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Sue Patterson, Kathleen Freshwater, Nicole Goulter, Julie Ewing, Boyd Leamon, Anand Choudhary, Vikas Moudgil, Brett Emmerson
Aims and method To describe and explain psychiatrists' responses to metabolic abnormalities identified during screening. We carried out an audit of clinical records to assess rates of monitoring and follow-up practice. Semi-structured interviews with 36 psychiatrists followed by descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Metabolic abnormalities were identified in 76% of eligible patients screened. Follow-up, recorded for 59%, was variable but more likely with four or more abnormalities. Psychiatrists endorse guidelines but ambivalence about responsibility, professional norms, resource constraints and skills deficits as well as patient factors influences practice...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Sarah R Brand, Karen Fasciano, Jennifer W Mack
PURPOSE: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that healthcare providers communicate information to patients in a truthful and developmentally appropriate manner. However, there is limited guidance about how to translate these recommendations into clinical practice. The aim of this study was to explore how young cancer patients experienced communication around their illness, especially communication about possible outcomes from disease or treatment. METHODS: Participants included young people ages 8 to under 18 years with cancer (N = 16)...
October 17, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Camille Clare, Mary-Beatrice Squire, Karem Alvarez, Julia Meisler, Candice Fraser
OBJECTIVE: The United States has the highest rate of adolescent pregnancy of the industrialized nations. Previously reported patient barriers to the use of contraception included an ambivalence about pregnancy; method side effects; difficulty using methods; lack of satisfaction with methods; concerns about safety; expense; and a lack of knowledge about long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). This survey aims to determine if there are additional barriers to contraception use and adherence among an ethnically diverse urban population...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
Amy Irby-Shasanmi, Tamara G J Leech
OBJECTIVE: Surveys often ask respondents to assess discrimination in health care. Yet, patients' responses to one type of widely used measure of discrimination (single-item, personally mediated) tend to reveal prevalence rates lower than observational studies would suggest. This study examines the meaning behind respondents' closed-ended self-reports on this specific type of measure, paying special attention to the frameworks and references used within the medical setting. DESIGN: Twenty-nine respondents participated in this study...
October 14, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
Ronald D Rogge, Frank D Fincham, Dev Crasta, Michael R Maniaci
Three studies were undertaken to develop the Positive-Negative Relationship Quality scale (PN-RQ), conceptualizing relationship quality as a bidimensional construct in which the positive qualities of a relationship are treated as distinct from its negative qualities. Analyses in emerging adults (Study 1: N = 1,814), in online respondents (Study 2: N = 787) with a 2-week follow-up, and in a single group pre-intervention-post-intervention study (Study 3: N = 54) of the Promoting Awareness, Improving Relationships (PAIR) program provided support for (a) positive and negative qualities as distinct dimensions via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), (b) the PN-RQ representing an item response theory-optimized measure of these 2 dimensions, (c) substantive differences between indifferent (low positive and negative qualities) and ambivalent (high positive and negative qualities) relationships potentially obscured by unidimensional scales, (d) high levels of responsiveness of the PN-RQ scales to change over time, (e) the unique predictive validity offered over time by the PN-RQ scores beyond that offered by scores of current unidimensional measures of relationship quality, and (f) the unique longitudinal information gained by using the PN-RQ as a bidimensional outcome measure in an intervention study...
October 13, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Ingegerd Bergbom, Carin Modh, Ingela Lundgren, Lillemor Lindwall
BACKGROUND: The body of first-time pregnant women is affected in many ways, and the women may not know what to expect. Conversations between women and healthcare personnel about women's bodily experience in early pregnancy can contribute to increased body knowledge, which may have a positive impact in later stages of their pregnancy and in relation to delivery. The aim of the study was to describe first-time pregnant women's experiences of their body in early pregnancy (pregnancy weeks 10-14)...
October 11, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Niels van de Ven, Maartje H J Meijs, Ad Vingerhoets
Earlier research found that the mere sight of tears promotes the willingness to provide support to the person shedding the tears. Other research, however, found that deliberate responses towards tearful persons could be more negative as well. We think this is because tears have ambivalent effects on person perception: We predicted that tearful people are seen as warmer, but also as less competent. In three studies, we asked participants (total N = 1,042) to form their impression of someone based on a picture...
October 6, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Yong-Ping Ding, Yannick Ladeiro, Ian Morilla, Yoram Bouhnik, Assiya Marah, Hatem Zaag, Dominique Cazals-Hatem, Philippe Seksik, Fanny Daniel, Jean-Pierre Hugot, Gilles Wainrib, Xavier Treton, Eric Ogier-Denis
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: The effect of cigarette smoking (CS) is ambivalent since smoking improves ulcerative colitis (UC) while it worsens Crohn's disease (CD). Although this clinical relationship between IBD and tobacco is well established, only a few experimental works have investigated the effect of smoking on the colonic barrier homeostasis focusing on xenobiotic detoxification genes. METHODS: A comprehensive and integrated comparative analysis of the global xenobiotic detoxification capacity of the normal colonic mucosa of healthy smokers (n=8) and non-smokers (n=9) versus the non-affected colonic mucosa of UC patients (n=19) was performed by qPCR...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Behzad S Khorashad, Zahra Aghili, Baudewijntje P C Kreukels, Mehran Hiradfar, Ghasem M Roshan, Mozhgan Afkhamizadeh, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Nosrat Ghaemi, Behnaz Khazai, Peggy Cohen Kettenis
INTRODUCTION: Few studies exist on the psychosexual outcome of homogeneous groups of individuals with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5α-RD-2) and the relation between gender changes and parental hostile and benevolent sexism, which are two components of ambivalent sexism that assume a stereotypical approach toward women in an overtly negative way or a chivalrous, seemingly positive way. AIM: To report on the psychosexual outcome of individuals with 5α-RD-2 and to investigate its relation to the level of parental sexism in a relatively large sample of Iranians with 5α-RD-2...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Temporal Attitudes Profile Transition Among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Examination Using Mover-Stayer Latent Transition Analysis" by Grant B. Morgan, Kevin E. Wells, James R. Andretta and Michael T. McKay (Psychological Assessment, Advanced Online Publication, Sep 5, 2016, np). In the original article, the affiliation for Michael T. McKay should be Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-42727-001...
October 3, 2016: Psychological Assessment
Lyn Pleger, Fritz Sager
Evaluations can only serve as a neutral evidence base for policy decision-making as long as they have not been altered along non-scientific criteria. Studies show that evaluators are repeatedly put under pressure to deliver results in line with given expectations. The study of pressure and influence to misrepresent findings is hence an important research strand for the development of evaluation praxis. A conceptual challenge in the area of evaluation ethics research is the fact that pressure can be not only negative, but also positive...
September 18, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Julia Dickson-Gomez, Katherine Quinn, Michelle Broaddus, Maria Pacella
High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members...
August 9, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Xavier Gocko
OBJECTIVE: In France, chronic pain prevalence, causing professional or domestic activity restriction, increases with age, and reaches more than 60% people over 85 years old. In 2006, 40% of patients suffering from chronic pain are still not satisfied with practioners' monitoring and therefore multiply consultations. The aim of this study was to analyse the phenomenon of chronic pain, thanks to patients' experience and consciousness of their own situations. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: This qualitative phenomenological study had the objective to enter in patients' "singular universe" by using two-fold hermeneutics, both empathic and critical...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Jessica Liauw, Jessica Foran, Brigid Dineley, Dustin Costescu, Fiona G Kouyoumdjian
OBJECTIVE: Studies from the United States have shown that women in correctional facilities have higher rates of unintended pregnancy and unmet need for contraception compared with the general population, and that the provision of family planning services in correctional facilities may improve access to contraception. No study has examined these issues in women in correctional facilities in Canada. We aimed to describe the rates of unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use for incarcerated women in Ontario...
September 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Jeremiah Weinstock, Margaret R Farney, Noel M Elrod, Craig E Henderson, Edward P Weiss
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are maladaptive patterns of substance use that are associated with psychiatric comorbidity, unhealthy lifestyle choices, and high rates of relapse. Exercise is associated with a wide range of acute and long-term benefits for both mental and physical health and is presently being investigated as a promising adjunctive treatment for SUD. Despite positive effects of regular physical activity on treatment outcomes and risk factors for relapse, low adherence and high attrition rates limit the benefits derived from exercise interventions...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Jon A Frederick, Andrew S Heim, Kelli N Dunn, Cynthia D Powers, Casey J Klein
While biofeedback is often said to increase self-control of physiological states by increasing awareness of their subjective correlates, relatively few studies have analyzed the relationship between control (standard biofeedback) and awareness (a discrimination paradigm). We hypothesized that the two skills would generalize and facilitate each other for 8-12Hz EEG amplitude (alpha). Participants were given 7 sessions of training to either control or discriminate Pz alpha followed by 3 sessions of the other paradigm...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Peter D Cooper
BACKGROUND: Modern living is awash with low-frequency electromagnetic radiation raising concern over health effects, birth defects, and infant cancers especially leukemias. Medical/scientific opinion is ambivalent, especially regarding possible mechanisms of action despite our bodies׳ many electric currents. AIMS: Are some cancers induced by morphogenetic changes rather than direct mutation? We wished to see if morphogenetic effects of weak, extremely low-frequency electric (ELF) fields in embryonated hen׳s eggs could induce cancers, knowing that such treatment is usually deleterious...
August 18, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Patrik Heindl, Adelbert Bachlechner, Peter Nydahl, Ingrid Egerod
BACKGROUND: Diaries written for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are offered in many European countries. In Austria, ICU diaries have been relatively unknown, but since 2012, they have started to emerge. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the extent and application of ICU diaries in Austria in 2015. METHOD: The study had a prospective multiple methods design of survey and interviews. All ICUs in Austria were surveyed in 2015 to identify which ICUs used diaries...
September 21, 2016: Nursing in Critical Care
Ludovic Samalin, Ingrid de Chazeron, Olivier Blanc, Lore Brunel, Guillaume Fond, Pierre-Michel Llorca
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interest in the attitudes toward antipsychotic medication in exploring medication non-adherence. METHODS: Schizophrenic patients (N=120) completed the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and measures of medication adherence, and clinical outcomes. Comparison between four attitudinal groups and logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS: High level of adherence varied significantly between attitudinal groups (Accepting, 70%; Indifferent, 63%; Ambivalent, 50%; Sceptical, 14%; p<0...
September 13, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Juan Iniesta Sáez, María Luisa Di Pietro
Clinical research has an ambivalent nature for the benefits it promises and the risks we inevitably incur. When the subjects involved are minors, ethical issues become more complicated. The ethical importance of the matter is revealed especially when assessing clinical trials in which children are exposed to high risk (it can involve even the subject's live), because those children have no legal skill to decide about the question, and when the big institutions (pharmaceutical companies, universities or public institutions) give preference to research 'progress', over the welfare of the minors...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
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