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Goal AND progress

Bram Tilburgs, Myrra Vernooij-Dassen, Raymond Koopmans, Hans van Gennip, Yvonne Engels, Marieke Perry
BACKGROUND: Due to the disease's progressive nature, advance care planning (ACP) is recommended for people with early stage dementia. General practitioners (GPs) should initiate ACP because of their longstanding relationships with their patients and their early involvement with the disease, however ACP is seldom applied. AIM: To determine the barriers and facilitators faced by GPs related to ACP with people with dementia. DATA SOURCES: We systematically searched the relevant databases for papers published between January 1995 and December 2016, using the terms: primary healthcare, GP, dementia, and ACP...
2018: PloS One
Yanfang Liu, Zheng Lin, Yingying Lin, Yuanmei Chen, Xian-E Peng, Fei He, Shuang Liu, Siyou Yan, Liping Huang, Wanting Lu, Zhisheng Xiang, Zhijian Hu
PURPOSE: Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the dominant type of oesophageal cancer among the East Asian population. The role of ESCC tissue bacteria in neoplastic progression has not been fully elucidated. Our goal was to uncover different bacterial communities in pathological staging grouping of ESCC and to identify microorganisms that could predict the likelihood of prognosis. METHODOLOGY: Tissue samples were obtained from 45 patients and assessed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Shyam Sundar, Om Prakash Singh
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly parasitic disease, is a major public health concern globally. Countries affected by VL have signed the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases and committed to eliminate VL as a public health problem by 2020. To achieve and sustain VL elimination, it will become progressively important not to miss any remaining cases in the community who can maintain transmission. This requires accurate identification of symptomatic and asymptomatic carriers using highly sensitive diagnostic tools at the primary health service setting...
June 19, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Natalie Stokes, Jacqueline Kikucki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this review is to elucidate what is known about the science of maternal resuscitation and how treatment guidelines have developed to optimize management. RECENT FINDINGS: There is limited data on maternal cardiac arrest. Case reports are providing some insight into safety and efficacy of certain mechanisms of treatment, including use of extracorporeal membranous oxygenation and thrombolysis, for example. Data increasingly supports the preventability of a significant portion of maternal cardiac arrest, which remains the most important target for intervention...
June 19, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Galina V Ilyinskaya, Elena V Mukhina, Alesya V Soboleva, Olga V Matveeva, Peter M Chumakov
Background: Canine mastocytomas (mast cell tumors) represent a common malignancy among many dog breeds. A typical treatment strategy for canine mastocytomas includes surgery, chemo- and radio-therapy, although in many cases the therapy fails and the disease progression resumes. New treatment approaches are needed. Aims: The goal of this pilot study was to examine safety and efficacy of oncolytic Sendai virus therapy administered to canine patients with cutaneous or subcutaneous mastocytomas. Materials and Methods: Six canine patients, with variable grades and stages of the disease, received virus therapy, either as a monotherapy, or in combination with surgery...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
K Floyd, P Glaziou, R M G J Houben, T Sumner, R G White, M Raviglione
BACKGROUND: Global tuberculosis (TB) targets were set as part of the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy (2016-2035) and the Sustainable Development Goals (2016-2030). OBJECTIVE: To define and explain the rationale for these targets. DESIGN: Scenarios for plausible reductions in TB deaths and cases were developed using empirical evidence from best-performing countries and modelling of the scale-up of under-used interventions and hypothetical TB vaccines...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Samaa Al Sayegh, Tove Filén, Mats Johansson, Susanne Sandström, Gisela Stiewe, Stephen Butler
Background and purpose This case of a 42 year old woman with lower extremity Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) after a twisting injury of the ankle, effectively treated with the addition of mirror therapy to a rehabilitation programme, prompted a literature review of both CRPS and mirror therapy. Mirror therapy is a newer adjunct to other forms of pain control and functional restoration for treatment of CRPS as well as other difficult clinical problems. This was a required group project as part of a university based course in chronic pain for healthcare workers...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Melissa E Middeldorp, Rajeev K Pathak, Megan Meredith, Abhinav B Mehta, Adrian D Elliott, Rajiv Mahajan, Darragh Twomey, Celine Gallagher, Jeroen M L Hendriks, Dominik Linz, R Doug McEvoy, Walter P Abhayaratna, Jonathan M Kalman, Dennis H Lau, Prashanthan Sanders
Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease. Obesity is associated with progression of AF. This study evaluates the impact of weight and risk factor management (RFM) on progression of the AF. Methods and results: As described in the Long-Term Effect of Goal-Directed Weight Management in an Atrial Fibrillation Cohort: A Long-Term Follow-Up (LEGACY) Study, of 1415 consecutive AF patients, 825 had body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2 and were offered weight and RFM...
June 14, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Jon M Harrison, Carlos Fernandez-Del Castillo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With recent advances in radiographic testing, there have been increases in the incidental identification of pancreatic cysts. Determining management, specifically, which cysts can be watched versus intervened upon has significant impact on at the patient-physician level as well as globally on resource allocation and healthcare expenditures. This review focuses on the three main guidelines (Fukuoka guidelines, European consensus, and American Gastroenterological Association recommendations) for management of pancreatic cystic disease after incidental identification...
June 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Marie-Claude Gagnon, Michèle Auger, Jean-François Paquin
The synthesis and biophysical studies of fluorinated phospholipids have attracted a lot of interest over the past 40 years. Mono- and polyfluorinated phospholipids, containing 1-4 fluorine atoms, are designed mostly with the goal of developing new model membranes. The fluorine atoms are herein used as probes, mainly in 19F-NMR spectroscopy, to study biomolecule complexes. In this case, the spectroscopic features of the fluorine atom and the preservation of the parent lipid properties are of primary importance...
June 18, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Joseph E Cruz, Tania Ahuja, Mary Barna Bridgeman
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), including the effects on renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. DATA SOURCES: A literature search of MEDLINE databases (1964 through May 2018) was conducted utilizing key words sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and diabetes; additional limits for drug names were added. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Available English-language data from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical trials of use of SGLT2 therapy specifically detailing outcomes on CV and renal disease in humans were reviewed...
June 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Ishaq A Viringipurampeer, Cheryl Y Gregory-Evans, Andrew L Metcalfe, Emran Bashar, Orson L Moritz, Kevin Gregory-Evans
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited neurological disorders characterized by rod photoreceptor cell death, followed by secondary cone cell death leading to progressive blindness. Currently, there are no viable treatment options for RP. Due to incomplete knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways associated with RP pathogenesis, designing therapeutic strategies remains a challenge. In particular, preventing secondary cone photoreceptor cell loss is a key goal in designing potential therapies...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Philipp E Eich, Beat Nick
Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: State of the Art Abstract. Schizophrenia is a disorder, whose cause and course are still a puzzle. Nevertheless its treatment has made big progresses during the last decades. Early recognition and early treatment of the disorder are very important for a good outcome. Any of the four stages of the illness needs its own treatment concept. Today the gold standard during a acute / progressive psychotic phase is primarily the prescription of an 2nd generation antipsychotic (atypicals)...
June 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Koji Nishimoto, Masato Karayama, Naoki Inui, Hideki Yasui, Hironao Hozumi, Yuzo Suzuki, Kazuki Furuhashi, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Nao Inami, Shun Matsuura, Yusuke Kaida, Takashi Matsui, Kazuhiro Asada, Hiroyuki Matsuda, Masato Fujii, Mikio Toyoshima, Shiro Imokawa, Takafumi Suda
Switch maintenance therapy, using alternative agents that were not administered during induction chemotherapy, is a treatment option for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Bevacizumab is known to increase the efficacy of other chemotherapeutic agents; however, switch maintenance therapy with docetaxel and bevacizumab has not been adequately studied. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of switch maintenance therapy with docetaxel and bevacizumab following induction therapy with cisplatin, pemetrexed, and bevacizumab...
June 16, 2018: Medical Oncology
Raymond R Townsend
This narrative review summarizes a decade of experience examining the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of arterial stiffness, as assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, with outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Our goal is to review the importance of the pulse wave contour and pulse wave velocity and present data on the reproducibility of pulse wave velocity measurements, determinants of pulse wave velocity, and the relationship that velocity measurements have with longitudinal kidney and cardiovascular outcomes...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Paul DiSilvestro, Angeles Alvarez Secord
Approximately 1% of women in the United States will be diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) during their lifetime. It is most likely to present at a more advanced stage, requiring aggressive therapeutic measures, and most women will succumb to this illness. Due to advancements in therapy, the oncology community has begun to shift its focus to molecular targeted agents, alternative dosing schedules, and maintenance therapy. Women who achieve a response to initial adjuvant chemotherapy may be candidates for maintenance therapy, with the goal of inducing a lasting remission or prolonging the disease-free interval before recurrence...
June 5, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Tingwang Guo, Peng Ren, Xiaofei Li, Tiantian Luo, Yuhua Gong, Shilei Hao, Bochu Wang
Mass effect induced by growing hematoma is one of the mechanisms by which intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may result in brain injuries. Our goal was to investigate the damage mechanism of hydrostatic pressure associated with mass effect and the cooperative effect of hydrostatic pressure plus hemoglobin on neural injuries. Loading hydrostatic pressure on neurons and injecting agarose gel in the right striatum of rats was performed to establish the in vitro and vivo ICH models, respectively. The elevated hydrostatic pressure associated with ICH suppressed neurons and neural tissues viability, and disturbed the axons and dendrites in vitro and vivo...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
James G Jeffryes, Samuel M D Seaver, José P Faria, Christopher S Henry
The vast diversity of plant natural products is a powerful indication of the biosynthetic capacity of plant metabolism. Synthetic biology seeks to capitalize on this ability by understanding and reconfiguring the biosynthetic pathways that generate this diversity to produce novel products with improved efficiency. Here we review the algorithms and databases that presently support the design and manipulation of metabolic pathways in plants, starting from metabolic models of native biosynthetic pathways, progressing to novel combinations of known reactions, and finally proposing new reactions that may be carried out by existing enzymes...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Edith Lahner, Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a major human pathogen causing chronic, progressive gastric mucosal damage and is linked to gastric atrophy and cancer. Hp-positive individuals constitute the major reservoir for transmission of infection. There is no ideal treatment for Hp. Hp infection is not cured by a single antibiotic, and sometimes, a combined treatment with three or more antibiotics is ineffective. Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a chronic disease whose main features are atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia of the gastric glands, which arise from long-standing Hp infection...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Martina M De Santis, Deniz A Bölükbas, Sandra Lindstedt, Darcy E Wagner
Chronic respiratory diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The only option at end-stage disease is lung transplantation, but there are not enough donor lungs to meet clinical demand. Alternative options to increase tissue availability for lung transplantation are urgently required to close the gap on this unmet clinical need. A growing number of tissue engineering approaches are exploring the potential to generate lung tissue ex vivo for transplantation. Both biologically derived and manufactured scaffolds seeded with cells and grown ex vivo have been explored in pre-clinical studies, with the eventual goal of generating functional pulmonary tissue for transplantation...
June 14, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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