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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634460/children-s-self-regulation-in-cultural-contexts-the-role-of-parental-socialization-theories-goals-and-practices
#1
REVIEW
Jorge M Jaramillo, María I Rendón, Lorena Muñoz, Mirjam Weis, Gisela Trommsdorff
Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children's self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634444/experience-dependency-of-reliance-on-local-visual-and-idiothetic-cues-for-spatial-representations-created-in-the-absence-of-distal-information
#2
Fabian Draht, Sijie Zhang, Abdelrahman Rayan, Fabian Schönfeld, Laurenz Wiskott, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634265/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-coregulators-as-mediators-of-mineralocorticoid-receptor-signalling-diversity
#3
REVIEW
Peter J Fuller, Jun Yang, Morag J Young
The cloning of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) 30 years ago was the start of a new era of research into the regulatory processes of MR signalling at target genes in the distal nephron, and subsequently in many other tissues. Nuclear receptor (NR) signalling is modified by interactions with coregulatory proteins that serve to enhance or inhibit the gene transcriptional responses. Over 400 coregulatory proteins have been described for the NR super family, many with functional roles in signalling, cellular function, physiology and pathophysiology...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633960/effect-of-stimulus-level-on-the-temporal-response-properties-of-the-auditory-nerve-in-cochlear-implants
#4
Michelle L Hughes, Sarah A Laurello
Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) have been used to examine temporal response patterns of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. ECAP responses to individual pulses in a pulse train vary across stimulation rates for individual CI users. For very slow rates, auditory neurons have ample time to discharge, recover, and respond to each pulse in the train. As the pulse rate increases, an alternating ECAP-amplitude pattern occurs. As the stimulation rate increases further, the alternating pattern eventually ceases and the overall ECAP amplitudes are diminished, yielding a relatively stochastic state that presumably reflects a combination of adaptation, desynchronization, and facilitation across fibers...
June 13, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633164/ann-prediction-of-ligament-stiffnesses-for-the-enhanced-predictive-ability-of-a-patient-specific-computational-foot-ankle-model
#5
Ruchi Chande, Jennifer S Wayne
Computational models of diarthrodial joints serve to inform the biomechanical function of these structures, and as such, must be supplied appropriate inputs for performance that is representative of actual joint function. Inputs for these models are sourced from both imaging modalities as well as literature. The latter is often the source of mechanical properties for soft tissues, like ligament stiffnesses; however, such data is not always available for all soft tissues nor is it known for patient specific work...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633144/standardized-renal-endpoints-for-perioperative-clinical-trials-the-standardized-endpoints-in-perioperative-medicine-initiative
#6
David R McIlroy, Andrew D Shaw, Paul S Myles
Perioperative acute kidney injury is a common problem. While clinical trials seek to evaluate the impact of interventions on a variety of primary and secondary endpoints with the aim of implementing this knowledge to improve perioperative outcomes, the use of valid and relevant endpoints within clinical trials is of critical importance to achieving this goal. Suitable endpoints must be validated for the study population and in light of the clinical context under investigation while also considering regulatory requirements that govern the licensing of new therapeutic agents as well as the values of patients whose outcomes we seek to improve...
June 21, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632736/from-the-motor-cortex-to-the-movement-and-back-again
#7
Wondimu W Teka, Khaldoun C Hamade, William H Barnett, Taegyo Kim, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
The motor cortex controls motor behaviors by generating movement-specific signals and transmitting them through spinal cord circuits and motoneurons to the muscles. Precise and well-coordinated muscle activation patterns are necessary for accurate movement execution. Therefore, the activity of cortical neurons should correlate with movement parameters. To investigate the specifics of such correlations among activities of the motor cortex, spinal cord network and muscles, we developed a model for neural control of goal-directed reaching movements that simulates the entire pathway from the motor cortex through spinal cord circuits to the muscles controlling arm movements...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632407/prediction-of-the-structural-response-of-the-femoral-shaft-under-dynamic-loading-using-subject-specific-finite-element-models
#8
Gwansik Park, Taewung Kim, Jason Forman, Matthew B Panzer, Jeff R Crandall
The goal of this study was to predict the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading conditions using subject-specific finite element (SS-FE) models and to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the models in relation to the model complexity. In total, SS-FE models of 31 femur specimens were developed. Using those models, dynamic three-point bending and combined loading tests (bending with four different levels of axial compression) of bare femurs were simulated, and the prediction capabilities of five different levels of model complexity were evaluated based on the impact force time histories: baseline, mass-based scaled, structure-based scaled, geometric SS-FE, and heterogenized SS-FE models...
June 20, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632357/self-control-depletion-impairs-goal-maintenance-a-meta-analysis
#9
Junhua Dang, Fredrik Björklund, Martin Bäckström
Initial exertion of self-control has been suggested to impair subsequent self-regulatory performance. The specific cognitive processes that underlie this ego depletion effect have rarely been examined. Drawing on the dual-process theory of executive control (Engle & Kane, ; Kane & Engle, ), the current meta-analysis revealed that initial self-control exertion impairs participants' capacities of maintaining the task goal but its effect on capacities of resolving response competition is in need of further investigation...
June 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632200/the-beginning-and-development-of-the-theranostic-approach-in-nuclear-medicine-as-exemplified-by-the-radionuclide-pair-86-y-and-90-y
#10
Frank Rösch, Hans Herzog, Syed M Qaim
In the context of radiopharmacy and molecular imaging, the concept of theranostics entails a therapy-accompanying diagnosis with the aim of a patient-specific treatment. Using the adequate diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, the disease and the state of the disease are verified for an individual patient. The other way around, it verifies that the radiopharmaceutical in hand represents a target-specific and selective molecule: the "best one" for that individual patient. Transforming diagnostic imaging into quantitative dosimetric information, the optimum radioactivity (expressed in maximum radiation dose to the target tissue and tolerable dose to healthy organs) of the adequate radiotherapeutical is applied to that individual patient...
June 20, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630733/return-to-running-after-arthroscopic-hip-surgery-literature-review-and-proposal-of-a-physical-therapy-protocol
#11
REVIEW
Matthew J Kraeutler, Joy Anderson, Jorge Chahla, Justin J Mitchell, Robyn Thompson-Etzel, Omer Mei-Dan, Cecilia Pascual-Garrido
The number of hip arthroscopy procedures has significantly increased in the last several years, thereby necessitating individualized rehabilitation protocols for patients following hip arthroscopy. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on rehabilitation protocols for patients following hip arthroscopy and to describe a new protocol specifically designed for patients to return to running following hip arthroscopy. A search of PubMed was performed through October 2016 to locate studies of rehabilitation protocols for patients wishing to return to sport/general activity following hip arthroscopy...
July 2017: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630257/contrasting-effects-of-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-lesions-on-credit-assignment-and-decision-making-in-humans
#12
MaryAnn P Noonan, Bolton Chau, Matthew Fs Rushworth, Lesley K Fellows
The orbitofrontal cortex is critical for goal-directed behavior. Recent work in macaques has suggested the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC) is relatively more concerned with assignment of credit for rewards to particular choices during value-guided learning, while the medial orbitofrontal cortex (often referred to as ventromedial prefrontal cortex in humans; vmPFC/mOFC) is involved in constraining the decision to the relevant options. We examined whether people with damage restricted to sub-regions of prefrontal cortex showed the patterns of impairment observed in prior investigations of the effects of lesions to homologous regions in macaques...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630252/alpha-band-brain-oscillations-shape-the-processing-of-perceptible-as-well-as-imperceptible-somatosensory-stimuli-during-selective-attention
#13
Norman Forschack, Till Nierhaus, Matthias M Müller, Arno Villringer
Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629610/a-model-for-assessing-the-clinical-and-economic-benefits-of-bone-forming-agents-for-reducing-fractures-in-postmenopausal-women-at-high-near-term-risk-of-osteoporotic-fracture
#14
Claire E O'Hanlon, Anju Parthan, Morgan Kruse, Shannon Cartier, Bjorn Stollenwerk, Yawen Jiang, John P Caloyeras, Daria B Crittenden, Richard Barron
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess and compare the potential clinical and economic value of emerging bone-forming agents using the only currently available agent, teriparatide, as a reference case in patients at high, near-term (imminent, 1- to 2-year) risk of osteoporotic fractures, extending to a lifetime horizon with sequenced antiresorptive agents for maintenance treatment. METHODS: Analyses were performed by using a Markov cohort model accounting for time-specific fracture protection effects of bone-forming agents followed by antiresorptive treatment with denosumab...
June 16, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629592/measurement-and-clinical-utility-of-%C3%AE-ctx-in-serum-and-plasma
#15
Stephen A P Chubb, Samuel D Vasikaran
Biochemical markers of bone turnover (BTM) are released during bone remodeling and can be measured in blood or urine as noninvasive surrogate markers for the bone remodeling rate. The C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (βCTX) is released during bone resorption and is specific to bone tissue. Assays have been developed to measure βCTX in blood and in urine; most current use of βCTX measurement for research and in clinical practice is performed on a blood sample. Method-specific differences for serum and plasma βCTX have led to initiatives to standardize or harmonize βCTX commercial assays...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629518/analysis-of-the-asymmetry-of-activated-epo-receptor-enables-designing-small-molecule-agonists
#16
Frank Guarnieri
Amgen solved the high-resolution cocrystal structure of erythropoietin (EPO) bound to the extracellular part of the receptor (EPOR) in 1998, which reveals that the EPO-EPOR interaction surface is formed by 11 salt bridges, 17 H-bonds, and 2 hydrophobic clusters centered at a pair of crucial phenylalanines (F93). The EPOR has two domains, one that penetrates the membrane and a second extracellular domain that forms one arm of the binding site for the EPO ligand. The complete competent receptor-binding site is a homodimer of EPOR with the two arms forming a funnel-shaped cup where EPO binds...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629462/treatment-decisions-for-older-adults-with-advanced-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Steven J Rosansky, Jane Schell, Joseph Shega, Jennifer Scherer, Laurie Jacobs, Cecile Couchoud, Deidra Crews, Matthew McNabney
Dialysis initiation rates among older adults, aged 75 years or greater, are increasing at a faster rate than for younger age groups. Older adults with advanced CKD (eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) typically lose renal function slowly, often suffer from significant comorbidity and thus may die from associated comorbidities before they require dialysis.A patient's pattern of renal function loss over time in relation to their underlying comorbidities can serve as a guide to the probability of a future dialysis requirement...
June 19, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629328/impact-of-systematic-capacity-building-on-cataract-surgical-service-development-in-25-hospitals
#18
Katherine Judson, Paul Courtright, Thulsiraj Ravilla, Rohit Khanna, Ken Bassett
BACKGROUND: This study measured the effectiveness and cost of a capacity building intervention in 25 eye hospitals in South Asia, East Africa and Latin America over 4 years. The intervention involved eye care non-governmental organizations or high-performing eye hospitals acting as "mentors" to underperforming eye hospitals- "mentees" in 10 countries. Intervention activities included systematic planning and support for training and key equipment purchases as well as hospital-specific mentoring which focused on strengthening leadership, increasing the volume and equity of community outreach, improving surgical quality and volume, strengthening organizational and financial management and streamlining operational processes...
June 19, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629167/igg-avidity-test-in-congenital-toxoplasmosis-diagnoses-in-newborns
#19
Zulmirene Cardoso Fonseca, Isolina Maria Xavier Rodrigues, Natália Cruz E Melo, Juliana Boaventura Avelar, Ana Maria Castro, Mariza Martins Avelino
The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of IgG avidity testing in newborns (NBs) diagnosed with early congenital toxoplasmosis. We collected samples from 88 puerperae infected by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and their NBs (48 acutely-infected puerperae (AIP) and 40 chronically-infected puerperae (CIP)), from two public maternity hospitals in Goiania city, Goias, Brazil, from 2010 to 2015. Specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgG serum levels and IgG avidity tests were evaluated using chemiluminescence...
June 18, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629047/two-phase-electrospinning-to-incorporate-growth-factors-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-into-electrospun-fibrous-scaffolds-for-bioactivity-retention-and-cartilage-regeneration
#20
Chongyang Wang, Wenxiu Hou, Xuran Guo, Juehong Li, Tu Hu, Manle Qiu, Shen Liu, Xiumei Mo, Xudong Liu
Growth factor is an essential ingredient to regulate mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chondrogenic differentiation in cartilage tissue engineering. However, non-osteochondral specification, short plasma half time and bioactivity loss restrict growth factor's application. Thus, novel chondrogenic growth factors, specifically target osteochondral lineage cells, that can be sustained release and bioactivity protected to exert functions continually and effectively have attracted increasing researchers' interest. To achieve these goals, chitosan nanoparticles and electrospun fiber scaffolds were used as dual release system to sustain release Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1) growth factor and protect bioactivity, then the effect and mechanism of Nell-1 on inducing human bone MSCs (hBMSCs) differentiate toward chondrocytes were investigated...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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