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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339742/slaf-based-high-density-genetic-map-construction-and-qtl-mapping-for-major-economic-traits-in-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-intermedius
#1
Yaqing Chang, Jun Ding, Yuhui Xu, Dan Li, Weijie Zhang, Lei Li, Jian Song
Sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) has long been a model species for developmental and evolutionary research, but only a few studies have focused on gene mapping. Here, we reported a high-density genetic map containing 4,387 polymorphism specific-length amplified fragment (SLAF) markers spanning 21 linkage groups (LG) for sea urchin. Based on this genetic map and phenotyping data for eight economic traits, 33 potentially significant QTLs were detected on ten different LGs with explanations ranging from 9...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338253/correction-to-highly-efficient-retention-of-polysulfides-in-sea-urchin-like-carbon-nanotube-nanopolyhedra-superstructures-as-cathode-material-for-ultralong-life-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#2
Tao Chen, Baorui Cheng, Guoyin Zhu, Renpeng Chen, Yi Hu, Lianbo Ma, Hongling Lv, Yanrong Wang, Jia Liang, Zuoxiu Tie, Zhong Jin, Jie Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331498/identification-of-neural-transcription-factors-required-for-the-differentiation-of-three-neuronal-subtypes-in-the-sea-urchin-embryo
#3
Leslie A Slota, David R McClay
Correct patterning of the nervous system is essential for an organism's survival and complex behavior. Embryologists have used the sea urchin as a model for decades, but our understanding of sea urchin nervous system patterning is incomplete. Previous histochemical studies identified multiple neurotransmitters in the pluteus larvae of several sea urchin species. However, little is known about how, where and when neural subtypes are differentially specified during development. Here, we examine the molecular mechanisms of neuronal subtype specification in 3 distinct neural subtypes in the Lytechinus variegatus larva...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298307/persistent-differences-between-coastal-and-offshore-kelp-forest-communities-in-a-warming-gulf-of-maine
#4
Jon D Witman, Robert W Lamb
Kelp forests provide important ecosystem services, yet coastal kelp communities are increasingly altered by anthropogenic impacts. Kelp forests in remote, offshore locations may provide an informative contrast due to reduced impacts from local stressors. We tested the hypothesis that shallow kelp assemblages (12-15 m depth) and associated fish and benthic communities in the coastal southwest Gulf of Maine (GOM) differed significantly from sites on Cashes Ledge, 145 km offshore by sampling five coastal and three offshore sites at 43...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281144/size-growth-and-density-data-for-shallow-water-sea-urchins-from-mexico-to-the-aleutian-islands-alaska-1956-2016
#5
Thomas A Ebert, Louis M Barr, James L Bodkin, Dirk Burcham, Dominique Bureau, Henry S Carson, Nancy L Caruso, Jennifer E Caselle, Jeremy T Claisse, Sabrina Clemente, Kathryn Davis, Paul M Detwiler, John D Dixon, David O Duggins, John M Engle, James A Estes, Scott D Groth, Benjamin M Grupe, Peter Halmay, Kyle P Hebert, José C Hernández, Laura J Jurgens, Peter E Kalvass, Michael C Kenner, Brenda Kenner, David J Kushner, Lynn C Lee, David L Leighton, Gabriela Montaño-Moctezuma, J Eric Munk, Irma Olguin, Julio S Palleiro, David O Parker, John S Pearse, Daniel J Pondella, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Stephen C Schroeter, A Ole Shelton, Jorge Sonnenholzner, Ian K Taniguchi, Glenn R VanBlaricom, Jane C Watson, Benjamin P Weitzman, Jonathan P Williams, Jennifer Yakimishyn, Zane Zhang
Size, growth, and density have been studied for North American Pacific coast sea urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, S. droebachiensis, S. polyacanthus, Mesocentrotus (Strongylocentrotus) franciscanus, Lytechinus pictus, Centrostephanus coronatus, and Arbacia stellata by various workers at diverse sites and for varying lengths of time from 1956 to present. Numerous peer-reviewed publications have used some of these data but some data have appeared only in graduate theses or the gray literature. There also are data that have never appeared outside original data sheets...
December 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259841/unraveling-the-structure-and-composition-of-varadero-reef-an-improbable-and-imperiled-coral-reef-in-the-colombian-caribbean
#6
Valeria Pizarro, Sara C Rodríguez, Mateo López-Victoria, Fernando A Zapata, Sven Zea, Claudia T Galindo-Martínez, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Joseph Pollock, Mónica Medina
Coral reefs are commonly associated with oligotrophic, well-illuminated waters. In 2013, a healthy coral reef was discovered in one of the least expected places within the Colombian Caribbean: at the entrance of Cartagena Bay, a highly-polluted system that receives industrial and sewage waste, as well as high sediment and freshwater loads from an outlet of the Magdalena River (the longest and most populated river basin in Colombia). Here we provide the first characterization of Varadero Reef's geomorphology and biological diversity...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259023/sophisticated-lessons-from-simple-organisms-appreciating-the-value-of-curiosity-driven-research
#7
REVIEW
Robert J Duronio, Patrick H O'Farrell, Greenfield Sluder, Tin Tin Su
For hundreds of years, biologists have studied accessible organisms such as garden peas, sea urchins collected at low tide, newt eggs, and flies circling rotten fruit. These organisms help us to understand the world around us, attracting and inspiring each new generation of biologists with the promise of mystery and discovery. Time and time again, what we learn from such simple organisms has emphasized our common biological origins by proving to be applicable to more complex organisms, including humans. Yet, biologists are increasingly being tasked with developing applications from the known, rather than being allowed to follow a path to discovery of the as yet unknown...
December 19, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249002/notch-mediated-lateral-inhibition-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanism-patterning-the-ectoderm-in-echinoids
#8
Eric M Erkenbrack
Notch signaling is a crucial cog in early development of euechinoid sea urchins, specifying both non-skeletogenic mesodermal lineages and serotonergic neurons in the apical neuroectoderm. Here, the spatial distributions and function of delta, gcm, and hesc, three genes critical to these processes in euechinoids, are examined in the distantly related cidaroid sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatial distribution and experimental perturbation of delta and hesc suggest that the function of Notch signaling in ectodermal patterning in early development of E...
December 16, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244565/do-sperm-really-compete-and-do-eggs-ever-have-a-choice-adult-distribution-and-gamete-mixing-influence-sexual-selection-sexual-conflict-and-the-evolution-of-gamete-recognition-proteins-in-the-sea
#9
Don R Levitan
The evolution of gametic compatibility and the effectiveness of compatibility, within and across species, depend on whether sperm from different males directly compete for an egg and whether eggs ever have a choice. Direct sperm competition and egg choice depend on whether sperm from different males arrive at an egg in the brief interval between first sperm contact and fertilization. Although this process may be relevant for all sexually reproducing organisms, it is most easily examined in aquatic external fertilizers...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229560/first-steps-towards-echinometra-lucunter-embryo-cryopreservation
#10
Marcella Bueno Ribeiro, Tatiana Furley, Flávia Regina Spago, Estefania Paredes
We have studied the sensitivity to cryoprotecting agents of different embryos of the local sea urchin, Echinometra lucunter which is the species used for embryo-larval bioassays in Brazil. We have located significant differences between both species sensitivity to cryoprotecting agents; while for P. lividus propylene glycol was the less toxic compound for most development stages, whereas for E. lucunter is was the most toxic and the least toxic was Dimethyl sulfoxide. There is a significant difference between development stages as well; in the case of P...
December 8, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212075/echinochrome-a-release-by-red-spherule-cells-is-an-iron-withholding-strategy-of-sea-urchin-innate-immunity
#11
Christopher J Coates, Claire McCulloch, Joshua Betts, Tim Whalley
Cellular immune defences in sea urchins are shared amongst the coelomocytes - a heterogeneous population of cells residing in the coelomic fluid (blood equivalent) and tissues. The most iconic coelomocyte morphotype is the red spherule cell (or amebocyte), so named due to the abundance of cytoplasmic vesicles containing the naphthoquinone pigment echinochrome A. Despite their identification over a century ago, and evidence of antiseptic properties, little progress has been made in characterising the immunocompetence of these cells...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209660/mesocrystalline-calcium-silicate-hydrate-a-bioinspired-route-toward-elastic-concrete-materials
#12
Andreas Picker, Luc Nicoleau, Zaklina Burghard, Joachim Bill, Igor Zlotnikov, Christophe Labbez, André Nonat, Helmut Cölfen
Calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the binder in concrete, the most used synthetic material in the world. The main weakness of concrete is the lack of elasticity and poor flexural strength considerably limiting its potential, making reinforcing steel constructions necessary. Although the properties of C-S-H could be significantly improved in organic hybrids, the full potential of this approach could not be reached because of the random C-S-H nanoplatelet structure. Taking inspiration from a sea urchin spine with highly ordered nanoparticles in the biomineral mesocrystal, we report a bioinspired route toward a C-S-H mesocrystal with highly aligned C-S-H nanoplatelets interspaced with a polymeric binder...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195184/bioaccumulation-of-persistent-and-emerging-pollutants-in-wild-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus
#13
A Cristina Rocha, Carolina Camacho, Ethel Eljarrat, Andrea Peris, Yann Aminot, James W Readman, Vasiliki Boti, Christina Nannou, António Marques, Maria Leonor Nunes, C Marisa Almeida
Marine pollution has been increasing as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. The preservation of marine ecosystems, as well as the safety of harvested seafood, are nowadays a global concern. Here, we report for the first time the contamination levels of a large set of 99 emerging and persistent organic contaminants (butyltins (BTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides including pyrethroids, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) and flame retardants) in roe/gonads of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus...
November 28, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187967/highly-contrasted-population-genetic-structures-in-a-host-parasite-pair-in-the-caribbean-sea
#14
Quentin Jossart, Chantal De Ridder, Harilaos A Lessios, Mathieu Bauwens, Sébastien Motreuil, Thierry Rigaud, Rémi A Wattier, Bruno David
Evolution and population genetic structure of marine species across the Caribbean Sea are shaped by two complex factors: the geological history and the present pattern of marine currents. Characterizing and comparing the genetic structures of codistributed species, such as host-parasite associations, allow discriminating the relative importance of environmental factors and life history traits that influenced gene flow and demographic events. Using microsatellite and Cytochrome Oxidase I markers, we investigated if a host-parasite pair (the heart urchin Meoma ventricosa and its parasitic pea crab Dissodactylus primitivus) exhibits comparable population genetic structures in the Caribbean Sea and how the observed patterns match connectivity regions from predictive models and other taxa...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186813/chemical-profiling-and-bioactivity-of-body-wall-lipids-from-strongylocentrotus-droebachiensis
#15
(no author information available yet)
The lipids from gonads and polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments from body walls of sea urchins are intensively studied. However, little is known about the body wall (BW) lipids. Ethanol extract (55 °C) contained about equal amounts of saturated (SaFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) representing 60% of total fatty acids, with myristic, palmitic and eicosenoic acids as major SaFAs and MUFAs, respectively. Non-methylene-interrupted dienes (13%) were composed of eicosadienoic and docosadienoic acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) included two main components, n6 arachidonic and n3 eicosapentaenoic acids, even with equal concentrations (15 μg/mg) and a balanced n6/n3 PUFA ratio (0...
November 24, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180717/three-year-monitoring-of-genetic-diversity-reveals-a-micro-connectivity-pattern-and-local-recruitment-in-the-broadcast-marine-species-paracentrotus-lividus
#16
Sylvain Couvray, Stéphane Coupé
In conservation and management of marine biological resources, a knowledge of connectivity is necessary to understand how local populations are naturally replenished by the arrival of new recruits from source populations. At small geographical scales, species experiencing moderate to long pelagic larval phases are mostly genetically homogeneous, which hinders inferences about local connectivity. Recent studies demonstrated that assessing genetic relatedness and kinship could provide information about local connectivity in populations with high levels of gene flow...
November 28, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178806/ligand-assisted-one-pot-synthesis-of-rh-on-cu-nanoscale-sea-urchins-with-high-density-interfaces-for-boosting-co-oxidation
#17
Wei Wang, Zhenming Cao, Kai Liu, Jiayu Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Shuifen Xie
Predictable synthesis of bimetallic nanocrystals with spatially controlled metal distributions offers a versatile route to the development of highly-efficient nanocatalysts. Here we report a one-pot synthesis of super branched Rh-on-Cu nanoscale sea urchins (Rh-Cu NSUrs) with a high density of Cu-Rh interfaces by manipulating the ligand coordination chemistry. Structural analysis and UV-vis spectra reveal that ascorbic acid can serve as a Rh-selective coordination ligand in the nonaqueous synthesis to reverse the reduction potentials of Rh3+ and Cu2+ cations...
November 27, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160892/growth-of-a-sea-urchin-like-rutile-tio2-hierarchical-microsphere-film-on-ti-foil-for-a-quasi-solid-state-dye-sensitized-solar-cell
#18
Jin Hyok Ri, Shufang Wu, Jingpeng Jin, Tianyou Peng
A sea urchin-like rutile TiO2 microsphere (RMS) film was fabricated on Ti foil via a hydrothermal process. The resulting rutile TiO2 hierarchical microspheres with a diameter of 5-6 μm are composed of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1-2 μm. The sea urchin-like hierarchical structure leads to the Ti foil-based RMS film possessing much better light-scattering capability in the visible region than the bare Ti foil. By using it as an underlayer of a nanosized anatase TiO2 film (bTPP3) derived from a commercially available paste (TPP3), the corresponding bilayer Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) only gives a conversion efficiency of 4...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156215/gadolinium-perturbs-expression-of-skeletogenic-genes-calcium-uptake-and-larval-development-in-phylogenetically-distant-sea-urchin-species
#19
Chiara Martino, Caterina Costa, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Demian Koop, Rosaria Scudiero, Maria Byrne
Chelates of Gadolinium (Gd), a lanthanide metal, are employed as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and are released into the aquatic environment where they are an emerging contaminant. We studied the effects of environmentally relevant Gd concentrations on the development of two phylogenetically and geographically distant sea urchin species: the Mediterranean Paracentrotus lividus and the Australian Heliocidaris tuberculata. We found a general delay of embryo development at 24h post-fertilization, and a strong inhibition of skeleton growth at 48h...
November 11, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154754/functional-divergence-of-paralogous-transcription-factors-supported-the-evolution-of-biomineralization-in-echinoderms
#20
Jian Ming Khor, Charles A Ettensohn
Alx1 is a pivotal transcription factor in a gene regulatory network that controls skeletogenesis throughout the echinoderm phylum. We performed a structure-function analysis of sea urchin Alx1 using a rescue assay and identified a novel, conserved motif (Domain 2) essential for skeletogenic function. The paralogue of Alx1, Alx4, was not functionally interchangeable with Alx1, but insertion of Domain 2 conferred robust skeletogenic function on Alx4. We used cross-species expression experiments to show that Alx1 proteins from distantly related echinoderms are not interchangeable, although the sequence and function of Domain 2 are highly conserved...
November 20, 2017: ELife
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