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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617778/scaling-up-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevention-for-adolescents-and-young-adult-men-a-modeling-analysis-of-implementation-and-impact-in-selected-countries
#1
Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Marjorie Opuni, Melissa Schnure, Michel Tchuenche, Peter Stegman, Elizabeth Gold, Valerian Kiggundu, Nida Parks, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Maria Carrasco, Katharine Kripke
Background: The new World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS strategic framework for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) aims to increase VMMC coverage among males aged 10-29 years in priority settings to 90% by 2021. We use mathematical modeling to assess the likelihood that selected countries will achieve this objective, given their historical VMMC progress and current implementation options. Methods: We use the Decision Makers' Program Planning Toolkit, version 2, to examine 4 ambitious but feasible scenarios for scaling up VMMC coverage from 2017 through 2021, inclusive in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe...
April 3, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615387/strengthening-routine-data-systems-to-track-the-hiv-epidemic-and-guide-the-response-in-sub-saharan-africa
#2
Brian Rice, Andrew Boulle, Stefan Baral, Matthias Egger, Paul Mee, Elizabeth Fearon, Georges Reniers, Jim Todd, Sandra Schwarcz, Sharon Weir, George Rutherford, James Hargreaves
The global HIV response has entered a new phase with the recommendation of treating all persons living with HIV with antiretroviral therapy, and with the goals of reducing new infections and AIDS-related deaths to fewer than 500,000 by 2020. This new phase has intensive data requirements that will need to utilize routine data collected through service delivery platforms to monitor progress toward these goals. With a focus on sub-Saharan African, we present the following priorities to improve the demand, supply, and use of routine HIV data: (1) strengthening patient-level HIV data systems that support continuity of clinical care and document sentinel events; (2) leveraging data from HIV testing programs; (3) using targeting data collection in communities and among clients; and (4) building capacity and promoting a culture of HIV data quality assessment and use...
April 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610394/bloom-syndrome-research-and-data-priorities-for-the-development-of-precision-medicine-as-identified-by-some-affected-families
#3
Mary Beth Campbell, Wesley C Campbell, James Rogers, Natalie Rogers, Zachary Rogers, Anne Marie van den Hurk, Annie Webb, Talon Webb, Paul Zaslaw
Bloom syndrome (BS) is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by short stature, a skin rash associated with sun exposure, and an elevated likelihood of developing cancers of essentially all types, beginning at an early age. Cancer is the leading cause of death for persons with BS, and its early onset results in a reported median lifespan of <30 years. With fewer than 300 documented cases since BS was first described in 1954, its rarity has challenged progress in advancing both the care of and the cure for persons with BS...
April 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595596/accredited-health-department-partnerships-to-improve-health-an-analysis-of-community-health-assessments-and-improvement-plans
#4
Jessica Kronstadt, Chinecherem Chime, Bulbul Bhattacharya, Nicole Pettenati
CONTEXT: The Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) Standards & Measures require the development and updating of collaborative community health assessments (CHAs) and community health improvement plans (CHIPs). OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to analyze the CHAs and CHIPs of PHAB-accredited health departments to identify the types of partners engaged, as well as the objectives selected to measure progress toward improving community health. DESIGN: The study team extracted and coded data from documents from 158 CHA/CHIP processes submitted as part of the accreditation process...
May 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531291/arterial-stiffness-in-end-stage-renal-disease-pathogenesis-clinical-epidemiology-and-therapeutic-potentials
#5
REVIEW
Panagiotis I Georgianos, Maria I Pikilidou, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Elias V Balaskas, Pantelis E Zebekakis
Arterial stiffness is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Arterial stiffness aggravates cardiovascular risk via multiple pathways, such as augmentation of aortic systolic pressure, subendocardial hypoperfusion, and excess pulsatile energy transmission from macro- to microcirculation. Pathogenesis of the arteriosclerotic process in ESRD is complex and not yet fully understood. Several factors unique to ESRD, such as mineral metabolism disturbances, vascular calcifications, formation of advanced glycation end-products, and acute and chronic volume overload, are proposed to play a particular role in the progression of arteriosclerosis in ESRD...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508669/networks-as-systems
#6
Allan Best, Alex Berland, Trisha Greenhalgh, Ivy L Bourgeault, Jessie E Saul, Brittany Barker
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a case study of the World Health Organization's Global Healthcare Workforce Alliance (GHWA). Based on a commissioned evaluation of GHWA, it applies network theory and key concepts from systems thinking to explore network emergence, effectiveness, and evolution to over a ten-year period. The research was designed to provide high-level strategic guidance for further evolution of global governance in human resources for health (HRH). Design/methodology/approach Methods included a review of published literature on HRH governance and current practice in the field and an in-depth case study whose main data sources were relevant GHWA background documents and key informant interviews with GHWA leaders, staff, and stakeholders...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506363/-varicella-vaccination-scientific-reasons-for-a-different-strategic-approach
#7
Alberto Donzelli, Vittorio Demicheli
The Italian Parliament has recently introduced 10 mandatory immunisations, including the one against varicella. For this vaccination, the obligation starts with the birth cohort of 2017, but it is offered free of charge to subjects with a negative history and not previously vaccinated. This paper presents up-to-date evidence on this issue and illustrates a number of critical arguments that may question the opportunity of this choice. Particularly, while the disease is relatively mild in children aged between 1 and 9 years, the risk of worsening its consequences is progressive with age, becoming worst in the elderly, so the vaccination of children may increase the age of the cases...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506256/society-of-behavioral-medicine-sbm-position-statement-increasing-funding-for-the-nih-obssr-to-promote-timely-and-effective-behavioral-medicine-research
#8
Rachel A Millstein, Lisa M Quintiliani, Angela L Sharpe
Chronic diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. Most chronic diseases have behavioral risk factors that can improve health and quality of life and reduce financial burdens. Improved methods of measurement and behavioral interventions are rapidly progressing. These changes require sufficient funding to maximize effectiveness. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) helps to coordinate and support behavioral and social science research initiatives that are designed to promote public health and reduce chronic disease burden throughout the NIH...
March 1, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506129/a-universal-influenza-vaccine-the-strategic-plan-for-the-national-institute-of-allergy-and-infectious-diseases
#9
Emily J Erbelding, Diane Post, Erik Stemmy, Paul C Roberts, Alison Deckhut Augustine, Stacy Ferguson, Catharine I Paules, Barney S Graham, Anthony S Fauci
A priority for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is development of an influenza vaccine providing durable protection against multiple influenza strains, including those that may cause a pandemic, i.e., a universal influenza vaccine. To invigorate research efforts, NIAID developed a strategic plan focused on knowledge gaps in three major research areas, as well as additional resources required to ensure progress towards a universal influenza vaccine. NIAID will use this plan as a foundation for future investments in influenza research and will support and coordinate a consortium of multidisciplinary scientists focused on accelerating progress towards this goal...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503460/protected-area-connectivity-shortfalls-in-global-targets-and-country-level-priorities
#10
Santiago Saura, Bastian Bertzky, Lucy Bastin, Luca Battistella, Andrea Mandrici, Grégoire Dubois
Connectivity of protected areas (PAs) is crucial for meeting their conservation goals. We provide the first global evaluation of countries' progress towards Aichi Target 11 of the Convention on Biological Diversity that is to have at least 17% of the land covered by well-connected PA systems by 2020. We quantify how well the terrestrial PA systems of countries are designed to promote connectivity, using the Protected Connected (ProtConn) indicator. We refine ProtConn to focus on the part of PA connectivity that is in the power of a country to influence, i...
March 2018: Biological Conservation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493362/the-state-of-the-science-on-integrating-palliative-care-in-heart-failure
#11
Laura P Gelfman, Marie Bakitas, Lynne Warner Stevenson, James N Kirkpatrick, Nathan E Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a chronic progressive illness associated with physical and psychological burdens, high morbidity, mortality, and healthcare utilization. Palliative care is interdisciplinary care that aims to relieve suffering and improve quality of life for persons with serious illness and their families. It is offered simultaneously with disease-oriented care, unlike hospice or end-of-life care. Despite the demonstrated benefits of palliative care in other populations, evidence for palliative care in the HF population is limited...
June 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480729/development-of-health-research-structures-over-the-last-25-years-main-achievements-and-challenges
#12
Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Bagher Talei, Farzaneh Barhemmat, Fatemeh Mohammadali Khalaj, Hamideh Heydari, Hossein Zokaei, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Asghar Ebadifar
BACKGROUND: In 1990, one of the most important strategies of supporting and managing reproductive research focused on development of research structures. This targeted vision, at the first step, mainly followed through creating research units. The present paper aims to explore the policies and strategies of medical research centers (MRCs)development, and its achievements and challenges over the last 25 years. METHODS: Based on expected outcomes of better directions of research activities aligned with the priorities and policies of research, the Deputy of Research and Technology of Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME), initiated the set up and development of research units...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475439/malaria-training-for-community-health-workers-in-the-setting-of-elimination-a-qualitative-study-from-china
#13
Guangyu Lu, Yaobao Liu, Jinsong Wang, Xiangming Li, Xing Liu, Claudia Beiersmann, Yu Feng, Jun Cao, Olaf Müller
BACKGROUND: Continuous training of health workers is a key intervention to maintain their good performance and keep their vigilance during malaria elimination programmes. However, countries progressing toward malaria elimination have a largely decreased malaria disease burden, less frequent exposure of health workers to malaria patients, and new challenges in the epidemiology of the remaining malaria cases. Moreover, competing health priorities and usually a decline in resources and in political commitment also pose challenges to the elimination programme...
February 23, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429363/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-chronic-migraine-in-children
#14
Marco Antônio Arruda, Camila Flaksberg Chevis, Marcelo Eduardo Bigal
Migraine is a chronic-recurrent disorder that progresses in some adults and also in many children. Chronic migraine (CM) is the clinical result of this process. Since migraine does not progress in most children, identifying the risk factors for progression is an important public health priority that should be matched by evidence-based treatment. Areas covered: Herein we conduct a systematic review on the comorbidities and treatment of CM in children and adolescents in the last ten years, summarizing evidence-based recommendations for disease management...
March 2018: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427488/global-epidemiology-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-what-we-need-in-the-future
#15
REVIEW
Ana Ruth Araújo, Natalia Rosso, Giorgio Bedogni, Claudio Tiribelli, Stefano Bellentani
The estimated prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) worldwide is approximately 25%. However, the real prevalence of NAFLD and the associated disorders is unknown mainly because reliable and applicable diagnostic tests are lacking. This is further complicated by the lack of consensus on the terminology of different entities such as NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although assessing fatty infiltration in the liver is simple by ultrasound, the gold standard for the assessment of fibrosis, the only marker of progression towards more severe liver disease is still liver biopsy...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390863/a-civic-engagement-approach-to-encourage-healthy-eating-and-active-living-in-rural-towns-the-heart-club-pilot-project
#16
Rebecca A Seguin, Urshila Sriram, Leah M Connor, Ashley E Silver, Beining Niu, Alexis N Bartholomew
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a civic engagement curriculum (encouraging Healthy Eating and Activity in Rural Towns [HEART] Club) designed to engage rural residents in improving their local food or physical activity environment. DESIGN: Pre-post surveys and focus groups. SETTING: Three rural Northeastern towns in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six rural residents (7-12 per town) recruited by local extension educators...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378667/saving-lives-at-birth-development-of-a-retrospective-theory-of-change-impact-framework-and-prioritised-metrics
#17
Marek Lalli, Harriet Ruysen, Hannah Blencowe, Kristen Yee, Karen Clune, Mary DeSilva, Marissa Leffler, Emily Hillman, Haitham El-Noush, Jo Mulligan, Jeffrey C Murray, Karlee Silver, Joy E Lawn
BACKGROUND: Grand Challenges for international health and development initiatives have received substantial funding to tackle unsolved problems; however, evidence of their effectiveness in achieving change is lacking. A theory of change may provide a useful tool to track progress towards desired outcomes. The Saving Lives at Birth partnership aims to address inequities in maternal-newborn survival through the provision of strategic investments for the development, testing and transition-to-scale of ground-breaking prevention and treatment approaches with the potential to leapfrog conventional healthcare approaches in low resource settings...
January 29, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302865/global-polio-eradication-way-ahead
#18
Sunil Bahl, Pankaj Bhatnagar, Roland W Sutter, Sigrun Roesel, Michel Zaffran
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Although substantial progress was achieved by 2000, global polio eradication proved elusive. In India, the goal was accomplished in 2011, and the entire South-East Asia Region was certified as polio-free in 2014. The year 2016 marks the lowest wild poliovirus type 1 case count ever, the lowest number of polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan), the maintenance of wild poliovirus type 2 eradication, and the continued absence of wild poliovirus type 3 detection since 2012...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297390/methodology-for-a-mixed-methods-multi-country-study-to-assess-recognition-of-and-response-to-maternal-and-newborn-illness
#19
Allisyn C Moran, Danielle Charlet, Supriya Madhavan, Kumudha Aruldas, Marie Donaldson, Fatuma Manzi, Monica Okuga, Alfonso Rosales, Vandana Sharma, Michael Celone, Neal Brandes, James M Sherry
BACKGROUND: Although maternal and newborn mortality have decreased 44 and 46% respectively between 1990 and 2015, achievement of ambitious Sustainable Development Goal targets requires accelerated progress. Mortality reduction requires a renewed focus on the continuum of maternal and newborn care from the household to the health facility. Although barriers to accessing skilled care are documented for specific contexts, there is a lack of systematic evidence on how women and families identify maternal and newborn illness and make decisions and subsequent care-seeking patterns...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237794/recommendations-of-the-global-multiple-system-atrophy-research-roadmap-meeting
#20
REVIEW
Ryan R Walsh, Florian Krismer, Wendy R Galpern, Gregor K Wenning, Phillip A Low, Glenda Halliday, Walter J Koroshetz, Janice Holton, Niall P Quinn, Olivier Rascol, Leslie M Shaw, David Eidelberg, Pam Bower, Jeffrey L Cummings, Victor Abler, Judy Biedenharn, Gal Bitan, David J Brooks, Patrik Brundin, Hubert Fernandez, Philip Fortier, Roy Freeman, Thomas Gasser, Art Hewitt, Günter U Höglinger, Matt J Huentelman, Poul H Jensen, Andreas Jeromin, Un Jung Kang, Horacio Kaufmann, Lawrence Kellerman, Vikram Khurana, Thomas Klockgether, Woojin Scott Kim, Carol Langer, Peter LeWitt, Eliezer Masliah, Wassilios Meissner, Ronald Melki, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Steven Piantadosi, Werner Poewe, David Robertson, Cyndi Roemer, Dale Schenk, Michael Schlossmacher, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Klaus Seppi, Lily Shih, Andrew Siderowf, Glenn T Stebbins, Nadia Stefanova, Shoji Tsuji, Sharon Sutton, Jing Zhang
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with substantial knowledge gaps despite recent gains in basic and clinical research. In order to make further advances, concerted international collaboration is vital. In 2014, an international meeting involving leaders in the field and MSA advocacy groups was convened in Las Vegas, Nevada, to identify critical research areas where consensus and progress was needed to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Eight topic areas were defined: pathogenesis, preclinical modeling, target identification, endophenotyping, clinical measures, imaging biomarkers, nonimaging biomarkers, treatments/trial designs, and patient advocacy...
January 9, 2018: Neurology
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