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Choline oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436220/metal-free-organocatalytic-oxidative-ugi-reaction-promoted-by-hypervalent-iodine
#1
Karandeep Singh, Amanpreet Kaur, Venus Singh Mithu, Siddharth Sharma
We report here a novel IBX promoted oxidative coupling of primary amines and its utilization to Ugi reaction. Advantageously, the reaction could be carried out in choline chloride-urea as a natural deep eutectic solvent. A range of imines and bis-amides from pseudo-four component oxidative Ugi reaction could be synthesized under mild and metal-free conditions. Advantageously, the oxidant (IBX) and solvent could be recycled up to five times with only a slight loss in activity.
April 24, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425467/hyperpolarized-13-c-spectroscopic-evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-in-a-rodent-model-of-steatohepatitis
#2
David M Wilson, Valentina Di Gialleonardo, Zhen J Wang, Valerie Carroll, Cornelius Von Morze, Andrew Taylor, Victor Sai, Mark VanCriekinge, Robert Bok, Michael A Ohliger, Kayvan R Keshari
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become highly prevalent, now considered the most common liver disease in the western world. Approximately one-third of patients with NASH develop non-alchoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), histologically defined by lobular and portal inflammation, and accompanied by marked oxidative stress. Patients with NASH are at increased risk for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and diagnosis currently requires invasive biopsy. In animal models of NASH, particularly the methionine-choline deficient (MCD) model, profound changes are seen in redox enzymes and key intracellular antioxidants...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413987/alzheimer-s-disease-like-early-phase-brain-pathogenesis-self-curing-amelioration-of-neurodegeneration-from-pro-inflammatory-wounding-to-anti-inflammatory-healing
#3
Jiang He, Tao Liao, Guo-Xin Zhong, Ji-Da Zhang, Yan-Ping Chen, Qi Wang, Qing-Ping Zeng
The etiological initiators of neuroinflammation remain inclusive, and effective interventions to block neurodegeneration are unavailable. Surprisingly, we found collagen II-combined complete Freund's adjuvant (CC) that usually induces rheumatoid arthritis (RA) also drives Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurodegeneration in mice. CC not only upregulates the cerebral pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8), but also downregulates the cerebral interleukin 10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a rate-limiting enzyme for biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory neurotransmitter dopamine...
April 17, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396286/altered-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-integrity-in-lipocalin-2-deficient-mice-with-hepatic-steatosis
#4
Anastasia Asimakopoulou, Annabelle Fülöp, Erawan Borkham-Kamphorst, Eddy Van de Leur, Nikolaus Gassler, Thorsten Berger, Birte Beine, Helmut E Meyer, Tak W Mak, Carsten Hopf, Corinna Henkel, Ralf Weiskirchen
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a secreted adipokine that transports small hydrophobic molecules such as fatty acids and steroids. LCN2 limits bacterial growth by sequestering iron-containing siderophores and in mammalian liver protects against inflammation, infection, injury and other stressors. Because LCN2 modulates hepatic fat metabolism and homeostasis, we performed a comparative profiling of proteins and lipids of wild type (WT) and Lcn2-deficient mice fed either standard chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet...
April 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396257/b-vitamin-and-choline-supplementation-increases-neuroplasticity-and-recovery-after-stroke
#5
Nafisa M Jadavji, Joshua T Emmerson, Amanda J MacFarlane, William G Willmore, Patrice D Smith
Folates are B-vitamins that play an important role in brain function. Dietary and genetic deficiencies in folate metabolism result in elevated levels of homocysteine which have been linked to increased risk of developing a stroke. Reducing levels of homocysteine before or after a stroke through B-vitamin supplementation has been a focus of many clinical studies, however, the results remain inconsistent. Animal model systems provide a powerful mechanism to study and understand functional impact and mechanisms through which supplementation affects stroke recovery...
April 7, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390486/colorimetric-biosensor-for-the-assay-of-paraoxon-in-environmental-water-samples-based-on-the-iodine-starch-color-reaction
#6
Liangqia Guo, Zhihong Li, Huan Chen, Yarong Wu, Ling Chen, Zhiping Song, Tianran Lin
In this work, a new colorimetric biosensor for the assay of paraoxon was developed via the conventional iodine-starch color reaction and multi-enzyme cascade catalytic reactions. In the presence of acetylcholine chloride, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline oxidase (ChO) catalyzed the formation of H2O2, which then activated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to catalyze the oxidation of KI to produce an iodine-starch color reaction. Upon exposure to paraoxon, the catalytic activity of AChE was inhibited and less H2O2 generated, resulting in a decrease in the production of I2 and a drop in the intensity of solution color...
May 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377341/-a-machine-learning-model-using-gut-microbiome-data-for-predicting-changes-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-healthy-volunteers-after-choline-consumption
#7
Jun-Qi Lu, Shan Wang, Jia Yin, Shan Wu, Yan He, Hui-Min Zheng, Hua-Fang Sheng, Hong-Wei Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To establish a machine learning model based on gut microbiota for predicting the level of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism in vivo after choline intake to provide guidance of individualized precision diet and evidence for screening population at high risks of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We quantified plasma levels of TMAO in 18 healthy volunteers before and 8 h after a choline challenge (ingestion of two boiled eggs). The volunteers were divided into two groups with increased or decreased TMAO level following choline challenge...
March 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365916/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-pedf-prevents-hepatic-fat-storage-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-dietary-steatohepatitis-of-mice
#8
Takafumi Yoshida, Jun Akiba, Takanori Matsui, Kazuo Nakamura, Takao Hisamoto, Mitsuhiko Abe, Yu Ikezono, Fumitaka Wada, Hideki Iwamoto, Toru Nakamura, Hironori Koga, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Takuji Torimura
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of inflammation through its anti-oxidative property. Since oxidative response is considered to play the pivotal role of the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), it is conceivable that PEDF may play a protective role against NASH. In this study, we examined whether administration of PEDF slowed the progression of NASH in mice models. METHODS: Mice were fed methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet with or without intramuscular administration of adenovirus-expressing PEDF (Ad-PEDF)...
April 1, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358223/ameliorative-effects-of-pyrazinoic-acid-against-oxidative-and-metabolic-stress-manifested-in-rats-with-dimethylhydrazine-induced-colonic-carcinoma
#9
Anil K Sahdev, Vinit Raj, Ashok K Singh, Amit Rai, Amit K Keshari, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Umesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Dinesh Kumar, Sneha Nath, Anand Prakash, Sudipta Saha
Pyrazinoic acid (PA) is structurally similar to nicotinic acid which acts on G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR109A). GPR109A expresses in colonic and intestinal epithelial sites, and involves in DNA methylation and cellular apoptosis. Therefore, it may be assumed that PA has similar action like nicotinic acid and may be effective against colorectal carcinoma (CRC). CRC was produced via subcutaneous injection of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at 40 mg/kg body weight once in a week for four weeks. After that, PA was administered orally at two doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg daily for 15 days to observe the antiproliferative effect...
March 30, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342849/comparative-effects-of-etoh-consumption-and-thiamine-deficiency-on-cognitive-impairment-oxidative-damage-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-peptide-overproduction-in-the-brain
#10
Yu-Shi Gong, Kun Hu, Lu-Qi Yang, Juan Guo, Yong-Qing Gao, Feng-Lin Song, Fang-Li Hou, Cui-Yi Liang
The effects of chronic EtOH consumption, associated or not with thiamine deficiency (TD), on cognitive impairment, oxidative damage, and β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brain were investigated in male C57BL/6 mice. We established an alcoholic mouse model by feeding an EtOH liquid diet, a TD mouse model by feeding a thiamine-depleted liquid diet, and an EtOH treatment associated with TD mouse model by feeding a thiamine-depleted EtOH liquid diet for 7 weeks. The learning and memory functions of the mice were detected through the Y-maze test...
March 22, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325574/decoy-receptor-3-analogous-supplement-protects-steatotic-rat-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#11
Tzu-Hao Li, Chih-Wei Liu, Pei-Chang Lee, Chia-Chang Huang, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Han-Chieh Lin, Chang-Youh Tsai
BACKGROUND: For steatotic livers, pharmacological approaches to minimize the hepatic neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, and cytokine and chemokine release in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are still limited. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α superfamily-stimulated pathogenic cascades and M1 macrophage/Kupffer cells (KC) polarization from Th1 cytokines are important in the pathogenesis of IR liver injury with hepatic steatosis (HS). Conversely, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages produce Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4), which reciprocally enhances M2 polarization...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319840/grafting-heteroelement-rich-groups-on-graphene-oxide-tuning-polarity-and-molecular-interaction-with-bio-ionic-liquid-for-enhanced-lubrication
#12
Liwen Mu, Yijun Shi, Xiaojing Guo, Wei Zhuang, Long Chen, Tuo Ji, Jing Hua, Huaiyuan Wang, Jiahua Zhu
Two different heteroelement-rich molecules have been successfully grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets which were then used as lubricant additives in bio-ionic liquid. The grafting was processed with reactions between GO sheets and synthesized heteroelement-rich molecules (Imidazol-1-yl phosphonic dichloride and 1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl phosphonic dichloride, respectively). The modified GO (m-GO) was added into [Choline][Proline] ([CH][P]) bio-ionic liquid, and has been demonstrated effective additive in promoting lubrication...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318590/supplementation-with-rumen-protected-methionine-or-choline-during-the-transition-period-influences-whole-blood-immune-response-in-periparturient-dairy-cows
#13
M Vailati-Riboni, Z Zhou, C B Jacometo, A Minuti, E Trevisi, D N Luchini, J J Loor
Methionine, together with Lys, is the most limiting AA for milk production in dairy cows. Besides its crucial role in milk production, Met and its derivate metabolites (e.g., glutathione, taurine, polyamines) are well-known immunonutrients in nonruminants, helping support and boost immune function and activity. In the present study, the effects of Met or choline, as its precursor, were investigated using an ex vivo whole blood challenge. The study involved 33 multiparous Holstein cows (from a larger cohort with a factorial arrangement of treatments) assigned from d -21 to +30 relative to parturition to a basal control (CON) diet, CON plus rumen-protected Met (MET, Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) at a rate of 0...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300775/protective-effects-of-fucoidan-on-a%C3%AE-25-35-and-d-gal-induced-neurotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-and-d-gal-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#14
Hengyun Wei, Zixiang Gao, Luping Zheng, Cuili Zhang, Zundong Liu, Yazong Yang, Hongming Teng, Lin Hou, Yuling Yin, Xiangyang Zou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease which contributes to memory loss and cognitive decline in the elderly. Fucoidan, extracted from brown algae, is a complex sulfated polysaccharide and potential bioactive compound. In this study, we investigated whether fucoidan protects PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by a combination of beta-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and d-galactose (d-Gal), and improves learning and memory impairment in AD model mice. The results indicated that fucoidan could inhibit the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to cytosol and activation of caspases, and increase the expression of apoptosis inhibitor proteins (IAPs), including livin and X-linked IAP (XIAP) in PC12 cells damaged by Aβ25-35 and d-Gal-induction...
March 16, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287694/reductively-degradable-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hydrogels-with-oriented-porosity-for-tissue-engineering-applications
#15
Hana Macková, Zdeněk Plichta, Helena Hlídková, Ondřej Sedláček, Rafal Konefal, Zhansaya Sadakbayeva, Miroslava Dušková-Smrčková, Daniel Horák, Šárka Kubinová
Degradable poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels were prepared from a linear copolymer (Mw = 49 kDa) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 2-(acethylthio)ethyl methacrylate (ATEMA), and zwitterionic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The deprotection of ATEMA thiol groups by triethylamine followed by their gentle oxidation with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine resulted in the formation of reductively degradable polymers with disulfide bridges. Finally, a hydrogel 3D structure with an oriented porosity was obtained by gelation of the polymer in the presence of needle-like sodium acetate crystals...
March 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286271/p16-deficiency-promotes-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-via-regulation-of-hepatic-oxidative-stress
#16
Fangqiao Lv, Jun Wu, Dengshun Miao, Wei An, Yutong Wang
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by excess accumulation of lipids in liver, accompanied with hepatocyte injury, cell death and inflammation. Although p16 is known as tumor suppressor in multiple cancer types, it remains unclear whether p16 plays a critical role in NASH. To determine whether p16 could play a role in the pathogenesis of NASH, wild-type mice and p16(-/-) mice were fed on a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 3 weeks, and liver steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation were evaluated...
April 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284975/chronic-treatment-with-taurine-after-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-injection-improves-cognitive-dysfunction-in-rats-by-modulating-oxidative-stress-cholinergic-functions-and-neuroinflammation
#17
K H Reeta, Devendra Singh, Y K Gupta
The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of taurine, an essential amino acid for growth and development of central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) model of cognitive impairment was used in male Wistar rats (270 ± 20 g). Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were used to assess cognitive performance. Taurine (40, 60 and 120 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days following STZ administration on day 1. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase) and cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) activity were measured at end of the study in the cortex and hippocampus...
March 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281385/electroacupuncture-brain-protection-during-ischemic-stroke-a-role-for-the-parasympathetic-nervous-system
#18
Laiting Chi, Kairong Du, Dongdong Liu, Yulong Bo, Wenzhi Li
The demand for using parasympathetic activation for stroke therapy is unmet. In the current study, we investigated whether the neuroprotection provided by electroacupuncture (EA) in an experimental stroke model was associated with activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The results showed that parasympathetic dysfunction (PD), performed as unilateral vagotomy combined with peripheral atropine, attenuated both the functional benefits of EA and its effects in improving cerebral perfusion, reducing infarct volume, and hindering apoptosis, neuronal and peripheral inflammation, and oxidative stress...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268225/pattern-of-nitrergic-neuronal-system-organization-in-the-brain-of-two-holostean-fishes-actinopterygii-ginglymodi
#19
Jesús M López, Daniel Lozano, Lorena Morales, Agustín González
The study of the nitrergic system, formed by the networks of neurons containing the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), has been extremely useful in unraveling neuroanatomical features of the organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Thus, data are available for representatives of most vertebrate classes and, in particular, several studies have detailed the organization of this system in teleosts. In contrast, no information is available regarding this neurotransmission system in the brains of holosteans, an early diverged and poorly understood group of actinopterygian fishes, currently considered a sister group of teleosts that contains only 8 species...
March 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261475/the-action-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-on-the-growth-metabolism-and-global-histone-h3-acetylation-of-spontaneous-mouse-mammary-tumours-evidence-of-a-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-paradox
#20
Loreta M Rodrigues, Santiago Uribe-Lewis, Basetti Madhu, Davina J Honess, Marion Stubbs, John R Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Ketone bodies have both metabolic and epigenetic roles in cancer. In several studies, they showed an anti-cancer effect via inhibition of histone deacetylases; however, other studies observed faster tumour growth. The related molecule butyrate also inhibits growth of some cancer cells and accelerates it in others. This "butyrate paradox" is thought to be due to butyrate mediating histone acetylation and thus inhibiting cell proliferation in cancers that preferentially utilise glucose (the Warburg effect); whereas in cells that oxidise butyrate as a fuel, it fails to reach inhibitory concentrations and can stimulate growth...
2017: Cancer & Metabolism
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