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Choline oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914347/differential-crosstalk-between-global-dna-methylation-and-metabolomics-associated-with-cell-type-specific-stress-response-by-pristine-and-functionalized-mwcnt
#1
Nivedita Chatterjee, Jisu Yang, Dahye Yoon, Suhkmann Kim, Sang-Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The present study endeavored to evaluate the comprehensive mechanisms of MWCNT-induced toxicity with particular emphasis on understanding cell specificity in relation to surface functionalization of MWCNT. Following treatment with differentially functionalized (hydroxylation/carboxylation) MWCNT on human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lines, intracellular uptake, various toxicological end points, global metabolomics profiling and DNA methylation were evaluated. Herein, the comparative in vitro studies ascertained that surface functionalization diminished the toxic potentiality of MWCNT in respect of their pristine counterpart...
November 9, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904677/an-engineered-fgf21-variant-ly2405319-can-prevent-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-enhancing-hepatic-mitochondrial-function
#2
Ju Hee Lee, Yea Eun Kang, Joon Young Chang, Ki Cheol Park, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Jung Tae Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, Minho Shong, Hyo Kyun Chung, Koon Soon Kim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent obesity-related disease that affects large populations throughout the world due to excessive calorie intake and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic candidate for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. FGF21 is a starvation-induced pleiotropic hormone with various beneficial metabolic effects, and pharmacological treatment in rodents has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and decrease simple fatty liver disease...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902449/is-n-n-dimethylglycine-n-oxide-a-choline-and-betaine-metabolite
#3
Michael Lever, Christopher J McEntyre, Peter M George, Stephen T Chambers
Choline metabolism is by oxidation to betaine, which is demethylated to N,N-dimethylglycine; dimethylglycine is oxidatively demethylated to sarcosine. This pathway is important for osmoregulation and as a source of methyl groups. We asked whether another metabolite was involved. We synthesized the N-oxide of dimethylglycine (DMGO) by oxidizing dimethylglycine with peracetic acid, and measured DMGO in human plasma and urine by HPLC-MS/MS with positive ion detection, using two chromatography procedures, based on ion exchange and HILIC separations...
November 30, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880981/a-novel-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glucagon-receptor-dual-agonist-improves-steatohepatitis-and-liver-regeneration-in-mice
#4
M Pilar Valdecantos, Virginia Pardo, Laura Ruiz, Luis Castro-Sánchez, Borja Lanzón, Elisa Fernández-Millán, Carmelo García-Monzón, Ana I Arroba, Águeda González-Rodríguez, Fernando Escrivá, Álvarez Carmen, Francisco J Rupérez, Coral Barbas, Anish Konkar, Jacqui Naylor, David Hornigold, Ana Dos Santos, Maria Bednarek, Joseph Grimsby, Cristina M Rondinone, Ángela M Valverde
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Since non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with impaired liver regeneration, we investigated the effects of G49, a dual glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1)/glucagon (GCG) receptor agonist, on NASH and hepatic regeneration. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice fed chow or methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for one week were divided into 4 groups: C (chow diet), MCD (MCD diet), C+G49 (chow diet plus G49) and M+G49 (MCD diet plus G49). Mice fed high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks were divided in groups: HFD and H+G49 (HFD plus G49)...
November 23, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864387/increased-trimethylamine-n-oxide-portends-high-mortality-risk-independent-of-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
W H Wilson Tang, Zeneng Wang, Xinmin S Li, Yiying Fan, Daniel S Li, Yuping Wu, Stanley L Hazen
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and coronary artery disease pathogenesis. Concentrations of a proatherogenic gut microbe-generated metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), predict increased incident cardiovascular disease risks in multiple cohorts. TMAO concentrations are increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but their prognostic value and relation to glycemic control are unclear...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859493/connexin32-deficiency-is-associated-with-liver-injury-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-experimental-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#6
Taynã Cristina Tiburcio, Joost Willebrords, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Isabel Veloso Alves Pereira, Marina Sayuri Nogueira, Sara Crespo Yanguas, Michaël Maes, Elisangela Dos Anjos Silva, Maria Lucia Zaidan Dagli, Inar Alves de Castro, Cláudia Pinto Oliveira, Mathieu Vinken, Bruno Cogliati
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a highly prevalent liver pathology featured by hepatocellular fat deposition and inflammation. Connexin32, which is the major building block of hepatocellular gap junctions, has a protective role in hepatocarcinogenesis and is downregulated in chronic liver diseases. However, the role of connexin32 in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis remains unclear. Connexin32(-/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet. The manifestation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis was evaluated based on a battery of clinically relevant read-outs, including histopathological examination, diverse indicators of inflammation and liver damage, in-depth lipid analysis, assessment of oxidative stress, insulin and glucose tolerance, liver regeneration and lipid-related biomarkers...
November 17, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856995/choline-protects-against-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-parenteral-nutrition-fed-immature-rats
#7
Jie Zhu, Ting Lu, Fei Chen, Junkai Yan, Fan Chen, Qiaosen Zhang, Jifan Wang, Weihui Yan, Tingxi Yu, Qingya Tang, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of choline, a required nutrient, is related to intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of choline supplementation on IFALD and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) were fed AIN-93G chow and administered intravenous 0.9% saline (control), parenteral nutrition (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) for 7 days. We evaluated body weight, hepatic histology, biochemical indicators, triglycerides, oxidative status, methylation levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) gene promoter, expression of PPARα and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and levels of choline metabolites...
November 17, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855528/dietary-anthropometric-and-biochemical-factors-influencing-plasma-choline-carnitine-trimethylamine-and-trimethylamine-n-oxide-concentrations
#8
Anna M Malinowska, Artur Szwengiel, Agata Chmurzynska
The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritional, anthropometric, and biochemical factors that influence choline, l-carnitine, trimethylamine (TMA), and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) metabolism in elderly women. The volunteers' diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were estimated using a self-established score method. Body mass index (BMI), serum glucose, total, HDL, LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine (tHcy), free choline (fchol), L-carnitine, TMA, and TMAO were assessed...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848096/the-gut-kidney-axis
#9
REVIEW
Pieter Evenepoel, Ruben Poesen, Björn Meijers
The host-gut microbiota interaction has been the focus of increasing interest in recent years. It has been determined that this complex interaction is not only essential to many aspects of normal "mammalian" physiology but that it may also contribute to a multitude of ailments, from the obvious case of inflammatory bowel disease to (complex) diseases residing in organs outside the gut. An increasing body of evidence indicates that crosstalk between host and microbiota is pathophysiologically relevant in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834801/trimethylamine-n-oxide-the-good-the-bad-and-the-unknown
#10
REVIEW
Manuel T Velasquez, Ali Ramezani, Alotaibi Manal, Dominic S Raj
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a small colorless amine oxide generated from choline, betaine, and carnitine by gut microbial metabolism. It accumulates in the tissue of marine animals in high concentrations and protects against the protein-destabilizing effects of urea. Plasma level of TMAO is determined by a number of factors including diet, gut microbial flora and liver flavin monooxygenase activity. In humans, a positive correlation between elevated plasma levels of TMAO and an increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death is reported...
November 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833015/trimethylamine-n-oxide-induces-inflammation-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-via-activating-ros-txnip-nlrp3-inflammasome
#11
Xiaolei Sun, Xuefei Jiao, Yarong Ma, Yong Liu, Lei Zhang, Yanzheng He, Yunhui Chen
Recent research demonstrates that the choline-derived metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels are strongly associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risks. The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to exogenous and endogenous danger signals involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Moreover, thioredoxin-interactive protein (TXNIP) activation is a key event linked to NLRP3 inflammasome via reactive oxygen species (ROS). Whether TMAO prime NLRP3 inflammasome via ROS-TXNIP pathway remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822039/carbon-monoxide-bound-hemoglobin-vesicles-ameliorate-multiorgan-injuries-induced-by-severe-acute-pancreatitis-in-mice-by-their-anti-inflammatory-and-antioxidant-properties
#12
Saori Nagao, Kazuaki Taguchi, Hiromi Sakai, Keishi Yamasaki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Masaki Otagiri, Toru Maruyama
Carbon monoxide (CO) has attracted attention as a possible therapeutic agent for affecting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Previously, CO-bound hemoglobin vesicle (CO-HbV) was developed as a nanotechnology-based CO donor, and its safety profile and therapeutic potential as a clinically applicable carrier of CO were examined in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of CO-HbV against severe acute pancreatitis was examined with secondary distal organ-injured model mice that were fed with a choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784287/induction-of-autophagy-by-arhi-diras3-alters-fundamental-metabolic-pathways-in-ovarian-cancer-models
#13
Argentina Ornelas, Christopher R McCullough, Zhen Lu, Niki M Zacharias, Lindsay E Kelderhouse, Joshua Gray, Hailing Yang, Brian J Engel, Yan Wang, Weiqun Mao, Margie N Sutton, Pratip K Bhattacharya, Robert C Bast, Steven W Millward
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a bulk catabolic process that modulates tumorigenesis, therapeutic resistance, and dormancy. The tumor suppressor ARHI (DIRAS3) is a potent inducer of autophagy and its expression results in necroptotic cell death in vitro and tumor dormancy in vivo. ARHI is down-regulated or lost in over 60 % of primary ovarian tumors yet is dramatically up-regulated in metastatic disease. The metabolic changes that occur during ARHI induction and their role in modulating death and dormancy are unknown...
October 26, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777423/characterization-and-transplantation-of-enteric-neural-crest-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766245/statins-increase-mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-the-liver-and-prevent-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#15
Han-Sol Park, Jung Eun Jang, Myoung Seok Ko, Sung Hoon Woo, Bum Joong Kim, Hyun Sik Kim, Hye Sun Park, In-Sun Park, Eun Hee Koh, Ki-Up Lee
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764896/new-potential-biomarker-proteins-for-alcoholic-liver-disease-identified-by-a-comparative-proteomics-approach
#16
Su Jin Lee, Jeong Han Kang, Da Eun Lee, Min Jeong Nam, Hyun-Shik Lee, Oh-Shin Kwon
Chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic steatosis, which is characterized by a considerable increase in free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride levels. To identify the possible proteins involved in the progression to alcoholic hepatosteatosis, we performed proteomic analysis on livers of mice exposed to alcohol. 2D-based proteomic analysis revealed that EtOH exposure in mice changed the expression of 43 proteins compared with that in mice fed a normal diet (ND). The most notable protein changes were proteins involved in Met metabolism and oxidative stress, most of which were significantly downregulated in alcohol-exposed animals...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761153/involvement-of-fenton-chemistry-in-rice-straw-degradation-by-the-lignocellulolytic-bacterium-pantoea-ananatis-sd-1
#17
Jiangshan Ma, Keke Zhang, Mei Huang, Stanton B Hector, Bin Liu, Chunyi Tong, Qian Liu, Jiarui Zeng, Yan Gao, Ting Xu, Ying Liu, Xuanming Liu, Yonghua Zhu
BACKGROUND: Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe(2+) + H2O2 + H(+) → Fe(3+) + OH· + H2O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748865/tissue-metabolic-profiling-of-lymph-node-metastasis-of-colorectal-cancer-assessed-by-1h-nmr
#18
Hailong Zhang, Liang Qiao, Xiaopeng Li, Yang Wan, Li Yang, Huijuan Wang
Lymph node metastasis is a decisive prognostic and therapeutic staging factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), which is one of the most prevalent types of cancer and a malignant tumor. The metabolic profiling of tissue samples from a large cohort of lymph node non‑metastatic CRC patients (n=73), lymph node metastatic CRC patients (n=52) and normal controls (n=41) was performed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) together with multivariate statistical analyses. Excellent separation was obtained between CRC patients and normal controls, and CRC patients were also perfectly classified according to lymph node metastasis...
October 14, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734991/neurochemistry-study-of-spinal-cord-in-non-human-primate-sapajus-spp
#19
K R Torres-da-Silva, A V Da Silva, N O Barioni, G W L Tessarin, J A De Oliveira, E Ervolino, J A C Horta-Junior, C A Casatti
The spinal cord is involved in local, ascending and descending neural pathways. Few studies analyzed the distribution of neuromediators in the laminae of non-human primates along all segments. The present study described the classic neuromediators in the spinal cord of the non-human primate Sapajus spp. through histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) method showed neuronal somata in the intermediolateral column (IML), central cervical nucleus (CCN), laminae I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and X, besides dense presence of nerve fibers in laminae II and IX...
September 15, 2016: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734579/impact-of-red-meat-consumption-on-the-metabolome-of-rats
#20
Louise M A Jakobsen, Christian C Yde, Thomas Van Hecke, Randi Jessen, Jette F Young, Stefaan De Smet, Hanne Christine Bertram
SCOPE: The scope of the present study was to investigate the effects of red versus white meat intake on the metabolome of rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 15 days of ad libitum feeding of one of four experimental diets: 1) lean chicken, 2) chicken with lard, 3) lean beef, and 4) beef with lard. Urine, feces, plasma and colon tissue samples were analyzed using (1) H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR was performed on colon tissue to examine the expression of specific genes...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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