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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913220/mapk-erk-activity-is-required-for-the-successful-progression-of-mitosis-in-sea-urchin-embryos
#1
Mulner-Lorillon Odile, Chassé Héloïse, Morales Julia, Bellé Robert, Cormier Patrick
Using sea urchin embryos, we demonstrate that the MEK/MAPK/ERK cascade is essential for the proper progression of the cell cycle. Activation of a limited fraction of MAPK/ERK is required between S-phase and M-phase. Neither DNA replication nor CDK1 activation are impacted by the inhibition of this small active MAPK/ERK fraction. Nonetheless, the chromatin and spindle organisations are profoundly altered. Early morphological disorders induced by the absence of MAPK/ERK activation are correlated with an important inhibition of global protein synthesis and modification in the cyclin B accumulation profile...
November 29, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911710/eml-proteins-in-microtubule-regulation-and-human-disease
#2
REVIEW
Andrew M Fry, Laura O'Regan, Jessica Montgomery, Rozita Adib, Richard Bayliss
The EMLs are a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The founding member was discovered in sea urchins as a 77-kDa polypeptide that co-purified with microtubules. This protein, termed EMAP for echinoderm MAP, was the major non-tubulin component present in purified microtubule preparations made from unfertilized sea urchin eggs [J. Cell Sci. (1993) 104: , 445-450; J. Cell Sci. (1987) 87: (Pt 1), 71-84]. Orthologues of EMAP were subsequently identified in other echinoderms, such as starfish and sand dollar, and then in more distant eukaryotes, including flies, worms and vertebrates, where the name of ELP or EML (both for EMAP-like protein) has been adopted [BMC Dev...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910875/an-integrated-modelling-framework-from-cells-to-organism-based-on-a-cohort-of-digital-embryos
#3
Paul Villoutreix, Julien Delile, Barbara Rizzi, Louise Duloquin, Thierry Savy, Paul Bourgine, René Doursat, Nadine Peyriéras
We conducted a quantitative comparison of developing sea urchin embryos based on the analysis of five digital specimens obtained by automatic processing of in toto 3D+ time image data. These measurements served the reconstruction of a prototypical cell lineage tree able to predict the spatiotemporal cellular organisation of a normal sea urchin blastula. The reconstruction was achieved by designing and tuning a multi-level probabilistic model that reproduced embryo-level dynamics from a small number of statistical parameters characterising cell proliferation, cell surface area and cell volume evolution along the cell lineage...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907891/analysis-of-translation-using-polysome-profiling
#4
Héloïse Chassé, Sandrine Boulben, Vlad Costache, Patrick Cormier, Julia Morales
During the past decade, there has been growing interest in the role of translational regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Polysome profiling has been developed to infer the translational status of a specific mRNA species or to analyze the translatome, i.e. the subset of mRNAs actively translated in a cell. Polysome profiling is especially suitable for emergent model organisms for which genomic data are limited. In this paper, we describe an optimized protocol for the purification of sea urchin polysomes and highlight the critical steps involved in polysome purification...
October 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905514/seagrass-posidonia-oceanica-seedlings-in-a-high-co2-world-from-physiology-to-herbivory
#5
Gema Hernán, Laura Ramajo, Lorena Basso, Antonio Delgado, Jorge Terrados, Carlos M Duarte, Fiona Tomas
Under future increased CO2 concentrations, seagrasses are predicted to perform better as a result of increased photosynthesis, but the effects in carbon balance and growth are unclear and remain unexplored for early life stages such as seedlings, which allow plant dispersal and provide the potential for adaptation under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, the outcome of the concomitant biochemical changes in plant-herbivore interactions has been poorly studied, yet may have important implications in plant communities...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903867/in-situ-developmental-responses-of-tropical-sea-urchin-larvae-to-ocean-acidification-conditions-at-naturally-elevated-pco2-vent-sites
#6
Miles D Lamare, Michelle Liddy, Sven Uthicke
Laboratory experiments suggest that calcifying developmental stages of marine invertebrates may be the most ocean acidification (OA)-sensitive life-history stage and represent a life-history bottleneck. To better extrapolate laboratory findings to future OA conditions, developmental responses in sea urchin embryos/larvae were compared under ecologically relevant in situ exposures on vent-elevated pCO2 and ambient pCO2 coral reefs in Papua New Guinea. Echinometra embryos/larvae were reared in meshed chambers moored in arrays on either venting reefs or adjacent non-vent reefs...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902316/echinicola-strongylocentroti-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-intermedius
#7
You-Jung Jung, Sung Hyun Yang, Kae Kyung Kwon, Seung Seob Bae
A yellowish-orange-pigmented marine bacterium, designated MEBiC08714T was isolated from a sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius collected at the west edge of the East Sea of Korea. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain MEBiC08714T was affiliated with the genus Echinicola and showed that the strain was most closely related to Echinicola vietnamensis KCTC 12713T (96.9%) and followed by 'E. shivajiensis' JCM 17847T (96.3%), E. jeungdonensis KCTC 23122T (96.1%), and E...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899505/an-interview-with-david-mcclay
#8
Aidan Maartens
David McClay is the Arthur S. Pearse Professor of Biology at Trinity College of Arts and Sciences, Duke University, North Carolina. His lab works on the transcriptional control of morphogenesis in the sea urchin embryo. We caught up with David at the 2016 Society for Developmental Biology - International Society of Differentiation joint meeting in Boston, where he received the Lifetime Achievement Award.
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896813/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-histone-variant-h2a-z-during-sea-urchin-development
#9
Mihai Hajdu, Jasmine Calle, Andrea Puno, Aminat Haruna, César Arenas-Mena
Histone variant H2A.Z promotes chromatin accessibility at transcriptional regulatory elements and is developmentally regulated in metazoans. We characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. H2A.Z depletion by antisense translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides during early development causes developmental collapse, in agreement with its previously demonstrated general role in transcriptional multipotency. During H2A...
November 29, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867818/a-new-gene-regulatory-network-model-based-on-bp-algorithm-for-interrogating-differentially-expressed-genes-of-sea-urchin
#10
Longlong Liu, Tingting Zhao, Meng Ma, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND: Computer science and mathematical theories are combined to analyze the complex interactions among genes, which are simplified to a network to establish a theoretical model for the analysis of the structure, module and dynamic properties. In contrast, traditional model of gene regulatory networks often lack an effective method for solving gene expression data because of high durational and spatial complexity. In this paper, we propose a new model for constructing gene regulatory networks using back propagation (BP) neural network based on predictive function and network topology...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866905/kirrell-a-member-of-the-ig-domain-superfamily-of-adhesion-proteins-is-essential-for-fusion-of-primary-mesenchyme-cells-in-the-sea-urchin-embryo
#11
Charles A Ettensohn, Debleena Dey
In the sea urchin embryo, primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) adhere to one another and fuse via filopodia, forming cable-like structures within which skeletal rods are deposited. Although this process was first described more than a century ago, molecules that participate in PMC adhesion and fusion have not been identified. Here we show that KirrelL, a PMC-specific, Ig domain-containing transmembrane protein, is essential for PMC fusion, probably by mediating filopodial adhesions that are a pre-requisite for subsequent membrane fusion...
November 17, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859199/fertilization-limitation-of-diadema-antillarum-on-coral-reefs-in-the-florida-keys
#12
Colette J Feehan, Michael S Brown, William C Sharp, Jean-Sébastien Lauzon-Guay, Diane K Adams
Mass mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum due to disease outbreaks in 1983 and 1991 decimated populations in the Florida Keys, and they have yet to recover. Here, we use a coupled advection-diffusion and fertilization-kinetics model to test the hypothesis that these populations are fertilization limited. We found that fertilization success was ≥ 96% prior to the first disease outbreak, decreased substantially following recurrent disease to 3%, and has since remained low. By investigating the combined effects of physical factors (population spatial extent and current velocity) and sea urchin behavior (aggregation) on density-dependent fertilization success, we show that fertilization success at a given density increases with increasing population spatial extent and decreasing current velocity, and is greater under simulated aggregation behavior of D...
August 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859162/geographic-extent-and-variation-of-a-coral-reef-trophic-cascade
#13
T R McClanahan, N A Muthiga
Trophic cascades caused by a reduction in predators of sea urchins have been reported in Indian Ocean and Caribbean coral reefs. Previous studies have been constrained by their site-specific nature and limited spatial replication, which has produced site and species-specific understanding that can potentially preclude larger community-organization nuances and generalizations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the extent and variability of the cascade community in response to fishing across ~23° of latitude and longitude in coral reefs in the southwestern Indian Ocean...
July 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853591/a-newly-identified-left-right-asymmetry-in-larval-sea-urchins
#14
Jason Hodin, Keegan Lutek, Andreas Heyland
Directional asymmetry (DA) in body form is a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants alike, and a functional understanding of such asymmetries can offer insights into the ways in which ecology and development interface to drive evolution. Echinoids (sea urchins, sand dollars and their kin) with planktotrophic development have a bilaterally symmetrical feeding pluteus larva that undergoes a dramatic metamorphosis into a pentameral juvenile that enters the benthos at settlement. The earliest stage of this transformation involves a DA: a left-side invagination in mid-stage larvae leads to the formation of the oral field of the juvenile via a directionally asymmetric structure called the echinus rudiment...
August 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853237/multi-species-collapses-at-the-warm-edge-of-a-warming-sea
#15
Gil Rilov
Even during the current biodiversity crisis, reports on population collapses of highly abundant, non-harvested marine species were rare until very recently. This is starting to change, especially at the warm edge of species' distributions where populations are more vulnerable to stress. The Levant basin is the southeastern edge of distribution of most Mediterranean species. Coastal water conditions are naturally extreme, and are fast warming, making it a potential hotspot for species collapses. Using multiple data sources, I found strong evidence for major, sustained, population collapses of two urchins, one large predatory gastropod and a reef-building gastropod...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831938/synthesis-of-fe3o4-nickel-silicate-core-shell-nanoparticles-for-his-tagged-enzyme-immobilizing-agents
#16
Moo-Kwang Shin, Byunghoon Kang, Nam-Kyung Yoon, Myeong-Hoon Kim, Jisun Ki, Seungmin Han, Jung-Oh Ahn, Seungjoo Haam
Immobilizing enzymes on artificially fabricated carriers for their efficient use and easy removal from reactants has attracted enormous interest for decades. Specifically, binding platforms using inorganic nanoparticles have been widely explored because of the benefits of their large surface area, easy surface modification, and high stability in various pH and temperatures. Herein, we fabricated Fe3O4 encapsulated 'sea-urchin' shaped nickel-silicate nanoparticles with a facile synthetic route. The enzymes were then rapidly and easily immobilized with poly-histidine tags (His-tags) and nickel ion affinity...
December 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829352/short-tandem-repeats-segmental-duplications-gene-deletion-and-genomic-instability-in-a-rapidly-diversified-immune-gene-family
#17
Matan Oren, Megan A Barela Hudgell, Brian D'Allura, Jacob Agronin, Alexandra Gross, Daniele Podini, L Courtney Smith
BACKGROUND: Genomic regions with repetitive sequences are considered unstable and prone to swift DNA diversification processes. A highly diverse immune gene family of the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), called Sp185/333, is composed of clustered genes with similar sequence as well as several types of repeats ranging in size from short tandem repeats (STRs) to large segmental duplications. This repetitive structure may have been the basis for the incorrect assembly of this gene family in the sea urchin genome sequence...
November 9, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821266/effects-of-elevated-carbon-dioxide-on-contraction-force-and-proteome-composition-of-sea-urchin-tube-feet
#18
Nopparat Nasuchon, Katsuya Hirasaka, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Jiro Okada, Atsushi Ishimatsu
This study examined how contraction force and protein profiles of the tube feet of the sea urchin (Pseudocentrotus depressus) were affected when acclimated to 400 (control), 2000 and 10,000μatm CO2 for 48days. Acclimation to higher CO2 conditions significantly reduced contraction force of the tube feet. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that eight spots changed in protein volume: six up-regulated and two down-regulated. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-quadrupole ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry, three up-regulated spots (tubulin beta chain, tropomyosin fragment, and actin N-terminal fragment) and two down-regulated spots (actin C-terminal fragment and myosin light chain) were identified...
October 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813135/fuel-oil-and-dispersant-toxicity-to-the-antarctic-sea-urchin-sterechinus-neumayeri
#19
Frances J Alexander, Catherine K King, Amanda J Reichelt-Brushett, Peter L Harrison
The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution, however little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed and dispersant only water accommodated fractions of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS...
November 4, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810959/divergence-of-ectodermal-and-mesodermal-gene-regulatory-network-linkages-in-early-development-of-sea-urchins
#20
Eric M Erkenbrack
Developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are assemblages of gene regulatory interactions that direct ontogeny of animal body plans. Studies of GRNs operating in the early development of euechinoid sea urchins have revealed that little appreciable change has occurred since their divergence ∼90 million years ago (mya). These observations suggest that strong conservation of GRN architecture was maintained in early development of the sea urchin lineage. Testing whether this holds for all sea urchins necessitates comparative analyses of echinoid taxa that diverged deeper in geological time...
November 3, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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