
#14
Peter M Mawioo, Hector A Garcia, Christine M Hooijmans, Konstantina Velkushanova, Marjana Simonič, Ivan Mijatović, Damir Brdjanovic
Large volumes of sludge are produced from onsite sanitation systems in densely populated areas (e.g. slums and emergency settlements) and wastewater treatment facilities that contain high amounts of pathogens. There is a need for technological options which can effectively treat the rapidly accumulating sludge under these conditions. This study explored a pilot-scale microwave (MW) based reactor as a possible alternative for rapid sludge treatment. The reactor performance was examined by conducting a series of batch tests using centrifuged waste activated sludge (C-WAS), non-centrifuged waste activated sludge (WAS), faecal sludge (FS), and septic tank sludge (SS)...
June 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605845/hydraulic-and-biotic-impacts-on-neutralisation-of-high-ph-waters
#15
Helena I Gomes, Mike Rogerson, Ian T Burke, Douglas I Stewart, William M Mayes
The management of alkaline (pH11-12.5) leachate is an important issue associated with the conditioning, afteruse or disposal of steel slags. Passive in-gassing of atmospheric CO2 is a low cost option for reducing Ca(OH)2 alkalinity, as Ca(OH)2 is neutralised by carbonic acid to produce CaCO3. The relative effectiveness of such treatment can be affected by both the system geometry (i.e. stepped cascades versus settlement ponds) and biological colonization. Sterilized mesocosm experiments run over periods of 20days showed that, due to more water mixing and enhanced CO2 dissolution at the weirs, the cascade systems (pH11...
June 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603678/unimodal-relationship-between-small-scale-barnacle-recruitment-and-the-density-of-pre-existing-barnacle-adults
#16
Ricardo A Scrosati, Julius A Ellrich
Recruitment is a key demographic process for population persistence. This paper focuses on barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) recruitment. In rocky intertidal habitats from the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), ice scour is common during the winter. At the onset of intertidal barnacle recruitment in early May (after sea ice has fully melted), mostly only adult barnacles and bare substrate are visible at high elevations in wave-exposed habitats. We conducted a multiannual study to investigate if small-scale barnacle recruitment could be predicted from the density of pre-existing adult barnacles...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599774/re-examining-the-relationship-between-latino-immigration-and-racial-ethnic-violence
#17
Michael T Light
Whether immigration increases crime has long been a source of political debate and scholarly interest. Despite widespread public opinion to the contrary, the weight of evidence suggests the most recent wave of U.S. immigration has not increased crime, and may have actually helped reduce criminal violence. However, with recent shifts in immigrant settlement patterns away from traditional receiving destinations, a series of contemporary studies suggests a more complicated immigration-crime relationship, whereby Latino immigration is said to increase violence in newer immigrant destinations (but not in established destinations) and has varied effects for different racial/ethnic groups...
July 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596087/enabling-the-sustainable-faecal-sludge-management-service-delivery-chain-a-case-study-of-dense-settlements-in-kigali-rwanda
#18
Jean Baptiste Akumuntu, Uta Wehn, Martin Mulenga, Damir Brdjanovic
The lack of access to basic sanitation is a global concern and alarmingly prevalent in low- and middle- income countries. In the densely populated settlements of these countries, on-site sanitation systems are usually the only feasible option because dwellers there have no sewers in place to connect to. Using on-site sanitation facilities results in an accumulation of faecal sludge which needs to be properly managed to ensure the well-being of the users as well as the surrounding environment. Unfortunately, often the conditions for faecal sludge management (FSM) within dense settlements are adverse and thus hamper sustainable FSM...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595281/unraveling-the-population-history-of-indian-siddis
#19
Ranajit Das, Priyanka Upadhyai
The Siddis are a unique Indian tribe of African, South Asian, and European ancestry. While previous investigations have traced their ancestral origins to the Bantu populations from subSaharan Africa, the geographic localization of their ancestry has remained elusive. Here, we performed biogeographical analysis to delineate the ancestral origin of the Siddis employing an admixture based algorithm, Geographical Population Structure (GPS). We evaluated the Siddi genomes in reference to five African populations from the 1000 Genomes project, two Bantu groups from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) and five South Indian populations...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594864/consistency-in-the-supply-of-larval-fishes-among-coral-reefs-in-french-polynesia
#20
Marc Besson, Camille Gache, Rohan M Brooker, Rakamaly Madi Moussa, Viliame Pita Waqalevu, Moana LeRohellec, Vincent Jaouen, Kévin Peyrusse, Cécile Berthe, Frédéric Bertucci, Hugo Jacob, Christophe Brié, Bruno Wan, René Galzin, David Lecchini
For marine fishes with a bipartite life cycle, pelagic larval dispersal can shape the distribution, connectivity, composition and resilience of adult populations. Numerous studies of larval dispersal, and associated settlement and recruitment processes, have examined the relationship between population connectivity and oceanographic features. However, relatively little is known about spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of larvae settling among different reefs and the extent to which the species assemblage of larvae settling at one location is reflective of the assemblage in neighbouring areas...
2017: PloS One
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