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Choline oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331340/hsp72-protects-from-liver-injury-via-attenuation-of-hepatocellular-death-oxidative-stress-and-jnk-signaling
#1
Kateryna Levada, Nurdan Guldiken, Xiaoji Zhang, Giovanna Vella, Fa-Rong Mo, Laura P James, Johannes Haybaeck, Sonja M Kessler, Alexandra K Kiemer, Thomas Ott, Daniel Hartmann, Norbert Hüser, Marianne Ziol, Christian Trautwein, Pavel Strnad
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a molecular chaperone that is upregulated in response to stress and possesses broad cytoprotective functions. To determine its hepatic function, we studied its expression in human liver disorders and its biological significance in newly generated transgenic animals. AIM AND METHODS: Double transgenic mice overexpressing Hsp72 (gene HSPA1A) under the control of a tissue-specific tetracycline-inducible system (Hsp72-LAP mice) were produced...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326427/severe-steatosis-induces-portal-hypertension-by-systemic-arterial-hyporeactivity-and-hepatic-vasoconstrictor-hyperreactivity-in-rats
#2
Denise Van der Graaff, Wilhelmus J Kwanten, Filip J Couturier, Jesse S Govaerts, Wim Verlinden, Isabel Brosius, Michiel D'Hondt, Ann Driessen, Benedicte Y De Winter, Joris G De Man, Peter P Michielsen, Sven M Francque
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most prevalent chronic liver disease. The presence of portal hypertension has been demonstrated in NAFLD prior to development of inflammation or fibrosis, and is a result of extrahepatic and intrahepatic factors, principally driven by vascular dysfunction. An increased intrahepatic vascular resistance potentially contributes to progression of NAFLD via intralobular hypoxia. However, the exact mechanisms underlying vascular dysfunction in NAFLD remain unknown...
January 11, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322369/proteomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma-after-acute-ammonia-exposure
#3
Limei Zhu, Na Gao, Ruifang Wang, Li Zhang
Ammonia is both a highly toxic environmental pollutant and the major nitrogenous waste produced by ammoniotelic teleosts. Although the acute toxic effects of ammonia have been widely studied in fish, the biochemical mechanisms of its toxicity have not been understood comprehensively. In this study, we performed comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis between ammonia-challenged (1.2 and 2.6 mmol L-1 NH4Cl for 96 h) and control groups of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) to identify changes of the metabolite and protein profiles in response to ammonia stress...
January 10, 2018: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313753/compared-to-an-oatmeal-breakfast-two-eggs-day-increased-plasma-carotenoids-and-choline-without-increasing-trimethyl-amine-n-oxide-concentrations
#4
Amanda Missimer, Maria Luz Fernandez, Diana M DiMarco, Gregory H Norris, Christopher N Blesso, Ana Gabriela Murillo, Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Bruno S Lemos, Isabel Medina-Vera, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill
BACKGROUND: Habitual consumption of eggs has been hypothesized to positively modify biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk through proposed antioxidant properties. OBJECTIVES: To examine this relationship, 50 young, healthy men and women were enrolled into a randomized crossover clinical intervention. METHODS: Participants consumed either 2 eggs per day or one packet of oatmeal a day for 4 weeks, followed by a 3-week wash-out and crossed over to the alternate breakfast...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305509/transcriptional-responses-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-to-potable-water-and-freshwater
#5
Erika L English, Kristin C Schutz, Graham G Willsey, Matthew J Wargo
Many Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are derived from residential, recreational, or surface water sources, thus, these environments represent an important pre-infection niche. To better understand P. aeruginosa biology in these environments, we quantified transcriptional changes by microarray after exposure to diluted LB, diluted R2B, potable tap water, and freshwater from a eutrophic pond. qRT-PCR confirmed conservation of these responses in other water sources, and competition experiments were used to test the importance of three implicated metabolic pathways...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305401/changes-in-gut-microbiota-related-metabolites-and-long-term-successful-weight-loss-in-response-to-weight-loss-diets-the-pounds-lost-trial
#6
Yoriko Heianza, Dianjianyi Sun, Steven R Smith, George A Bray, Frank M Sacks, Lu Qi
OBJECTIVE: Adiposity and the gut microbiota are both related to the risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to comprehensively examine how changes induced by a weight-loss diet intervention in gut microbiota-related metabolites, such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors (choline and l-carnitine), were associated with improvements in adiposity and regional fat deposition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 510 overweight and obese individuals who were randomly assigned one of four diets varying in macronutrient intake...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290620/pharmacological-stimulation-of-p53-with-low-dose-doxorubicin-ameliorates-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatosis-and-steatohepatitis
#7
Begoña Porteiro, Marcos F Fondevila, Xabier Buque, Maria J Gonzalez-Rellan, Uxia Fernandez, Alfonso Mora, Daniel Beiroa, Ana Senra, Rosalia Gallego, Johan Fernø, Miguel López, Guadalupe Sabio, Carlos Dieguez, Patricia Aspichueta, Rubén Nogueiras
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports have implicated the p53 tumor suppressor in the regulation of lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that the pharmacological activation of p53 with low-dose doxorubicin, which is widely used to treat several types of cancer, may have beneficial effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: We used long-term pharmacological activation of p53 by i.p. or oral administration of low-dose doxorubicin in different animal models of NAFLD (high fat diet containing 45% and 60% kcal fat) and NASH (methionine- and choline-deficient diet and choline deficiency combined with high fat diet)...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247563/acetylcholine-precursor-citicoline-cytidine-5-diphosphocholine-reduces-hypoglycemia-induced-neuronal-death-in-rats
#8
Jin Hee Kim, Bo Young Choi, A Ra Kho, Song Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Jeong, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Hwon Lee, Min Sohn, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Moon-Gi Choi, Sang Won Suh
Citicoline (cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is an important precursor for the synthesis of neuronal plasma membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. Administration of citicoline serves as a choline donor for the synthesis of acetylcholine. Citicoline has been shown to reduce the neuronal injury in animal models with cerebral ischemia and in clinical trials of stroke patients. Citicoline is currently being investigated in a multicenter clinical trial. However, citicoline has not yet been examined the context of hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247122/prostaglandin-i2-suppresses-the-development-of-diet-induced-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#9
Shima Kumei, Koh-Ichi Yuhki, Fumiaki Kojima, Hitoshi Kashiwagi, Yoshitaka Imamichi, Toshikatsu Okumura, Shuh Narumiya, Fumitaka Ushikubi
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Although the prostaglandin (PG)I2 receptor IP is expressed broadly in the liver, the role of PGI2-IP signaling in the development of NASH remains to be determined. Here, we investigated the role of the PGI2-IP system in the development of steatohepatitis using mice lacking the PGI2 receptor IP [IP-knockout (IP-KO) mice] and beraprost (BPS), a specific IP agonist. IP-KO and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for 2, 5, or 10 wk...
December 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246445/protective-effect-of-genetic-deletion-of-pannexin1-in-experimental-mouse-models-of-acute-and-chronic-liver-disease
#10
Joost Willebrords, Michaël Maes, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Veronica Mollica Govoni, Valéria Veras Lopes, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Valery I Shestopalov, Marina Sayuri Nogueira, Inar Alves de Castro, Anwar Farhood, Inge Mannaerts, Leo van Grunsven, Jephte Akakpo, Margitta Lebofsky, Hartmut Jaeschke, Bruno Cogliati, Mathieu Vinken
Pannexins are transmembrane proteins that form communication channels connecting the cytosol of an individual cell with its extracellular environment. A number of studies have documented the presence of pannexin1 in liver as well as its involvement in inflammatory responses. In this study, it was investigated whether pannexin1 plays a role in acute liver failure and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, being prototypical acute and chronic liver pathologies, respectively, both featured by liver damage, oxidative stress and inflammation...
December 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240800/effect-of-long-term-dietary-sphingomyelin-supplementation-on-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#11
Rosanna W S Chung, Zeneng Wang, Christina A Bursill, Ben J Wu, Philip J Barter, Kerry-Anne Rye
Sphingomyelin (SM) levels in the circulation correlate positively with atherosclerosis burden. SM is a ubiquitous component of human diets, but it is unclear if dietary SM increases circulating SM levels. Dietary choline increases atherosclerosis by raising circulating trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) levels in mice and humans. As SM has a choline head group, we ask in this study if dietary SM accelerates atherosclerotic lesion development by increasing circulating SM and TMAO levels. Three studies were performed: (Study 1) C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a high fat diet with or without SM supplementation for 4 weeks prior to quantification of serum TMAO and SM levels; (Study 2) atherosclerosis was studied in apoE-/- mice after 16 weeks of a high fat diet without or with SM supplementation and (Study 3) apoE-/- mice were maintained on a chow diet for 19 weeks without or with SM supplementation and antibiotic treatment prior to quantification of atherosclerotic lesions and serum TMAO and SM levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234406/amelioration-of-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-by-%C3%AE-pinene-in-c57bl-6-mice
#12
Gil-Yong Lee, Chan Lee, Gyu Hwan Park, Jung-Hee Jang
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mediated via disruption of cholinergic neurons and enhanced oxidative stress. Therefore, attention has been focused on searching for antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and/or treatment of AD through their ability to fortify cholinergic function and antioxidant defense capacity. In this study, we have investigated the neuroprotective effect of α-pinene (APN) against learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (SCO, 1 mg/kg, i...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230812/the-gut-microbiota-an-emerging-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
Stefanie Ascher, Christoph Reinhardt
Commensal gut microbiota have recently been implicated in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebrovascular disease. Atherosclerotic plaque formation depends on the colonization status of the host. In addition to host nutrition and the related microbiota-dependent metabolic changes, activation of innate immune pathways triggers the development of atherosclerosis and supports arterial thrombosis. Gnotobiotic mouse models have uncovered that activation of Toll-like receptor-2 by gut microbial ligands supports von Willebrand factor-integrin mediated platelet deposition to the site of vascular injury...
December 12, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222497/computational-insights-for-the-hydride-transfer-and-distinctive-roles-of-key-residues-in-cholesterol-oxidase
#14
Li-Juan Yu, Emily Golden, Nanhao Chen, Yuan Zhao, Alice Vrielink, Amir Karton
Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx), a member of the glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) family, catalyzes the oxidation of the substrate via a hydride transfer mechanism and concomitant reduction of the FAD cofactor. Unlike other GMC enzymes, the conserved His447 is not the catalytic base that deprotonates the substrate in ChOx. Our QM/MM MD simulations indicate that the Glu361 residue acts as a catalytic base facilitating the hydride transfer from the substrate to the cofactor. We find that two rationally chosen point mutations (His447Gln and His447Asn) cause notable decreases in the catalytic activity...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214510/myeloid-deficiency-of-ccn3-exacerbates-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Wenconghui Wu, Xingjian Hu, Xianming Zhou, Philip A Klenotic, Qi Zhou, Zhiyong Lin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat accumulates in the liver of patients without a prior history of alcohol abuse. The most severe form, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), often leads to hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis with ensuing complications. To date, there is no pharmacologic treatment for NASH. The biological effects of CCN3, specifically its role in the regulation of inflammation, reactive oxygen species production and angiogenesis, have been recently established. Additional data suggests that CCN3 is associated with the development of tumors in the liver yet may be protective of liver fibrogenesis...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198193/regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-deposition-by-phospholipid-in-large-yellow-croaker
#16
Zuonan Cai, Kangsen Mai, Qinghui Ai
Dietary phospholipid (PL) supplementation has been shown to reduce lipid accumulation in the tissues of farmed fish; however, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the potential impacts of PL on hepatic lipid metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo study, four experimental diets - low lipid and low PL diet, as control diet (LL-LP diet, containing 12 % lipid and 1·5 % PL), low-lipid and high-PL diet (containing 12 % lipid and 8 % PL), high-lipid and low-PL diet (HL-LP diet, containing 20 % lipid and 1·5 % PL) and high-lipid and high-PL diet (HL-HP diet, containing 20 % lipid and 8 % PL) - were randomly allocated to four groups of large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) (three cages per group) with similar initial body weight (approximately 8 g)...
December 4, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190076/a-reversible-charge-induced-intramolecular-c4a-s-cysteinyl-flavin-in-choline-oxidase-variant-s101c
#17
Dan Su, Hongling Yuan, Giovanni Gadda
Choline oxidase serves as a paradigm for alcohol oxidation catalyzed by flavin-dependent enzymes. In its active site, S101 is 4 Å from the flavin C4a atom on an extended loop. Enzyme variants substituted at S101 were generated in a previous study and investigated mechanistically [Yuan, H., Gadda, G. (2011) Biochemistry 50, 770-779]. In this study, the typical UV-visible absorption spectrum of oxidized flavin was observed for the S101C enzyme in HEPES, TES or sodium phosphate, whereas an absorption spectrum suggesting the presence of a Ca4 flavin adduct with cysteine was obtained in Tris-Cl at pH 8...
November 30, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178805/zn2-induced-irreversible-aggregation-stacking-and-leakage-of-choline-phosphate-liposomes
#18
Yibo Liu, Juewen Liu
The interaction between lipids and metal ions is important for metal sensing, cellular signal transduction, and oxidative lipid damage. While most previous work overlooked the phosphate group of lipids for metal binding, we herein highlight its importance. Phosphocholine (PC) and its headgroup inversed choline phosphate (CP) lipids were respectively used to prepare liposomes. From dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zn2+ causes significant aggregation or fusion of the CP liposomes, but not PC liposomes. The size change induced by Zn2+ is not fully reversed by adding EDTA, implying liposome fusion induced by Zn2+...
November 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178045/considering-choline-as-methionine-precursor-lipoproteins-transporter-hepatic-promoter-and-antioxidant-agent-in-dairy-cows
#19
REVIEW
Imtiaz Hussain Raja Abbasi, Farzana Abbasi, Rab N Soomro, Mohamed E Abd El-Hack, Mervat A Abdel-Latif, Wen Li, Ren Hao, Feifei Sun, Bello M Bodinga, Khawar Hayat, Junhu Yao, Yangchun Cao
During the transition period, fatty liver syndrome may be caused in cows undergo negative energy balance, ketosis or hypocalcemia, retained placenta or mastitis problems. During the transition stage, movement of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increases into blood which declines the hepatic metabolism or reproduction and consequently, lactation performance of dairy cows deteriorates. Most of studies documented that, choline is an essential nutrient which plays a key role to decrease fatty liver, NEFA proportion, improve synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, maintain lactation or physiological function and work as anti-oxidant in the transition period of dairy cows...
November 25, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175450/crosstalk-between-machrm3-and-%C3%AE-2ar-via-acetylcholine-pi3-pkc-pbep1-raf-1-mek1-2-erk1-2-pathway-activation-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-after-long-term-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#20
Giusy Daniela Albano, Anna Bonanno, Monica Moscato, Giulia Anzalone, Caterina Di Sano, Loredana Riccobono, Sally E Wenzel, Mirella Profita
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affects the expression of non-neuronal components of cholinergic system in bronchial epithelial cells and, as PEBP1/Raf-mediated MAPK1/2 and ERK1/2 pathway, promotes inflammation and oxidative stress. AIMS: We studied whether Acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in the mechanism of crosstalk between mAChRM3 and β2Adrenergic receptors (β2AR) promoting, via PI3/PKC/PBEP1/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 activation, β2AR desensitization, inflammation and, oxidative stress in a bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE) after long-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract (LECSE)...
November 22, 2017: Life Sciences
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