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Sea urchin

Robert J Miller, Kevin D Lafferty, Thomas Lamy, Li Kui, Andrew Rassweiler, Daniel C Reed
Foundation species define the ecosystems they live in, but ecologists have often characterized dominant plants as foundational without supporting evidence. Giant kelp has long been considered a marine foundation species due to its complex structure and high productivity; however, there is little quantitative evidence to evaluate this. Here, we apply structural equation modelling to a 15-year time series of reef community data to evaluate how giant kelp affects the reef community. Although species richness was positively associated with giant kelp biomass, most direct paths did not involve giant kelp...
March 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Stefano D'Errico, Nicola Borbone, Bruno Catalanotti, Agnese Secondo, Tiziana Petrozziello, Ilaria Piccialli, Anna Pannaccione, Valeria Costantino, Luciano Mayol, Gennaro Piccialli, Giorgia Oliviero
Herein, we reported on the synthesis of cpIPP, which is a new structurally-reduced analogue of cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a potent Ca2+ -releasing secondary messenger that was firstly isolated from sea urchin eggs extracts. To obtain cpIPP the "northern" ribose of cADPR was replaced by a pentyl chain and the pyrophosphate moiety by a phophono-phosphate anhydride. The effect of the presence of the new phosphono-phosphate bridge on the intracellular Ca2+ release induced by cpIPP was assessed in PC12 neuronal cells in comparison with the effect of the pyrophosphate bridge of the structurally related cyclic N1-butylinosine diphosphate analogue (cbIDP), which was previously synthesized in our laboratories, and with that of the linear precursor of cpIPP, which, unexpectedly, revealed to be the only one provided with Ca2+ release properties...
March 10, 2018: Marine Drugs
Sonoko Kinjo, Masato Kiyomoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Kazuho Ikeo, Shunsuke Yaguchi
To understand the mystery of life, it is important to accumulate genomic information for various organisms because the whole genome encodes the commands for all the genes. Since the genome of Strongylocentrotus purpratus was sequenced in 2006 as the first sequenced genome in echinoderms, the genomic resources of other North American sea urchins have gradually been accumulated, but no sea urchin genomes are available in other areas, where many scientists have used the local species and reported important results...
March 13, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Jinjin Zhu, Alison Ordway, Lena Weber, Kasun Buddika, Justin P Kumar
How different cells and tissues commit and determine their fates has been a central question in developmental biology since the seminal embryological experiments conducted by Wilhelm Roux and Hans Driesch in sea urchins and frogs. Here, we demonstrate that Polycomb group (PcG) proteins maintain Drosophila eye specification by suppressing the activation of alternative fate choices. The loss of PcG in the developing eye results in a cellular reprogramming event in which the eye is redirected to a wing fate. This fate transformation occurs with either the individual loss of Pc or the simultaneous reduction of PhoRC and Pax6...
March 12, 2018: Development
Matthew Osse, Jean-François Hamel, Annie Mercier
In spite of increasing naval activities and petroleum exploration in cold environments, there is currently a paucity of tools available to monitor oil contamination in boreal marine life, especially in sedentary (non-fish) species that dominate benthic communities. This research aimed to identify biotic sources of variation in biomarkers using subarctic echinoderms, and to identify suitable biomarkers of their exposure to hydrocarbons. The focal species included the sea star Asterias rubens, the brittle star Ophiopholis aculeata, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, which are among the most abundant echinoderms in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans...
March 9, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Olga Vladimirovna Ezhova, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Malakhov, Ekaterina Alekseevna Egorova
Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Na Li, Deli Lu, Jinlong Zhang, Lingzhi Wang
Yolk-shell structured C@Li4 Ti5 O12 microspheres composed of carbon core (ca. 500 nm) and sea urchin-like Li4 Ti5 O12 shell (ca. 400-500 nm) are formed by hydrothermally treating the core-shell structured C@TiO2 in the EtOH/H2 O solution of LiOH and calcining it in N2 atmosphere. Yolk-shell structured TiO2 -type lithium ion sieve is further transformed from C@Li4 Ti5 O12 through the acid treatment, which have a high specific surface area of 201.74 m2 /g. The composite shows adsorption capacity towards Li+ proportional to the pH value in the range of 7-13...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Felipe C O B Teixeira, Eliene Oliveira Kozlowski, Kayene Vitória de A Micheli, Ana Cristina E S Vilela-Silva, Lubor Borsig, Mauro S G Pavão
Metastasis is responsible for the majority of cancer-associated deaths, though only a very small number of tumor cells are able to efficiently complete all the steps of that process. Tumor cell survival in the bloodstream is one of the limiting aspects of the metastatic cascade. The formation of tumor cell-platelet complexes that promote tumor cell survival is facilitated by the binding of P-selectin on activated platelets to sialyl Lewis-containing oligosaccharides on the surface of tumor cells. Inhibition of this interaction has been shown to attenuate metastasis...
March 7, 2018: Glycobiology
Tyler J Carrier, Adam M Reitzel
Morphological plasticity is a genotype-by-environment interaction that enables organisms to increase fitness across varying environments. Symbioses with diverse microbiota may aid in acclimating to this variation, but whether the associated bacteria community is phenotype specific remains understudied. Here we induce morphological plasticity in three species of sea urchin larvae and measure changes in the associated bacterial community. While each host species has unique bacterial communities, the expression of plasticity results in the convergence on a phenotype-specific microbiome that is, in part, driven by differential association with α- and γ-proteobacteria...
March 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Keegan Lutek, Rasmeet Singh Dhaliwal, Terence J Van Raay, Andreas Heyland
Settlement is a rapid process in many marine invertebrate species, transitioning a planktonic larva into a benthic juvenile. In indirectly developing sea urchins, this ecological transition correlates with a morphological, developmental and physiological transition (metamorphosis) during which apoptosis is essential for the resorption and remodelling of larval and juvenile structures. While settlement is initiated by environmental cues (i.e. habitat-specific or benthic substrate cues), metamorphosis is regulated by developmental endocrine signals, such as histamine (HA), thyroid hormones (THs) and nitric oxide (NO)...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amelia E Fowles, Rick D Stuart-Smith, Nicole A Hill, Russell J Thomson, Elisabeth M A Strain, Timothy J Alexander, James Kirkpatrick, Graham J Edgar
Macroalgal beds provide important habitat structure and support primary production for rocky reef communities, but are increasingly degraded as a result of human pressures. Various sources of pollution can have both direct and interactive effects on stressed ecosystems. In particular, interactions involving invertebrate grazers could potentially weaken or strengthen the overall impact of pollution on macroalgal beds. Using a paired impact-control experimental design, we tested the effects of multiple pollution sources (fish farms, marinas, sewerage, and stormwater) on translocated and locally established algal assemblages, while also considering the influence of invertebrate grazers...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Maria Gravina, Giovanni Pagano, Rahime Oral, Marco Guida, Maria Toscanesi, Antonietta Siciliano, Aldo Di Nunzio, Petra Burić, Daniel M Lyons, Philippe J Thomas, Marco Trifuoggi
Heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) were tested for adverse effects to early life stages of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis. Embryos were exposed to analytically measured HREE concentrations ranging from 10-7 to 10-5  M. No significant developmental defect (DD) increases were observed in embryos exposed to 10-7  M HREEs, whereas 10-5  M HREEs resulted in significant DD increase up to 96% for HoCl3 versus 14% in controls. Embryos exposed to 10-6  M HREEs showed the highest DD frequency in embryos exposed to 10-6  M DyCl3 and HoCl3 ...
March 2, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
David V Dylus, Anna Czarkwiani, Liisa M Blowes, Maurice R Elphick, Paola Oliveri
BACKGROUND: Amongst the echinoderms the class Ophiuroidea is of particular interest for its phylogenetic position, ecological importance and developmental and regenerative biology. However, compared to other echinoderms, notably echinoids (sea urchins), relatively little is known about developmental changes in gene expression in ophiuroids. To address this issue, we have generated and assembled a large RNAseq data set of four key stages of development in the brittle star Amphiura filiformis and a de novo reference transcriptome of comparable quality to that of a model echinoderm-the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus...
February 28, 2018: Genome Biology
Evgeniya Anishchenko, Maria Ina Arnone, Salvatore D'Aniello
Background: Current studies in evolutionary developmental biology are focused on the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks in target animal species. From decades, the scientific interest on genetic mechanisms orchestrating embryos development has been increasing in consequence to the fact that common features shared by evolutionarily distant phyla are being clarified. In 2011, a study across eumetazoan species showed for the first time the existence of a highly conserved non-coding element controlling the SoxB2 gene, which is involved in the early specification of the nervous system...
2018: EvoDevo
Wei-Yu Chen, Hsing-Chieh Lin
Growing evidence indicates that ocean acidification has a significant impact on calcifying marine organisms. However, there is a lack of exposure risk assessments for aquatic organisms under future environmentally relevant ocean acidification scenarios. The objective of this study was to investigate the probabilistic effects of acidified seawater on the life-stage response dynamics of fertilization, larvae growth, and larvae mortality of the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis). We incorporated the regulation of primary body cavity (PBC) pH in response to seawater pH into the assessment by constructing an explicit model to assess effective life-stage response dynamics to seawater or PBC pH levels...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Veronica F Hinman, Robert D Burke
The phylogenetic position of echinoderms is well suited to revealing shared features of deuterostomes that distinguish them from other bilaterians. Although echinoderm neurobiology remains understudied, genomic resources, molecular methods, and systems approaches have enabled progress in understanding mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis. Even though the morphology of echinoderm larvae is diverse, larval nervous systems, which arise during gastrulation, have numerous similarities in their organization. Diverse neural subtypes and specialized sensory neurons have been identified and details of neuroanatomy using neuron-specific labels provide hypotheses for neural function...
February 22, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Michael P Russell, Victoria K Gibbs, Emily Duwan
Sea urchins are dominant members of rocky temperate reefs around the world. They often occur in cavities within the rock, and fit so tightly, it is natural to assume they sculpted these "pits." However, there are no experimental data demonstrating they bore pits. If they do, what are the rates and consequences of bioerosion to nearshore systems? We sampled purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from sites with four rock types, three sedimentary (two sandstones and one mudstone) and one metamorphic (granite)...
2018: PloS One
Adriano Magesky, Émilien Pelletier
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) incorporation in commercial products is increasing due to their remarkable physical and chemical properties and their low cost on the market. Silver has been known for a long time to be highly toxic to bacterial communities, aquatic organisms, and particularly to marine biota. Strong chloro-complexes dominate Ag speciation in seawater and facilitate its persistence in dissolved form. It has a great impact on marine organisms because low concentration of silver can lead to strong bioaccumulation, partly because the neutral silver chloro complex (AgCl 0 ) is highly bioavailable...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ulrich Scheer
Eric Davidson once wrote about Theodor Boveri: "From his own researches, and perhaps most important, his generalized interpretations, derive the paradigms that underlie modern inquiries into the genomic basis of embryogenesis" (Davidson, 1985). As luck would have it, the "primary data" of Boveri's experimental work, namely the microscope slides prepared by him and his wife Marcella during several stays at the Zoological Station in Naples (1901/02, 1911/12 and 1914), have survived at the University of Würzburg...
February 6, 2018: Marine Genomics
Francisca I Cavaleiro, Duarte G Frade, Luís F Rangel, Maria J Santos
Syndesmis François, 1886 is a genus of umagillid turbellarians comprising species which are typically endosymbionts of echinoids, i.e. sea urchins. This group is likely key in addressing the issue of transition between a free-living and a parasitic mode of life in the Platyhelminthes. Accordingly, its phylogeny should be considered for detailed analysis, namely by addressing molecular evidence for its different species. At the present time, a revisitation of Syndesmis is required and fully justified by the following lines of argument: (i) the body of knowledge on Syndesmis is large, but the information is scattered through many different works in the literature; (ii) for about 60 years, it was a common practice to assign the umagillids isolated from sea urchins as a single species, i...
February 8, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
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