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Sea urchin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636231/orchestration-at-the-beginning-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryo
#1
Giselle A Abruzzese, Nae Tanpradit, Renata S Tavares
Development of multicellular organisms is driven by a series of mitotic divisions after fertilization. Total cytoplasmic volume does not increase during this process, resulting in an increasing number of smaller daughter cells. Cell divisions are initially synchronous in an early embryo, but this ends at the 16-cell stage in the sea urchin. Orchesterated mitosis does, however, continue in subpopulations via the coordination of two different processes: karyokinesis and cytokinesis. Part of this asynchrony is due to the differentiation of lineages...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635649/the-sea-urchin-arbacia-lixula-a-novel-natural-source-of-astaxanthin
#2
Paola Cirino, Christophe Brunet, Martina Ciaravolo, Christian Galasso, Luigi Musco, Tomás Vega Fernández, Clementina Sansone, Alfonso Toscano
Several echinoderms, including sea urchins, are valuable sources of bioactive compounds but their nutraceutical potential is largely unexplored. In fact, the gonads of some sea urchin species contain antioxidants including carotenoids and polyhydroxylated naphthoquinones (PHNQ's), such as echinochrome A. Astaxanthin is known to have particular bioactivity for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. This carotenoid is produced by microalgae, while several marine invertebrates can bioaccumulate or synthetize it from metabolic precursors...
June 21, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629881/cell-mediated-immune-response-of-postmetamorphic-sea-urchin-juveniles-against-infectious-stages-of-diatom-cylindrotheca-closterium-bacillariophyceae
#3
Adriano Magesky, Claude Belzile, Émilien Pelletier
In this study, successive infectious stages by diatom Cylindrotheca closterium (Bacillariophyceae) are described for the first time during the early development of sea urchin at low temperature (8°C). Diatom cell-types enclosed or not by typical theca were capable of infection. As an immune response, red spherulocytes and amoebocytes migrated towards infested areas and restrained the infection spreading over shells in 2- and 3-month old urchins. Only amoebocyte cells appeared to be involved in the immune reaction of 1-month old specimens which turned out to be a less effective fence to stop infestation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623689/stage-specific-effects-of-soluble-copper-and-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-during-sea-urchin-embryo-development-and-their-relation-to-intracellular-copper-uptake
#4
Cristina Torres-Duarte, Karla M Ramos-Torres, René Rahimoff, Gary N Cherr
The effects of exposure to either soluble copper (copper sulfate) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) during specific early developmental stages of sea urchin embryos were analyzed. Soluble copper caused significant malformations in embryos (skeletal malformations, delayed development or gut malformations) when present at any given stage, while cleavage stage was the most sensitive to nano-CuO exposure causing skeletal malformations and decreased total antioxidant capacity. The stage specificity was linked to higher endocytic activity during the first hours of development that leads to higher accumulation of copper in specific cells critical for development...
June 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622611/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-to-discover-genes-involved-in-ovarian-maturity-in-strongylocentrotus-nudus
#5
Zhiying Jia, Qiai Wang, Kaikai Wu, Zhenlin Wei, Zunchun Zhou, Xiaolin Liu
Strongylocentrotus nudus is an edible sea urchin, mainly harvested in China. Correlation studies indicated that S. nudus with larger diameter have a prolonged marketing time and better palatability owing to their precocious gonads and extended maturation process. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is still unknown. Here, transcriptome sequencing was applied to study the ovaries of adult S. nudus with different shell diameters to explore the possible mechanism. In this study, four independent cDNA libraries were constructed, including two from the big size urchins and two from the small ones using a HiSeq™2500 platform...
May 30, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621734/the-roles-of-spinochromes-in-four-shallow-water-tropical-sea-urchins-and-their-potential-as-bioactive-pharmacological-agents
#6
Lola Brasseur, Elise Hennebert, Laurence Fievez, Guillaume Caulier, Fabrice Bureau, Lionel Tafforeau, Patrick Flammang, Pascal Gerbaux, Igor Eeckhaut
Spinochromes are principally known to be involved in sea urchin pigmentation as well as for their potentially interesting pharmacological properties. To assess their biological role in sea urchin physiology, experiments are undertaken on crude extracts from four species and on four isolated spinochromes in order to test their antibacterial, antioxidant, inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. First, the antibacterial assays show that the use of crude extracts as representatives of antibacterial effects of spinochromes are inaccurate...
June 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621432/regulatory-heterochronies-and-loose-temporal-scaling-between-sea-star-and-sea-urchin-regulatory-circuits
#7
Tsvia Gildor, Veronica Hinman, Smadar Ben-Tabou-De-Leon
It has long been argued that heterochrony, a change in relative timing of a developmental process, is a major source of evolutionary innovation. Heterochronic changes of regulatory gene activation could be the underlying molecular mechanism driving heterochronic changes through evolution. Here, we compare the temporal expression profiles of key regulatory circuits between sea urchin and sea star, representative of two classes of Echinoderms that shared a common ancestor about 500 million years ago. The morphologies of the sea urchin and sea star embryos are largely comparable, yet, differences in certain mesodermal cell types and ectodermal patterning result in distinct larval body plans...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621408/a-brief-history-of-developmental-biology-in-israel
#8
Dalit Sela-Donenfeld, Dale Frank
While the history of developmental biology in Israel is relatively short, its impact is far-reaching, so we wanted to present a concise perspective on the Israeli developmental biology community, past-present-future. This community has undergone a wonderful, nearly exponential growth over the last three decades. How exactly did this happen? There are approximately fifty research groups that focus on developmental biology questions in Israel today that are members of the Israel Society of Developmental Biology (IsSDB; http://issdb...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605407/recent-advances-in-functional-perturbation-and-genome-editing-techniques-in-studying-sea-urchin-development
#9
Miao Cui, Che-Yi Lin, Yi-Hsien Su
Studies on the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of sea urchin embryos have provided a basic understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling animal development. The causal links in GRNs have been verified experimentally through perturbation of gene functions. Microinjection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) into the egg is the most widely used approach for gene knockdown in sea urchin embryos. The modification of MOs into a membrane-permeable form (vivo-MOs) has allowed gene knockdown at later developmental stages...
June 12, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599151/comparative-evaluation-of-sea-urchin-larval-stage-sensitivity-to-ocean-acidification
#10
M C Passarelli, A Cesar, I Riba, T A DelValls
Changes in the marine carbonate system may affect various calcifying organisms. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of embryo-larval development of two species of sea urchins (Paracentrutos lividus and Lytechinus variegatus) collected and exposed to samples from different coastal zone (Spain and Brazil) to ocean acidification. The results showed that the larval stages are very sensitive to small changes in the seawater's pH. The larvae from P. lividus species showed to be more sensitive to acidified elutriate sediments than larvae from L...
June 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596102/evolution-of-the-fusogenic-activity-of-the-receptor-fgfrl1
#11
Lei Zhuang, Beat Trueb
FGFRL1 is a transmembrane receptor that can induce the fusion of CHO cells to multinucleated syncytia. This cell fusion activity has been attributed to the extracellular Ig3 domain of the receptor. We investigated how the fusogenic activity evolved during the evolution of animals. We found that the Ig3 domain from humans, mice, chicken and fish stimulates fusion of CHO cells, while the Ig3 domain from lancelet and sea urchin does not. It is therefore conceivable that the fusogenic activity of FGFRL1 developed during the evolution of vertebrates...
June 5, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590557/declines-in-plant-palatability-from-polar-to-tropical-latitudes-depend-on-herbivore-and-plant-identity
#12
Alyssa M Demko, Charles D Amsler, Mark E Hay, Jeremy D Long, James B McClintock, Valerie J Paul, Erik E Sotka
Long-standing theory predicts that the intensity of consumer-prey interactions declines with increasing latitude, yet for plant-herbivore interactions, latitudinal changes in herbivory rates and plant palatability have received variable support. The topic is of growing interest given that lower-latitude species are moving poleward at an accelerating rate due to climate change, and predicting local interactions will depend partly on whether latitudinal gradients occur in these critical biotic interactions. Here, we assayed the palatability of 50 seaweeds collected from polar (Antarctica), temperate (northeastern Pacific; California), and tropical (central Pacific; Fiji) locations to two herbivores native to the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, the generalist crab Mithraculus sculptus and sea urchin Echinometra lucunter...
June 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589840/characterization-of-a-sea-urchin-iq-motif-containing-protein-d-as-a-coactivator-of-nuclear-receptors
#13
Mi Ae Kim, Young Chang Sohn
Nuclear receptor (NR) interacting proteins, such as coactivators and corepressors, play a crucial role in specifying the transcriptional activity of the receptor. However, little is known about the functional features of the NR coregulators in marine invertebrates. Using the yeast two-hybrid screening method, a sea urchin oocyte cDNA library was screened for proteins that interact with the ligand-binding domain of human RXRα (hRXRα) as the bait protein in the presence of 9-cis retinoic acid. Here, we describe IQ motif containing protein D (IQCD) as an RXR-interacting coactivator...
June 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584110/assessing-regulatory-information-in-developmental-gene-regulatory-networks
#14
Isabelle S Peter, Eric H Davidson
Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) provide a transformation function between the static genomic sequence and the primary spatial specification processes operating development. The regulatory information encompassed in developmental GRNs thus goes far beyond the control of individual genes. We here address regulatory information at different levels of network organization, from single node to subcircuit to large-scale GRNs and discuss how regulatory design features such as network architecture, hierarchical organization, and cis-regulatory logic contribute to the developmental function of network circuits...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584099/genome-wide-use-of-high-and-low-affinity-tbrain-transcription-factor-binding-sites-during-echinoderm-development
#15
Gregory A Cary, Alys M Cheatle Jarvela, Rene D Francolini, Veronica F Hinman
Sea stars and sea urchins are model systems for interrogating the types of deep evolutionary changes that have restructured developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Although cis-regulatory DNA evolution is likely the predominant mechanism of change, it was recently shown that Tbrain, a Tbox transcription factor protein, has evolved a changed preference for a low-affinity, secondary binding motif. The primary, high-affinity motif is conserved. To date, however, no genome-wide comparisons have been performed to provide an unbiased assessment of the evolution of GRNs between these taxa, and no study has attempted to determine the interplay between transcription factor binding motif evolution and GRN topology...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584090/paleogenomics-of-echinoids-reveals-an-ancient-origin-for-the-double-negative-specification-of-micromeres-in-sea-urchins
#16
Jeffrey R Thompson, Eric M Erkenbrack, Veronica F Hinman, Brenna S McCauley, Elizabeth Petsios, David J Bottjer
Establishing a timeline for the evolution of novelties is a common, unifying goal at the intersection of evolutionary and developmental biology. Analyses of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) provide the ability to understand the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms responsible for the origin of morphological structures both in the development of an individual and across entire evolutionary lineages. Accurately dating GRN novelties, thereby establishing a timeline for GRN evolution, is necessary to answer questions about the rate at which GRNs and their subcircuits evolve, and to tie their evolution to paleoenvironmental and paleoecological changes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583083/the-skeletal-proteome-of-the-sea-star-patiria-miniata-and-evolution-of-biomineralization-in-echinoderms
#17
Rachel L Flores, Brian T Livingston
BACKGROUND: Proteomic studies of skeletal proteins have revealed large, complex mixtures of proteins occluded within the mineral. Many skeletal proteomes contain rapidly evolving proteins with repetitive domains, further complicating our understanding. In echinoderms, proteomic analysis of the skeletal proteomes of mineralized tissues of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus prominently featured spicule matrix proteins with repetitive sequences linked to a C-type lectin domain...
June 5, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575943/ageing-and-degradation-determines-failure-mode-on-sea-urchin-spines
#18
Monica Merino, Erika Vicente, Karen N Gonzales, Fernando G Torres
Sea urchin spines are an example of a hard natural composite with mineral and organic phases. The role of the organic phase in the response to mechanical stress was assessed by promoting the degradation of such spines by exposing them to ageing and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Thermal and structural characterization of the irradiated samples show that this UV irradiation treatment promotes degradation of the organic and inorganic phase of spines. Uniaxial compression tests carried out on aged and UV irradiated samples showed that both treatments affected the mechanical properties of the spines...
September 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574337/a-gut-response
#19
Matthew L Nicotra
Unexpected findings from the immune system of sea urchin larvae potentially provide insights into immune signaling in ancestral animals.
June 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573022/ocean-acidification-impacts-spine-integrity-but-not-regenerative-capacity-of-spines-and-tube-feet-in-adult-sea-urchins
#20
Chloe E Emerson, Helena C Reinardy, Nicholas R Bates, Andrea G Bodnar
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has resulted in a change in seawater chemistry and lowering of pH, referred to as ocean acidification. Understanding how different organisms and processes respond to ocean acidification is vital to predict how marine ecosystems will be altered under future scenarios of continued environmental change. Regenerative processes involving biomineralization in marine calcifiers such as sea urchins are predicted to be especially vulnerable. In this study, the effect of ocean acidification on regeneration of external appendages (spines and tube feet) was investigated in the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus exposed to ambient (546 µatm), intermediate (1027 µatm) and high (1841 µatm) partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) for eight weeks...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
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