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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544452/a-conserved-role-for-vegf-signaling-in-specification-of-homologous-mesenchymal-cell-types-positioned-at-spatially-distinct-developmental-addresses-in-early-development-of-sea-urchins
#1
Eric M Erkenbrack, Elizabeth Petsios
Comparative studies of early development in echinoderms are revealing the tempo and mode of alterations to developmental gene regulatory networks and to the cell types they specify. In euechinoid sea urchins, skeletogenic mesenchyme (SM) ingresses prior to gastrulation at the vegetal pole and aligns into a ring-like array with two bilateral pockets of cells, the sites where spiculogenesis will later occur. In cidaroid sea urchins, the anciently diverged sister clade to euechinoid sea urchins, a homologous SM cell type ingresses later in development, after gastrulation has commenced, and consequently at a distinct developmental address...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535490/moderate-ocean-warming-mitigates-but-more-extreme-warming-exacerbates-the-impacts-of-zinc-from-engineered-nanoparticles-on%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-marine-larva
#2
Benjamin Mos, Katrina L Kaposi, Andrew L Rose, Brendan Kelaher, Symon A Dworjanyn
There is growing concern about the combined effects of multiple human-induced stressors on biodiversity. In particular, there are substantial knowledge gaps about the combined effects of existing stressors (e.g. pollution) and predicted environmental stress from climate change (e.g. ocean warming). We investigated the impacts of ocean warming and engineered nanoparticles (nano-zinc oxide, nZnO) on larvae of a cosmopolitan tropical sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Larval T. gratilla were exposed to all combinations of three temperatures, 25, 27 and 29 °C (current SST and near-future predicted warming of +2 and + 4 °C) and six concentrations of nZnO (0, 0...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529830/adp-ribosyl-cyclases-regulate-early-development-of-the-sea-urchin
#3
Latha Ramakrishnan, Kevin Uhlinger, Leslie Dale, Amro Hamdoun, Sandip Patel
ADP-ribosyl cyclases are multifunctional enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleotide derivatives necessary for Ca(2+) signalling such as cADPR and NAADP. Although Ca(2+) signalling is a critical regulator of early development, little is known of the role of ADP-ribosyl cyclases during embryogenesis. Here we analyze the expression, activity and function of ADP-ribosyl cyclases in the embryo of the sea urchin - a key organism for study of both Ca(2+) signalling and embryonic development. ADP-ribosyl cyclase isoforms (SpARC1-4) showed unique changes in expression during early development...
June 1, 2016: Messenger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528417/sea-urchin-embryogenesis-as-bioindicators-of-marine-pollution-in-impact-areas-of-the-sea-of-japan-east-sea-and-the-sea-of-okhotsk
#4
Olga N Lukyanova, Elena V Zhuravel, Denis N Chulchekov, Andrey A Mazur
The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area...
May 20, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514632/a-waterborne-pursuit-deterrent-signal-deployed-by-a-sea-urchin
#5
Hannah Sheppard-Brennand, Alistair G B Poore, Symon A Dworjanyn
Selection by consumers has led to the evolution of a vast array of defenses in animals and plants. These defenses include physical structures, behaviors, and chemical signals that mediate interactions with predators. Some of the strangest defensive structures in nature are the globiferous pedicellariae of the echinoderms. These are small venomous appendages with jaws and teeth that cover the test of many sea urchins and sea stars. In this study, we report a unique use of these defensive structures by the collector sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla...
June 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512301/maternal-antioxidant-provisioning-mitigates-pollutant-induced-oxidative-damage-in-embryos-of-the-temperate-sea-urchin-evechinus-chloroticus
#6
Kathryn N Lister, Miles D Lamare, David J Burritt
One mechanism of pollution resistance in marine populations is through transgenerational plasticity, whereby offspring capacity to resist pollution reflects parental exposure history. Our study aimed to establish correlations between oxidative stress biomarkers and key reproductive fitness parameters in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus following exposure to dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-exposed adults exhibited total gonad tissue concentrations of PAHs in excess of 4 and 5 times baseline levels, for females and males respectively...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507001/p38-mapk-as-an-essential-regulator-of-dorsal-ventral-axis-specification-and-skeletogenesis-during-sea-urchin-development-a-re-evaluation
#7
Maria Dolores Molina, Magali Quirin, Emmanuel Haillot, Felipe Jimenez, Aline Chessel, Thierry Lepage
Dorsal-ventral axis formation in the sea urchin embryo relies on the asymmetrical expression of the TGF-beta Nodal. The p38-MAPK pathway has been proposed to be essential for dorsal-ventral axis formation by acting upstream of nodal expression. Herein, we report that, in contrast to previous studies that used pharmacological inhibitors of p38, manipulating the activity of p38 by genetic means has no obvious impact on morphogenesis. Instead, we discovered that p38 inhibitors strongly disrupt specification of all germ layers by blocking signalling from the Nodal receptor and by interfering with the ERK pathway...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481886/egg-production-patterns-of-two-invertebrate-species-in-rocky-subtidal-areas-under-different-fishing-regimes-along-the-coast-of-central-chile
#8
Marta Blanco, Andres Ospina-Álvarez, Catherine González, Miriam Fernández
Fishing is a major source of human impact, reducing density and size of a wide range of exploited species in comparison to areas exhibiting strong regulations (no-take and partially protected areas, including Territorial Use Rights for Fisheries, TURFs). Since size and density might have important consequences on reproduction, and therefore natural re-seeding, we monitored adult size, density and potential fecundity of the keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata) and the red sea urchin (Loxechinus albus) in areas under two fishing regimes (TURFs and Open Access Areas, OAAs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479861/effects-of-dietary-carbohydrate-on-weight-gain-and-gonad-production-in-small-sea-urchins-lytechinus-variegatus
#9
Anna M Taylor, Laura E Heflin, Mickie L Powell, Addison L Lawrence, Stephen A Watts
In experiment 1, juvenile sea urchins (n = 80, 0.088 ± 0.001 g wet weight and 5.72 ± 0.04 mm diameter) were held individually and fed ad libitum one of three semi-purified formulated diets (n = 16 individuals treatment(-1)). In the diets, protein was held constant (310g kg(-1) dry, as fed) and carbohydrate level varied (190, 260, or 380 g kg(-1) dry, as fed). Wet weights were measured every 2 weeks. Total wet weight gain was inversely proportional to dietary carbohydrate level and energy content of the respective diet...
April 2017: Aquaculture Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479505/effects-of-monocrotophos-pesticide-on-cholinergic-and-dopaminergic-neurotransmitter-systems-during-early-development-in-the-sea-urchin-hemicentrotus-pulcherrimus
#10
Xiaona Zhang, Shuman Li, Cuicui Wang, Hua Tian, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
During early development in sea urchins, classical neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine (ACh), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT), play important roles in the regulation of morphogenesis and swimming behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms of how organophosphate pesticides cause developmental neurotoxicity by interfering with different neurotransmitter systems are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00mg/L monocrotophos (MCP) pesticide on the activity of acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), monoamine oxidase, the concentration of DA, dopamine transporter, and the transcription activity of DA receptor D1 and tyrosine hydroxylase, during critical periods in cholinergic and dopaminergic nervous system development in sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus) embryos and larvae...
May 4, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478667/a-model-sea-urchin-spicule-matrix-protein-rspsm50-is-a-hydrogelator-that-modifies-and-organizes-the-mineralization-process
#11
Gaurav Jain, Martin Pendola, Yu-Chieh Huang, Denis Gebauer, John Spencer Evans
In the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, the formation and mineralization of fracture-resistant skeletal elements such as the embryonic spicule require the combinatorial participation of numerous spicule matrix proteins such as SpSM50. However, because of its limited abundance and solubility issues, it has been difficult to pursue extensive in vitro biochemical studies of SpSM50 protein and deduce its role in spicule formation and mineralization. To circumvent these problems, we expressed a tag-free bacterial model recombinant spicule matrix protein, rSpSM50...
May 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474557/the-possible-hypoglycemic-mechanisms-of-echinochrome
#12
Ayman Saber Mohamed, Amel Mahmoud Soliman, Mohamed-Assem Said Marie
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a main reason of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In recent years great attention has been paid to bioactivity of natural products due to their potential pharmacological utilization. Echinochrome is natural compound isolated from sea urchins and possesses many biological effects. The hypoglycemic activity of echinochrome reported in many recent experiments. OBJECTIVE: In our study, we tried to collect all the possible the hypoglycemic mechanism of echinochrome...
May 5, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470711/carbohydrate-recognition-by-the-rhamnose-binding-lectin-sul-i-with-a-novel-three-domain-structure-isolated-from-the-venom-of-globiferous-pedicellariae-of-the-flower-sea-urchin-toxopneustes-pileolus
#13
Tomomitsu Hatakeyama, Ayaka Ichise, Hideaki Unno, Shuichiro Goda, Tatsuya Oda, Hiroaki Tateno, Jun Hirabayashi, Hitomi Sakai, Hideyuki Nakagawa
The globiferous pedicellariae of the venomous sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus contains several biologically active proteins. We have cloned the cDNA of one of the toxin components, SUL-I, which is a rhamnose-binding lectin that acts as a mitogen through binding to carbohydrate chains on target cells. Recombinant SUL-I (rSUL-I) was produced in Escherichia coli cells, and its carbohydrate-binding specificity was examined with the glycoconjugate microarray analysis, which suggested that potential target carbohydrate structures are galactose-terminated N-glycans...
May 3, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460290/immune-and-reproductive-system-impairment-in-adult-sea-urchin-exposed-to-nanosized-zno-via-food
#14
Sonia Manzo, Simona Schiavo, Maria Oliviero, Alfonso Toscano, Martina Ciaravolo, Paola Cirino
In marine environment the release and the consequent sedimentation of ZnO NPs, mainly used in sunscreens, could provoke toxic effects in particular in grazer organisms, like sea urchins. In this work, a first evaluation of DNA and cellular effects on adult sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus exposed through the diet to different sizes (100 and 14nm) ZnO NPs, was performed. Moreover, the consequent impact upon offspring quality was evaluated. Preliminarily results showed that the assumption of food containing ZnO NPs 100nm provoked in adult echinoids damages to immune cells (33% of damaged nucleus) and transmissible effects to offspring (75...
April 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451317/a-resorcinarene-for-inhibition-of-a%C3%AE-fibrillation
#15
Xu Han, Jiyong Park, Wei Wu, Andres Malagon, Lingyu Wang, Edgar Vargas, Athula Wikramanayake, K N Houk, Roger M Leblanc
Amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) fibrillation is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it has been challenging to discover potent agents in order to inhibit Aβ fibrillation. Herein, we demonstrated the effect of resorcinarene on inhibiting Aβ fibrillation in vitro via experimental and computational methods. Aβ were incubated with different concentrations of resorcinarene so as to monitor the kinetics by using thioflavin T binding assay. The results, which were further confirmed by far-UV CD spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, strongly indicated that the higher concentration of resorcinarene, the more effective the inhibition of Aβ fibrillation...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448610/characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-galnts-in-developing-strongylocentrotus-purpuratus-embryos
#16
Amber L Famiglietti, Zheng Wei, Thomas M Beres, Adina L Milac, Duy T Tran, Divya Patel, Robert C Angerer, Lynne M Angerer, Lawrence A Tabak
Mucin-type O-glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification in which N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is added to the hydroxyl group of select serine or threonine residues of a protein by the family of UDP-GalNAc:Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts; EC 2.4.1.41). Previous studies demonstrate that O-glycosylation plays essential roles in protein function, cell-cell interactions, cell polarity and differentiation in developing mouse and Drosophila embryos. Although this type of protein modification is highly conserved among higher eukaryotes, little is known about this family of enzymes in echinoderms, basal deuterostome relatives of the chordates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447937/il17-factors-are-early-regulators-in-the-gut-epithelium-during-inflammatory-response-to-vibrio-in-the-sea-urchin-larva
#17
Katherine M Buckley, Eric Chun Hei Ho, Taku Hibino, Catherine S Schrankel, Nicholas W Schuh, Guizhi Wang, Jonathan Patrick Rast
IL17 cytokines are central mediators of mammalian immunity. In vertebrates, these factors derive from diverse cellular sources. Sea urchins share a molecular heritage with chordates that includes the IL17 system. Here, we characterize the role of epithelial expression of IL17 in the larval gut-associated immune response. The purple sea urchin genome encodes ten IL17 subfamilies (35 genes) and two IL17 receptors. Most of these subfamilies are conserved throughout echinoderms. Two IL17 subfamilies are sequentially strongly upregulated and attenuated in the gut epithelium in response to bacterial disturbance...
April 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444142/regulatory-states-in-the-developmental-control-of-gene-expression
#18
Isabelle S Peter
A growing body of evidence shows that gene expression in multicellular organisms is controlled by the combinatorial function of multiple transcription factors. This indicates that not the individual transcription factors or signaling molecules, but the combination of expressed regulatory molecules, the regulatory state, should be viewed as the functional unit in gene regulation. Here, I discuss the concept of the regulatory state and its proposed role in the genome-wide control of gene expression. Recent analyses of regulatory gene expression in sea urchin embryos have been instrumental for solving the genomic control of cell fate specification in this system...
April 24, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444138/the-evolution-of-neuropeptide-signalling-insights-from-echinoderms
#19
Dean C Semmens, Maurice R Elphick
Neuropeptides are evolutionarily ancient mediators of neuronal signalling that regulate a wide range of physiological processes and behaviours in animals. Neuropeptide signalling has been investigated extensively in vertebrates and protostomian invertebrates, which include the ecdysozoans Drosophila melanogaster (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda). However, until recently, an understanding of evolutionary relationships between neuropeptide signalling systems in vertebrates and protostomes has been impaired by a lack of genome/transcriptome sequence data from non-ecdysozoan invertebrates...
April 21, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441344/collagenous-extracellular-matrix-biomaterials-for-tissue-engineering-lessons-from-the-common-sea-urchin-tissue
#20
REVIEW
Kheng Lim Goh, David F Holmes
Scaffolds for tissue engineering application may be made from a collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues because the ECM can mimic the functions of the target tissue. The primary sources of collagenous ECM material are calf skin and bone. However, these sources are associated with the risk of having bovine spongiform encephalopathy or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Alternative sources for collagenous ECM materials may be derived from livestock, e.g., pigs, and from marine animals, e...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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