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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814977/worse-inflammatory-profile-in-omnivores-than-in-vegetarians-associates-with-the-gut-microbiota-composition
#1
Ana Carolina Franco-de-Moraes, Bianca de Almeida-Pititto, Gabriel da Rocha Fernandes, Everton Padilha Gomes, Alexandre da Costa Pereira, Sandra Roberta G Ferreira
AIMS: To describe the abundance of major phyla and some genera in the gut microbiota of individuals according to dietary habits and examine their associations with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile. METHODS: A total of 268 non-diabetic individuals were stratified into groups of dietary types (strict vegetarians, lacto-ovo-vegetarians, and omnivores). The taxonomic composition and phylogenetic structure of the microbiota were obtained through the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814575/prenatal-environment-affects-embryonic-response-to-song
#2
Diane Colombelli-Négrel, Sonia Kleindorfer
Early environmental enrichment improves postnatal cognition in animals and humans. Here, we examined the effects of the prenatal acoustic environment (parental song rate) on prenatal attention in superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus) embryos, the only songbird species with evidence of prenatal discrimination of maternal calls and in ovo call learning. Because both adults also sing throughout the incubation phase, we broadcast songs to embryos and measured their heart rate response in relation to parental song rate and tutor identity (familiarity, sex)...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809029/model-clades-versus-model-species-anolis-lizards-as-an-integrative-model-of-anatomical-evolution
#3
Thomas J Sanger, Bonnie K Kircher
Anolis lizards , known for their replicated patterns of morphological diversification, are widely studied in the fields of evolution and ecology. As a textbook example of adaptive radiation, this genus has supported decades of intense study in natural history, behavior, morphological evolution, and systematics. Following the publication of the A. carolinensis genome, research on Anolis lizards has expanded into new areas, toward obtaining an understanding the developmental and genetic bases of anole diversity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809027/in-vitro-and-ex-ovo-culture-of-reptilian-and-avian-neural-progenitor-cells
#4
Wataru Yamashita, Toyo Shimizu, Tadashi Nomura
Reptiles and birds have been highlighted as excellent experimental models for the study of developmental biology; however, due to technical limitations in cellular analysis, dynamics of neural stem/progenitor cells of these animals remain unclear. In this chapter, we introduce the protocols for neurosphere culture and ex ovo embryonic culture of developing reptilian and avian embryos, which are modified from the method originally established for rodent embryos. Applications of these techniques provide powerful strategies for the study of comparative neural development of amniotes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809026/handling-of-gametes-for-in-vitro-insemination-in-birds
#5
Shusei Mizushima, Mei Matsuzaki, Tomohiro Sasanami
A characteristic biological property of avian gamete (e.g., extremely large egg and polyspermic fertilization) does not allow the direct observation of sperm-egg interactions in vitro, but recent research advances make it possible to manipulate the gamete in vitro. Here, we describe the techniques for the handling of gametes required for in vitro fertilization assay. In addition, we also introduce the procedures for sperm-perivitelline membrane assay, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ex ovo culture.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809021/genetic-manipulation-of-the-avian-urogenital-system-using-in-ovo-electroporation
#6
Claire E Hirst, Olivier Serralbo, Katie L Ayers, Kelly N Roeszler, Craig A Smith
One of the advantages of the avian embryo as an experimental model is its in ovo development and hence accessibility for genetic manipulation. Electroporation has been used extensively in the past to study gene function in chicken and quail embryos . Readily accessible tissues such as the neural tube, somites, and limb bud, in particular, have been targeted. However, more inaccessible tissues, such as the embryonic urogenital system , have proven more challenging to study. Here, we describe the use of in ovo electroporation of TOL2 vectors or RCASBP avian viral vectors for the rapid functional analysis of genes involved in avian sex determination and urogenital development ...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809020/in-ovo-electroporation-methods-in-chick-embryos
#7
Hidekiyo Harada, Minoru Omi, Harukazu Nakamura
To elucidate a gene function, in vivo analysis is indispensable. We can carry out gain and loss of function experiment of a gene of interest by electroporation in ovo and ex ovo culture system on early-stage and advanced-stage chick embryos, respectively. In this section, we introduce in/ex ovo electroporation methods for the development of the chick central nervous system and visual system investigation.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782636/embryo-yolk-sac-membrane-kynurenine-formamidase-of-l-tryptophan-to-nad-pathway-as-a-primary-target-for-organophosphorus-insecticides-opi-in-opi-induced-nad-associated-avian-teratogenesis
#8
Josef Seifert
The objective of this study was to provide in ovo evidence for the proposed role of kynurenine formamidase of l-tryptophan to NAD(+) pathway in embryo yolk sac membranes as a primary target for organophosphorus insecticide (OPI) teratogens in OPI-induced NAD-associated avian teratogenesis. Slices prepared from yolk sac membranes or embryo livers of chicken eggs treated with the OPI dicrotophos and/or methyl parathion were incubated with l-tryptophan. Yolk sac membrane slices metabolized l-tryptophan in the pathway to NAD(+) before that function was established in livers...
August 4, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781771/the-impact-of-synbiotic-administration-through-in-ovo-technology-on-the-microstructure-of-a-broiler-chicken-small-intestine-tissue-on-the-1-st-and-42-nd-day-of-rearing
#9
A Sobolewska, J Bogucka, A Dankowiakowska, G Elminowska-Wenda, K Stadnicka, M Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Application the innovative method which is in ovo technology provides a means of modulating the immune system at early embryonic stages. The aim of study was to determine influence of the in ovo stimulation, on d 12 of incubation, with synbiotics (synbiotic 1- L. salivarius IBB3154 + Bi(2)tos, Clasado Ltd. and the synbiotic 2 - L. plantarum IBB3036 + lupin RFOs) on the microstructure of duodenum, jejunum and ileum in the 1(st) and 42(nd) day of rearing. RESULTS: On the 1(st) day of chickens life, in the duodenum of both experimental groups (SYN1 and SYN2), a significantly higher and wider intestinal villi as well as a significantly larger absorbent surface of these villi were found in comparison with the Control group (P ≤ 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777818/gluc-het-a-complementary-chick-embryo-model-for-the-characterization-of-antidiabetic-compounds
#10
Renate Haselgrübler, Flora Stübl, Katja Essl, Marcus Iken, Klaus Schröder, Julian Weghuber
Insulin resistance and β cell failure are the main causes of elevated blood glucose levels in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a complex and multifactorial metabolic disease. Several medications to treat or reduce the symptoms of T2DM are used, including the injection of insulin and the application of insulin sensitizing or glucose production reducing drugs. Furthermore, the use of phytochemicals has attracted increasing attention for the therapy and prevention of T2DM. In order to identify and characterize antidiabetic compounds, efficient test systems are required...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771730/in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-regulates-intestinal-barrier-functions-of-posthatch-broilers-by-activating-the-mtor-signaling-pathway
#11
Tian Gao, Minmeng Zhao, Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Lanlin Yu, Feng Gao, Guanghong Zhou
BACKGROUND: During the last phase of incubation, dramatic physiological and metabolic changes occur in chick embryos, and the supplies of the nutrients and energy are always insufficient. This study was to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of L-arginine (Arg) on the hatchability, growth performance, intestinal development and functions of posthatch broilers. RESULTS: The IOF of Arg increased (P<0.05) the feed intake and body weight gain during 1-21 d and 1-42 d, the intestinal weight of 7 and 21-d-old broilers compared with NC and DG groups...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768863/hras-egfr-met-and-ron-are-recurrently-activated-by-provirus-insertion-in-mav-2-retrovirus-induced-liver-tumors
#12
Vladimir Pecenka, Petr Pajer, Vít Karafiat, Petra Kasparova, Jana Dudlova, Michal Dvorak
Myeloblastosis-associated virus-2 (MAV-2) is a highly tumorigenic simple avian retrovirus. Chickens infected in ovo with MAV-2 develop tumors in kidneys, lungs, and liver with a short latency of less then 8 weeks. Here we report the results of molecular analyses of MAV-2-induced liver tumors that fall into three classes: hepatic hemangiosarcomas (HHS), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), and hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Comprehensive inverse PCR-based screening of 92 chicken liver tumors revealed that in ca 86 % of these tumors, MAV-2 provirus had integrated into one of four gene loci: HRAS, EGFR, MET, and RON Insertionally mutated genes correlated with tumor type - HRAS was hit in HHSs, MET in ICCs, RON mostly in ICCs and EGFR mostly in HCC...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767159/effects-of-in-ovo-exposure-to-3-3-4-4-tetrachlorobiphenyl-pcb-77-on-heart-development-in-tree-swallow-tachycineta-bicolor
#13
Tiffany Carro, Mary K Walker, Karen M Dean, Mary Ann Ottinger
Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs from two uncontaminated sites, Patuxent Research Refuge (PRR), MD and Cobleskill Reservoir, NY were dosed with PCB 77 to evaluate effects on the developing cardiovascular system. To ensure embryonic viability, treatments were administered into the air cell at embryonic day (ED) 2.5 including: untreated (control), vehicle (filtered sterilized fatty acid mixture), 100 ng/g and 1,000 ng/g egg. Eggs were dosed in the field with 0.2 μl per egg, returned to the nest, collected at ED13, hatched in the laboratory and necropsied...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763512/a-glycan-based-approach-to-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#14
Jie Shi Chua, Vy M Tran, Mausam Kalita, Maritza V Quintero, Orlando Antelope, Geethu Muruganandam, Yukio Saijoh, Balagurunathan Kuberan
Angiogenesis, the sprouting of new blood vessels from existing vasculature, involves multiple complex biological processes, and it is an essential step for hemostasis, tissue healing and regeneration. Angiogenesis stimulants can ameliorate human disease conditions including limb ischemia, chronic wounds, heart disease, and stroke. The current strategies to improve the bioavailability of pro-angiogenic growth factors, including VEGF and FGF2, have remained largely unsuccessful. This study demonstrates that small molecules, termed click-xylosides, can promote angiogenesis in the in vitro matrigel tube formation assay and the ex ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, depending on their aglycone moieties...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759850/structural-and-spectroscopic-study-of-arsenate-and-vanadate-incorporation-into-apatite-group-implications-for-semi-quantitative-estimation-of-as-and-v-contents-in-apatite
#15
Han Song, Jing Liu, Hongfei Cheng
The solid solutions of mimetite-vanadinite series were synthesized at room temperature through aqueous precipitation method and were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the XRD analyses, it showed that all the samples crystallize with the same structure. A and c parameters vary smoothly with substitution of AsO4(3-) for VO4(3-). In the FT-IR spectra of mimetite-vanadinite solid solutions series, the bands corresponding to stretching (v3) vibrations of AsO4(3-) and VO4(3-) ions were observed in the range 700-900cm(-1), and the bending (v4) vibrations of OAsO and OVO were observed in the range 310-400cm(-1)...
July 20, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736979/in-vitro-characteristics-of-lactobacillus-spp-strains-isolated-from-the-chicken-digestive-tract-and-their-role-in-the-inhibition-of-campylobacter-colonization
#16
Patrycja A Kobierecka, Agnieszka K Wyszyńska, Tamara Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Maciej Kuczkowski, Anna Tuzimek, Wioletta Piotrowska, Adrian Górecki, Iwona Adamska, Alina Wieliczko, Jacek Bardowski, Elżbieta K Jagusztyn-Krynicka
Campylobacter jejuni/coli infections are the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illnesses in humans. Many epidemiological studies indicate that improperly prepared meat from chickens that carry a high load of Campylobacter in their intestinal tracts is the key source of human infections. LAB, mainly members of the Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera, increasingly have been tested as vehicles for the delivery of heterologous bacterial or viral antigens to animal mucosal immune systems. Thus, the objective of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize Lactobacillus spp...
July 24, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733610/environmental-impact-of-omnivorous-ovo-lacto-vegetarian-and-vegan-diet
#17
Alice Rosi, Pedro Mena, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Silvia Turroni, Erasmo Neviani, Ilario Ferrocino, Raffaella Di Cagno, Luca Ruini, Roberto Ciati, Donato Angelino, Jane Maddock, Marco Gobbetti, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Francesca Scazzina
Food and beverage consumption has a great impact on the environment, although there is a lack of information concerning the whole diet. The environmental impact of 153 Italian adults (51 omnivores, 51 ovo-lacto-vegetarians, 51 vegans) and the inter-individual variability within dietary groups were assessed in a real-life context. Food intake was monitored with a 7-d dietary record to calculate nutritional values and environmental impacts (carbon, water, and ecological footprints). The Italian Mediterranean Index was used to evaluate the nutritional quality of each diet...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727112/effect-of-in-ovo-feeding-of-l-arginine-on-the-hatchability-growth-performance-gastrointestinal-hormones-and-jejunal-digestive-and-absorptive-capacity-of-posthatch-broilers
#18
T Gao, M Zhao, L Zhang, J Li, L Yu, P Lv, F Gao, G Zhou
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of Arg solution on the hatchability, growth performance, gastrointestinal hormones, serum AA, activities of digestive enzymes, and mRNA expressions of sensing receptors and nutrient transporters in the jejunum of posthatch broilers. One thousand two hundred embryonated eggs with similar weight were randomly allocated to 5 groups consisting of 8 replicates of 40 eggs each. The 5 treatments were arranged as a noninjected control, a diluent-injected (0...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715682/cath-2-and-ll-37-increase-mannose-receptor-expression-antigen-presentation-and-the-endocytic-capacity-of-chicken-mononuclear-phagocytes
#19
Marina D Kraaij, Albert van Dijk, Henk P Haagsman
Cathelicidins display in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities and are part of the innate immune system. Previously, we found that in ovo treatment with chicken cathelicidin CATH-2 partially protects young broilers against respiratory E. coli infection. To determine the cellular aspects of this protection, we investigated immunomodulatory effects of CATH-2 and the human cathelicidin LL-37 on primary chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Treatment of chicken PBMCs with L-CATH-2, D-CATH-2 or LL-37 increased the percentage of mononuclear phagocytes, but decreased that of B cells...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714781/hatchery-vaccination-against-poultry-viral-diseases-potential-mechanisms-and-limitations
#20
Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Victor Palomino-Tapia, Aruna Amarasinghe, Hanaa Ahmed-Hassan, Upasama De Silva Senapathi, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Commercial broiler and layer chickens are heavily vaccinated against economically important viral diseases with a view of preventing morbidity, mortality, and production impacts encountered during short production cycles. Hatchery vaccination is performed through in ovo embryo vaccination prehatch or spray and subcutaneous vaccinations performed at the day of hatch before the day-old chickens are being placed in barns with potentially contaminated environments. Commercially, multiple vaccines (e.g., live, live attenuated, and viral vectored vaccines) are available to administer through these routes within a short period (embryo day 18 prehatch to day 1 posthatch)...
July 17, 2017: Viral Immunology
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