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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143237/john-henryism-gender-and-self-reported-health-among-roma-gypsies-in-serbia
#1
Jelena Čvorović, Sherman A James
We describe how self-reported health (SRH) varies with gender and John Henryism (a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high-effort coping to overcome adversity) in a low income sample of Serbian Roma. Data were collected in 2016 in several Roma settlements around Belgrade, Serbia. The sample consisted of 90 men and 112 women. In addition to John Henryism (JH), measured by a Serbian version of the John Henryism Scale, demographic data and data on SRH and family relationships dynamics were collected...
November 15, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142013/urbanism-and-the-division-of-labour-in-the-roman-empire
#2
J W Hanson, S G Ortman, J Lobo
One of the hallmarks of human agglomeration is an increase in the division of labour, but the exact nature of this relationship has been debated among anthropologists, sociologists, economists, and historians and archaeologists. Over the last decade, researchers investigating contemporary urban systems have suggested a novel explanation for the links between the numbers of inhabitants in settlements and many of their most important characteristics, which is grounded in a view of settlements as social networks embedded in built environments...
November 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137206/ancient-food-habits-dictate-that-food-can-be-medicine-but-medicine-cannot-be-food
#3
Hit Kishore Goswami, Hitendra Kumar Ram
Background: Extensive surveys of several population settlements in different parts of India-covering plains, mountains, valleys, river banks and deeper areas of forests at different altitudes-between 1968 and 2016 demonstrated that the basic vital need of hunger is being fulfilled since antiquity by plants in the wild. Methods: Based on collections, consultations with local population personnel and literature searches, this paper presents many plants that are commonly used as food and focuses on their products, which are rich in alkaloids, polysaccharides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, aminoacids, fatty acids and antibiotics etc...
November 13, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134719/temporal-genetic-patterns-of-diversity-and-structure-evidence-chaotic-genetic-patchiness-in-a-spiny-lobster
#4
Cecilia Villacorta-Rath, Carla A Souza, Nicholas P Murphy, Bridget S Green, Caleb Gardner, Jan M Strugnell
Population structure of many marine organisms is spatially patchy and varies within and between years, a phenomenon defined as chaotic genetic patchiness. This results from the combination of planktonic larval dispersal and environmental stochasticity. Additionally, in species with bi-partite life, post-settlement selection can magnify these genetic differences. The high fecundity (up to 500,000 eggs annually) and protracted larval duration (12-24 months) and dispersal of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, make it a good test species for chaotic genetic patchiness and selection during early benthic life...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132779/reliability-assessment-of-bioreactor-landfills-using-monte-carlo-simulation-and-coupled-hydro-bio-mechanical-model
#5
Krishna R Reddy, Girish Kumar, Rajiv K Giri, B Munwar Basha
The performance of a bioreactor landfill is highly influenced by the simultaneous interactions of several coupled processes that occur within the landfill. In addition, the high uncertainty and spatial variability in the geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste (MSW) poses significant challenge in accurately predicting the performance of bioreactor landfills. In this study, a 2D coupled hydro-bio-mechanical (CHBM) model was employed to predict the behavior of MSW in bioreactor landfills. The numerical model integrated a two-phase flow hydraulic model, a plane-strain formulation of Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model, and a first order decay biodegradation model...
November 10, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129524/urban-flood-mitigation-planning-for-guwahati-a-case-of-bharalu-basin
#6
Tanaya Sarmah, Sutapa Das
Guwahati, the capital city of Assam and the gateway to the seven north-eastern Indian states, is located in the Brahmaputra valley-one of the most flood prone regions of the world. The city receives an average annual rainfall of 1688 mm and is highly vulnerable towards frequent urban floods because of uncontrolled dumping of solid waste and siltation have choked the natural water channels. This coupled with the absence of an integrated drainage network and rapid urbanisation causes floods in many parts of the city, after a quick downpour...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126050/metagenomic-analysis-of-the-bacterial-communities-and-their-functional-profiles-in-water-and-sediments-of-the-apies-river-south-africa-as-a-function-of-land-use
#7
Akebe Luther King Abia, Arghavan Alisoltani, Jitendra Keshri, Eunice Ubomba-Jaswa
Water quality is an important public health issue given that the presence of pathogenic organisms in such waters can adversely affect human and animal health. Despite the numerous studies conducted to assess the quality of environmental waters in many countries, limited efforts have been put on investigating the microbial quality of the sediments in developing countries and how this relates to different land uses. The present study evaluated the bacterial diversity in water and sediments in a highly used South African river to find out how the different land uses influenced the bacterial diversity, and to verify the human diseases functional classes of the bacterial populations...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124768/the-peripheral-nervous-system-of-the-ascidian-tadpole-larva-types-of-neurons-and-their-synaptic-networks
#8
Kerrianne Ryan, Zhiuyan Lu, Ian A Meinertzhagen
Physical and chemical cues from the environment are used to direct animal behaviour through a complex network of connections originating in exteroceptors. In chordates, mechanosensory and chemosensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) must signal to the motor circuits of the central nervous system (CNS) through a series of pathways that integrate and regulate the output to motor neurons; ultimately these drive contraction of the tail and limb muscles. We used serial-section electron microscopy to reconstruct PNS neurons and their hitherto unknown synaptic networks in the tadpole larva of a sibling chordate, the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124060/avian-influenza-virus-surveillance-in-south-central-spain-using-fecal-samples-of-aquatic-birds-foraging-at-landfills
#9
Andreia Bárbara, Olalla Torrontegi, Maria-Cruz Camacho, Marta Barral, Jose-Manuel Hernández, Ursula Höfle
Aquatic wild birds have been intensively studied to better understand their role in avian influenza virus (AIV) maintenance and spread. To date, AIV surveillance has primarily focused on natural aquatic environments where different bird species aggregate and viral survival is enhanced. However, artificial habitats such as landfills are attracting substantial numbers of wild birds, AIV reservoir species included. The use of landfills as a predictable food source has significantly influenced population size, migratory traits, and feeding behavior of white storks (Ciconia ciconia) and black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) among others...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121109/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-in-vernalization-treated-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l
#10
Yun-Ying Cao, Xiao-Chun Bian, Mo-Xian Chen, Li-Ru Xia, Jianhua Zhang, Fu-Yuan Zhu, Chun-Fang Wu
Vernalization is classically defined as the induction of flowering process by exposure of the plants to a prolonged cold condition. Normally, it is considered as a precondition of flowering. Vicia faba, commonly known as faba bean, belongs to family Fabaceae. It is one of the plant species that has been cultivated in the earliest human settlements. In this study, an iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomic analysis has been conducted to compare the vernalized faba bean seedlings and its corresponding control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118138/macroecological-factors-shape-local-scale-spatial-patterns-in-agriculturalist-settlements
#11
Tingting Tao, Sebastián Abades, Shuqing Teng, Zheng Y X Huang, Luís Reino, Bin J W Chen, Yong Zhang, Chi Xu, Jens-Christian Svenning
Macro-scale patterns of human systems ranging from population distribution to linguistic diversity have attracted recent attention, giving rise to the suggestion that macroecological rules shape the assembly of human societies. However, in which aspects the geography of our own species is shaped by macroecological factors remains poorly understood. Here, we provide a first demonstration that macroecological factors shape strong local-scale spatial patterns in human settlement systems, through an analysis of spatial patterns in agriculturalist settlements in eastern mainland China based on high-resolution Google Earth images...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115306/polymer-brushes-on-structural-surfaces-a-novel-synergistic-strategy-for-perfectly-resisting-algae-settlement
#12
Yu Zhang, Haiyuan Hu, Xiaowei Pei, Yupeng Liu, Qian Ye, Feng Zhou
The current paper reports a novel model of a marine antibiofouling surface based on polymer brushes on a wrinkled silicone elastomer. Polymer brushes (POEGMA and PSPMA) were grafted via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Successful grafting was verified with various characterization techniques including infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. A series of laboratory static and dynamic bioassays as well as field immersion tests were carried out to systematically investigate the relationship between surface chemistry, surface topography and antifouling properties...
November 8, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114438/assessment-of-fine-scale-resource-selection-and-spatially-explicit-habitat-suitability-modelling-for-a-re-introduced-tiger-panthera-tigris-population-in-central-india
#13
Mriganka Shekhar Sarkar, Ramesh Krishnamurthy, Jeyaraj A Johnson, Subharanjan Sen, Goutam Kumar Saha
Background: Large carnivores influence ecosystem functions at various scales. Thus, their local extinction is not only a species-specific conservation concern, but also reflects on the overall habitat quality and ecosystem value. Species-habitat relationships at fine scale reflect the individuals' ability to procure resources and negotiate intraspecific competition. Such fine scale habitat choices are more pronounced in large carnivores such as tiger (Panthera tigris), which exhibits competitive exclusion in habitat and mate selection strategies...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110937/ocean-acidification-does-not-impair-predator-recognition-but-increases-juvenile-growth-in-a-temperate-wrasse-off-co2-seeps
#14
Carlo Cattano, Antonio Calò, Antonio Di Franco, Roberto Firmamento, Federico Quattrocchi, Khalil Sdiri, Paolo Guidetti, Marco Milazzo
Fish behavioural effects under Ocean Acidification (OA) rely on changes expected to occur in brain function, which can be reversed by gabazine, a GABA-A antagonist. Here, using standard two-channel choice flume, we assessed OA effects on the predator recognition ability of both gabazine-treated and -untreated Symphodus ocellatus post-settlers living off CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea. To estimate the post-settlers background predation risk we evaluated the density of their predator in the wild and through otolith aging techniques we assessed their post-settlement growth...
October 24, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109508/mice-in-social-conflict-show-rule-observance-behavior-enhancing-long-term-benefit
#15
Il-Hwan Choe, Junweon Byun, Ko Keun Kim, Sol Park, Isaac Kim, Jaeseung Jeong, Hee-Sup Shin
Disorderly resolution of conflict is costly, whereas orderly resolution by consent rules enables quick settlement. However, it is unclear whether non-human animals can make and observe rules to resolve conflict without aggression. Here we report a new behavioral paradigm for mice: a modified two-armed maze that uses wireless electrical brain stimulation as reward. First, the mice were individually operant-trained to initiate and then receive the reward at the signaled arm. Next, two mice were coupled and had to cooperate to initiate reward but then to compete over reward allocation...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108591/solamente-mexicanos-patterns-and-sources-of-hispanic-diversity-in-u-s-metropolitan-areas
#16
Barrett A Lee, Michael J R Martin, Matthew Hall
Rapid Hispanic growth has been a major source of increasing ethnoracial diversity in the United States. However, diversity within the Hispanic population is frequently obscured by the tendency to lump all Latinos together. Our study examines Hispanic diversity at the local level, drawing insights from the Mexican dominance, Caribbean-centric settlement, spatial assimilation, and economic opportunity perspectives. Measures of the magnitude and structure of Hispanic origin-group diversity during the 1990-2010 period are constructed for 363 metropolitan areas based on each area's shares of Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Dominicans, Salvadorans, Guatemalans, Colombians, and 'others'...
November 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108143/medical-malpractice-web-advertising-a-qualitative-cross-sectional-analysis-of-plaintiff-medical-malpractice-firms-in-suffolk-county-massachusetts
#17
Comeron W Ghobadi, Ofelya Gevorgyan, Caroline E Bednarski, Emily L Hayman, Jessica R Walter, Shuai Xu
Medical malpractice plaintiff firms play a central role in the prosecution of malpractice claims. There have been limited studies on the online advertising practices of plaintiff medical malpractice firms. The Martindale-Hubbell directory was used to identify all plaintiff medical malpractice firms in Suffolk County, Massachusetts. Each firm's website was individually mined for relevant data. Thirty-one unique medical malpractice law firms were identified. Seventy-seven percent of law firms advertised awards with the Martindale-Hubbell AV rating, AVVO, and Super Lawyer being the three most common...
2017: Issues in Law & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108003/schistosoma-other-helminth-infections-and-associated-risk-factors-in-preschool-aged-children-in-urban-tanzania
#18
Khadija Said, Jerry Hella, Stefanie Knopp, Tatu Nassoro, Neema Shija, Fatma Aziz, Francis Mhimbira, Christian Schindler, Upendo Mwingira, Anna M Mandalakas, Karim Manji, Marcel Tanner, Jürg Utzinger, Lukas Fenner
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of helminth infections among preschool-aged children, control programs in sub-Saharan countries primarily focus on school-aged populations. We assessed the prevalence of helminth infections and determined risk factors for infection among preschool-aged children in the urban setting of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Starting in October 2015, we conducted a 12-month prospective study among tuberculosis (TB)-exposed children under the age of 5 years and unexposed controls from neighboring households...
November 6, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107977/temperature-and-heat-in-informal-settlements-in-nairobi
#19
Anna A Scott, Herbert Misiani, Jerrim Okoth, Asha Jordan, Julia Gohlke, Gilbert Ouma, Julie Arrighi, Ben F Zaitchik, Eddie Jjemba, Safia Verjee, Darryn W Waugh
Nairobi, Kenya exhibits a wide variety of micro-climates and heterogeneous surfaces. Paved roads and high-rise buildings interspersed with low vegetation typify the central business district, while large neighborhoods of informal settlements or "slums" are characterized by dense, tin housing, little vegetation, and limited access to public utilities and services. To investigate how heat varies within Nairobi, we deployed a high density observation network in 2015/2016 to examine summertime temperature and humidity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107898/negative-effects-of-microplastic-exposure-on-growth-and-development-of-crepidula-onyx
#20
Hau Kwan Abby Lo, Kit Yu Karen Chan
Microplastics exposure could be detrimental to marine organisms especially under high concentrations. However, few studies have considered the multiphasic nature of marine invertebrates' life history and investigated the impact of experiencing microplastics during early development on post-metamorphic stages (legacy effect). Many planktonic larvae can feed selectively and it is unclear whether such selectivity could modulate the impact of algal food-sized microplastic. In this two-stage experiment, veligers of Crepidula onyx were first exposed to additions of algae-sized micro-polystyrene (micro-PS) beads at different concentrations, including ones that were comparable their algal diet...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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