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Sea urchin

Victor V Semenov, Boris V Lichitsky, Andrey N Komogortsev, Arkady A Dudinov, Mikhail M Krayushkin, Leonid D Konyushkin, Olga P Atamanenko, Irina B Karmanova, Yuri A Strelenko, Boris Shor, Marina N Semenova, Alex S Kiselyov
A series of 3,7-diaryl-6,7-dihydroisothiazolo [4,5-b]pyridin-5(4H)-ones 8 and 9 was synthesized by multicomponent condensation of 3-aryl-5-isothiazolecarboxylic acid esters 4a-f with aromatic (or thienyl) aldehydes 7 and Meldrum's acid in an acidic medium. The targeted compounds were evaluated for their antimitotic microtubule destabilizing activity using in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo model and in vitro human cancer cell-based assays. Selected dihydroisothiazolopyridinones altered sea urchin egg cleavage in 2-10 nM concentrations together with significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells including chemoresistant cell lines (IC50 in submicromolar - low nanomolar concentration range)...
September 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Silvia Bianchelli, Emanuela Buschi, Roberto Danovaro, Antonio Pusceddu
In the Mediterranean Sea hard-bottom macroalgal meadows may switch to alternative and less-productive barrens grounds, as a result of sea urchins overgrazing. Meiofauna (and especially nematodes) represent key components of benthic ecosystems, are highly-diversified, sensitive to environmental change and anthropogenic impacts, but, so-far, have been neglected in studies on regime shifts. We report here that sedimentary organic matter contents, meiofaunal taxa richness and community composition, nematode α- and β-biodiversity vary significantly between alternative macroalgal and barren states...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Harry M T Choi, Colby R Calvert, Naeem Husain, David Huss, Julius C Barsi, Benjamin E Deverman, Ryan C Hunter, Mihoko Kato, S Melanie Lee, Anna C T Abelin, Adam Z Rosenthal, Omar S Akbari, Yuwei Li, Bruce A Hay, Paul W Sternberg, Paul H Patterson, Eric H Davidson, Sarkis K Mazmanian, David A Prober, Matt van de Rijn, Jared R Leadbetter, Dianne K Newman, Carol Readhead, Marianne E Bronner, Barbara Wold, Rusty Lansford, Tatjana Sauka-Spengler, Scott E Fraser, Niles A Pierce
In situ hybridization methods are used across the biological sciences to map mRNA expression within intact specimens. Multiplexed experiments, in which multiple target mRNAs are mapped in a single sample, are essential for studying regulatory interactions, but remain cumbersome in most model organisms. Programmable in situ amplifiers based on the mechanism of hybridization chain reaction (HCR) overcome this longstanding challenge by operating independently within a sample, enabling multiplexed experiments to be performed with an experimental timeline independent of the number of target mRNAs...
October 1, 2016: Development
Vincent Picard, Odile Mulner-Lorillon, Jérémie Bourdon, Julia Morales, Patrick Cormier, Anne Siegel, Robert Bellé
Sea urchin eggs exhibit a cap-dependent increase in protein synthesis within minutes after fertilization. This rise in protein synthesis occurs at a constant rate for a great number of proteins translated from the different available mRNAs. Surprisingly, we found that cyclin B, a major cell-cycle regulator, follows a synthesis pattern that is distinct from the global protein population, so we developed a mathematical model to analyze this dissimilarity in biosynthesis kinetic patterns. The model includes two pathways for cyclin B mRNA entry into the translational machinery: one from immediately available mRNA (mRNAcyclinB) and one from mRNA activated solely after fertilization (XXmRNAcyclinB)...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Melanie M Lloyd, April D Makukhov, Melissa H Pespeni
Standing genetic variation may allow for rapid evolutionary response to the geologically unprecedented changes in global conditions. However, there is little known about the consequences of such rapid evolutionary change. Here, we measure genetic responses to experimental low and high pCO 2 levels in purple sea urchin larvae, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We found greater loss of nucleotide diversity in high pCO 2 levels (18.61%; 900 μatm) compared to low pCO 2 levels (10.12%; 400 μatm). In the wild, this loss could limit the evolutionary capacity of future generations...
October 2016: Evolutionary Applications
Netta Vidavsky, Anat Akiva, Ifat Kaplan-Ashiri, Katya Rechav, Lia Addadi, Steve Weiner, Andreas Schertel
Many important biological questions can be addressed by studying in 3D large volumes of intact, cryo fixed hydrated tissues (⩾10,000μm(3)) at high resolution (5-20nm). This can be achieved using serial FIB milling and block face surface imaging under cryo conditions. Here we demonstrate the unique potential of the cryo-FIB-SEM approach using two extensively studied model systems; sea urchin embryos and the tail fin of zebrafish larvae. We focus in particular on the environment of mineral deposition sites...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
Camille A White, Symon A Dworjanyn, Peter D Nichols, Benjamin Mos, Tim Dempster
Aquaculture of higher trophic level species is increasingly dependent on the use of terrestrial oil products. The input of terrestrially derived n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) into marine environments has subsequently increased, with unknown consequences for recipient species. We exposed a sea urchin, Heliocidaris erythrogramma to three experimental diets for 78 days: a high n-3 PUFA marine imitation treatment, a high n-6 PUFA "future aquafeed" treatment and an intermediate "current aquafeed" treatment...
September 19, 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Débora Alvares Leite Figueiredo, Paola Cristina Branco, Douglas Amaral Dos Santos, Andrews Krupinski Emerenciano, Renata Stecca Iunes, João Carlos Shimada Borges, José Roberto Machado Cunha da Silva
The rising concentration of atmospheric CO2 by anthropogenic activities is changing the chemistry of the oceans, resulting in a decreased pH. Several studies have shown that the decrease in pH can affect calcification rates and reproduction of marine invertebrates, but little attention has been drawn to their immune response. Thus this study evaluated in two adult tropical sea urchin species, Lytechinus variegatus and Echinometra lucunter, the effects of ocean acidification over a period of 24h and 5days, on parameters of the immune response, the extracellular acid base balance, and the ability to recover these parameters...
September 17, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
N B Petrov, I P Vladychenskaya, A L Drozdov, O S Kedrova
A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from isolates of several echinoderm species was sequenced. The isolates were from three species of starfish from the Asteriidae family (Asterias amurensis and Aphelasterias japonica collected in the Sea of Japan and Asterias rubens collected in the White Sea) and from the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum (family Loveniidae) collected in the Sea of Japan. Additionally, regions including internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA (ITS1 - 5.8S rDNA - ITS2) were sequenced for the three studied starfish species...
September 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Souhei Sakata, Nana Miyawaki, Thomas J McCormack, Hiroki Arima, Akira Kawanabe, Nurdan Özkucur, Tatsuki Kurokawa, Yuka Jinno, Yuichiro Fujiwara, Yasushi Okamura
The voltage-gated proton channel, Hv1, is expressed in blood cells, airway epithelium, sperm and microglia, playing important roles in diverse biological contexts including phagocytosis or sperm maturation through its regulation of membrane potential and pH. The gene encoding Hv1, HVCN1, is widely found across many species and is also conserved in unicellular organisms such as algae or dinoflagellates where Hv1 plays role in calcification or bioluminescence. Voltage-gated proton channels exhibit a large variation of activation rate among different species...
September 13, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Francesca Gissi, Jennifer L Stauber, Monique T Binet, Lisa A Golding, Merrin S Adams, Christian E Schlekat, Emily R Garman, Dianne F Jolley
The South East Asian Melanesian (SEAM) region contains the world's largest deposits of nickel lateritic ores. Environmental impacts may occur if mining operations are not adequately managed. Effects data for tropical ecosystems are required to assess risks of contaminant exposure and to derive water quality guidelines (WQG) to manage these risks. Currently, risk assessment tools and WQGs for the tropics are limited due to the sparse research on how contaminants impact tropical biota. As part of a larger project to develop appropriate risk assessment tools to ensure sustainable nickel production in SEAM, nickel effects data were required...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Greenfield Sluder
Centriole structure and function in the sea urchin zygote parallel those in mammalian somatic cells. Here, I briefly introduce the properties and attributes of the sea urchin system that make it an attractive platform for the study of centrosome and centriole duplication. These attributes apply to all echinoderms readily available from commercial suppliers: sea urchins, sand dollars, and starfish. I list some of the practical aspects of the system that make it a cost- and time-effective system for experimental work and then list properties that are a "tool kit" that can be used to conduct studies that would not be practical, or in some cases not possible, with mammalian somatic cells...
2016: Cilia
Carlos Sangil, Hector M Guzman
Echinometra viridis previously was considered a cryptic species unable to control the development and growth of macroalgae on coral reefs. Its role as a herbivore was seen as minor compared to other grazers present on the reef. However, the present disturbed state of some reefs has highlighted the role played by this sea-urchin. Combining field data with experiments on the Caribbean coast of Panama, we demonstrate that the current community organization on disturbed coral reefs in the Mesoamerican Caribbean is largely due to the action of E...
September 2016: Marine Environmental Research
Chisato Kitazawa, Tsubasa Fujii, Yuji Egusa, Miéko Komatsu, Akira Yamanaka
Embryos of temnopleurid sea urchins exhibit species-specific morphologies. While Temnopleurus toreumaticus has a wrinkled blastula and then invaginates continuously at gastrulation, others have a smooth blastula and their invagination is stepwise. We studied blastula and gastrula formation in four temnopleurids using light and scanning electron microscopy to clarify the mechanisms producing these differences. Unlike T. toreumaticus, blastomeres of mid-blastulae in T. reevesii, T. hardwickii and Mespilia globulus formed pseudopods...
September 2, 2016: Biology Open
Yaqing Chang, Xiaofei Tian, Weijie Zhang, Fenjie Han, Shun Chen, Mi Zhou, Zhenguo Pang, Shoubing Qi, Wenping Feng
Heat tolerance is a target trait in the selective breeding of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius, as it plays an important role in the survival and growth of cultured S. intermedius during summer. We investigated family growth and survival response to two temperature treatments to evaluate the genotype by temperature interaction (GEI) in the family selection of S. intermedius. Sea urchins from 11 families were exposed to two simulated water temperature environments-high temperature (HE) and control temperature (CE)-for 12 months, with each experiment divided into four periods (P1, stress-free period I; P2, stress-full high period; P3, stress-response period; and P4, stress-free period II) based on the temperature changes and the survival...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Robert G Evans
Some species are more equal than others. Robert T. Paine (American ecologist, 1933-2016) discovered that if you remove starfish - what he called a "keystone species" - from a tide pool, the complex ecosystem collapses. Without the predator starfish, mussels choke out other animals and plants. This phenomenon is general. Sea otters eat the sea urchins that eat the kelp that provides food and habitat for other species. On the vast Serengeti plains, wildebeest "mow" the grass, protecting habitat for many other species...
August 2016: Healthcare Policy, Politiques de Santé
Donghwa Lee, Hyungjin Lee, Youngjun Jeong, Yumi Ahn, Geonik Nam, Youngu Lee
Highly sensitive, transparent, and durable pressure sensors have been fabricated using sea-urchin shaped metal nanoparticles and insulating polyurethane elastomer. The pressure sensors exhibit outstanding sensitivity (2.46 kPa(-1) ), superior optical transmittance (84.8% at 550 nm), fast response/relaxation time (30 ms), and excellent operational durability. In addition, the pressure sensors successfully detect minute movements of human muscles.
August 31, 2016: Advanced Materials
A P Tyunin, N V Ageenko, K V Kiselev
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cytosine methylation in regulation of polyketide compounds biosynthesis in larvae of Strongylocentrotus intermedius. RESULTS: Treatment of S. intermedius larvae with 100 and 200 µM 5-azacytidine (5A) as a DNA demethylating agent significantly increased the amounts of spinochrome D and spinochrome E, as the number of pigmented cells per studied larva, in a dose-depended manner. The data on SiPks gene expression showed enhancement in 16- and 67-fold in S...
August 26, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Nadia Ruocco, Maria Costantini, Luigia Santella
The diffuse use of lithium in a number of industrial processes has produced a significant contamination of groundwater and surface water with it. The increased use of lithium has generated only scarce studies on its concentrations in ambient waters and on its effects on aquatic organisms. Only few contributions have focused on the toxicity of lithium in marine organisms (such as marine animals, algae and vegetables), showing that the toxic effect depends on the animal species. In the present study we describe the morphological and the molecular effects of lithium chloride (LiCl), using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus as a model organism...
2016: Scientific Reports
C J Brothers, J Harianto, J B McClintock, M Byrne
Climate-induced ocean warming and acidification may render marine organisms more vulnerable to infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of warming and acidification on the immune response of the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma Sea urchins were gradually introduced to four combinations of temperature and pHNIST (17°C/pH 8.15, 17°C/pH 7.6, 23°C/pH 8.15 and 23°C/pH 7.6) and then held in temperature-pH treatments for 1, 15 or 30 days to determine if the immune response would adjust to stressors over time...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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