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Choline oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159325/role-of-aramchol-in-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#1
Marta Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta Varela-Rey, David Fernández-Ramos, Ibon Martínez-Arranz, Teresa C Delgado, Jorge Simon, Virginia Gutiérrez-de Juan, Laura delaCruz-Villar, Mikel Azkargorta, José L Lavin, Rebeca Mayo, Sebastiaan M Van Liempd, Igor Aurrekoetxea, Xabier Buqué, Donatella Delle Cave, Arantza Peña, Juan Rodríguez-Cuesta, Ana M Aransay, Felix Elortza, Juan M Falcón-Pérez, Patricia Aspichueta, Liat Hayardeny, Mazen Noureddin, Arun J Sanyal, Cristina Alonso, Juan Anguita, María Luz Martínez-Chantar, Shelly C Lu, José M Mato
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which sets the stage for further liver damage. The mechanism for the progression of NASH involves multiple parallel hits including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and others. Manipulation of any of these pathways may be an approach to prevent NASH development and progression. Aramchol (arachidyl-amido cholanoic acid) is presently in a phase IIb NASH study. The aim of this study was to investigate Aramchol's mechanism of action and its effect on fibrosis using the methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet model of NASH...
November 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158052/baicalin-attenuates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-suppressing-key-regulators-of-lipid-metabolism-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#2
Junli Zhang, Haiming Zhang, Xiaoling Deng, Ning Zhang, Beibei Liu, Shengliang Xin, Guixin Li, Keshu Xu
AIMS: Baicalin (BA), an active flavonoid compound originating from the herb of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been previously shown to exert anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant effects in liver diseases. However, the potential role of BA in the regulation of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains elusive. In this study, we newly explored the hepatoprotective effects of BA in MCD diet-induced NASH by ameliorating hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and apoptosis. MAIN METHODS: NASH was induced in mice fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4weeks...
November 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154733/metabolomic-analysis-of-alterations-in-lipid-oxidation-carbohydrate-and-amino-acid-metabolism-in-dairy-goats-caused-by-exposure-to-aflotoxin-b1
#3
Jianbo Cheng, Shuai Huang, Caiyun Fan, Nan Zheng, Yangdong Zhang, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang
The purposes of this study were to investigate the systemic and characteristic metabolites in the serum of dairy goats induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by it. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomic approach was used to analyse the metabolic alterations in dairy goats that were induced by low doses of AFB1 (50 µg/kg DM). We found that AFB1 exposure caused significant elevations of glucose, citrate, acetate, acetoacetate, betaine, and glycine yet caused reductions of lactate, ketone bodies (acetate, β-hydroxybutyrate), amino acids (citrulline, leucine/isoleucine, valine, creatine) and cell membrane structures (choline, lipoprotein, N-acetyl glycoproteins) in the serum...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133030/20-s-protopanaxadiol-ppd-alleviates-scopolamine-induced-memory-impairment-via-regulation-of-cholinergic-and-antioxidant-systems-and-expression-of-egr-1-c-fos-and-c-jun-in-mice
#4
Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Jingwei Lv, Yan Wang, Bei Fan, Fengzhong Wang, Xinmin Liu
20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) possesses various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antitumor and anti-fatigue properties. Recent studies found that PPD functioned as a neurotrophic agent to ameliorate the sensory deficit caused by glutamate-induced excitotoxicity through its antioxidant effects and exhibited strong antidepressant-like effects in vivo. The objective of the present study was first to investigate the effect of PPD in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced memory deficit in mice and the potential mechanisms involved...
November 10, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131613/proton-coupled-electron-transfer-and-substituent-effects-in-catechol-based-deep-eutectic-solvents-gross-and-fine-tuning-of-redox-activity
#5
Parker J Smith, John C Goeltz
The 1,2-diol moiety in a variety of substituted catechols allows formation of room temperature ionic melts in a 2:1 ratio with choline chloride or choline dihydrogen citrate. These deep eutectic solvents were 4.3-6.6 M in redox active catechols. Substituents on 3- and 4-substituted catechols shift both E° and pKa such that Hammett parameters predict the observed Ep for oxidation in square wave voltammetry. The proton acceptor for the proton-coupled oxidation shifts the observed Ep more strongly than the substituents within the substituents and acceptors reported here...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131297/gut-bacteria-derived-molecules-as-mediators-and-markers-in-cardiovascular-diseases-the-role-of-the-gut-blood-barrier
#6
Marcin Ufnal, Artur Nowiński
Accumulating evidence suggests that gut bacteria-derived compounds enter the bloodstream and affect the circulatory system functions. For example, hydrogen sulfide, a product of gut sulfate-reducing bacteria, was found to exert significant hemodynamic effects. Furthermore, trimethylamine N-oxide, a gut bacteria derivative metabolite of L-carnitine and choline, has recently emerged as a new marker of increased cardiovascular risk. To enter the circulation, gut bacteria metabolites need to pass the gut-blood barrier...
November 13, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110324/cnta-oxygenase-substrate-profile-comparison-and-oxygen-dependency-of-tma-production-in-providencia-rettgeri
#7
Gints Kalnins, Eduards Sevostjanovs, Dace Hartmane, Solveiga Grinberga, Kaspars Tars
CntA oxygenase is a Rieske 2S-2Fe cluster-containing protein that has been previously described as able to produce trimethylamine (TMA) from carnitine, gamma-butyrobetaine, glycine betaine, and in one case, choline. TMA found in humans is exclusively of bacterial origin, and its metabolite, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), has been associated with atherosclerosis and heart and renal failure. We isolated four different Rieske oxygenases and determined that there are no significant differences in their substrate panels...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108796/multifunctional-neuroprotective-effect-of-withanone-a-compound-from-withania-somnifera-roots-in-alleviating-cognitive-dysfunction
#8
Anjali Pandey, Sarang Bani, Prabhu Dutt, Naresh Kumar Satti, Krishan Avtar Suri, Ghulam Nabi Qazi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly worsens and impairs the person's memory, learning, reasoning, judgment, communication and familiar tasks with loss of orientation. AD is characterized clinically by cognitive deficit and pathologically by the deposition of β amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, associated with degeneration of the cholinergic forebrain. Withanone (WS-2), a compound isolated from root extract of Withania somnifera at doses administered orally/day to wistar rats for duration of 21 days showed significant improvement in the cognitive skill by inhibiting amyloid β-42 and attenuated the elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, MCP-1, Nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation and both β- and γ- secretase enzymatic activity...
November 3, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104741/lymph-node-imaging-in-initial-staging-of-prostate-cancer-an-overview-and-update
#9
REVIEW
Jessica G Zarzour, Sam Galgano, Jonathan McConathy, John V Thomas, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
Accurate nodal staging at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer is crucial in determining a treatment plan for the patient. Pelvic lymph node dissection is the most reliable method, but is less than perfect and has increased morbidity. Cross sectional imaging with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive tools that rely on morphologic characteristics such as shape and size of the lymph nodes. However, lymph nodes harboring metastatic disease may be normal sized and non-metastatic lymph nodes may be enlarged due to reactive hyperplasia...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097836/the-effect-of-%C3%AE-caryophyllene-on-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#10
Naoya Arizuka, Tomoaki Murakami, Kazuhiko Suzuki
The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is not fully understood, but many studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a key role. The methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD) administration model can reproduce histopathological features of human NASH and is widely used for investigating NASH. C57BL/6J mice have been used in many studies, but strain differences in pathogenesis have not been sufficiently investigated. We administred MCD to two mouse strains and then compared difference between strains and investigated the effects of β-caryophyllene (BCP), which possesses an antioxidant effect, on development and progression of NASH...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092879/eggs-early-in-complementary-feeding-increase-choline-pathway-biomarkers-and-dha-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-ecuador
#11
Lora L Iannotti, Chessa K Lutter, William F Waters, Carlos Andres Gallegos Riofrío, Carla Malo, Gregory Reinhart, Ana Palacios, Celia Karp, Melissa Chapnick, Katherine Cox, Santiago Aguirre, Luis Narvaez, Fernando López, Rohini Sidhu, Pamela Kell, Xuntian Jiang, Hideji Fujiwara, Daniel S Ory, Rebecca Young, Christine P Stewart
Background: Choline status has been associated with stunting among young children. Findings from this study showed that an egg intervention improved linear growth by a length-for-age z score of 0.63.Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of eggs introduced early in complementary feeding on plasma concentrations of biomarkers in choline pathways, vitamins B-12 and A, and essential fatty acids.Design: A randomized controlled trial, the Lulun ("egg" in Kichwa) Project, was conducted in a rural indigenous population of Ecuador...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089996/neuroprotection-of-n-benzylcinnamide-on-scopolamine-induced-cholinergic-dysfunction-in-human-sh-sy5y-neuroblastoma-cells
#12
Nicha Puangmalai, Wipawan Thangnipon, Rungtip Soi-Ampornkul, Nirut Suwanna, Patoomratana Tuchinda, Saksit Nobsathian
Alzheimer's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, affects learning and memory resulting from cholinergic dysfunction. Scopolamine has been employed to induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathology in vivo and in vitro through alteration of cholinergic system. N-benzylcinnamide (PT-3), purified from Piper submultinerve, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective properties against amyloid-β-induced neuronal toxicity in rat cortical primary cell culture and to improve spatial learning and memory of aged rats through alleviating oxidative stress...
September 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081887/pharmacological-basis-for-use-of-armillaria-mellea-polysaccharides-in-alzheimer-s-disease-antiapoptosis-and-antioxidation
#13
Shengshu An, Wenqian Lu, Yongfeng Zhang, Qingxia Yuan, Di Wang
Armillaria mellea, an edible fungus, exhibits various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. However, the effects of A. mellea on Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been systemically reported. The present study aimed to explore the protective effects of mycelium polysaccharides (AMPS) obtained from A. mellea, especially AMPSc via 70% ethanol precipitation in a L-glutamic acid- (L-Glu-) induced HT22 cell apoptosis model and an AlCl3 plus D-galactose- (D-gal-) induced AD mouse model...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080862/plasma-metabolites-from-choline-pathway-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-predimed-prevention-with-mediterranean-diet-study
#14
Marta Guasch-Ferré, Frank B Hu, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Mònica Bulló, Estefanía Toledo, Dong D Wang, Dolores Corella, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Miquel Fiol, Ramon Estruch, José Lapetra, Montserrat Fitó, Fernando Arós, Lluís Serra-Majem, Emilio Ros, Courtney Dennis, Liming Liang, Clary B Clish, Miguel A Martínez-González, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: The relationship between plasma concentrations of betaine and choline metabolism and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) end points remains unclear. We have evaluated the association between metabolites from the choline pathway and risk of incident CVD and the potential modifying effect of Mediterranean diet interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We designed a case-cohort study nested within the PREDIMED (Prevention With Mediterranean Diet) trial, including 229 incident CVD cases and 751 randomly selected participants at baseline, followed up for 4...
October 28, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078101/a-pilot-study-of-cortical-glutathione-in-youth-with-depression
#15
Rachel D Freed, Cecilia N Hollenhorst, Nora Weiduschat, Xiangling Mao, Guoxin Kang, Dikoma C Shungu, Vilma Gabbay
AIM: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to measure in vivo brain glutathione (GSH) in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD), and explored the relationship between GSH and illness severity and chronicity. Secondarily, associations between GSH and anhedonia, a key symptom of MDD in adolescents, were investigated. METHODS: Occipital cortex GSH levels were obtained in 19 psychotropic medication-free adolescents with MDD (ages 12-21) and compared to those in eight healthy control adolescents...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056012/-the-effect-and-comparison-of-commonly-used-liver-protection-drugs-for-irradiated-hl-7702-by-x
#16
H J Zhao, L Xiao, Baishan Glizila, H Zhang, R Mao, Y Xiong, L Xu, M Y Shu, Y W Bai, Y X Bao
Objective: To investigate the effect of different mechanisms of liver-protection drugs in clinic and compare which one is best for the proliferation of irradiated HL-7702, laying the basis of liver-protection drugs choose in clinic on theory and practice. Methods: Human liver parenchyma cells HL-7702 were given single 6 MV X ray irradiation at a dose of 10Gy, the cells' morphology were detected under an inverted microscope at 24h, 48h and 72h. Then, MTT was used to assess the survival rate of the cells to evaluate the effect of the X ray...
August 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037589/a-twin-purification-enrichment-procedure-based-on-two-versatile-solid-liquid-extracting-agents-for-efficient-uptake-of-ultra-trace-levels-of-lorazepam-and-clonazepam-from-complex-bio-matrices
#17
Maryam Hemmati, Maryam Rajabi, Alireza Asghari
In this research work, two consecutive dispersive solid/liquid phase microextractions based on efficient extraction media were developed for the influential and clean pre-concentration of clonazepam and lorazepam from complicated bio-samples. The magnetism nature of the proposed nanoadsorbent proceeded the clean-up step conveniently and swiftly (∼5min), pursued by a further enrichment via a highly effective and rapid emulsification microextraction process (∼4min) based on a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Finally, the instrumental analysis step was practicable via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029877/substitutions-of-s101-decrease-proton-and-hydride-transfers-in-the-oxidation-of-betaine-aldehyde-by-choline-oxidase
#18
Giovanni Gadda, Hongling Yuan
Choline oxidase oxidizes choline to glycine betaine, with two flavin-mediated reactions to convert the alcohol substrate to the carbon acid product. Proton abstraction from choline or hydrated betaine aldehyde in the wild-type enzyme occurs in the mixing time of the stopped-flow spectrophotometer, thereby precluding a mechanistic investigation. Mutagenesis of S101 rendered the proton transfer reaction amenable to study. Here, we have investigated the aldehyde oxidation reaction catalyzed by the mutant enzymes using steady-state and rapid kinetics with betaine aldehyde...
October 10, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025730/apelin-13-inhibits-gastric-motility-through-vagal-cholinergic-pathway-in-rats
#19
Mehmet Bülbül, Osman Sinen, Melahat Gök, R Alberto Travagli
The expression of apelin and its receptors (APJ) in central autonomic networks suggests that apelin may regulate gastrointestinal motor functions. In rodents, central administration of apelin-13 has been shown to inhibit gastric emptying, however, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. Using male adult Sprague-Dawley rats, the aims of the present study were i) to determine the expression of APJ receptor in DVC, ii) to assess the effects central application of apelin-13 into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) on gastric tone and motility and iii) to investigate the neuronal pathways responsible for apelin-induced alterations...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022011/placental-extract-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-by-exerting-protective-effects-on-endothelial-cells
#20
Akihiro Yamauchi, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Teruhide Koyama, Nobuyoshi Iinuma, Shumpei Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Miyazaki, Eiichi Hirano, Taiichi Kaku, Takayuki Shindo
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a severe form of fatty liver disease that is defined by the presence of inflammation and fibrosis, ultimately leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Treatment with human placental extract (HPE) reportedly ameliorates the hepatic injury. We evaluated the effect of HPE treatment in a mouse model of NASH. In the methione- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced liver injury model, fibrosis started from regions adjacent to the sinusoids. We administered the MCD diet with high-salt loading (8% NaCl in the drinking water) to mice deficient in the vasoprotective molecule RAMP2 for 5 weeks, with or without HPE...
September 2017: Heliyon
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