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intergenerational relations

Nini Wu, Yang Hou, Qian Wang, Chengfu Yu
Parents' educational aspirations for youth play an important role in shaping youth's own educational aspirations; however, little is known about how and in what context parents may transmit their aspirations to youth effectively. This is of particular interest and import to be examined in Chinese families, given Chinese cultural emphasis on educational achievement and Chinese youth's outstanding academic performance internationally. By integrating several key theories of motivation and parental socialization (i...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Shermel Sherman, Nadeen Sarsour, Marziyeh Salehi, Allen Schroering, Blair Mell, Bina Joe, Jennifer W Hill
BACKGROUND: Conditions of excess androgen in women, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), often exhibit intergenerational transmission. One way in which the risk for PCOS may be increased in daughters of affected women is through exposure to elevated androgens in utero. Hyperandrogenemic conditions have serious health consequences, including increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Recently, gut dysbiosis has been found to induce hypertension in rats, such that blood pressure can be normalized through fecal microbial transplant...
February 22, 2018: Gut Microbes
Erin J Campbell, Jeremy P M Flanagan, Nathan J Marchant, Andrew J Lawrence
Emerging evidence has demonstrated that paternal alcohol use can modify the behavior of offspring, particularly male offspring. However, preclinical studies to date have not used voluntary self-administration of alcohol to examine alcohol-related behaviors in offspring. Here, we tested the hypothesis that paternal alcohol self-administration followed by punishment-imposed abstinence alters alcohol consumption and seeking in male offspring. Male inbred alcohol preferring iP rats were trained to self-administer alcohol in one context followed by punishment-imposed suppression of alcohol-seeking in a different context using contingent footshock...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Kan Xie, Devon P Ryan, Brandon L Pearson, Kristin S Henzel, Frauke Neff, Ramon O Vidal, Magali Hennion, Isabelle Lehmann, Melvin Schleif, Susanne Schröder, Thure Adler, Birgit Rathkolb, Jan Rozman, Anna-Lena Schütz, Cornelia Prehn, Michel E Mickael, Marco Weiergräber, Jerzy Adamski, Dirk H Busch, Gerhard Ehninger, Anna Matynia, Walker S Jackson, Eckhard Wolf, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Stefan Bonn, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Dan Ehninger
Advanced age is not only a major risk factor for a range of disorders within an aging individual but may also enhance susceptibility for disease in the next generation. In humans, advanced paternal age has been associated with increased risk for a number of diseases. Experiments in rodent models have provided initial evidence that paternal age can influence behavioral traits in offspring animals, but the overall scope and extent of paternal age effects on health and disease across the life span remain underexplored...
February 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
P Priscilla Lui
The acculturation gap-distress theory postulates that parent-offspring acculturation mismatch precipitates greater intergenerational conflict in immigrant families, which in turn increases the risk for psychological problems among offspring. Whereas cross-sectional studies have shown support for these theory-informed relations, comparatively little is known about whether acculturation mismatch negatively affects psychological functioning, or whether offspring's psychological problems precipitate greater perceived acculturation mismatch via intergenerational cultural conflict...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Anna Sidorchuk, Anna Goodman, Ilona Koupil
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether and how social class and social mobility in grandparents and parents predict alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) in males and females aged 12+ years, and whether intergenerational social prediction of ARDs varies across time periods. METHODS: The study sample included four successive generations (G) of Swedish families from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study: G0 born 1851-1912; G1 born 1915-1929; G2 born 1940-1964 and G3 born 1965-1989...
2018: PloS One
Xiangyu Qi, Haibin Wang, Aiping Song, Jiafu Jiang, Sumei Chen, Fadi Chen
Allopolyploid formation involves two major events: interspecific hybridization and polyploidization. A number of species in the Asteraceae family are polyploids because of frequent hybridization. The effects of hybridization on genomics and transcriptomics in Chrysanthemum nankingense×Tanacetum vulgare hybrids have been reported. In this study, we obtained allopolyploids by applying a colchicine treatment to a synthesized C. nankingense×T. vulgare hybrid. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP), and high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technologies were used to investigate the genomic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic alterations in both the hybrid and allopolyploids...
2018: Horticulture Research
Mengcen Qian, Shin-Yi Chou, Mary E Deily, Jin-Tan Liu
We estimate a gender differential in the intergenerational transmission of adverse birth outcomes. We link Taiwan birth certificates from 1978 to 2006 to create a sample of children born in the period 1999-2006 that includes information about their parents and their maternal grandmothers. We use maternal-sibling fixed effects to control for unobserved family-linked factors that may be correlated with birth outcomes across generations, and define adverse birth outcomes as small for gestational age. We find that when a mother is in the 5th percentile of birth weight for her gestational age, then her female children are 49-53% more likely to experience the same adverse birth outcome compared to other female children, while her male children are 27-32% more likely to experience this relative to other male children...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Lucia Mangiavacchi, Luca Piccoli
This study analyses whether an excessive parental alcohol consumption during childhood can affect long run children's educational attainments. Using 19 waves of the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), where individuals and their families are followed from childhood to adulthood, this study analyses parental alcohol consumption during childhood (between 1994 and 2001) and its relation with children's educational attainment about twelve years later (from 2005 to 2014). Panel estimations show that mother's excessive alcohol consumption during childhood is consistently negatively associated with children educational outcomes, as years of education, the highest education grade achieved and the probability of having a tertiary education degree, a finding that is robust to possible endogeneity issues...
December 29, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
Jonathan Cadieux, Alison L Chasteen, Dominic J Packer PhD
Objectives: With our rapidly aging population, it is critical to understand biases toward older people and what can be done to reduce ageism. Intergenerational contact can improve attitudes towards older people, but the effect of inclusion of outgroups in the self (IOS) in the context of intergenerational contact remains unexplored. In addition, stereotypes of warmth and incompetence may be affected differently by contact experiences and have different roles in effecting change in ageist attitudes...
February 1, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Jennifer B Kane, Claire Margerison-Zilko
Recent efforts to explain the stark social and racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes that have persisted for decades in the U.S. have looked beyond prenatal factors, to explore preconception social conditions that may influence perinatal health via dysregulation of physiologic processes. The extant evidence supporting this link however remains limited, both due to a lack of data and theory. To address the latter, this manuscript generates a structured set of theoretical insights that further develop the link between two preconception social conditions - place and social relationships - and perinatal health...
October 2017: Population Research and Policy Review
Jennifer A Bailey, Marina Epstein, Christine M Steeger, Karl G Hill
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to understand whether substance-specific parenting practices predicted the probability of child alcohol, cigarette, or marijuana use beyond known family factors like family management and parental substance use and norms. METHODS: Data were drawn from the Intergenerational Project, which used an accelerated longitudinal design and included 383 families surveyed seven times between 2002 and 2011. Analyses included 224 families with children ages 10-18 years (49% female)...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Scott S Christensen, Barbara L Wilson, Linda S Edelman
AIMS: The purpose of this review is to help the nurse leader develop an understanding of the five generations currently in the health care workforce by providing defining characteristics, general behaviours, and strategies for the nurse manager to employ for each generational cohort. BACKGROUND: Generations are groups of people born during the same 15-20 year time period who share similar experiences before adulthood, which shape long-term behaviours. Key descriptors and characteristics are provided...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Christopher R Browning, Catherine A Calder, Brian Soller, Aubrey L Jackson, Jonathan Dirlam
Drawing on the social disorganization tradition and the social ecological perspective of Jane Jacobs, the authors hypothesize that neighborhoods composed of residents who intersect in space more frequently as a result of routine activities will exhibit higher levels of collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social network interaction and exchange. They develop this approach employing the concept of ecological networks-two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through spatial overlap in routine activities...
May 2017: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
Ning Liu, M Michèle Farrugia, Simone N Vigod, Marcelo L Urquia, Joel G Ray
BACKGROUND: A teenage woman's sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother's experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters' data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother's history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter's birth to 12 years after (i...
January 29, 2018: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Monica G Navarro, Emily J Braham, Melissa E Libertus
From birth, humans are able to discriminate quantities using the approximate number system (ANS). However, previous methods have only been suitable to examine ANS functioning in infancy and older children. The goals of this study were twofold: first, to modify an existing method of assessing ANS functioning for toddlerhood; and second, to investigate individual differences in toddlers' ANS performance by examining correlations with their parents' ANS acuity. Using a preferential looking paradigm, we found that 1- to 3-year-olds (N = 46) looked significantly longer to numerically changing images compared to numerically constant ones suggesting that the paradigm is a suitable measure of ANS functioning in toddlerhood...
January 29, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Tom Kleinepier, Ann Berrington, Lenny Stoeldraijer
Ethnic differences in leaving and returning home may reflect varying cultural norms regarding intergenerational coresidence, but also differences in transitions in linked domains, for example, employment and partnership transitions. This study uses Dutch population register data to compare returning home among second-generation Turks, Moroccans, Surinamese, and Antilleans with native Dutch who had left the parental home between age 16 and 28 in the period 1999 to 2011 (N = 194,020). All second-generation groups were found to be more likely to return home than native Dutch...
August 2017: Journal of Marriage and the Family
Denny Vågerö, Vanda Aronsson, Bitte Modin
Purpose: Transgenerational determinants of longevity are poorly understood. We used data from four linked generations (G0, G1, G2 and G3) of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study to address this issue. Methods: Mortality in G1 (N = 9565) was followed from 1961-2015 and analysed in relation to tertiles of their parents' (G0) age-at-death using Cox regression. Parental social class and marital status were adjusted for in the analyses, as was G1's birth order and adult social class...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
Tod G Hamilton, Tiffany L Green
Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995-2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS), we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
Dietmar Zinner, Idrissa S Chuma, Sascha Knauf, Christian Roos
Intergeneric hybridization and introgression was reported from one of two populations of the recently discovered kipunji (Rungwecebus kipunji), a critically endangered African monkey species of southern Tanzania. Kipunjis of the introgressed population (from Mount Rungwe) carry a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype closely related to those of parapatric yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), whereas the second kipunji population, in the Udzungwa Mountains, carries the original kipunji mtDNA haplotypes, which diverged from the baboon lineage about 3 million years ago...
January 2018: Biology Letters
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