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Choline oxidation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645263/microbiota-dependent-metabolite-and-cardiovascular-disease-marker-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-is-associated-with-monocyte-activation-but-not-platelet-function-in-untreated-hiv-infection
#1
Judith M Haissman, Anna K Haugaard, Sisse R Ostrowski, Rolf K Berge, Johannes R Hov, Marius Trøseid, Susanne D Nielsen
BACKGROUND: HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease beyond that explained by traditional risk factors. Altered gut microbiota, microbial translocation, and immune activation have been proposed as potential triggers. The microbiota-dependent metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) predicts myocardial infarction (MI) in the general population and has recently been shown to induce platelet hyperreactivity. In the present study, we investigated if TMAO was associated with platelet function, microbial translocation, and immune activation in both untreated and combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) HIV infection...
June 23, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642069/chronic-choline-supplementation-improves-cognitive-and-motor-performance-via-modulating-oxidative-and-neurochemical-status-in-rats
#2
Saiqa Tabassum, Saida Haider, Saara Ahmad, Syeda Madiha, Tahira Parveen
Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes...
June 19, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641532/trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-as-a-new-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-resistance-and-cancer
#3
Jens Oellgaard, Signe Abitz Winther, Tobias Schmidt Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
BACKGROUND: The intake of animal products in food has been associated with both the development of insulin resistance and gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). Through the digestion of animal protein and other constituents of animal products, the commensal bacteria in the gut (the gut microbiota) forms metabolites that can contribute to the development of both insulin resistance and cancer. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) is such a molecule and has recently drawn a lot of attention as it may be a risk factor for - and a link between - the gut microbiota and cardiovascular and renal disease...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635324/gliptins-suppress-inflammatory-macrophage-activation-to-mitigate-inflammation-fibrosis-oxidative-stress-and-vascular-dysfunction-in-models-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis
#4
Xiaoyu Wang, Michael Hausding, Shih-Yen Weng, Yong Ook Kim, Sebastian Steven, Thomas Klein, Andreas Daiber, Detlef Schuppan
AIMS: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis, panlobular inflammation, liver fibrosis and increased cardiovascular mortality. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are indirect glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity, used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Their potential and underlying mechanisms to treat metabolic liver inflammation and fibrosis as well as the associated vascular dysfunction remain to be explored...
June 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626453/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-influence-microflora-in-ileal-digesta-and-correlate-well-with-blood-metabolites
#5
Yanni Feng, Lingjiang Min, Weidong Zhang, Jing Liu, Zhumei Hou, Meiqiang Chu, Lan Li, Wei Shen, Yong Zhao, Hongfu Zhang
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used widely in consumer and industrial products, however, their influence on gut microbiota and metabolism and their mutual interactions are not fully understood. In this study, the effects of ZnO NPs on ileal bacterial communities, plasma metabolites, and correlations between them were investigated. Hens were fed with different concentrations of ZnO NPs [based on Zn; 0 mg/kg (control), 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg] for 9 weeks. Subsequently, ileal digesta and blood plasma were collected for analysis of microflora and metabolites, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624482/nmr-quantification-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-human-serum-and-plasma-in-the-clinical-laboratory-setting
#6
Erwin Garcia, Justyna Wolak-Dinsmore, Zeneng Wang, Xinmin S Li, Dennis W Bennett, Margery A Connelly, James D Otvos, Stanley L Hazen, Elias J Jeyarajah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) produced by gut microbiota metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine has been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to provide incremental clinical prognostic utility beyond traditional risk factors for assessing a patient's CVD risk. The aim of this study was to develop an automated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assay for quantification of TMAO concentration in serum and plasma using a high-throughput NMR clinical analyzer...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594915/conophylline-inhibits-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#7
Yukiomi Nakade, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Taeko Yamauchi, Tadahisa Inoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Takaya Yamamoto, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Yoshio Sumida, Kiyoaki Ito, Haruhisa Nakao, Yoshitaka Fukuzawa, Kazuo Umezawa, Masashi Yoneda
Conophylline (CnP), a vinca alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the tropical plant Ervatamia microphylla, attenuates hepatic fibrosis in mice. However, little is known about whether CnP inhibits steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice. A methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet was administered to male db/db mice as a NASH model, and CnP (1 μg/kg/d) was co-administered. Eight weeks after the commencement of the MCD diet, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, and hepatic fat metabolism-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related markers were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588431/microbial-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-disease-marker-something-fishy
#8
REVIEW
Bjarne Landfald, Jørgen Valeur, Arnold Berstad, Jan Raa
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) via the gut microbiota has recently been proposed as an important pathophysiological mechanism linking ingestion of 'unhealthy foods', such as beef (containing carnitine) and eggs (containing choline), and the development of atherosclerosis. Hence, TMAO has gained attention as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, fish and seafood contain considerable amounts of TMAO and are generally accepted as cardioprotective: a puzzling paradox that seems to have been neglected...
2017: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552639/neuroprotective-effects-of-food-restriction-on-autonomic-innervation-of-the-lacrimal-gland-in-the-rat
#9
Hanaa Z Nooh, Ghada H El-Saify, Nermeen M Nour Eldien
Inflammatory mechanisms and oxidative stress play important roles in age-related lacrimal gland (LG) degeneration as well as neural degeneration. Research suggests that caloric restriction can prevent age-related LG dysfunction and increase the life span of neurons. In the present study, we hypothesized that caloric restriction prevents age-related LG dysfunction by ameliorating the influence of inflammatory/oxidative stress on autonomic neurons controlling lacrimal function. We evaluated the effects of food restriction (FR) on inflammatory/oxidative status and on autonomic neural/neuroglial cell populations in LGs from aging rats...
May 24, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551192/differences-in-liver-functionality-indexes-in-peripartal-dairy-cows-fed-rumen-protected-methionine-or-choline-are-associated-with-performance-oxidative-stress-status-and-plasma-amino-acid-profiles
#10
Z Zhou, E Trevisi, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The liver functionality index (LFI) represents an assessment of transition cow metabolic health by measuring changes in biomarkers associated with liver plasma protein synthesis (albumin), lipoprotein synthesis (cholesterol), and heme catabolism (bilirubin). The present analysis was conducted to determine the role of peripartal rumen-protected Met or choline (CHOL) supplementation on LFI groupings, and to assess relationships with performance, inflammation, oxidative stress status, and plasma AA profiles. A cohort of 40 multiparous Holstein cows that were part of a randomized complete block design with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of Met (Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) and CHOL (ReaShure, Balchem Inc...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520899/increased-urinary-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-following-cryptosporidium-infection-and-protein-malnutrition-independent-of-microbiome-effects
#11
D T Bolick, J Mayneris-Perxachs, G L Medlock, G L Kolling, J Papin, J R Swann, R L Guerrant
Cryptosporidium infections have been associated with growth stunting even in the absence of diarrhea. Having previously detailed the effects of protein deficiency on both microbiome and metabolome in this model, we now describe the specific gut microbial and biochemical effects of Cryptosporidium infection. Protein deficient mice were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for 6-13 days and compared to uninfected controls. Following infection there was an increase in the urinary excretion of choline- and amino acid-derived metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511293/enterobacter-aerogenes-zdy01-attenuates-choline-induced-trimethylamine-n-oxide-levels-via-remodeling-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#12
Liang Qiu, Dong Yang, Xueying Tao, Jun Yu, Hua Xiong, Hua Wei
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which is transformed from trimethylamine (TMA) through hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenases, can promote atherosclerosis. TMA is produced from dietary carnitine, phosphatidylcholine, and choline via the gut microbes. Previous works have shown that some small molecules, such as allicin, resveratrol, and 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, are used to reduce circulating TMAO levels. However, the use of bacteria as an effective therapy to reduce TMAO levels has not been reported. In the present study, 82 isolates were screened from healthy Chinese fecal samples on a basal salt medium supplemented with TMA as sole carbon source...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509906/therapeutic-efficacy-of-atypical-antipsychotic-drugs-by-targeting-multiple-stress-related-metabolic-pathways
#13
H L Cai, P Jiang, Q Y Tan, R L Dang, M M Tang, Y Xue, Y Deng, B K Zhang, P F Fang, P Xu, D X Xiang, H D Li, J K Yao
Schizophrenia (SZ) is considered to be a multifactorial brain disorder with defects involving many biochemical pathways. Patients with SZ show variable responses to current pharmacological treatments of SZ because of the heterogeneity of this disorder. Stress has a significant role in the pathophysiological pathways and therapeutic responses of SZ. Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) can modulate the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and exert therapeutic effects on stress by targeting the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus...
May 16, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499186/effect-of-betaine-on-hepatic-insulin-resistance-through-foxo1-induced-nlrp3-inflammasome
#14
Dae Hyun Kim, Seong Min Kim, Bonggi Lee, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Kyoung Mi Moon, Hye Jin An, Kyung Mok Kim, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung
In the present study, we attempted to elucidate whether molecular modulation of inflammation by betaine through the forkhead box O1 (FOXO1)-induced NLRP3 inflammasome improves insulin resistance. Betaine is a major water-soluble component of Lycium chinense. It mainly functions as an oxidative metabolite of choline by suppressing superoxide-induced free radicals by donating methyl groups. The FOXO1 transcription factor regulates various genes involved in cellular metabolic processes related to cell death as well as oxidative stress responses through binding to the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP)...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498348/nutrients-turned-into-toxins-microbiota-modulation-of-nutrient-properties-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#15
REVIEW
Raul Fernandez-Prado, Raquel Esteras, Maria Vanessa Perez-Gomez, Carolina Gracia-Iguacel, Emilio Gonzalez-Parra, Ana B Sanz, Alberto Ortiz, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño
In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of death. Some uremic toxins are ingested with the diet, such as phosphate and star fruit-derived caramboxin. Others result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves. These nutrients include l-carnitine, choline/phosphatidylcholine, tryptophan and tyrosine, which are also sold over-the-counter as nutritional supplements. Physicians and patients alike should be aware that, in CKD patients, the use of these supplements may lead to potentially toxic effects...
May 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495476/studies-on-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-mechanism-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-metabolomics-and-hippocampal-proteomics
#16
Weiwei Lin, Jianmei Zhang, Yanmeng Liu, Ruijun Wu, Haisong Yang, Xiaobo Hu, Xiaomei Ling
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia, but precise diagnosis and treatment are not sufficient so far. The purpose of this study is to develop biomarkers and therapeutic targets for diagnosis and better understanding of AD. As a result, lysophosphatidylcholine and intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism including sphinganine-1-phosphate, sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingomyelin, and sphingosine in plasma were annotated as potential biomarkers by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UHPLC-Q-Exactive-MS. Besides, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) including GstA3, Gstm1, Gstm5, Gstm3, Gstk1 and Gstp1 were significantly enhanced in AD hippocampus by using label free nano-LC-MS/MS...
May 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469156/impaired-renal-function-and-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-contribute-to-increased-trimethylamine-n-oxide-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#17
Kai-Yu Xu, Geng-Hong Xia, Jun-Qi Lu, Mu-Xuan Chen, Xin Zhen, Shan Wang, Chao You, Jing Nie, Hong-Wei Zhou, Jia Yin
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed to investigate the gut microbiota and blood trimethylamine-N-oxide concentration (TMAO) in Chinese CKD patients and explore the underlying explanations through the animal experiment. The median plasma TMAO level was 30.33 μmol/L in the CKD patients, which was significantly higher than the 2.08 μmol/L concentration measured in the healthy controls. Next-generation sequence revealed obvious dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in CKD patients, with reduced bacterial diversity and biased community constitutions...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465696/pimpinella-anisum-l-fruit-chemical-composition-and-effect-on-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Ali Asadollahpoor, Mohammad Abdollahi, Roja Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a group of chronic liver disorders caused by irregular accumulation of fat in liver tissue. The current study aimed to evaluate chemical composition and the effect of fruit extract and essential oil of Pimpinella anisum in experimental model of NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into ten groups, six in each group. NAFLD was induced in rats using choline-deficient diet for 90 days, followed by 30 days of treatment with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day of hydroethanolic extract (AE) as well as 0...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463589/nmr-based-metabolomics-analysis-of-liver-from-c57bl-6-mouse-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation
#19
Xiongjie Xiao, Mary Hu, Xu Zhang, Jian Zhi Hu
The effects of ionizing radiation to human health are of great concern in the field of space exploration and for patients considering radiotherapy. However, to date, the effect of high-dose radiation on metabolism in the liver has not been clearly defined. In this study, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics combined with multivariate data analysis was applied to study the changes of metabolism in the liver of C57BL/6 mouse after whole-body gamma (3.0 and 7.8 Gy) or proton (3.0 Gy) irradiation...
May 2, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456640/adrenic-acid-as-an-inflammation-enhancer-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Saut Horas H Nababan, Shin Nishiumi, Yuki Kawano, Takashi Kobayashi, Masaru Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to identify novel links between lipid species and disease progression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We analyzed lipid species in the liver and plasma of db/db mice fed a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). An in vitro experiment was performed using HepG2 cells stimulated with recombinant human TNFα or IL1β. The expression of steatosis-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related genes were analyzed...
June 1, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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