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Choline oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776435/fecal-aliquot-straw-technique-fast-allows-for-easy-and-reproducible-subsampling-assessing-interpersonal-variation-in-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-accumulation
#1
Kymberleigh A Romano, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Robert L Kerby, Eugenio I Vivas, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Pamela Herd, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Convenient, reproducible, and rapid preservation of unique biological specimens is pivotal to their use in microbiome analyses. As an increasing number of human studies incorporate the gut microbiome in their design, there is a high demand for streamlined sample collection and storage methods that are amenable to different settings and experimental needs. While several commercial kits address collection/shipping needs for sequence-based studies, these methods do not preserve samples properly for studies that require viable microbes...
May 18, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775856/a-simple-ultrasensitive-electrochemical-sensor-for-simultaneous-determination-of-gallic-acid-and-uric-acid-in-human-urine-and-fruit-juices-based-on-zirconia-choline-chloride-gold-nanoparticles-modified-carbon-paste-electrode
#2
Seyed Alireza Shahamirifard, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Zahra Razmi, Shaaker Hajati
The determination of gallic acid (GA) and uric acid (UA) is essential due to their biological properties. Numerous methods have been reported for the analysis of GA and UA in various real samples. However, the development of a simple, rapid and practical sensor still remains a great challenge. Here, a carbon paste electrode (CPE) was modified by nanocomposite containing zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs), Choline chloride (ChCl) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to construct ZrO2 -ChCl-AuNPs/CPE as electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous electro-oxidation of GA and UA...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775722/inflammatory-and-oxidative-mechanisms-potentiate-bifenthrin-induced-neurological-alterations-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adult-rats
#3
Brahim Gargouri, Harsharan S Bhatia, Michèle Bouchard, Bernd L Fiebich, Hamadi Fetoui
Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid pesticide widely used in several countries to manage insect pests on diverse agricultural crops. Growing evidence indicates that BF exposure is associated with an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanisms by which BF induces neurological and anxiety alterations in the frontal cortex and striatum are not well known. The present in vivo study was carried out to determine whether reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation are involved in such alterations...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764315/effects-of-egg-consumption-and-choline-supplementation-on-plasma-choline-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-a-young-population
#4
Bruno S Lemos, Isabel Medina-Vera, Olga V Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Maria Luz Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations have been associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Eggs are a rich source of choline, which is a precursor of TMAO. OBJECTIVE: The effects of egg intake versus daily choline supplementation were evaluated on plasma choline and TMAO in a young, healthy population. METHODS: Thirty participants (14 males, 16 females; 25.6 ± 2.3 years; body mass index = 24.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 ) were enrolled in this 13-week crossover intervention...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755345/analogous-%C3%AE-carboline-alkaloids-harmaline-and-harmine-ameliorate-scopolamine-induced-cognition-dysfunction-by-attenuating-acetylcholinesterase-activity-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-in-mice
#5
Shu-Ping Li, Yu-Wen Wang, Sheng-Lan Qi, Yun-Peng Zhang, Gang Deng, Wen-Zheng Ding, Chao Ma, Qi-Yan Lin, Hui-Da Guan, Wei Liu, Xue-Mei Cheng, Chang-Hong Wang
The analogous β-carboline alkaloids, harmaline (HAL) and harmine (HAR), possess a variety of biological properties, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and many others, and have great potential for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies have showed that the two compounds have similar structures and in vitro AChE inhibitory activities but with significant difference in bioavailability. The objective of this study was to comparatively investigate the effects of HAL and HAR in memory deficits of scopolamine-induced mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751077/procyanidin-b2-protects-against-d-galactose-induced-mimetic-aging-in-mice-metabolites-and-microbiome-analysis
#6
Ying Xiao, Jialin Dong, Zhiting Yin, Qiguo Wu, Yiming Zhou, Xiaoli Zhou
To elucidate the possible mechanisms for the preventive effect of procyanidin B2 on aging, a combined analysis of metabolic profile and gut microbiome was carried out in the present study. The mimetic aged mice induced by d-galactose injection (500 mg/kg, sc daily), and the preventive group was fed with the diet plus 0.2% procyanidin B2. After 7 weeks of treatment, the spatial memory was assayed using the Morris water maze test. Procyanidin B2 significantly ameliorated the impaired memory and antioxidant abilities induced by d-galactose...
May 8, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729306/postnatal-chlorpyrifos-exposure-and-apolipoprotein-e-apoe-genotype-differentially-affect-cholinergic-expression-and-developmental-parameters-in-transgenic-mice
#7
Pia Basaure, Laia Guardia-Escote, Maria Cabré, Fiona Peris-Sampedro, Fernando Sánchez-Santed, José L Domingo, Maria Teresa Colomina
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most commonly used organophosphate pesticides in the world. Our previous results described that apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms are a source of individual differences in susceptibility to CPF. The aim of this study was to assess the physical and biochemical effects of postnatal exposure to CPF in the apoE targeted replacement mouse model. Mice were exposed to CPF at 0 or 1 mg/kg/day from postnatal day 10-15. Physical development, plasma and forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity and gene expression in liver and forebrain were evaluated...
May 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724268/validation-of-a-plasma-metabolomics-model-that-allows-anticipation-of-the-occurrence-of-cytomegalovirus-dnaaemia-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#8
Daniel Monleón, Alberto Talaya, Estela Giménez, Víctor Vinuesa, José Manuel Morales, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Ariadna Pérez, José Luis Piñana, Carlos Solano, David Navarro
A plasma metabolomic model obtained by means of untargeted 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance, to which taurine, choline, methylamine, total glutathione, trimethylamine N-oxide, lactate, lysine, isoleucine, total fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids contributed, was validated for the prediction of first episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAaemia in a cohort of 79 allogeneic stem haematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients. The predictive success rate was nearly 65 % for patients at both low and high risk of CMV-related complications according to their baseline characteristics...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719629/improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-hepatocyte-like-cells-generated-from-ipscs-with-oct4-sox2-klf4-parp1
#9
Yueh Chien, Chi-Shuan Huang, Hsin-Chi Lin, Kai-Hsi Lu, Ping-Hsing Tsai, Ying-Hsiu Lai, Kuan-Hsuan Chen, Shou-Dong Lee, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Chien-Ying Wang
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is usually increased with age. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a serious form of NAFLD, may lead to cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold promising potential in personalized medicine. Although obviation of c-Myc reduces tumorigenic risk, it also largely reduced the generation of iPSCs. Recently, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (Parp1) has been reported to enhance cell reprogramming. In this study, we demonstrated that forced expression of Oct4/Sox2/Klf4/Parp1 (OSKP) effectively promoted iPSC generation from senescent somatic cells from 18-month-old mouse...
April 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716592/pollution-and-respiratory-disease-can-diet-or-supplements-help-a-review
#10
REVIEW
T Whyand, J R Hurst, M Beckles, M E Caplin
Pollution is known to cause and exacerbate a number of chronic respiratory diseases. The World Health Organisation has placed air pollution as the world's largest environmental health risk factor. There has been recent publicity about the role for diet and anti-oxidants in mitigating the effects of pollution, and this review assesses the evidence for alterations in diet, including vitamin supplementation in abrogating the effects of pollution on asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. We found evidence to suggest that carotenoids, vitamin D and vitamin E help protect against pollution damage which can trigger asthma, COPD and lung cancer initiation...
May 2, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716575/terminalia-chebula-extract-prevents-scopolamine-induced-amnesia-via-cholinergic-modulation-and-anti-oxidative-effects-in-mice
#11
Min-Soo Kim, Dong Young Lee, Jun Lee, Hyun Woo Kim, Sang Hyun Sung, Jung-Soo Han, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine that is widely used in the treatment of diabetes, immunodeficiency diseases, and stomach ulcer in Asia. However, the anti-amnesic effect of T. chebula has not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to determine whether T. chebula extract (TCE) alleviates amnesia induced by scopolamine in mice. We also investigated possible mechanisms associated with cholinergic system and anti-oxidant effects...
May 2, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712634/enhanced-phosphocholine-metabolism-is-essential-for-terminal-erythropoiesis
#12
Nai-Jia Huang, Ying-Cing Lin, Chung-Yueh Lin, Novalia Pishesha, Caroline A Lewis, Elizaveta Freinkman, Colin Farquharson, José Luis Millán, Harvey Lodish
Red cells contain a unique constellation of membrane lipids. While much is known about regulated protein expression, the regulation of lipid metabolism during erythropoiesis is poorly studied. Here we show that transcription of PHOSPHO1, a phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine phosphatase that mediates the hydrolysis of phosphocholine to choline, is strongly upregulated during the terminal stages of erythropoiesis of both human and mouse erythropoiesis, concomitant with increased catabolism of phosphatidylcholine and phosphocholine as shown by global lipidomic analyses of mouse and human terminal erythropoiesis...
April 30, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705395/imperatorin-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-memory-deficit-by-mitigating-proinflammatory-cytokines-oxidative-stress-and-modulating-brain-derived-neurotropic-factor
#13
Amrita A Chowdhury, Nitin B Gawali, Prashant Shinde, Renuka Munshi, Archana R Juvekar
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria has been reported to cause neuroinflammation and learning and memory deficits. There are reports describing the beneficial effects of Imperatorin (IMP), a naturally occurring furanocoumarin in central nervous system (CNS) disorders such as anxiety and epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we investigated whether IMP protects against LPS mediated memory deficits and neuroinflammation...
April 26, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705303/silver-choline-chloride-modified-graphene-oxide-novel-nano-bioelectrochemical-sensor-for-celecoxib-detection-and-ccd-rsm-model
#14
Zohreh Parsaee, Nima Karachi, Seyyed Milad Abrishamifar, Mohammad Reza Rezaei Kahkha, Razieh Razavi
In this study, silver nanoparticles modified choline chloride functionalized graphene oxide (AgNPs-ChCl-GO) was synthesized using sonochemical method and utilized as a bioelectrochemical sensor for detection of celecoxib (CEL). The characterization studies were ultimately performed in order to acheive a more complete understanding of the morphological and structural features of the AgNPs-ChCl-GO using different techniques including FT-IR, AFM, FE-SEM, EDX, and XRD. AgNPs-ChCl-GO demonstrated a significant improvement in the reduction activity of CEL due to the enhancement in the current response compared to the bare carbon paste electrode (CPE)...
July 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699662/ruminant-meat-and-milk-contain-%C3%AE-valerobetaine-another-precursor-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-like-%C3%AE-butyrobetaine
#15
Luigi Servillo, Nunzia D'Onofrio, Alfonso Giovane, Rosario Casale, Domenico Cautela, Domenico Castaldo, Francesco Iannaccone, Gianluca Neglia, Giuseppe Campanile, Maria Luisa Balestrieri
Quaternary ammonium compounds containing N-trimethylamino moiety, such as choline derivatives and carnitine, abundant in meat and dairy products, are metabolic precursors of trimethylamine (TMA). A similar fate is reported for Nε -trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. With the aim at investigating the metabolic profile of such metabolites in most employed animal dietary sources, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses on ruminant and non-ruminant milk and meat were performed. Results demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of δ-valerobetaine, occurring at levels higher than γ-butyrobetaine in all ruminant samples compared to non-ruminants...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696816/deletion-of-smad4-attenuates-the-hepatic-inflammation-and-fibrogenesis-during-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-progression
#16
Geng Qin, Guo Zhen Wang, Dan Dan Guo, Ru-Xue Bai, Miao Wang, Shi Yu Du
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Smad4 deletion on inflammation and fibrogenesis during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression. METHODS: We collected 56 liver tissues from NASH patients (NASH group) and 60 normal liver tissues from patients received liver resection for trauma (control group). Smad4Co/Co mice and wild-type (WT) mice were used to construct NASH model by high-fat diet (HFD) or methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Tunnel assay were performed to observe pathological changes and apoptosis of liver tissues, respectively, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect expressions of inflammatory, fibrogenesis and apoptosis-related genes, and immunohistochemistry to determine proteins expressions of Smad4, MCP-1 and α-SMA...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680816/full-and-partial-agonists-evoke-distinct-structural-changes-in-opening-the-muscle-acetylcholine-receptor-channel
#17
Nuriya Mukhtasimova, Steven M Sine
The muscle acetylcholine (ACh) receptor transduces a chemical into an electrical signal, but the efficiency of transduction, or efficacy, depends on the particular agonist. It is often presumed that full and partial agonists elicit the same structural changes after occupancy of their binding sites but with differing speed and efficiency. In this study, we tested the alternative hypothesis that full and partial agonists elicit distinct structural changes. To probe structural changes, we substituted cysteines for pairs of residues that are juxtaposed in the three-dimensional structure and recorded agonist-elicited single-channel currents before and after the addition of an oxidizing reagent...
April 21, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679463/cdp-choline-protects-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-preserving-mitochondrial-function-and-reducing-oxidative-stress
#18
Cecilia Zazueta, Mabel Buelna-Chontal, Arturo Macías-López, Nadia G Román-Anguiano, Héctor González-Pacheco, Natalia Pavón, Rashidi Springall, Alberto Aranda-Frausto, Rafael Bojalil, Alejandro Silva-Palacios, Rodrigo Velázquez-Espejel, Sonia Galvan Arzate, Francisco Correa
CDP-choline (citicoline) participates as intermediary in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an essential component of cellular membranes. Citicoline treatment has shown beneficial effects in cerebral ischemia, but its potential to diminish reperfusion damage in liver has not been explored. In this work, we evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of citicoline and its possible association with inflammatory/oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, as they are main cellular features of reperfusion damage...
April 20, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678198/metabolic-retroconversion-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-and-the-gut-microbiota
#19
Lesley Hoyles, Maria L Jiménez-Pranteda, Julien Chilloux, Francois Brial, Antonis Myridakis, Thomas Aranias, Christophe Magnan, Glenn R Gibson, Jeremy D Sanderson, Jeremy K Nicholson, Dominique Gauguier, Anne L McCartney, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas
BACKGROUND: The dietary methylamines choline, carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine are used by the gut microbiota to produce a range of metabolites, including trimethylamine (TMA). However, little is known about the use of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) by this consortium of microbes. RESULTS: A feeding study using deuterated TMAO in C57BL6/J mice demonstrated microbial conversion of TMAO to TMA, with uptake of TMA into the bloodstream and its conversion to TMAO. Microbial activity necessary to convert TMAO to TMA was suppressed in antibiotic-treated mice, with deuterated TMAO being taken up directly into the bloodstream...
April 20, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672963/butein-protects-the-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-through-mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-attenuation-in-rats
#20
Ghedeir M Alshammari, Aristatile Balakrishnan, Thirunavukkarasu Chinnasamy
One of the worldwide metabolic health dilemma is nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Researchers are searching effective drug to manage NAFLD patients. One of the best way to manage the metabolic imperfection is through natural principal isolated from different sources. Butein, a natural compound known to have numerous pharmacological application. In the current study we assessed the therapeutic effect of butein administration on liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidants, lipid abnormalities, serum inflammatory cytokines, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species levels, in rats with methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet induced NAFLD...
April 19, 2018: BioFactors
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