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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160892/growth-of-a-sea-urchin-like-rutile-tio2-hierarchical-microsphere-film-on-ti-foil-for-a-quasi-solid-state-dye-sensitized-solar-cell
#1
Jin Hyok Ri, Shufang Wu, Jingpeng Jin, Tianyou Peng
A sea urchin-like rutile TiO2 microsphere (RMS) film was fabricated on Ti foil via a hydrothermal process. The resulting rutile TiO2 hierarchical microspheres with a diameter of 5-6 μm are composed of nanorods with a diameter of ∼200 nm and a length of 1-2 μm. The sea urchin-like hierarchical structure leads to the Ti foil-based RMS film possessing much better light-scattering capability in the visible region than the bare Ti foil. By using it as an underlayer of a nanosized anatase TiO2 film (bTPP3) derived from a commercially available paste (TPP3), the corresponding bilayer Ti foil-based quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) only gives a conversion efficiency of 4...
November 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156215/gadolinium-perturbs-expression-of-skeletogenic-genes-calcium-uptake-and-larval-development-in-phylogenetically-distant-sea-urchin-species
#2
Chiara Martino, Caterina Costa, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Demian Koop, Rosaria Scudiero, Maria Byrne
Chelates of Gadolinium (Gd), a lanthanide metal, are employed as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging and are released into the aquatic environment where they are an emerging contaminant. We studied the effects of environmentally relevant Gd concentrations on the development of two phylogenetically and geographically distant sea urchin species: the Mediterranean Paracentrotus lividus and the Australian Heliocidaris tuberculata. We found a general delay of embryo development at 24h post-fertilization, and a strong inhibition of skeleton growth at 48h...
November 11, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154754/functional-divergence-of-paralogous-transcription-factors-supported-the-evolution-of-biomineralization-in-echinoderms
#3
Jian Ming Khor, Charles A Ettensohn
Alx1 is a pivotal transcription factor in a gene regulatory network that controls skeletogenesis throughout the echinoderm phylum. We performed a structure-function analysis of sea urchin Alx1 using a rescue assay and identified a novel, conserved motif (Domain 2) essential for skeletogenic function. The paralogue of Alx1, Alx4, was not functionally interchangeable with Alx1, but insertion of Domain 2 conferred robust skeletogenic function on Alx4. We used cross-species expression experiments to show that Alx1 proteins from distantly related echinoderms are not interchangeable, although the sequence and function of Domain 2 are highly conserved...
November 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146202/effects-of-polystyrene-microplastics-on-early-stages-of-two-marine-invertebrates-with-different-feeding-strategies
#4
Silvia Messinetti, Silvia Mercurio, Marco Parolini, Michela Sugni, Roberta Pennati
Nowadays, microplastics represent one of the main threats to marine ecosystems, being able to affect organisms at different stages of their life cycle and at different levels of the food web. Although the presence of plastic debris has been reported in different habitats and the ability to ingest it has been confirmed for different taxa, few studies have been performed to elucidate the effects on survival and development of marine animals. Thus, we explored the effects of different environmental concentrations of polystyrene microbeads on the early stages of two invertebrate species widespread in the Mediterranean shallow waters: the pelagic planktotrophic pluteus larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the filter-feeding sessile juveniles of the ascidian Ciona robusta...
November 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139539/an-empirical-model-of-onecut-binding-activity-at-the-sea-urchin-sm50-c-element-gene-regulatory-region
#5
Ochan Otim
Studying the formation of endoskeleton in many species is complex and difficult. The sea urchin embryo offers an unparalleled platform for understanding this process because of the ease with which its skeletogenic mesenchyme cells can be manipulated. In this study, preliminary evidence from biochemical studies towards understanding the role of the Onecut transcription factor during sea urchin skeletogenic mesenchyme cell specification is presented. Based on the evidence, an empirical model is proposed showing how Onecut, together with associated co-factors, may be using the C-element of the SM50 gene regulatory region in advance of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus spicule development...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136657/contrasts-in-the-marine-ecosystem-of-two-macaronesian-islands-a-comparison-between-the-remote-selvagens-reserve-and-madeira-island
#6
Alan M Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Sabrina Clemente, Emanuel J Gonçalves, Andrew Estep, Paul Rose, Enric Sala
The islands of Madeira and Selvagens are less than 300 km apart but offer a clear contrast between a densely populated and highly developed island (Madeira), and a largely uninhabited and remote archipelago (Selvagens) within Macaronesia in the eastern Atlantic. The Madeira Archipelago has ~260,000 inhabitants and receives over six million visitor days annually. The Selvagens Islands Reserve is one of the oldest nature reserves in Portugal and comprises two islands and several islets, including the surrounding shelf to a depth of 200 m...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134013/southern-ocean-echinoids-database-an-updated-version-of-antarctic-sub-antarctic-and-cold-temperate-echinoid-database
#7
Salomé Fabri-Ruiz, Thomas Saucède, Bruno Danis, Bruno David
This database includes over 7,100 georeferenced occurrence records of sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) obtained from samples collected in the Southern Ocean (+180°W/+180°E; -35°/-78°S) during oceanographic cruises led over 150 years, from 1872 to 2015. Echinoids are common organisms of Southern Ocean benthic communities. A total of 201 species is recorded, which display contrasting depth ranges and distribution patterns across austral provinces and bioregions. Echinoid species show various ecological traits including different nutrition and reproductive strategies...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129752/larval-development-of-the-symbiotic-pea-crab-pinnaxodes-chilensis-h-milne-edwards-1837-decapoda-brachyura-pinnotheridae-reared-in-laboratory
#8
M E Gonzalez-Canales, E Marco-Herrero, M Andreu-Cazenave, J I González-Gordillo
The complete larval development of Pinnaxodes chilensis (including four zoeal stages and a megalopa stage) is described and illustrated in detail for the first time. The descriptions are based on laboratory-reared larvae obtained from ovigerous females found inside specimens of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus collected in the coast of Valparaíso, Chile. In order to allow their correct differentiation of specimens from plankton samples, the larval stages of P. chilensis are compared with those from the other Pinnotheridae species whose larval development is known for the Chilean continental waters (Calyptraeotheres politus)...
November 9, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128602/developmental-effects-of-the-protein-kinase-inhibitor-kenpaullone-on-the-sea-urchin-embryo
#9
Letizia Anello, Vincenzo Cavalieri, Maria Di Bernardo
The selection and validation of bioactive compounds require multiple approaches, including in-depth analyses of their biological activity in a whole-animal context. We exploited the sea urchin embryo in a rapid, medium-scale range screening to test the effects of the small synthetic kinase inhibitor kenpaullone. We show that sea urchin embryos specifically respond to this molecule depending on both dose and timing of administration. Phenotypic effects of kenpaullone are not immediately visible, since this molecule affects neither the fertilization nor the spatial arrangement of blastomeres at early developmental stages...
November 10, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122841/hh-gene-participates-in-the-left-right-asymmetry-development-of-amphioxus-by-controlling-cer-expression
#10
Guangwei Hu, Guang Li, Hui Wang, Yiquan Wang
Correct patterning of left-right asymmetry is an important process during the embryonic development of bilaterians. It is known that Hh signaling plays a role in LR asymmetry development of mouse, chicken and sea urchin embryos by regulating Nodal expression. In this study, we reported a novel regulating way of Hh gene in the LR asymmetry development of amphioxus embryos. Our results revealed that Hh(-/-) embryos abolished Cerburs (Cer) transcription and led to bilaterally symmetric expression of Nodal, Lefty and Pitx As a consequence, Hh(-/-) mutants duplicated its left-side structures and lost right-side characters displaying an abnormal bilaterally symmetric body plan...
November 9, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122244/bloom-dynamics-and-chemical-defenses-of-benthic-cyanobacteria-in-the-indian-river-lagoon-florida
#11
Jennifer M Sneed, Theresa Meickle, Niclas Engene, Sherry Reed, Sarath Gunasekera, Valerie J Paul
Cyanobacterial blooms are predicted to become more prominent in the future as a result of increasing seawater temperatures and the continued addition of nutrients to coastal waters. Many benthic marine cyanobacteria have potent chemical defenses that protect them from top down pressures and contribute to the persistence of blooms. Blooms of benthic cyanobacteria have been observed along the coast of Florida and within the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), a biodiverse estuary system that spans 250km along Florida's east coast...
November 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119723/tick-attachment-cement%C3%A2-%C3%A2-reviewing-the-mysteries-of-a-biological-skin-plug-system
#12
Johannes Suppan, Benedikt Engel, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann, Sylvia Nürnberger
The majority of ticks in the family Ixodidae secrete a substance anchoring their mouthparts to the host skin. This substance is termed cement. It has adhesive properties and seals the lesion during feeding. The particular chemical composition and the curing process of the cement are unclear. This review summarizes the literature, starting with a historical overview, briefly introducing the different hypotheses on the origin of the adhesive and how the tick salivary glands have been identified as its source...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116345/phylogeny-and-antagonistic-activities-of-culturable-bacteria-associated-with-the-gut-microbiota-of-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus
#13
Marinella Silva Laport, Mathieu Bauwens, Marie Collard, Isabelle George
In this study, we have investigated the phylogeny and the antagonistic interactions of culturable bacteria isolated from the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus collected from Aber and Morgat, both located in Crozon peninsula, France. Bacteria were isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ten specimens by using conventional culture-dependent method and then investigated by using phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. Assays for antagonistic interactions among the bacterial strains were performed; bacteria (including at least one strain representative of each OTU identified) were screened for antimicrobial substance production...
November 7, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109720/an-organismal-model-for-gene-regulatory-networks-in-the-gut-associated-immune-response
#14
REVIEW
Katherine M Buckley, Jonathan P Rast
The gut epithelium is an ancient site of complex communication between the animal immune system and the microbial world. While elements of self-non-self receptors and effector mechanisms differ greatly among animal phyla, some aspects of recognition, regulation, and response are broadly conserved. A gene regulatory network (GRN) approach provides a means to investigate the nature of this conservation and divergence even as more peripheral functional details remain incompletely understood. The sea urchin embryo is an unparalleled experimental model for detangling the GRNs that govern embryonic development...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108811/the-antimicrobial-effect-of-cen1hc-br-against-propionibacterium-acnes-and-its-therapeutic-and-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-acne-vulgaris
#15
Rui Han, Hans-Matti Blencke, Hao Cheng, Chun Li
Propionibacterium acnes is a commensal bacterium, which is involved in acne inflammation. An antimicrobial peptide named CEN1HC-Br, which was isolated and characterized form the green sea urchin, has been shown to possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Little is known concerning the potential effects of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties against P. acnes. To examine the potency of CEN1HC-Br in acne treatment, we conducted experiments to analyze the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of CEN1HC-Br both in vitro and in vivo...
November 3, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103926/cryopreservation-extending-the-viability-of-biological-material-from-sea-urchin-echinometra-lucunter-in-ecotoxicity-tests
#16
Raphaela Cantarino Ribeiro, Alexandra Caroline da Silva Veronez, Thaís Tristão Tovar, Serean Adams, Dayse Aline Bartolomeu, Clayton Peronico, Tatiana Heid Furley
The sea urchin, Echinometra lucunter, is widely used in embryo-larval tests for ecotoxicological studies in Brazil and other countries. For each test, sea urchins are collected from the wild and this can cause impact on wild populations and it is limited by the weather and season which in turn limits the ability to carry out the tests. Cryopreservation is a method of live biological material storage at low temperature and can be used for long periods with little decline in viability, reducing the number of animals taken from the wild and enabling testing to be carried out on demand, irrespective of spawning season or location...
November 7, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102626/unveiling-the-structure-of-sulfated-fucose-rich-polysaccharides-via-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#17
REVIEW
Paulo As Mourão, Eduardo Vilanova, Paulo Ag Soares
Sulfated fucans from marine invertebrates are composed of regular repetitive fucose building-blocks with sulfation patterns differing in a species-specific manner. These polysaccharides can act as mediators of the acrosome reaction of sea-urchins or play a structural role in the body-wall of sea-cucumbers. Other fucose-rich polysaccharides found in the body-wall of sea-cucumbers are the fucosylated chondroitin sulfates composed of a vertebrate-like chondroitin sulfate decorated with species-specific fucose branches...
November 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101620/the-role-of-circadian-rhythm-and-environmental-factors-in-the-regulation-of-sea-urchin-spawning
#18
P M Zhadan, M A Vaschenko, S D Ryazanov
Simultaneous video recording of the sea urchin spawning behavior and recording of environmental factors enabled us to found synergism of the effects of circadian rhythm and phytoplankton on the spawning activity of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (Agassiz, 1864).
September 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098682/relation-of-nodal-expression-to-the-specification-of-the-dorsal-ventral-axis-and-tissue-patterning-in-the-starfish-patiria-pectinifera
#19
Hiroki Sasaki, Tetsuya Kominami
In this study, we attempted to reveal fundamental aspects of starfish embryogenesis, particularly embryonic axis specification or determination, in Patiria pectinifera. We first cloned PpNodal, which is known to play an important role in the specification of the embryonic axis in a wide range of animals, and studied its expression profile. PpNodal expression was first detected at the mid-blastula stage and showed a single peak around the onset of gastrulation. These features of Nodal expression were shifted to later stages by several hours, compared with those of sea urchin embryos...
November 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093995/novel-mesostructured-inclusions-in-the-epidermal-lining-of-artemia-franciscana-ovisacs-show-optical-activity
#20
Elena Hollergschwandtner, Thomas Schwaha, Josef Neumüller, Ulrich Kaindl, Daniela Gruber, Margret Eckhard, Michael Stöger-Pollach, Siegfried Reipert
Background: Biomineralization, e.g., in sea urchins or mollusks, includes the assembly of mesoscopic superstructures from inorganic crystalline components and biopolymers. The resulting mesocrystals inspire biophysicists and material scientists alike, because of their extraordinary physical properties. Current efforts to replicate mesocrystal synthesis in vitro require understanding the principles of their self-assembly in vivo. One question, not addressed so far, is whether intracellular crystals of proteins can assemble with biopolymers into functional mesocrystal-like structures...
2017: PeerJ
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