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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331584/sensitivity-of-sea-urchin-fertilization-to-ph-varies-across-a-natural-ph-mosaic
#1
Lydia Kapsenberg, Daniel K Okamoto, Jessica M Dutton, Gretchen E Hofmann
In the coastal ocean, temporal fluctuations in pH vary dramatically across biogeographic ranges. How such spatial differences in pH variability regimes might shape ocean acidification resistance in marine species remains unknown. We assessed the pH sensitivity of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in the context of ocean pH variability. Using unique male-female pairs, originating from three sites with similar mean pH but different variability and frequency of low pH (pHT ≤ 7.8) exposures, fertilization was tested across a range of pH (pHT 7...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330920/immanent-conditions-determine-imminent-collapses-nutrient-regimes-define-the-resilience-of-macroalgal-communities
#2
Jordi Boada, Rohan Arthur, David Alonso, Jordi F Pagès, Albert Pessarrodona, Silvia Oliva, Giulia Ceccherelli, Luigi Piazzi, Javier Romero, Teresa Alcoverro
Predicting where state-changing thresholds lie can be inherently complex in ecosystems characterized by nonlinear dynamics. Unpacking the mechanisms underlying these transitions can help considerably reduce this unpredictability. We used empirical observations, field and laboratory experiments, and mathematical models to examine how differences in nutrient regimes mediate the capacity of macrophyte communities to sustain sea urchin grazing. In relatively nutrient-rich conditions, macrophyte systems were more resilient to grazing, shifting to barrens beyond 1 800 g m(-2) (urchin biomass), more than twice the threshold of nutrient-poor conditions...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299647/runx-in-invertebrates
#3
S Hughes, A Woollard
Runx genes have been identified in all metazoans and considerable conservation of function observed across a wide range of phyla. Thus, insight gained from studying simple model organisms is invaluable in understanding RUNX biology in higher animals. Consequently, this chapter will focus on the Runx genes in the diploblasts, which includes sea anemones and sponges, as well as the lower triploblasts, including the sea urchin, nematode, planaria and insect. Due to the high degree of functional redundancy amongst vertebrate Runx genes, simpler model organisms with a solo Runx gene, like C...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295836/profiling-n-glycans-of-the-egg-jelly-coat-of-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus-by-maldi-tof-mass-spectrometry-and-capillary-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-ion-trap-tandem-mass-spectrometry-systems
#4
Umut Şahar, Remziye Deveci
Sea urchin eggs are surrounded by a carbohydrate-rich layer, termed the jelly coat, that consists of polysaccharides and glycoproteins. In the present study, we describe two mass spectrometric strategies to characterize the N-glycosylation of the Paracentrotus lividus egg jelly coat, which has an alecithal-type extracellular matrix like mammalian eggs. Egg jelly was isolated, lyophilized, and dialysed, followed by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase-F) treatment to release N-glycans from their protein chain. These N-glycans were then derivatized by permethylation reaction, and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and capillary liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-ion trap tandem mass spectroscopy (CapLC ESI-Ion trap-MS/MS)...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289567/hard-time-to-be-parents-sea-urchin-fishery-shifts-potential-reproductive-contribution-of-population-onto-the-shoulders-of-the-young-adults
#5
Barbara Loi, Ivan Guala, Rodrigo Pires da Silva, Gianni Brundu, Maura Baroli, Simone Farina
BACKGROUND: In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm) seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287557/the-power-of-simplicity-sea-urchin-embryos-as-in-vivo-developmental-models-for-studying-complex-cell-to-cell-signaling-network-interactions
#6
Ryan C Range, Marina Martinez-Bartolomé, Stephanie D Burr
Remarkably few cell-to-cell signal transduction pathways are necessary during embryonic development to generate the large variety of cell types and tissues in the adult body form. Yet, each year more components of individual signaling pathways are discovered, and studies indicate that depending on the context there is significant cross-talk among most of these pathways. This complexity makes studying cell-to-cell signaling in any in vivo developmental model system a difficult task. In addition, efficient functional analyses are required to characterize molecules associated with signaling pathways identified from the large data sets generated by next generation differential screens...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281073/using-early-life-stages-of-marine-animals-to-screen-the-toxicity-of-priority-hazardous-and-noxious-substances
#7
Isabel Cunha, Tiago Torres, Helena Oliveira, Rosário Martins, Thomas McGowan, David Sheahan, Miguel Machado Santos
This study provides toxicity values for early life stages (ELS) of two phylogenetically distinct marine animal taxa, the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), a deuterostome invertebrate, and the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a vertebrate (teleost), when challenged by six hazardous and noxious substances (HNS): aniline, butyl acrylate, m-cresol, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane and trichloroethylene. The aim of the study was to provide preliminary information on toxic effects of representative and relevant priority HNS to assess the risk posed by spills to marine habitats and therefore improve preparedness and the response at the operational level...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280559/marine-soundscape-shaped-by-fishing-activity
#8
Laura Coquereau, Julie Lossent, Jacques Grall, Laurent Chauvaud
Marine communities face anthropogenic pressures that degrade ecosystems. Because underwater soundscapes carry information about habitat quality, we explored whether destructive impacts of fishing could be evaluated via the soundscape. Maerl beds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots and they experience major worldwide degradation owing to fishing. We collected field acoustic recordings in maerl beds exposed to different fishing practices. We found that unfished maerl beds were threefold louder and exhibited sound frequencies more diversified than those recorded in fished maerl beds...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278669/comparative-stability-of-dimeric-and-monomeric-pigments-extracted-from-sea-urchin-strongylocentrotus-droebachiensis
#9
Alexander N Shikov, Vladimir I Ossipov, Maarit Karonen, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Anna S Krishtopina, Valery G Makarov
Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and UPLC-DAD-MS were used for analysis of stability of ethanol solutions of ethylidene-6,6'-bis(2,3,7-trihydroxynaphthazarin) (ENZ), spinochrome dimer (SDM) and spinochrome D (SD) that were isolated from Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. In the freshly prepared solution, the concentration of ENZ at pH 6.0 was at 6 fold less comparing to pH 1.6. The increase of pH up to 4.0 resulted to increase of SD concentration and to decrease of SDM concentration. After 48 h storage, both dimers showed the highest stability at pH 1...
February 15, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274294/mitochondria-during-sea-urchin-oogenesis
#10
Maria Agnello, Maria Carmela Roccheri, Giovanni Morici, Anna Maria Rinaldi
Sea urchin represents an ideal model for studies on fertilization and early development, but the achievement of egg competence and mitochondrial behaviour during oogenesis remain to be enlightened. Oocytes of echinoid, such as sea urchin, unlike other echinoderms and other systems, complete meiotic maturation before fertilization. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, contain a multi-copy of the maternally inherited genome, and are involved directly at several levels in the reproductive processes, as their functional status influences the quality of oocytes and contributes to fertilization and embryogenesis...
March 9, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272398/troponin-i-is-present-as-an-essential-component-of-muscles-in-echinoderm-larvae
#11
Shunsuke Yaguchi, Junko Yaguchi, Hiroyuki Tanaka
The troponin complex, composed of Troponin-I, Troponin-T and Troponin-C, is an essential mediator of the contraction of striated muscle downstream of calcium signaling in almost all bilaterians. However, in echinoderms and hemichordates, collectively termed Ambulacraria, the components of the troponin complex have never been isolated, thus suggesting that these organisms lost the troponin system during evolution. Here, by analyzing genomic information from sea urchins, we identify the troponin-I gene and isolate its complete mRNA sequence...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267915/ocean-acidification-reduces-spine-mechanical-strength-in-euechinoid-but-not-in-cidaroid-sea-urchins
#12
Aurélie Dery, Marie Collard, Philippe Dubois
Echinoderms are considered as particularly sensitive to ocean acidification (OA) as their skeleton is made of high-magnesium calcite, one of the most soluble forms of calcium carbonate. Recent studies have investigated effects of OA on the skeleton of "classical" sea urchins (euechinoids) but the impact of etching on skeleton mechanical properties is almost unknown. Furthermore, the integrity of the skeleton of cidaroids has never been assessed although their extracellular fluid is undersaturated with respect to their skeleton and the skeleton of their primary spines is in direct contact with seawater...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252933/lightweight-open-cell-scaffolds-from-sea-urchin-spines-with-superior-material-properties-for-bone-defect-repair
#13
Lei Cao, Xiaokang Li, Xiaoshu Zhou, Yong Li, Kenneth S Vecchio, Lina Yang, Wei Cui, Rui Yang, Yue Zhu, Zheng Guo, Xing Zhang
Sea urchin spines (Heterocentrotus mammillatus), with a hierarchical open-cell structure similar to that of human trabecular bone and superior mechanical property (compressive strength ∼43.4 MPa) suitable for machining to shape, were explored for potential applications of bone defect repair. Finite element analyses reveal that the compressive stress concentrates along the dense growth rings and dissipates through strut structures of the stereoms, indicating that the exquisite mesostructures play an important role in high strength-to-weight ratios...
March 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242650/multitasking-immune-sp185-333-protein-rsptransformer-e1-and-its-recombinant-fragments-undergo-secondary-structural-transformation-upon-binding-targets
#14
Cheng Man Lun, Barney M Bishop, L Courtney Smith
The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, expresses a diverse immune response protein family called Sp185/333. A recombinant Sp185/333 protein, previously called rSp0032, shows multitasking antipathogen binding ability, suggesting that the protein family mediates a flexible and effective immune response to multiple foreign cells. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that rSp0032 is intrinsically disordered, and its multiple binding characteristic suggests structural flexibility to adopt different conformations depending on the characteristics of the target...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236114/methyl-triclosan-and-triclosan-impact-embryonic-development-of-danio-rerio-and-paracentrotus-lividus
#15
Sofia Macedo, Tiago Torres, Miguel M Santos
The presence of emerging pollutants in the environment is of major concern not only because of the potential negative impact in human health, but also due to the potential toxicity to non-target organisms. Within the personal and care products (PCPs), the disinfectant Triclosan (TCS) is one of the most concerning compounds. Once in the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), a small part of TCS can be biotransformed into a more persistent by-product: methyl-triclosan (M-TCS). Although several studies have focused on the occurrence of this compound in the water systems, the information on its toxicity to aquatic organisms is very limited...
February 24, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235822/transient-translational-quiescence-in-primordial-germ-cells
#16
Nathalie Oulhen, S Zachary Swartz, Jessica Laird, Alexandra Mascaro, Gary Wessel
Stem cells in animals often exhibit a slow cell cycle and/or low transcriptional activity referred to as quiescence. Here we report that the translational activity in the primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the sea urchin embryo (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) is quiescent. We measured new protein synthesis with O-propargyl-puromycin, and L-homopropargylglycine, Click-iT technologies and determined that these cells synthesize protein at only 6% the level of their adjacent somatic cells. Knock-down of translation of the RNA-binding protein Nanos2 by morpholino anti-sense oligonucleotides, or knock-out of the Nanos2 gene by CRISPR/Cas9 resulted in a significant, but partial increase (47%) in general translation specifically in the PGCs...
February 24, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231142/a-rapid-colorimetric-method-reveals-fraudulent-substitutions-in-sea-urchin-roe-marketed-in-sardinia-italy
#17
Domenico Meloni, Antonio Spina, Gianluca Satta, Vittorio Chessa
In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk...
June 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222923/consumption-of-aquaculture-waste-affects-the-fatty-acid-metabolism-of-a-benthic-invertebrate
#18
Camille A White, Raymond J Bannister, Symon A Dworjanyn, Vivian Husa, Peter D Nichols, Tina Kutti, Tim Dempster
Trophic subsidies can drive widespread ecological change, thus knowledge of how keystone species respond to subsidies is important. Aquaculture of large carnivorous fish generates substantial waste as faeces and lost feed, providing a food source to mobile benthic invertebrates. We used a controlled feeding study combined with a field survey to better understand the interaction between salmon aquaculture and the sea urchin, Echinus acutus, a dominant mobile invertebrate in Norwegian fjords. We tested if diets affected urchin fatty acid composition by feeding them one of three diet treatments ("aquafeed", "composite" and "natural") for 10weeks...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215340/quantitative-approaches-for-the-study-of-microtubule-aster-motion-in-large-eggs
#19
H Tanimoto, N Minc
The proper positioning of microtubule (MT) asters underlies fundamental processes such as nuclear centration, cell polarity, division positioning, and embryogenesis. In large eggs and early blastomeres, MT asters may exhibit long range motions with atypical speed and precision to target their functional position. The biophysical mechanisms regulating such motions remain however largely unknown. The centration of sperm asters in sea urchin embryos is a stereotypical example of such aster long range motion. In this chapter, we describe methods developed in this system to (1) quantify sperm aster 3-D motion with confocal microscopy and automated image analysis and (2) severe a portion of astral MTs with a UV laser...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199408/high-quality-rna-extraction-from-the-sea-urchin-paracentrotus-lividus-embryos
#20
Nadia Ruocco, Susan Costantini, Valerio Zupo, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora, Angelo Fontana, Maria Costantini
The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) is a keystone herbivore in the Mediterranean Sea due to its ability to transform macroalgal-dominated communities into barren areas characterized by increased cover of bare substrates and encrusting coralline algae, reduced biodiversity and altered ecosystem functions. P. lividus is also an excellent animal model for toxicology, physiology and biology investigations having been used for more than a century as a model for embryological studies with synchronously developing embryos which are easy to manipulate and analyze for morphological aberrations...
2017: PloS One
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