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Sea urchin

Rocío Jiménez-Ramos, Luis G Egea, María J Ortega, Ignacio Hernández, Juan J Vergara, Fernando G Brun
Global change, such as warming and ocean acidification, and local anthropogenic disturbances, such as eutrophication, can have profound impacts on marine organisms. However, we are far from being able to predict the outcome of multiple interacting disturbances on seagrass communities. Herbivores are key in determining plant community structure and the transfer of energy up the food web. Global and local disturbances may alter the ecological role of herbivory by modifying leaf palatability (i.e. leaf traits) and consequently, the feeding patterns of herbivores...
2017: PloS One
Peter Kitzmann, Matthias Weißkopf, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Gregor Bucher
Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum ortholog of foxQ2 (Tc-foxQ2) as a novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression...
August 15, 2017: Development
Maria Almonacid, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-centre nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Cinzia Corinaldesi, Elisabetta Damiani, Francesca Marcellini, Carla Falugi, Luca Tiano, Francesca Brugè, Roberto Danovaro
Marine ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the release of personal care products. Among them, sunscreens are causing concern either for the effects on skin protection from UV radiation and for the potential impacts on marine life. Here, we assessed the UVA protective efficacy of three sunscreens on human dermal fibroblasts, including two common products in Europe and USA, and an eco-friendly product. The sunscreens' effects were also tested on Paracentrotus lividus, a marine species possibly threatened by these contaminants...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Asuteka Nagao, Mitsuhiro Ohara, Kenjyo Miyauchi, Shin-Ichi Yokobori, Akihiko Yamagishi, Kimitsuna Watanabe, Tsutomu Suzuki
The genetic code is not frozen but still evolving, which can result in the acquisition of 'dialectal' codons that deviate from the universal genetic code. RNA modifications in the anticodon region of tRNAs play a critical role in establishing such non-universal genetic codes. In echinoderm mitochondria, the AAA codon specifies asparagine instead of lysine. By analyzing mitochondrial (mt-) tRNA(Lys) isolated from the sea urchin (Mesocentrotus nudus), we discovered a novel modified nucleoside, hydroxy-N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ht(6)A), 3' adjacent to the anticodon (position 37)...
August 7, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Christopher E Killian, Fred H Wilt
The sea urchin larval embryo elaborates two calcitic endoskeletal elements called spicules. Spicules are synthesized by the primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and begin to form at early gastrula stage. It is known that the calcium comprising the spicules comes from the seawater and we wish to further consider the mode of calcium transport from the extracellular seawater to the PMCs and then onto the forming spicules. We used PMC in vitro cultures, calcein, fluorescently labeled dextran, and fluorescently labeled Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA) to track calcium transport from the seawater into PMCs and spicules and to determine how molecules from the surface of PMCs interact with the incoming calcium...
August 3, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
Assaf Malik, Tsvia Gildor, Noa Sher, Majed Layous, Smadar Ben-Tabou de-Leon
Embryonic development evolves by balancing stringent morphological constraints with genetic and environmental variation. The design principle that allows developmental transcriptional programs to conserve embryonic morphology while adapting to environmental changes is still not fully understood. To address this fundamental challenge, we compare developmental transcriptomes of two sea urchin species, Paracentrotus lividus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, that shared a common ancestor about 40 million years ago and are geographically distant yet show similar morphology...
August 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
Dongwei Hou, Guoping Zhang, Rohit Raj Pant, Jack S Shen, Mingming Liu, Hao Luo
Ternary clay-based composite material (TCC), composed of lime, clay and sand, and usually modified with sticky rice and other organic compounds as additives, was widely used historically in Chinese construction and buildings due to its high mechanical performance. In this study, to gain an insight into the micromechanical mechanism of this cementitious material, the nanomechanical properties and volume fraction of mechanically different phases of the binder matrix are derived from the analysis of grid nanoindentation tests...
October 26, 2016: Materials
Hideyuki Tominaga, Mamiko Hirose, Hikaru Igarashi, Masato Kiyomoto, Miéko Komatsu
We describe a new species of sexually dimorphic brittle star, Ophiodaphne spinosa, from Japan associated with the irregular sea urchin, Clypeaster japonicus based on its external morphology, and phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I). Females of this new species of Ophiodaphne are characterized mainly by the presence of wavy grooves on the surface of the radial shields, needle-like thorns on the oral skeletal jaw structures, and a low length-to-width ratio of the jaw angle in comparison with those of type specimens of its Ophiodaphne congeners: O...
August 2017: Zoological Science
Eric M Strohm, Lauren A Wirtzfeld, Gregory J Czarnota, Michael C Kolios
High frequency ultrasound backscatter signals from sea urchin oocytes were measured using a 40 MHz transducer and compared to numerical simulations. The Faran scattering model was used to calculate the ultrasound scattered from single oocytes in suspension. The urchin oocytes are non-nucleated with uniform size and biomechanical properties; the backscatter from each cell is similar and easy to simulate, unlike typical nucleated mammalian cells. The time domain signal measured from single oocytes in suspension showed two distinct peaks, and the power spectrum was periodic with minima spaced approximately 10 MHz apart...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Marlies Monnens, Tom Artois, Maarten P M Vanhove
Specimens of Syndesmis aethopharynx Westervelt & Kozloff, 1990 (Umagillidae, Rhabdocoela, Platyhelminthes) were collected from the intestine of several specimens of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck ) Hansson, 2001 at the Greek coast. This represents the first report of a species of Syndesmis from Greece. Our study has revealed several previously-unreported morphological details and intraspecific variation, which are added to the species description. The position of S. aethopharynx within Umagillidae is confirmed for the first time through molecular data (based on nuclear 18S rDNA), using both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses...
July 25, 2017: Parasitology International
Roberta Sanna, Silvia Siliani, Riccardo Melis, Barbara Loi, Maura Baroli, Tonina Roggio, Sergio Uzzau, Roberto Anedda
A detailed characterization of lipid extracts from gonads of P. lividus over a year has been performed combining GC and NMR measurements. For this purpose, sea urchins from two different Sardinian coastal areas were collected monthly. The results underlined a correlation between gonad fatty acids profiles and both water temperature and reproduction process. In particular, EPA and ARA appear to be the most altered fatty acids following seasonal changes. It is suggested that EPA could represent a biomarker of reproduction, reaching a content around 14% during gametogenesis, mainly due to an increase of the sn-1,3 position in TAGs...
July 8, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Chisato Kitazawa, Michihiro Nakano, Tadashi Yamaguchi, Chisato Miyahara, Akira Yamanaka
Many sea urchins, including the strongylocentroid Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, produce an amniotic cavity on the left for adult rudiment formation at the late larval stage. In contrast, temnopleurids form a cell mass at the early larval stage instead of an amniotic cavity. Although the mechanisms establishing left-right polarity of the amniotic cavity involve cell-cell interactions and signaling pathways, corresponding pathways for the cell mass are unknown. We analyzed the effects of blastomere isolation on the specification of larval axes in the temnopleurid Temnopleurus toreumaticus and compared them to those in H...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
Peter Kitzmann, Matthias Weißkopf, Magdalena Ines Schacht, Gregor Bucher
Anterior patterning of animals is based on a set of highly conserved transcription factors but the interactions within the protostome anterior gene regulatory network (aGRN) remain enigmatic. Here, we identify the foxQ2 ortholog of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum as novel upstream component of the aGRN. It is required for the development of the labrum and higher order brain structures, namely the central complex and the mushroom bodies. We reveal Tc-foxQ2 interactions by RNAi and heat shock-mediated misexpression...
July 25, 2017: Development
Jesus Valcarcel, Ramón Novoa-Carballal, Ricardo Pérez-Martín, Rui L Reis, José Antonio Vázquez
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in marine animals are different to those of terrestrial organisms, mainly in terms of molecular weight and sulfation. The therapeutic properties of GAGs are related to their ability to interact with proteins, which is very much influenced by sulfation position and patterns. Since currently GAGs cannot be chemically synthesized, they are sourced from natural products, with high intra- but also inter-species variability, in terms of chain length, disaccharide composition and sulfation pattern...
July 21, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Yong Ma, Juan Yang, Yukun Yuan, Hua Zhao, Qian Shi, Fangjuan Zhang, Cuijin Pei, Bin Liu, Heqing Yang
Network structures assembled from -Fe2O3 nanosheets with exposed {104} facets were successfully prepared by heating Fe(NO3)3 solution containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in air. The -Fe2O3 nanosheets based network structures demonstrate significantly higher response to ethanol and triethylamine than -Fe2O3 sea urchin-like nanostructures and commercial powders. The response to 200 ppb of C2H5OH and 90 ppb of N(C2H5)3 is 1.27 and 1.12, respectively. The excellent sensing performances can be ascribed to the exposed (104) facet terminated with Fe atoms...
July 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kord M Kober, Grant H Pogson
BACKGROUND: Comparative genomics studies investigating the signals of positive selection among groups of closely related species are still rare and limited in taxonomic breadth. Such studies show great promise in advancing our knowledge about the proportion and the identity of genes experiencing diversifying selection. However, methodological challenges have led to high levels of false positives in past studies. Here, we use the well-annotated genome of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, as a reference to investigate the signals of positive selection at 6520 single-copy orthologs from nine sea urchin species belonging to the family Strongylocentrotidae paying careful attention to minimizing false positives...
July 21, 2017: BMC Genomics
Fabrizio Gianni, Fabrizio Bartolini, Alexis Pey, Mathieu Laurent, Gustavo M Martins, Laura Airoldi, Luisa Mangialajo
Canopy-forming algae are declining globally due to multiple disturbances. This decline has recently been on the increase due to the spread of some tropical herbivorous fishes. This new phenomenon has drawn attention to the effects of fish herbivory in temperate areas, which have been assumed to be negligible compared to that of invertebrates, such as sea urchins. In this study, the impact of a Mediterranean native herbivorous fish (Sarpa salpa, salema) was assessed on the canopy-forming seaweed Cystoseira amentacea var...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Omri Bronstein, Andreas Kroh, Barbara Tautscher, Libby Liggins, Elisabeth Haring
Tripneustes is one of the most abundant and ecologically significant tropical echinoids. Highly valued for its gonads, wild populations of Tripneustes are commercially exploited and cultivated stocks are a prime target for the fisheries and aquaculture industry. Here we examine Tripneustes from the Kermadec Islands, a remote chain of volcanic islands in the southwest Pacific Ocean that mark the boundary of the genus' range, by combining morphological and genetic analyses, using two mitochondrial (COI and the Control Region), and one nuclear (bindin) marker...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Marco Trifuoggi, Giovanni Pagano, Marco Guida, Anna Palumbo, Antonietta Siciliano, Maria Gravina, Daniel M Lyons, Petra Burić, Maja Levak, Philippe J Thomas, Antonella Giarra, Rahime Oral
The widespread use of rare earth elements (REEs) in a number of technological applications raises unanswered questions related to REE-associated adverse effects. We have previously reported on the multiple impact of some REEs on the early life stages of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The present investigation was to evaluate REE toxicity to early life stages in two unrelated sea urchin species, Sphaerechinus granularis and Arbacia lixula. The comparative toxicities were tested of seven REEs, namely yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, europium and gadolinium as chloride salts at concentrations ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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