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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916813/genome-sequencing-reveals-metabolic-and-cellular-interdependence-in-an-amoeba-kinetoplastid-symbiosis
#1
Goro Tanifuji, Ugo Cenci, Daniel Moog, Samuel Dean, Takuro Nakayama, Vojtěch David, Ivan Fiala, Bruce A Curtis, Shannon J Sibbald, Naoko T Onodera, Morgan Colp, Pavel Flegontov, Jessica Johnson-MacKinnon, Michael McPhee, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Steven Kelly, Keith Gull, Julius Lukeš, John M Archibald
Endosymbiotic relationships between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are common in nature. Endosymbioses between two eukaryotes are also known; cyanobacterium-derived plastids have spread horizontally when one eukaryote assimilated another. A unique instance of a non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic endosymbiont involves members of the genus Paramoeba, amoebozoans that infect marine animals such as farmed fish and sea urchins. Paramoeba species harbor endosymbionts belonging to the Kinetoplastea, a diverse group of flagellate protists including some that cause devastating diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916267/comparison-of-phagocytosis-in-three-caribbean-sea-urchins
#2
John DeFilippo, John Ebersole, Gregory Beck
In 1983 large numbers of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum unexplainably began showing signs of illness and dying in the Caribbean, and over the next year they came close to extinction, making it one of the worst mass mortality events on record. Present evidence suggests a water-borne pathogen as the etiological agent. Decades later Diadema densities remain low, and its near extinction has been a major factor in transforming living coral reefs in the Caribbean to barren algae-covered rock. In the ensuing decades, no solid explanation has been found to the questions: what killed Diadema; why did Diadema succumb while other species of urchins on the same reefs did not; and why has Diadema still not recovered? A recent hypothesis posited by our lab as to Diadema's vulnerability was directed at possible compromised immunity in Diadema, and experimental results found a significantly impaired humoral response to a key component of gram-negative bacteria...
September 12, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899598/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-sediment-and-sea-urchin-echinometra-mathaei-from-the-intertidal-ecosystem-of-the-northern-persian-gulf-distribution-sources-and-bioavailability
#3
Mehrzad Keshavarzifard, Farid Moore, Behnam Keshavarzi, Reza Sharifi
The distribution, sources and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment and sea urchin (Echinometra mathaei) from the intertidal zone of the northern Persian Gulf were investigated. Total PAH concentrations varied from 12.8 to 81.25 and from 16.7 to 35 μgKg(-1) dry weight in sediment and Echinometra mathaei, respectively. The PAH concentrations can be classified as low. Source identification and apportionment using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis demonstrate that the combustion of fossil fuels, road traffic, combustion of natural gas and biomass, and oil spill could be considered as the main sources of PAH contamination...
September 9, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891718/identification-expression-analysis-and-the-regulating-function-on-c-ebps-of-klf10-in-dalian-purple-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-nudus
#4
Kaikai Wu, Zhiying Jia, Qi'ai Wang, Zhenlin Wei, Zunchun Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Accumulating evidence indicates that Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) play important roles in fat biology via the regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs). However, KLFs and C/EBPs have not been identified from Strongylocentrotus nudus, and their roles in this species are not clear. In this study, the full-length cDNA of S. nudus KLF10 (SnKLF10) and three cDNA fragments of S. nudus C/EBPs (SnC/EBPs) were obtained. Examination of tissue distribution and expression patterns during gonadal development implied that SnKLF10 and SnC/EBPs play important roles in gonadal lipogenesis...
September 11, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888124/sperm-viability-assessment-in-marine-invertebrates-by-fluorescent-staining-and-spectrofluorimetry-a-promising-tool-for-assessing-marine-pollution-impact
#5
Alessandra Gallo, Raffaele Boni, Elisabetta Tosti
The viability of spermatozoa is a crucial parameter to evaluate their quality that is an important issue in ecotoxicological studies. Here, a new method has been developed to rapidly determine the viability of spermatozoa in three marine invertebrates: the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis. This method employed the dual DNA fluorescent staining coupled with spectrofluorimetric analysis. The dual fluorescent staining used the SYBR-14 stained live spermatozoa and propidium iodide stained degenerated cells that had lost membrane integrity...
September 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886921/concomitance-of-oligotrophy-and-low-grazing-pressure-is-essential-for-the-resilience-of-mediterranean-subtidal-forests
#6
Luigi Piazzi, Giulia Ceccherelli
The study aimed at investigating factors influencing the recovery of the canopy seaweed Cystoseira brachycarpa. A manipulative experiment was done to test if in barren patches the recovery of Cystoseira I) is enhanced by the removal of the urchins, II) is prevented by eutrophication, III) depends on the time of patch clearance and IV) decreases with the distance from Cystoseira bed edge within the barren patch. The effects of the same factors on the structure of the macroalgal assemblage were also tested. Cystoseira recovered abundantly only in clearings where nutrients were not added and urchins were removed...
September 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883641/calaxin-establishes-basal-body-orientation-and-coordinates-movement-of-monocilia-in-sea-urchin-embryos
#7
Katsutoshi Mizuno, Kogiku Shiba, Junko Yaguchi, Daisuke Shibata, Shunsuke Yaguchi, Gérard Prulière, Janet Chenevert, Kazuo Inaba
Through their coordinated alignment and beating, motile cilia generate directional fluid flow and organismal movement. While the mechanisms used by multiciliated epithelial tissues to achieve this coordination have been widely studied, much less is known about regulation of monociliated tissues such as those found in the vertebrate node and swimming planktonic larvae. Here, we show that a calcium sensor protein associated with outer arm dynein, calaxin, is a critical regulator for the coordinated movements of monocilia...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882804/abcb1-and-abcc1-like-transporters-in-immune-system-cells-from-sea-urchins-echinometra-lucunter-and-echinus-esculentus-and-oysters-crassostrea-gasar-and-crassostrea-gigas
#8
Luis Fernando Marques-Santos, Hélène Hégaret, Leonardo Lima-Santos, Fernando Ramos Queiroga, Patricia Mirella da Silva
ABC transporters activity and expression have been associated with the multixenobiotic resistance phenotype (MXR). The activity of these proteins leads to a reduction in the intracellular concentration of several xenobiotics, thus reducing their toxicity. However, little attention has been given to the expression of ABC transporters in marine invertebrates and few studies have investigated their role in immune system cells of sea urchins and shellfish bivalves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the activity of the ABC transporters ABCB1 and ABCC1 in immune system cells of sea urchins (coelomocytes) and oysters (hemocytes) from different climatic regions (Brazil and France)...
September 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873449/benthic-community-structure-on-coral-reefs-exposed-to-intensive-recreational-snorkeling
#9
Bobbie Renfro, Nanette E Chadwick
Chronic anthropogenic disturbances on coral reefs in the form of overfishing and pollution can shift benthic community composition away from stony corals and toward macroalgae. The use of reefs for recreational snorkeling and diving potentially can lead to similar ecological impacts if not well-managed, but impacts of snorkeling on benthic organisms are not well understood. We quantified variation in benthic community structure along a gradient of snorkeling frequency in an intensively-visited portion of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857338/single-nucleotide-editing-without-dna-cleavage-using-crispr-cas9-deaminase-in-the-sea-urchin-embryo
#10
Saba Shevidi, Alicia Uchida, Natalie Schudrowitz, Gary M Wessel, Mamiko Yajima
BACKGROUND: A single base pair mutation in the genome can result in many congenital disorders in humans. The recent gene editing approach using CRISPR/Cas9 has rapidly become a powerful tool to replicate or repair such mutations in the genome. These approaches rely on cleaving DNA, while presenting unexpected risks. RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate a modified CRISPR/Cas9 system fused to Cytosine DeAminase (Cas9-DA), which induces a single nucleotide conversion in the genome...
August 31, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855950/sea-urchin-growth-dynamics-at-microstructural-length-scale-revealed-by-mn-labeling-and-cathodoluminescence-imaging
#11
Przemysław Gorzelak, Aurélie Dery, Philippe Dubois, Jarosław Stolarski
BACKGROUND: Fluorochrome staining is among the most widely used techniques to study growth dynamics of echinoderms. However, it fails to detect fine-scale increments because produced marks are commonly diffusely distributed within the skeleton. In this paper we investigated the potential of trace element (manganese) labeling and subsequent cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging in fine-scale growth studies of echinoderms. RESULTS: Three species of sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus, Echinometra sp...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851710/notch-signaling-patterns-neurogenic-ectoderm-and-regulates-the-asymmetric-division-of-neural-progenitors-in-sea-urchin-embryos
#12
Dan O Mellott, Jordan Thisdelle, Robert D Burke
We have examined regulation of neurogenesis by Delta/Notch signaling in sea urchin embryos. At gastrulation neural progenitors enter S-phase coincident with expression of Sp-SoxC. We used a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) containing GFP knocked into the Sp-SoxC locus to label neural progenitors. Live imaging and immunolocalizations indicate that Sp-SoxC-expressing cells divide producing pairs of adjacent cells expressing GFP. Over an interval of about 6 h, one cell fragments, undergoes apoptosis, and expresses high levels of activated Caspase3...
August 29, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846656/the-sea-as-a-rich-source-of-structurally-unique-glycosaminoglycans-and-mimetics
#13
REVIEW
Ariana A Vasconcelos, Vitor H Pomin
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are sulfated glycans capable of regulating various biological and medical functions. Heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate and hyaluronan are the principal classes of GAGs found in animals. Although GAGs are all composed of disaccharide repeating building blocks, the sulfation patterns and the composing alternating monosaccharides vary among classes. Interestingly, GAGs from marine organisms can present structures clearly distinct from terrestrial animals even considering the same class of GAG...
August 28, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843531/testing-lagoonal-sediments-with-early-life-stages-of-the-copepod-acartia-tonsa-dana-an-approach-to-assess-sediment-toxicity-in-the-venice-lagoon
#14
Marco Picone, Martina Bergamin, Eugenia Delaney, Annamaria Volpi Ghirardini, Kresten Ole Kusk
The early-life stages of development of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa from egg to copepodite I is proposed as an endpoint for assessing sediment toxicity by exposing newly released eggs directly onto the sediment-water interface. A preliminary study of 5 sediment samples collected in the lagoon of Venice highlighted that the larval development rate (LDR) and the early-life stages (ELS) mortality endpoints with A. tonsa are more sensitive than the standard amphipod mortality test; moreover LDR resulted in a more reliable endpoint than ELS mortality, due to the interference of the sediment with the recovery of unhatched eggs and dead larvae...
August 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833032/bearded-versus-thorny-the-fireworm-hermodice-carunculata-preys-on-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus
#15
Roberto Simonini, Sara Righi, Isabella Maletti, Sergio Fai, Daniela Prevedelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827603/ecological-effects-of-full-and-partial-protection-in-the-crowded-mediterranean-sea-a-regional-meta-analysis
#16
Sylvaine Giakoumi, Claudia Scianna, Jeremiah Plass-Johnson, Fiorenza Micheli, Kirsten Grorud-Colvert, Pierre Thiriet, Joachim Claudet, Giuseppe Di Carlo, Antonio Di Franco, Steven D Gaines, José A García-Charton, Jane Lubchenco, Jessica Reimer, Enric Sala, Paolo Guidetti
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a cornerstone of marine conservation. Globally, the number and coverage of MPAs are increasing, but MPA implementation lags in many human-dominated regions. In areas with intense competition for space and resources, evaluation of the effects of MPAs is crucial to inform decisions. In the human-dominated Mediterranean Sea, fully protected areas occupy only 0.04% of its surface. We evaluated the impacts of full and partial protection on biomass and density of fish assemblages, some commercially important fishes, and sea urchins in 24 Mediterranean MPAs...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813506/global-and-local-disturbances-interact-to-modify-seagrass-palatability
#17
Rocío Jiménez-Ramos, Luis G Egea, María J Ortega, Ignacio Hernández, Juan J Vergara, Fernando G Brun
Global change, such as warming and ocean acidification, and local anthropogenic disturbances, such as eutrophication, can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we are far from being able to predict the outcome of multiple interacting disturbances on seagrass communities. Herbivores are key in determining plant community structure and the transfer of energy up the food web. Global and local disturbances may alter the ecological role of herbivory by modifying leaf palatability (i.e. leaf traits) and consequently, the feeding patterns of herbivores...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811313/a-key-role-for-foxq2-in-anterior-head-and-central-brain-patterning-in-insects
#18
Peter Kitzmann, Matthias Weißkopf, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Gregor Bucher
Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum ortholog of foxQ2 (Tc-foxQ2) as a novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807882/control-of-nucleus-positioning-in-mouse-oocytes
#19
REVIEW
Maria Almonacid, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-center nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798318/sunscreen-products-impair-the-early-developmental-stages-of-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus
#20
Cinzia Corinaldesi, Elisabetta Damiani, Francesca Marcellini, Carla Falugi, Luca Tiano, Francesca Brugè, Roberto Danovaro
Marine ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the release of personal care products. Among them, sunscreens are causing concern either for the effects on skin protection from UV radiation and for the potential impacts on marine life. Here, we assessed the UVA protective efficacy of three sunscreens on human dermal fibroblasts, including two common products in Europe and USA, and an eco-friendly product. The sunscreens' effects were also tested on Paracentrotus lividus, a marine species possibly threatened by these contaminants...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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