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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626222/the-role-of-epigenetics-in-renal-ageing
#1
REVIEW
Paul G Shiels, Dagmara McGuinness, Maria Eriksson, Jeroen P Kooman, Peter Stenvinkel
An ability to separate natural ageing processes from processes specific to morbidities is required to understand the heterogeneity of age-related organ dysfunction. Mechanistic insight into how epigenetic factors regulate ageing throughout the life course, linked to a decline in renal function with ageing, is already proving to be of value in the analyses of clinical and epidemiological cohorts. Noncoding RNAs provide epigenetic regulatory circuits within the kidney, which reciprocally interact with DNA methylation processes, histone modification and chromatin...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617197/chronic-early-life-stress-induced-by-limited-bedding-and-nesting-lbn-material-in-rodents-critical-considerations-of-methodology-outcomes-and-translational-potential
#2
Claire-Dominique Walker, Kevin G Bath, Marian Joels, Aniko Korosi, Muriel Larauche, Paul J Lucassen, Margaret J Morris, Charlis Raineki, Tania L Roth, Regina M Sullivan, Yvette Taché, Tallie Z Baram
The immediate and long term effects of exposure to early life stress (ELS) have been documented in humans and animal models. Even relatively brief periods of stress during the first 10 days of life in rodents can impact later behavioral regulation and the vulnerability to develop adult pathologies, in particular an impairment of cognitive functions and neurogenesis, but also modified social, emotional and conditioned fear responses. The development of preclinical models of ELS exposure allows the examination of mechanisms and testing of therapeutic approaches that are not possible in humans...
June 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610754/power-and-ambivalence-in-intergenerational-communication-deciding-to-institutionalize-in-shanghai
#3
Lin Chen
China's tradition of taking care of one's aging parents continues to evolve, as evidenced by the growth in nursing home residents in Shanghai. However, how these families make the decision to institutionalize remains unclear. To fill this gap, this study draws on power relations to examine communication dynamics when oldest-old and their adult children decide to institutionalize. This study used a phenomenological approach. Twelve dyads of matched elderly residents and their children participated in face-to-face, in-depth interviews (N=24)...
April 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607066/socioeconomic-disadvantage-gestational-immune-activity-and-neurodevelopment-in-early-childhood
#4
Stephen E Gilman, Mady Hornig, Akhgar Ghassabian, Jill Hahn, Sara Cherkerzian, Paul S Albert, Stephen L Buka, Jill M Goldstein
Children raised in economically disadvantaged households face increased risks of poor health in adulthood, suggesting that inequalities in health have early origins. From the child's perspective, exposure to economic hardship may begin as early as conception, potentially via maternal neuroendocrine-immune responses to prenatal stressors, which adversely impact neurodevelopment. Here we investigate whether socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with gestational immune activity and whether such activity is associated with abnormalities among offspring during infancy...
June 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599310/long-non-coding-rnas-could-act-as-vectors-for-paternal-heredity-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#5
Tian An, Teng Zhang, Fei Teng, Jia-Cheng Zuo, Yan-Yun Pan, Yu-Fei Liu, Jia-Nan Miao, Yu-Jie Gu, Na Yu, Dan-Dan Zhao, Fang-Fang Mo, Si-Hua Gao, Guangjian Jiang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in epigenetic regulation, and abnormalities may lead to male infertility. To investigate whether lncRNAs are involved in intergenerational inheritance of obesity and obesity-induced decline in fertility, we divided mice into obesity (F0 mice fed a high-fat diet, F0-HFD) and non-obese (F0 mice fed normal chow, F0-NC) model groups and their male offspring (F1-HFD and F1-NC, respectively). We examined the differences in the expression levels of lncRNAs and mRNAs in the F0-HFD/F0-NC and F1-HFD/F1-NC groups...
May 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596618/development-of-a-cross-cultural-hpv-community-engagement-model-within-scotland
#6
Elaine Carnegie, Anne Whittaker, Carol Gray Brunton, Rhona Hogg, Catriona Kennedy, Shona Hilton, Seeromanie Harding, Kevin G Pollock, Janette Pow
OBJECTIVE: To examine cultural barriers and participant solutions regarding acceptance and uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine from the perspective of Black African, White-Caribbean, Arab, Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani young people. METHODS: In total, 40 young people from minority ethnic communities in Scotland took part in a qualitative study, involving seven focus groups and four paired interviews, to explore their views and experiences of the HPV vaccine...
June 2017: Health Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592607/maternal-dietary-intakes-of-refined-grains-during-pregnancy-and-growth-through-the-first-7-y-of-life-among-children-born-to-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#7
Yeyi Zhu, Sjurdur F Olsen, Pauline Mendola, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Edwina H Yeung, Charlotta Granström, Anne A Bjerregaard, Jing Wu, Shristi Rawal, Jorge E Chavarro, Frank B Hu, Cuilin Zhang
Background: Refined grains, a major source of dietary carbohydrates, have been related to impaired glucose homeostasis and obesity. Emerging animal data suggest that in utero exposure to dietary refined carbohydrates may predispose offspring to an obese phenotype, indicating a potential role for nutritional programming in the early origins of obesity, but intergenerational human data are lacking.Objective: We prospectively investigated refined-grain intake during pregnancy in association with offspring growth through age 7 y among high-risk children born to women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575253/family-relationships-and-depressive-symptoms-among-chinese-older-immigrants-in-the-united-states
#8
Jinyu Liu, XinQi Dong, Duy Nguyen, Daniel W L Lai
Background: Given the growth in the number of older Chinese immigrants in the United States and the importance of family support in Chinese culture, this study examines how supportive and negative relationships with family members (children and spouse) influence depressive symptom severity among this population. Methods: Using data from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago, we carried out multivariate negative binomial regression analysis using a sample of 3,159 Chinese older immigrants...
July 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573645/effects-of-social-identity-salience-on-motivational-orientation-and-conflict-strategies-in-intergenerational-conflict
#9
Henry C Y Ho, Dannii Y Yeung
With the upsurge of older adults still working, the labour force is becoming increasingly diverse in age. Age diversity in an organisation can increase the likelihood of intergenerational conflict. The present study aims to integrate the dual concern model and social identity theory to explain the underlying mechanisms of intergenerational conflict by examining the effects of social identity salience on motivational orientation and conflict strategies. A 2 (subgroup identity salience: low vs. high younger/older group membership) × 2 (superordinate identity salience: low vs...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570927/girl-child-marriage-as-a-risk-factor-for-early-childhood-development-and-stunting
#10
Yvette Efevbera, Jacqueline Bhabha, Paul E Farmer, Günther Fink
This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program...
May 11, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558269/white-matter-pathways-mediate-parental-effects-on-children-s-reading-precursors
#11
Maaike Vandermosten, Lieselore Cuynen, Jolijn Vanderauwera, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
Previous studies have shown that the link between parental and offspring's reading is mediated by the cognitive system of the offspring, yet information about the mediating role of the neurobiological system is missing. This family study includes cognitive and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data collected in 71 pre-readers as well as parental reading and environmental data. Using sequential path analyses, which take into account the interrelationships between the different components, we observed mediating effects of the neurobiological system...
May 27, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555499/dangerous-sadness-nervoza-among-first-and-second-generation-macedonian-immigrants-to-australia
#12
Aleksandar Misev, Christine B Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Nervoza is a commonly-used illness category among Macedonian Australians. Although nervoza belongs broadly to the category of 'nerve illnesses' little is known of its meaning among Macedonian immigrants, and whether there is intergenerational attrition in its meaning and use. We aimed to explore how nervoza and its treatment are perceived by members of the Macedonian community in Australia. DESIGN: In-depth interviews in Macedonian with 18 participants from the Macedonian community in Melbourne, Australia...
May 30, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554093/new-bicyclic-brominated-furanones-as-potent-autoinducer-2-quorum-sensing-inhibitors-against-bacterial-biofilm-formation
#13
Ji Su Park, Eun-Ju Ryu, Linzi Li, Bong-Kyu Choi, B Moon Kim
Bacterial behaviors such as virulence factor secretion and biofilm formation are critical for survival, and are effectively regulated through quorum sensing, a mechanism of intra- and interspecies communication in response to changes in cell density and species complexity. Many bacterial species colonize host tissues and form a defensive structure called a biofilm, which can be the basis of inflammatory diseases. Periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the periodontium, is caused by subgingival biofilms related to periodontopathogens...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552100/health-anxiety-and-illness-behaviour-in-children-of-mothers-with-severe-health-anxiety
#14
Mette Viller Thorgaard
Excessive health anxiety, still designated as hypochondriasis in ICD-10, refers to worries and anxiety about harbouring serious illness. It is common in both primary and secondary health care with prevalence rates up to 9% and causes great suffering for the individual as well as high health care costs when untreated. Growing research suggests that health anxiety may originate in childhood, and studies have demonstrated that cognitive and behavioural features similar to those described for health anxiety in adults may be present...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549634/maternal-adverse-childhood-experience-and-infant-health-biomedical-and-psychosocial-risks-as-intermediary-mechanisms
#15
Sheri Madigan, Mark Wade, Andre Plamondon, Jonathon L Maguire, Jennifer M Jenkins
OBJECTIVE: To assess the mechanisms accounting for the transfer of risk from one generation to the next, especially as they relate to maternal adverse childhood experiences and infant physical and emotional health outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were 501 community mother-infant dyads recruited shortly after the birth and followed up at 18 months. Mothers retrospectively reported on their adverse childhood experiences. The main outcome measures were parent-reported infant physical health and emotional problems...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549186/applying-within-family-differences-approaches-to-enhance-understanding-of-the-complexity-of-intergenerational-relations
#16
J Jill Suitor, Megan Gilligan, Karl Pillemer, Karen L Fingerman, Kyungmin Kim, Merril Silverstein, Vern L Bengtson
Objectives: The role of family relationships in the lives of older adults has received substantial attention in recent decades. Scholars have increasingly looked beyond simple models of family relations to approaches that recognize the complex and sometimes contradictory nature of these ties. One of the most exciting conceptual and methodological developments is the application of within-family differences approaches. In this paper, we focus on the ways in which such within-family approaches can extend the understanding of patterns and consequences of intergenerational ties in adulthood...
May 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539376/longitudinal-associations-of-away-from-home-eating-snacking-screen-time-and-physical-activity-behaviors-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-among-chinese-children-and-their-parents
#17
Fei Dong, Annie Green Howard, Amy H Herring, Amanda L Thompson, Linda S Adair, Barry M Popkin, Allison E Aiello, Bing Zhang, Penny Gordon-Larsen
Background: Little is known about intergenerational differences in associations of urbanization-related lifestyle behaviors with cardiometabolic risk factors in children and their parents in rapidly urbanizing China.Objective: We tested the intergenerational differences in longitudinal associations of away-from-home eating, snacking, screen time, and leisure-time sports with high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) among Chinese children and their parents...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531324/a-vignette-study-of-older-adults-preferences-for-intergenerational-transfers-in-the-context-of-competition-between-grandparents-and-grandchildren-in-rural-china
#18
Zhen Cong, Merril Silverstein
Objectives: The objective of this analysis was to examine older adults' preferences for economic support in the context of competition between grandparents and grandchildren for the middle generation's financial resources in rural China. Specifically, it examined how relative need, lineage, and gender of grandchildren depicted in a vignette were evaluated and how personal characteristics of the evaluators influenced beliefs for which generation should receive more support. Method: The sample consisted of 989 older adults participating in three waves of a longitudinal study in Anhui Province, China...
May 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528453/issues-of-aging-an-exploration-of-asian-american-families-in-the-southern-region-of-the-united-states-from-the-perspective-of-community-leaders
#19
Suzie S Weng
This paper focuses on older adults and the aging concerns of this population among groups of Asian American communities in a specific state in the southern region of the United States. A qualitative approach was used to gain a more in-depth understanding of issues related to aging from caregivers who are Asian American leaders from a community perspective. Areas of concern identified include intergenerational dynamics, physical and mental health concerns, and the need for a community center and living facility...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523474/perceptions-of-successful-aging-among-older-adults-in-bangladesh-an-exploratory-study
#20
Iftekhar Amin
To analyze older adults' definitions of successful aging in Bangladesh. The purposively selected study sample comprised twelve participants who were aged over 60. Interviews using in-depth semi-structured questionnaires were conducted based on participants' chosen mode, either face-to-face, or by phone. Findings of this study support that successful aging is multidimensional - that is - for Bangladeshis successful aging encompasses dimensions such as adaptation to an aging body, financial security, family and intergenerational care, and social participation...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
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