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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199408/high-quality-rna-extraction-from-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus-embryos
#1
Nadia Ruocco, Susan Costantini, Valerio Zupo, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora, Angelo Fontana, Maria Costantini
The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) is a keystone herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea due to its ability to transform macroalgal-dominated communities into barren areas characterized by increased cover of bare substrates and encrusting coralline algae, reduced biodiversity and altered ecosystem functions. P. lividus is also an excellent animal model for toxicology, physiology and biology investigations having been used for more than a century as a model for embryological studies with synchronously developing embryos which are easy to manipulate and analyze for morphological aberrations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193178/nodal-and-bmp-expression-during-the-transition-to-pentamery-in-the-sea-urchin-heliocidaris-erythrogramma-insights-into-patterning-the-enigmatic-echinoderm-body-plan
#2
Demian Koop, Paula Cisternas, Valerie B Morris, Dario Strbenac, Jean Yee Hwa Yang, Gregory A Wray, Maria Byrne
BACKGROUND: The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the unusual echinoderm pentameral body plan and their likeness to mechanisms underlying the development of the bilateral plans of other deuterostomes are of interest in tracing body plan evolution. In this first study of the spatial expression of genes associated with Nodal and BMP2/4 signalling during the transition to pentamery in sea urchins, we investigate Heliocidaris erythrogramma, a species that provides access to the developing adult rudiment within days of fertilization...
February 13, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193159/erratum-to-phylogenomics-of-strongylocentrotid-sea-urchins
#3
Kord M Kober, Giacomo Bernardi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188999/the-small-gtpase-arf6-regulates-sea-urchin-morphogenesis
#4
Nadezda A Stepicheva, Megan Dumas, Priscilla Kobi, Julie G Donaldson, Jia L Song
The small GTPase Arf6 is a conserved protein that is expressed in all metazoans. Arf6 remodels cytoskeletal actin and mediates membrane protein trafficking between the plasma membrane in its active form and endosomal compartments in its inactive form. While a rich knowledge exists for the cellular functions of Arf6, relatively little is known about its physiological role in development. This study examines the function of Arf6 in mediating cellular morphogenesis in early development. We dissect the function of Arf6 with a loss-of-function morpholino and constitutively active Arf6-Q67L construct...
February 2, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188896/alteration-of-neurotransmission-and-skeletogenesis-in-sea-urchin-arbacia-lixula-embryos-exposed-to-copper-oxide-nanoparticles
#5
Tiziana Cappello, Valeria Vitale, Sabrina Oliva, Valentina Villari, Angela Mauceri, Salvatore Fasulo, Maria Maisano
The extensive use of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) in many applications has raised concerns over their toxicity on environment and human health. Herein, the embryotoxicity of CuO NPs was assessed in the black sea urchin Arbacia lixula, an intertidal species commonly present in the Mediterranean. Fertilized eggs were exposed to 0.7, 10 and 20ppb of CuO NPs, until pluteus stage. Interferences with the normal neurotransmission pathways were observed in sea urchin embryos. In detail, evidence of cholinergic and serotoninergic systems affection was revealed by dose-dependent decreased levels of choline and N-acetyl serotonin, respectively, measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, applied for the first time to our knowledge on sea urchin embryos...
February 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185788/echinoderm-development-and-evolution-in-the-post-genomic-era
#6
REVIEW
Gregory A Cary, Veronica F Hinman
The highly recognizable animals within the phylum Echinodermata encompass an enormous disparity of adult and larval body plans. The extensive knowledge of sea urchin development has culminated in the description of the exquisitely detailed gene regulatory network (GRN) that governs the specification of various embryonic territories. This information provides a unique opportunity for comparative studies in other echinoderm taxa to understand the evolution and developmental mechanisms underlying body plan change...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182976/ultrasensitive-electrochemical-immunosensor-for-quantitative-detection-of-scca-using-co3o4-ceo2-au-pt-nanocomposite-as-enzyme-mimetic-labels
#7
Yueyun Li, Yihe Zhang, Faying Li, Jinhui Feng, Mingdang Li, Lei Chen, Yunhui Dong
Recently early diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) as a tumor maker of various cancers has increasingly attracted a lot of attention with heightening of incidence rate of cancer. The SCCA with low concentration in human serum should be diluted before detecting. Thus, an immunoassay with high sensitivity is significant for early detecting SCCA. Therefore, a nonenzymatic sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor herein was conducted to quantitative detection of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA)...
January 31, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179409/spatio-temporal-environmental-variation-mediates-geographical-differences-in-phenotypic-responses-to-ocean-acidification
#8
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Paola A Villanueva, Jorge Lopez, Rodrigo Torres, Jorge M Navarro, Leonardo D Bacigalupe
Phenotypic plasticity is expected to play a major adaptive role in the response of species to ocean acidification (OA), by providing broader tolerances to changes in pCO2 conditions. However, tolerances and sensitivities to future OA may differ among populations within a species because of their particular environmental context and genetic backgrounds. Here, using the climatic variability hypothesis (CVH), we explored this conceptual framework in populations of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus across natural fluctuating pCO2/pH environments...
February 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164155/historical-ecology-and-the-conservation-of-large-hermaphroditic-fishes-in-pacific-coast-kelp-forest-ecosystems
#9
Todd J Braje, Torben C Rick, Paul Szpak, Seth D Newsome, Joseph M McCain, Emma A Elliott Smith, Michael Glassow, Scott L Hamilton
The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159331/light-stick-a-problem-of-marine-pollution-in-brazil
#10
Caio Cesar-Ribeiro, Helena Costi Rosa, Daniele Oliveira Rocha, Camila Galli Baldini Dos Reis, Tabata Sarti Prado, Daniela Hernandes Coimbra Muniz, Raquel Carrasco, Flávia Milão Silva, José Eduardo Martinelli-Filho, Maria Fernanda Palanch-Hans
Light-sticks are used as bait in surface long-line fishing, to capture swordfish and other large pelagic predators. When discharged in the ocean, it may reach the beaches. The traditional Brazilian community of Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia, use light-sticks as a medicine for rheumatism, vitiligo and mycoses. It may affect the marine life when its content leak in the open ocean. This work evaluated and identified the acute and chronic toxicity of the light-stick. A high acute toxicity was observed in the mobility/mortality of Artemia sp...
January 31, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150358/diversity-and-evolution-of-paramoeba-spp-and-their-kinetoplastid-endosymbionts
#11
Shannon J Sibbald, Ugo Cenci, Morgan Colp, Yana Eglit, Charles J O'Kelly, John M Archibald
Members of the genus Paramoeba (including Neoparamoeba) (Amoebozoa) are single-celled eukaryotes of economic and ecological importance due to their association with disease in a variety of marine animals including fish, sea urchins, and lobster. Interestingly, they harbor a eukaryotic endosymbiont of kinetoplastid ancestry, Perkinsela sp. To investigate the complex relationship between Paramoeba spp. and Perkinsela sp., as well as the relationships between different Paramoeba species, molecular data was obtained for four novel isolates...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141889/transcriptomic-responses-to-seawater-acidification-among-sea-urchin-populations-inhabiting-a-natural-ph-mosaic
#12
Tyler G Evans, Melissa H Pespeni, Gretchen E Hofmann, Stephen R Palumbi, Eric Sanford
Increasing awareness of spatial and temporal variation in ocean pH suggests some marine populations may be adapted to local pH regimes and will therefore respond differently to present-day pH variation and to long-term ocean acidification. In the Northeast Pacific Ocean, differences in the strength of coastal upwelling cause latitudinal variation in prevailing pH regimes that are hypothesized to promote local adaptation and unequal pH tolerance among resident populations. In this study, responses to experimental seawater acidification were compared among six populations of purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) inhabiting areas that differ in their frequency of low pH exposure and that prior research suggests are locally adapted to seawater pH...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141828/an-intronic-cis-regulatory-element-is-crucial-for-the-alpha-tubulin-pl-tuba1a-gene-activation-in-the-ciliary-band-and-animal-pole-neurogenic-domains-during-sea-urchin-development
#13
Salvatore Costa, Aldo Nicosia, Angela Cuttitta, Fabrizio Gianguzza, Maria Antonietta Ragusa
In sea urchin development, structures derived from neurogenic territory control the swimming and feeding responses of the pluteus as well as the process of metamorphosis. We have previously isolated an alpha tubulin family member of Paracentrotus lividus (Pl-Tuba1a, formerly known as Pl-Talpha2) that is specifically expressed in the ciliary band and animal pole neurogenic domains of the sea urchin embryo. In order to identify cis-regulatory elements controlling its spatio-temporal expression, we conducted gene transfer experiments, transgene deletions and site specific mutagenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139234/molecular-phylogeny-and-toxicity-of-harmful-benthic-dinoflagellates-coolia-ostreopsidaceae-dinophyceae-in-a-sub-tropical-marine-ecosystem-the-first-record-from-hong-kong
#14
Priscilla T Y Leung, Meng Yan, Sam K F Yiu, Veronica T T Lam, Jack C H Ip, Maggie W Y Au, Chia-Yun Chen, Tak-Cheung Wai, Paul K S Lam
Coolia are marine benthic dinoflagellates which are globally distributed and potentially toxic. This study provides the first investigation of species diversity and toxicity assessment of Coolia in Hong Kong waters. Fifty-one strains of four Coolia species, including C. malayensis, C. canariensis, C. tropicalis, and C. palmyrensis, were isolated from twelve sub-tidal habitats, and identified phylogenetically using 28S rDNA sequences. Exposure experiments (48-hour) demonstrated that the algal lysates extracted from the four Coolia species exhibited different toxic effects on the lethality and abnormality of two invertebrate larvae, i...
January 27, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130670/two-new-species-of-poecilostomatoid-copepods-symbiotic-on-the-venomous-echinoid-toxopneustes-pileolus-lamarck-echinodermata-from-vietnam
#15
Balu Alagar Venmathi Maran, Il-Hoi Kim, Olga A Bratova, Viatcheslav N Ivanenko
Two new coexisting species of crustacean copepods (Poecilostomatoida) belonging to the echinoid-specific genera Mecomerinx Humes, 1977 (Pseudanthessiidae) and Clavisodalis Humes, 1970 (Taeniacanthidae) found associated with the venomous flower urchin Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in the South China Sea (Vietnam) are described. The diagnostic features of Mecomerinx ohtsukai n. sp. are: (i) three setae and one aesthetasc on the first segment of antennules; (ii) relatively long caudal ramus; (iii) elongated terminal segment of the antenna; and (iv) two claws on the terminal segment of antenna slightly unequal in length...
February 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123086/protection-of-large-predators-in-a-marine-reserve-alters-size-dependent-prey-mortality
#16
Rebecca L Selden, Steven D Gaines, Scott L Hamilton, Robert R Warner
Where predator-prey interactions are size-dependent, reductions in predator size owing to fishing has the potential to disrupt the ecological role of top predators in marine ecosystems. In southern California kelp forests, we investigated the size-dependence of the interaction between herbivorous sea urchins and one of their predators, California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher). Empirical tests examined how differences in predator size structure between reserve and fished areas affected size-specific urchin mortality...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122402/anticipating-changes-to-future-connectivity-within-a-network-of-marine-protected-areas
#17
M A Coleman, P Cetina-Heredia, M Roughan, M Feng, E van Sebille, B P Kelaher
Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity is required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change...
January 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107742/heavy-rare-earth-elements-affect-early-life-stages-in-paracentrotus-lividus-and-arbacia-lixula-sea-urchins
#18
Rahime Oral, Giovanni Pagano, Antonietta Siciliano, Maria Gravina, Anna Palumbo, Immacolata Castellano, Oriana Migliaccio, Philippe J Thomas, Marco Guida, Franca Tommasi, Marco Trifuoggi
BACKGROUND: Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) have been scarcely studied for their toxicity, in spite of their applications in several technologies. Thus HREEs require timely investigations for their adverse health effects. METHODS: Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula embryos and sperm were exposed to trichloride salts of five HREEs (Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu) and to Ce(III) as a light REE (LREE) reference to evaluate: 1) developmental defects (% DD) in HREE-exposed larvae or in the offspring of HREE-exposed sperm; 2) mitotic anomalies; 3) fertilization success; and 4) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels...
January 17, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099870/single-embryo-resolution-quantitative-analysis-of-reporters-permits-multiplex-spatial-cis-regulatory-analysis
#19
Catherine L Guay, Sean T McQuade, Jongmin Nam
Cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) control spatiotemporal gene expression patterns in embryos. While measurement of quantitative CRM activities has become efficient, measurement of spatial CRM activities still relies on slow, one-by-one methods. To overcome this bottleneck, we have developed a high-throughput method that can simultaneously measure quantitative and spatial CRM activities. The new method builds profiles of quantitative CRM activities measured at single-embryo resolution in many mosaic embryos and uses these profiles as a 'fingerprint' of spatial patterns...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091726/predation-cues-rather-than-resource-availability-promote-cryptic-behaviour-in-a-habitat-forming-sea-urchin
#20
Arie J P Spyksma, Richard B Taylor, Nick T Shears
It is well known that predators often influence the foraging behaviour of prey through the so-called "fear effect". However, it is also possible that predators could change prey behaviour indirectly by altering the prey's food supply through a trophic cascade. The predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade is widely assumed to be driven by the removal of sea urchins by predators, but changes in sea urchin behaviour in response to predators or increased food availability could also play an important role. We tested whether increased crevice occupancy by herbivorous sea urchins in the presence of abundant predatory fishes and lobsters is a response to the increased risk of predation, or an indirect response to higher kelp abundances...
January 13, 2017: Oecologia
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