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Giorgio Gabarrini, Rick Heida, Nienke van Ieperen, Mike A Curtis, Arie Jan van Winkelhoff, Jan Maarten van Dijl
The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has been invoked in the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This association relates to the peptidylarginine deiminase of P. gingivalis (PPAD), an enzyme capable of citrullinating human proteins and potentially contributing to loss of tolerance to citrullinated proteins in RA. PPAD is both retained in the outer membrane (OM) of P. gingivalis cells and secreted into the extracellular milieu, where it is detected in a soluble form and in association with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs)...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xin-Hong Dong, Meng-Hsuan Ho, Bindong Liu, James Hildreth, Chandravanu Dash, J Shawn Goodwin, Muthukumar Balasubramaniam, Chin-Ho Chen, Hua Xie
The association between mucosal microbiota and HIV-1 infection has garnered great attention in the field of HIV-1 research. Previously, we reported a receptor-independent HIV-1 entry into epithelial cells mediated by a Gram-negative invasive bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Here, we present evidence showing that P. gingivalis outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) promote mucosal transmission of HIV-1. We demonstrated, using the Dynabeads technology, a specific interaction between HIV-1 and P. gingivalis OMVs which led to an OMV-dependent viral entry into oral epithelial cells...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anjali Malge, Vikas Ghai, Panga Jaipal Reddy, David Baxter, Taek-Kyun Kim, Robert L Moritz, Kai Wang
Borrelia burgdorferi, a bacterium in the spirochete phylum, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. B. burgdorferi has a linear chromosome with a number of circular and linear plasmids. Bacteria, including B. burgdorferi, release spherical outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that are known to carry secretory products including metabolites, nucleic acids and proteins. Herein, we provide the first comparative transcriptomic analysis of the vesicles released from B. burgdorferi. We identified a total of ∼1200 unique transcripts with at least one mapped read from the bacterial cell and its OMVs...
May 28, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Paula Martins, Daisy Machado, Thais Holtz Theizen, João Paulo Oliveira Guarnieri, Bruno Gaia Bernardes, Gabriel Piccirillo Gomide, Marcus Alexandre Finzi Corat, Camilla Abbehausen, José Luiz Proença Módena, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues Melo, Karen Noda Morishita, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Clarice Weis Arns, Marcelo Lancellotti
The increase of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Brazil in the last two years leaves a prophylactic measures on alert for this new and emerging pathogen. Concerning of our positive experience, we developed a new prototype using Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicles (OMV) on ZIKV cell growth in a fusion of OMV in the envelope of virus particles. The fusion of nanoparticles resulting from outer membrane vesicles of N. meningitidis with infected C6/36 cells line were analyzed by Nano tracking analysis (NTA), zeta potential, differential light scattering (DLS), scan and scanning transmission eletronic microscopy (SEM and STEM) and high resolution mass spectometry (HRMS) for nanostructure characterization...
May 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rassoul Hashemzehi, Abbas Doosti, Mohammad Kargar, Mojtaba Jaafarinia
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria that cause infections with high rate of death. This bacterium is one the common causes of infection worldwide leading to endemic and epidemic nosocomial infections. Despite many efforts, there is no effective vaccine against A. baumannii. As NlpA is one of the important antigenic factors in biogenesis of outer membrane vesicles, and OMV-based reported vaccines in A. baumannii stimulated the immune responses, this study was aimed to clone and express nlpA gene in eukaryotic HDF cells and evaluate the induced immunization following the administration of resulting construct as DNA vaccine in BALB/c mice...
May 22, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Babak Beikzadeh, Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni
OBJECTIVE: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) is the cause of diarrhea and even death in humans and offspring of animals. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of the ETEC was prepared and its potential as a vaccine candidate against enteric colibacillosis in neonatal mice was evaluated. Dam mice intradermally injected with ETEC-derived OMVs and OMVs plus an active form of vitamin D3 (avD3). Mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice and passive immunity protection against ETEC lethality in their offspring was investigated...
May 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Chun Xu, Mao Xia, Gang Meng, Chunyan Li, Aiqin Jiang, Jiwu Wei
Oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent. However, the presence of anti-measles neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the hemagglutinin (H) protein of OMV is a major barrier to the therapeutic application of OMV in clinical practice. In order to overcome this challenge, specific types of cells have been used as carriers for OMV. Differential loading strategies appear to result in different therapeutic outcomes; despite this, only few studies have reported practical ex vivo loading strategies required for effective treatment...
May 16, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Paul D Veith, Caroline Luong, Keng H Tan, Stuart G Dashper, Eric C Reynolds
Porphyromonas gingivalis is an anaerobic, Gram-negative oral pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an obligate requirement for heme which it obtains from the host. Heme availability has been linked to disease initiation and progression. In this study we used continuous culture of the bacterium to determine the effect of heme limitation and excess on the P. gingivalis proteome. Four biological replicates of whole cell lysate (WCL) and outer membrane vesicle (OMV) samples were digested with trypsin and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry and MaxQuant label-free quantification...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Michael P Hays, Diane Houben, Yang Yang, Joen Luirink, Philip R Hardwidge
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are promising vaccine components because they combine antigen and adjuvant in a single formulation. Detoxified Salmonella enterica strains that express penta-acylated lipid A retain OMV immunogenicity but with reduced reactogenicity. We have previously shown that a recombinant form of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 17 kilodalton protein (Skp) protects mice in a pulmonary challenge model, when fused to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) epitope and combined with cholera toxin...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kuang Tan, Ruizhen Li, Xiaotian Huang, Qiong Liu
Adjuvants have been of great interest to vaccine formulation as immune-stimulators. Prior to the recent research in the field of immune stimulation, conventional adjuvants utilized for aluminum-based vaccinations dominated the adjuvant market. However, these conventional adjuvants have demonstrated obvious defects, including poor protective efficiency and potential side effects, which hindered their widespread circulation. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) naturally exist in gram-negative bacteria and are capable of engaging innate and adaptive immunity and possess intrinsic adjuvant capacity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Chun Xu, Annika Verena Goß, Carmen Dorneburg, Klaus-Michael Debatin, Jiwu Wei, Christian Beltinger
Background: Attenuated oncolytic measles virus (OMV) is a promising antitumor agent in early-phase clinical trials. However, pre-existing immunity against measles might be a hurdle for OMV therapy. Methods: OMV was inactivated with short-wavelength ultraviolet light (UV-C). Loss of replication and oncolytic activity of UV-inactivated OMV were confirmed by tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50 ) assay using Vero cells and by flow cytometry using Jurkat cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify that UV-inactivated OMV remained antigenic...
2018: Oncolytic Virotherapy
Yan-Jiao Zhang, Huiyuan Lin, Pan Wang, Chang Chen, Shiyong Chen
Vibrio vulnificus, a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium, is an opportunistic human pathogen that is responsible for the majority of seafood-associated deaths worldwide. Lipoproteins are important components of the bacterial cell envelope and have been shown to be involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. Little is known about the localisation or transport mechanism of lipoproteins in V. vulnificus. To assess the localisation of lipoproteins in V. vulnificus, we tested two established techniques for the rapid separation of membrane-associated proteins: detergent extraction with Sarkosyl and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) preparation...
May 2, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Sihan Wang, Jin Gao, Zhenjia Wang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell membrane-derived compartments that spontaneously secrete from a wide range of cells and tissues. EVs have shown to be the carriers in delivering drugs and small interfering RNA. Among EVs, bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) recently have gained the interest in vaccine development and targeted drug delivery. In this review, we summarize the current discoveries of OMVs and their functions. In particular, we focus on the biogenesis of OMVs and their functions in bacterial virulence and pathogenesis...
April 26, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Ji Hyun Kim, Jaewook Lee, Kyong-Su Park, Sung-Wook Hong, Yong Song Gho
Sepsis is characterized by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) accompanied with infection. Gram-negative bacteria can evoke sepsis by activating the host immune system, such as the release of IL-6 and TNF-α, through their virulence factors. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), nanosized bilayered proteolipids derived from Gram-negative bacteria, harbor various virulence factors and are shown to induce SIRS. Here, drugs are repositioned to alleviate SIRS caused by Gram-negative bacterial OMVs. Using novel OMV-based drug screening systems, a total of 178 commercially available drugs are primarily screened, and a total of 18 repositioned drug candidates are found to effectively block IL-6 and TNF-α production from OMV-stimulated macrophages...
April 23, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Nathan J Alves, Martin Moore, Brandy J Johnson, Scott N Dean, Kendrick B Turner, Igor L Medintz, Scott A Walper
While technologies for the remediation of chemical contaminants continue to emerge, growing interest in green technologies has led researchers to explore natural catalytic mechanisms derived from microbial species. One such method, enzymatic degradation, offers an alternative to harsh chemical catalysts and resins. Recombinant enzymes, however, are often too labile or show limited activity when challenged with nonideal environmental conditions that may vary in salinity, pH, or other physical properties. Here, we demonstrate how phosphotriesterase encapsulated in a bacterial outer membrane vesicle can be used to degrade the organophosphate chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulant paraoxon in environmental water samples...
May 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xifeng Wang, Zhiquan Wang, Xinfeng Bai, Yue Zhao, Weican Zhang, Xuemei Lu
Cytophaga hutchinsonii is a gliding Gram-negative bacterium in the phylum Bacteroidetes with the capability to digest crystalline cellulose rapidly, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, deletion of chu_0125 , encoding a homolog of the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (Pal), was determined to prevent degradation of the crystalline region of cellulose. We found that the chu_0125 deletion mutant grew normally in regenerated amorphous cellulose medium but displayed defective growth in crystalline cellulose medium and increased the degree of crystallinity of Avicel...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tamara Reyes-Robles, Rebecca S Dillard, Lynne S Cairns, Cecilia A Silva-Valenzuela, Max Housman, Afsar Ali, Elizabeth R Wright, Andrew Camilli
Novel preventatives could help in efforts to limit Vibrio cholerae infection and the spread of cholera. Bacteriophage (or phage) treatment has been proposed to be an alternative intervention, given the rapid replication of virulent phages, prey specificity, and relative ease of finding new virulent phages. Phage tropism is dictated in part by the presence of phage receptors on the bacterial surface. While many phages that can kill V. cholerae have been isolated, whether this pathogen is able to defend itself by neutralizing phage binding is unknown...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
David E Whitworth
Predation is an extreme form of competition between bacteria, involving the secretion of antimicrobial substances by predators, often packaged within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Recent studies into the Myxococcus xanthus/Escherichia coli predator/prey relationship have illuminated transcriptional changes during predation, identifying likely targets of predatory attack in the prey and nutrient assimilation strategies of the predator. Abundant non-coding RNAs can be observed in the predator and prey transcriptomes, with evidence of predation-dependent regulation of RNA levels...
May 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Bo Tang, Da-Wei He, Dian Li, Wen-Hao Guo, Dan Zhang, Guang-Hui Wei
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of outer membrane vesicles derived from Escherichia coli on proliferation, apoptosis and migration of human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells in vitro. METHODS: The outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were obtained from wild-type Escherichia coli with ultracentrifugation method, and the morphology of the OMVs was observed by transmission electron microscopy and the vesicle diameter was determined using MALVERN ZEN3690. Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells were treated with the OMVs at low (100 µg/mL), moderate (500 µg/mL) and high (1000 µg/mL) doses, and 24, 48 and 72 h later, the cell proliferation activity was detected with MTT assay...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
María-Alexandra Cañas, María-José Fábrega, Rosa Giménez, Josefa Badia, Laura Baldomà
Gut microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining human intestinal homeostasis and host health. Bacterial extracellular vesicles are key players in bacteria-host communication, as they allow delivery of effector molecules into the host cells. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by Gram-negative bacteria carry many ligands of pattern recognition receptors that are key components of innate immunity. NOD1 and NOD2 cytosolic receptors specifically recognize peptidoglycans present within the bacterial cell wall...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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