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Sea urchin

Rosa Bonaventura, Francesca Zito, Marco Chiaramonte, Caterina Costa, Roberta Russo
Many industrial activities release Nickel (Ni) in the environment with harmful effects for terrestrial and marine organisms. Despite many studies on the mechanisms of Ni toxicity are available, the understanding about its toxic effects on marine organisms is more limited. We used Paracentrotus lividus as a model to analyze the effects on the stress pathways in embryos continuously exposed to different Ni doses, ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mM. We deeply examined the altered embryonic morphologies at 24 and 48 h after Ni exposure...
May 4, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Gaurav Jain, Martin Pendola, Eleni Koutsoumpeli, Steven D Johnson, John Spencer Evans
The formation of embryonic mineralized skeletal elements (spicules) in the sea urchin requires the participation of pro-teins, many of which may be interactive with one another and assist in the creation of an extracellular matrix wherein min-eral formation takes place. To probe this we created an in vitro sea urchin spicule recombinant model protein system wherein we tested the interactions between two major spic-ule proteins, SpSM50 and the glycoprotein, SpSM30B/C. Both proteins are strong hydrogelators which manipulate early and later events in mineral formation...
May 14, 2018: Biochemistry
Eliseba García, José Carlos Hernández, Sabrina Clemente
Ocean warming and acidification are the two most significant side effects of carbone dioxide emissions in the world's oceans. By changing water, temperature and pH are the main environmental factors controlling the distribution, physiology, morphology and behaviour of marine invertebrates. This study evaluated the combined effects of predicted high temperature levels, and predicted low pH values, on fertilization and early development stages of the sea urchins Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus, Sphaerechinus granularis and Diadema africanum...
April 25, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Eliseba García, Sabrina Clemente, José Carlos Hernández
One of the most important environmental factors controlling the distribution, physiology, morphology and behaviour of marine invertebrates is ocean pH. In the last decade, the effects of decreasing ocean pH as a result of climate change processes (i.e. ocean acidification) on marine organisms have been target of much research. However, the effects of natural pH variability in the species' niche have been largely neglected. Marine coastal habitats are characterized by a high environmental variability and, in some cases, organisms are already coping with pH values predicted by the end of the century...
April 25, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Qingsong Xu, Tong Huang, Shanlong Li, Ke Li, Chuanlong Li, Yannan Liu, Yuling Wang, Chunyang Yu, Yongfeng Zhou
Hierarchical solution self-assembly has nowadays become an important biomimetic method to prepare highly complex and multifunctional supramolecular structures. However, despites the great progress, it is still highly challenging to prepare hierarchical self-assemblies in a large scale since the self-assembly processes are generally performed at high dilution. Herein, we report an emulsion-assisted polymerization-induced self-assembly (EAPISA) method with the advantages of in-situ self-assembly process, scalable preparation and facile functionalization to prepare hierarchical multiscale sea urchin-like aggregates (SUAs)...
May 9, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Qi Chen, Junchao Shi, Yi Tao, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz
A fundamental question in developmental and stem cell biology concerns the origin and nature of signals that initiate asymmetry leading to pattern formation and self-organization. Instead of having prominent pre-patterning determinants as present in model organisms (worms, sea urchin, frog), we propose that the mammalian embryo takes advantage of more subtle cues such as compartmentalized intracellular reactions that generate micro-scale inhomogeneity, which is gradually amplified over several cellular generations to drive pattern formation while keeping developmental plasticity...
May 8, 2018: Nature Communications
John D Kirwan, Michael J Bok, Jochen Smolka, James J Foster, José Carlos Hernández, Dan-Eric Nilsson
Many sea urchins can detect light on their body surface and some species are reported to possess image-resolving vision. Here we measure the spatial resolution of vision in the long-spined sea urchin Diadema africanum , using two different visual responses: a taxis towards dark objects and an alarm response of spine-pointing towards looming stimuli. For the taxis response we used visual stimuli, which were isoluminant to the background, to discriminate spatial vision from phototaxis. Individual animals were placed in the centre of a cylindrical arena under bright down-welling light, with stimuli of varying angular width placed on the arena wall at pseudorandom directions from the centre...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Narimane Dorey, Sophie Martin, François Oberhänsli, Jean-Louis Teyssié, Ross Jeffree, Thomas Lacoue-Labarthe
The marine organisms which inhabit the coastline are exposed to a number of anthropogenic pressures that may interact. For instance, the accumulation of toxic metals present in coastal waters is expected to be modified by ocean acidification through e.g. changes in physiological performance and/or elements availability. Changes in bioaccumulation due to lowering pH are likely to be differently affected depending on the nature (essential vs. non-essential) and speciation of each element. The Mediterranean is of high concern for possible cumulative effects due to strong human influences on the coastline...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hung-Yen Chou, Cheng Man Lun, L Courtney Smith
The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, has a complex and robust immune system that is mediated by a number of multi-gene families including the SpTransformer (SpTrf) gene family (formerly Sp185/333). In response to immune challenge from bacteria and various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the SpTrf genes are up-regulated in sea urchin phagocytes and express a diverse array of SpTrf proteins. We show here that SpTrf proteins from coelomocytes and isolated by nickel affinity (cNi-SpTrf) bind to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and to Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with saturable kinetics and specificity...
2018: PloS One
Meina Duan, Deqi Xiong, Mengye Yang, Yijun Xiong, Guanghui Ding
The present study investigated the toxic effects of parental (maternal/paternal) exposure to heavy fuel oil (HFO) on the adult reproductive state, gamete quality and development of the offspring of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius. Adult sea urchins were exposed to effluents from HFO-oiled gravel columns for 7 days to simulate an oil-contaminated gravel shore, and then gametes of adult sea urchins were used to produce embryos to determine developmental toxicity. For adult sea urchins, no significant difference in the somatic size and weight was found between the various oil loadings tested, while the gonad weight and gonad index were significantly decreased at higher oil loadings...
May 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Andreas Rennhack, Christian Schiffer, Christoph Brenker, Dmitry Fridman, Elis T Nitao, Yi-Min Cheng, Lara Tamburrino, Melanie Balbach, Gabriel Stölting, Thomas K Berger, Michelina Kierzek, Luis Alvarez, Dagmar Wachten, Xu-Hui Zeng, Elisabetta Baldi, Stephen Publicover, U Benjamin Kaupp, Timo Strünker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sperm from many species share the sperm-specific Ca2+ channel CatSper (cation channel of sperm) that controls the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and, thereby, the swimming behaviour. A growing body of evidence suggests that the mechanisms controlling CatSper activity and the role of the channel during fertilization differ among species. However, a lack of suitable pharmacological tools has hampered the elucidation of the function of CatSper. Known CatSper inhibitors exhibit considerable side effects and inhibit also Slo3, the K+ channel in mammalian sperm...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Sean D Connell, Zoë A Doubleday, Nicole R Foster, Sarah B Hamlyn, Christopher D G Harley, Brian Helmuth, Brendan P Kelaher, Ivan Nagelkerken, Kirsten L Rodgers, Gianluca Sarà, Bayden D Russell
Ecologically dominant species often define ecosystem states, but as human disturbances intensify, their subordinate counterparts increasingly displace them. We consider the duality of disturbance by examining how environmental drivers can simultaneously act as a stressor to dominant species and as a resource to subordinates. Using a model ecosystem, we demonstrate that CO2 -driven interactions between species can account for such reversals in dominance; i.e., the displacement of dominants (kelp forests) by subordinates (turf algae)...
May 2018: Ecology
Marian Y Hu, Jia-Jiun Yan, Inga Petersen, Nina Himmerkus, Markus Bleich, Meike Stumpp
Efficient pH regulation is a fundamental requisite of all calcifying systems in animals and plants but with the underlying pH regulatory mechanisms remaining largely unknown. Using the sea urchin larva this work identified the SLC4 HCO3 - transporter family member SpSlc4a10 to be critically involved in the formation of an elaborate calcitic endoskeleton. SpSlc4a10 is specifically expressed by calcifying primary mesenchyme cells with peak expression during de novo formation of the skeleton. Knock-down of SpSlc4a10 led to pH regulatory defects accompanied by decreased calcification rates and skeleton deformations...
May 1, 2018: ELife
Kaili Wang, Chunjing Guo, Shaohua Zou, Yueming Yu, Xinxin Fan, Bingjie Wang, Mengna Liu, Lei Fang, Daquan Chen
To remedy the problems resulting from the usage of anti-cancer drugs in cancer chemotherapy, such as deficient drug concentration in tumour cells, low water-solubility and non-specific distribution of antitumour drugs, a kind of reduction-sensitive polymer prodrug of curcumin (Cur) containing in the nano-echinus was synthesized and designed. The nano-echinus-like nanomedicine presented synergistic effect with glycyrrhetic acid (GA) and oligomeric hyaluronic (HA) for targeting and combating HepG2 human liver cancer cell...
April 27, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Zhi-Kai Guo, Rong Wang, Shi-Quan Chen, Fu-Xiao Chen, Tian-Mi Liu, Ming-Qiu Yang
Four new 5-hydroxyanthranilic acid related compounds, named anthocidins A⁻D ( 1 ⁻ 4 ), two known analogues n -lauryl 5-hydroxyanthranilate ( 5 ) and isolauryl 5-hydroxyanthranilate ( 6 ), together with benzamide ( 7 ), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamamide ( 8 ), and (3 S - cis )-hexahydro-3-[(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2- a ]pyrazine-1,4-dione ( 9 ), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. HDa1, which was isolated from the gut of a sea urchin, Anthocidaris crassispina , collected from Hainan Island, China...
April 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jianfeng Lin, Daniela Nicastro
Motile cilia and flagella are essential, highly conserved organelles, and their motility is driven by the coordinated activities of multiple dynein isoforms. The prevailing "switch-point" hypothesis posits that dyneins are asymmetrically activated to drive flagellar bending. To test this model, we applied cryo-electron tomography to visualize activity states of individual dyneins relative to their locations along beating flagella of sea urchin sperm cells. As predicted, bending was generated by the asymmetric distribution of dynein activity on opposite sides of the flagellum...
April 27, 2018: Science
Charrid Resgalla, Marcus Vinícius Máximo, Mirella do Nascimento Brasil, Marcos Luiz Pessatti
The aim of this study was to improve the methodological procedure for the evaluation of sea urchin (Lytechinus variegatus) sperm sensitivity in MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) enzyme reduction assays with the formation of formazan (purple color) in the interior of viable cells. Assays were carried out with the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), copper, zinc, cadmium and ammonium, using a sperm solution previously activated in sea water and a sperm solution prepared in sea water containing 400 μg L-1 verapamil, which enabled activation of the sperm to occur only when exposed to the toxicants...
April 24, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Przemysław Gorzelak, Aurélie Dery, Philippe Dubois, Jarosław Stolarski
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12983-017-0227-8.].
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
S Ternengo, M Marengo, O El Idrissi, J Yepka, V Pasqualini, S Gobert
A study on Trace Elements (TE) from sea urchin gonads has been conducted in the western Mediterranean Sea. Contamination data were used to determine a Trace Method Pollution Index (TEPI). TE concentrations varied considerably depending on the location of the sampling stations. The results showed that five trace elements (Zn, Fe, As, Al, Cu) are ubiquitous. The geographical area considered (Corsica) represents an important range of environmental conditions and types of pressure that can be found in the western Mediterranean Sea...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Kevin W Conway, Andrew L Stewart, Adam P Summers
A new species of clingfish, Dellichthys trnskii sp. n. is described on the basis of 27 specimens, 11.9-46.0 mm SL, collected from intertidal and shallow coastal waters of New Zealand. It is distinguished from its only congener, D. morelandi Briggs, 1955 by characters of the cephalic sensory system and oral jaws, snout shape, and colouration in life. A rediagnosis is provided for D. morelandi , which is shown to exhibit sexual dimorphism in snout shape.
2018: ZooKeys
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