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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450619/immediate-response-mechanisms-of-gram-negative-solvent-tolerant-bacteria-to-cope-with-environmental-stress-cis-trans-isomerization-of-unsaturated-fatty-acids-and-outer-membrane-vesicle-secretion
#1
REVIEW
Christian Eberlein, Thomas Baumgarten, Stephan Starke, Hermann J Heipieper
Bacteria have evolved an array of adaptive mechanisms enabling them to survive and grow in the presence of different environmental stresses. These mechanisms include either modifications of the membrane or changes in the overall energy status, cell morphology, and cell surface properties. Long-term adaptations are dependent on transcriptional regulation, the induction of anabolic pathways, and cell growth. However, to survive sudden environmental changes, bacterial short-term responses are essential to keep the cells alive after the occurrence of an environmental stress factor such as heat shock or the presence of toxic organic solvents...
February 15, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420119/cross-protection-induced-by-va-mengoc-bc%C3%A2-vaccine
#2
Rolando Felipe Ochoa-Azze
I would like to comment on the article "Commentary: Impact of meningococcal group B OMV vaccines, beyond their brief", DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1381810. The author states that meningococcal group B OMVs vaccines -such as VA-MENGOC-BC®- may induce moderate protection against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. I agree. However, the author states that "there was no evidence of effectiveness in the younger children." The effectiveness of VA-MENGOC-BC® in heterologous contexts has been higher than 80% in individuals older than 4 years old, but the effectiveness in younger children should not be undervalued; it has usually been higher than 60%, and results markedly higher when evaluated based on mortality rates...
February 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406241/immunization-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-outer-membrane-vesicles-stimulates-protective-immunity-in-mice
#3
Xiaoli Zhang, Feng Yang, Jintao Zou, Weiru Wu, Haiming Jing, Qiang Gou, Haibo Li, Jiang Gu, Quanming Zou, Jinyong Zhang
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of severe nosocomial and community acquired infections, these infections are major health problems for cystic fibrosis patients and immune-compromised individuals. The emergence of multidrug-resistant isolates highlights the need to develop alternative strategies for treatment of P. aeruginosa infections. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical nanometer-sized proteolipids that are secreted from numerous of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and a number of studies have confirmed the protective efficacy for use of OMVs as candidate vaccines...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377560/association-of-vibrio-cholerae-569b-outer-membrane-vesicles-with-host-cells-occurs-in-a-gm1-independent-manner
#4
Elnaz S Rasti, Megan L Schappert, Angela C Brown
The primary virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, cholera toxin (CT), initiates a pathway in epithelial cells that leads to the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera. Secreted CT binds to GM1 on the surface of host cells to facilitate internalization. Many bacterial toxins, including CT, have been shown to be additionally delivered via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). A fraction of the closely related heat labile toxin (LT) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has been demonstrated to reside on the surface of OMVs, where it binds GM1 to facilitate OMV internalization by host cells...
January 27, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373591/a-trivalent-apx-fusion-protein-delivered-by-e-coli-outer-membrane-vesicles-induce-protection-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-of-serotype-1-and-7-challenge-in-a-murine-model
#5
Kui Xu, Qin Zhao, Xintian Wen, Rui Wu, Yiping Wen, Xiaobo Huang, Yong Huang, Qigui Yan, Xinfeng Han, Xiaoping Ma, Yung-Fu Chang, Sanjie Cao
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes serious economic losses in the swine industry, and is the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. In this study we have engineered a trivalent Apx fusion protein enclosed in outer membrane vesicles (Apxr-OMV) and studied its immunoprotective efficacy against APP serotypes 1 and 7 challenge in mice. The results showed that the IgG levels in the Apxr-OMVs immune group were significantly higher than those of the negative control (P < 0.05). Up-regulation of both Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were detected in splenocytes of Apxr-OMVs immune group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345219/transcriptional-changes-when-myxococcus-xanthus-preys-on-escherichia-coli-suggest-myxobacterial-predators-are-constitutively-toxic-but-regulate-their-feeding
#6
Paul G Livingstone, Andrew D Millard, Martin T Swain, David E Whitworth
Predation is a fundamental ecological process, but within most microbial ecosystems the molecular mechanisms of predation remain poorly understood. We investigated transcriptome changes associated with the predation of Escherichia coli by the myxobacterium Myxococcus xanthus using mRNA sequencing. Exposure to pre-killed prey significantly altered expression of 1319 predator genes. However, the transcriptional response to living prey was minimal, with only 12 genes being significantly up-regulated. The genes most induced by prey presence (kdpA and kdpB, members of the kdp regulon) were confirmed by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR to be regulated by osmotic shock in M...
January 18, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320408/outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccines-from-biosafe-surrogates-prevent-acute-lethal-glanders-in-mice
#7
Michael H Norris, Mohammad S R Khan, Sunisa Chirakul, Herbert P Schweizer, Apichai Tuanyok
Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted Gram-negative mammalian pathogen that causes the severe disease glanders. Glanders can manifest as a rapid acute progression or a chronic debilitating syndrome primarily affecting solipeds and humans in close association with infected animals. In USA, B. mallei is classified as one of the most important bacterial biothreat agents. Presently, there is no licensed glanders vaccine available for humans or animals. In this work, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were isolated from three attenuated biosafe bacterial strains, Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp82, B...
January 10, 2018: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316978/in-vivo-testing-of-novel-vaccine-prototypes-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae
#8
Fabio Antenucci, Cyrielle Fougeroux, Alannah Deeney, Cathrine Ørskov, Andrew Rycroft, Peter Johannes Holst, Anders Miki Bojesen
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (A. pleuropneumoniae) is a Gram-negative bacterium that represents the main cause of porcine pleuropneumonia in pigs, causing significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. A. pleuropneumoniae, as the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, excrete vesicles from its outer membrane (OM), accordingly defined as outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Thanks to their antigenic similarity to the OM, OMVs have emerged as a promising tool in vaccinology. In this study we describe the in vivo testing of several vaccine prototypes for the prevention of infection by all known A...
January 9, 2018: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311138/bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles-from-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-differentially-regulate-intestinal-udp-glucuronosyltransferase-1a1-partially-through-tlr4-mapk-pi3k-pathway
#9
Xuejiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Zhixiang Yan, Nan Hu, Yanjuan Huang, Beilei Han, Tai-Seng Wai, Wei Yang, Ru Yan
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) constitutes an important part of intestinal epithelial barrier and catalyzes glucuronidation of many endogenous compounds and drugs. Down-regulation of UGT1A1 in inflammation has been reported, while the association with gut dysbiosis is poorly defined. This study verified the involvement of gut microbiota in intestinal UGT1A1 regulation using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis model plus fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Generally, both DSS induction and colitis-to-normal FMT suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of UGT1A1 and nuclear xenobiotic receptors (NRs) in colon, but enhanced mRNA and decreased protein of rUGT1A1/rNRs in small intestine...
January 8, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291098/diesel-production-from-lignocellulosic-feed-the-biocrack-process
#10
K Treusch, J Ritzberger, N Schwaiger, P Pucher, M Siebenhofer
The bioCRACK process is a promising technology for the production of second generation biofuels. During this process, biomass is pyrolized in vacuum gas oil and converted into gaseous, liquid and solid products. In cooperation with the Graz University of Technology, the liquid phase pyrolysis process was investigated by BDI - BioEnergy International AG at an industrial pilot plant, fully integrated in the OMV refinery in Vienna/Schwechat. The influence of various biogenous feedstocks and the influence of the temperature on the product distribution in the temperature range of 350°C to 390°C was studied...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276507/in-silico-analysis-of-the-small-molecule-content-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-produced-by-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-indicates-an-extensive-metabolic-link-between-microbe-and-host
#11
William A Bryant, Régis Stentz, Gwenaelle Le Gall, Michael J E Sternberg, Simon R Carding, Thomas Wilhelm
The interactions between the gut microbiota and its host are of central importance to the health of the host. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced ubiquitously by Gram-negative bacteria including the gut commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. These vesicles can interact with the host in various ways but until now their complement of small molecules has not been investigated in this context. Using an untargeted high-coverage metabolomic approach we have measured the small molecule content of these vesicles in contrasting in vitro conditions to establish what role these metabolites could perform when packed into these vesicles...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240272/amino-acid-deprivation-and-central-carbon-metabolism-regulate-the-production-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-and-tubes-by-francisella
#12
Vinaya Sampath, William D McCaig, David G Thanassi
Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. F. novicida, a model tularemia strain, produces spherical outer membrane vesicles (OMV), as well as novel tubular vesicles and extensions of the cell surface. These OMV and tubes (OMV/T) are produced in a regulated manner and contain known virulence factors. Mechanisms by which bacterial vesicles are produced and regulated are not well understood. We performed a genetic screen in F. novicida to decipher the molecular basis for regulated OMV/T formation, and identified both hypo- and hyper-vesiculating mutants...
December 14, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234030/escherichia-coli-outer-membrane-vesicles-can-contribute-to-sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction
#13
Kristina Svennerholm, Kyong-Su Park, Johannes Wikström, Cecilia Lässer, Rossella Crescitelli, Ganesh V Shelke, Su Chul Jang, Shintaro Suzuki, Elga Bandeira, Charlotta S Olofsson, Jan Lötvall
Sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction (SIC) is a severe complication to sepsis which significantly worsens patient outcomes. It is known that bacteria have the capacity to release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which are nano-sized bilayered vesicles composed of lipids and proteins, that can induce a fatal inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine whether OMVs from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain can induce cardiac dysfunction, and to elucidate any mechanisms involved. OMVs induced irregular Ca2+ oscillations with a decreased frequency in cardiomyocytes through recordings of intracellular Ca2+ dynamics...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232837/a-burkholderia-pseudomallei-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-provides-cross-protection-against-inhalational-glanders-in-mice-and-non-human-primates
#14
Sarah M Baker, Christopher J H Davitt, Natalya Motyka, Nicole L Kikendall, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, Chad J Roy, Lisa A Morici
Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacillus and the causative agent of glanders, a highly contagious zoonotic disease. B. mallei is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics and there is concern for its potential use as a bioweapon, making the development of a vaccine against B. mallei of critical importance. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with multivalent outer membrane vesicles (OMV) derived from B. pseudomallei provide significant protection against pneumonic melioidosis...
December 9, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208444/characterization-of-outer-membrane-vesicles-of-acetobacter-pasteurianus-nbrc3283
#15
Masahito Hashimoto, Taichi Matsumoto, Miwa Tamura-Nakano, Mami Ozono, Shuhei Hashiguchi, Yasuo Suda
Acetobacter pasteurianus is characterized as a fermenting bacterium of kurozu, which is a common traditional Japanese black vinegar. Recently, we separated acid-resistant and low Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-stimulatory lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from A. pasteurianus. We also showed that their lipid A parts possessed a novel sugar backbone that is responsible for the low TLR4-stimulatory and acid-resistant properties of the LPS. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nano-sized spherical structures secreted from many gram-negative bacteria...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205766/the-bile-salt-sodium-taurocholate-induces-campylobacter-jejuni-outer-membrane-vesicle-production-and-increases-omv-associated-proteolytic-activity
#16
Abdi Elmi, Amber Dorey, Eleanor Watson, Heena Jagatia, Neil F Inglis, Ozan Gundogdu, Mona Bajaj-Elliott, Brendan W Wren, David G E Smith, Nick Dorrell
Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide, secretes an arsenal of virulence-associated proteins within outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). C. jejuni OMVs contain three serine proteases (HtrA, Cj0511 and Cj1365c) which cleave the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) tight and adherens junction proteins occludin and E-cadherin, promoting enhanced C. jejuni adhesion to and invasion of IECs. C. jejuni OMVs also induce IECs innate immune responses. The bile salt sodium taurocholate (ST) is sensed as a host signal to co-ordinate the activation of virulence-associated genes in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae...
December 4, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203497/outer-membrane-vesicles-omv-based-and-proteomics-driven-antigen-selection-identifies-novel-factors-contributing-to-bordetella-pertussis-adhesion-to-epithelial-cells
#17
Gianmarco Gasperini, Massimiliano Biagini, Vanessa Arato, Claudia Gianfaldoni, Alessandro Vadi, Nathalie Norais, Giuliano Bensi, Isabel Delany, Mariagrazia Pizza, Beatrice Aricò, Rosanna Leuzzi
Despite high vaccination coverage world-wide, whooping cough, a highly contagious disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, is recently increasing in occurrence suggesting that novel vaccine formulations targeted at the prevention of colonization and transmission should be investigated. In order to identify new candidates for inclusion in the acellular formulation, we used spontaneously released outer membrane vesicles (OMV) as a potential source of key adhesins. The enrichment of Bvg+ OMV with adhesins and the ability of anti-OMV serum to inhibit the adhesion of B...
December 4, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191736/immunogenicity-of-vibrio-cholerae-outer-membrane-vesicles-secreted-at-various-environmental-conditions
#18
Rezaei Adriani, Seyed Latif Mousavi Gargari, Shahram Nazarian, Samaneh Sarvary, Nafiseh Noroozi
Cholera is caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. It is a significant health problem and an important cause of mortality of children in developing countries. Annually, about 5-7 million people are being infected worldwide, leading to death of 100,000 to 120,000. Immunization using the currently available cholera vaccines has been recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) in areas where cholera is endemic or at risk of outbreaks. Gram-negative bacteria secrete outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that play important roles in virulence and host-pathogen interaction...
November 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180369/membrane-vesicles-derived-from-bordetella-bronchiseptica-active-constituent-of-a-new-vaccine-against-infections-caused-by-this-pathogen
#19
D Bottero, M E Zurita, M E Gaillard, E Bartel, C Vercellini, D Hozbor
Bordetella bronchiseptica, a Gram-negative bacterium, causes chronic respiratory-tract infections in a wide variety of mammalian hosts-humans included, albeit rarely. We recently designed B. pertussis and B. parapertussis experimental vaccines based on outer-membrane vesicles derived from each pathogen and obtained protection against the respective infections in mice. Here, we demonstrate that outer-membrane vesicles derived from virulent-phase B. bronchiseptica (OMVBbvir+) protect mice against sublethal infection from different B...
November 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164053/synergistic-protective-activity-of-tumor-specific-epitopes-engineered-in-bacterial-outer-membrane-vesicles
#20
Alberto Grandi, Michele Tomasi, Ilaria Zanella, Luisa Ganfini, Elena Caproni, Laura Fantappiè, Carmela Irene, Luca Frattini, Samine J Isaac, Enrico König, Francesca Zerbini, Simona Tavarini, Chiara Sammicheli, Fabiola Giusti, Ilaria Ferlenghi, Matteo Parri, Guido Grandi
Introduction: Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally produced by all Gram-negative bacteria and, thanks to their plasticity and unique adjuvanticity, are emerging as an attractive vaccine platform. To test the applicability of OMVs in cancer immunotherapy, we decorated them with either one or two protective epitopes present in the B16F10EGFRvIII cell line and tested the protective activity of OMV immunization in C57BL/6 mice challenged with B16F10EGFRvIII. Materials and methods: The 14 amino acid B cell epitope of human epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) and the mutation-derived CD4+ T cell neo-epitope of kif18b gene (B16-M30) were used to decorate OMVs either alone or in combination...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
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