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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#1
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429607/thalamic-hemorrhagic-stroke-in-the-term-newborn-a-specific-neonatal-syndrome-with-non-uniform-outcome
#2
Laura Merlini, Sylviane Hanquinet, Joel Fluss
BACKGROUND: Neonatal thalamic hemorrhagic stroke is related to cerebral sinus venous thrombosis and associated with neurological sequelae. Predicting factors are however lacking. METHODS: Clinical and radiological findings at onset and on follow-up of 5 neonates with thalamic hemorrhage stroke are described. RESULTS: All neonates presented with abrupt lethargy, ophistotonos, irritability and/or seizures. The thalamic hemorrhagic stroke was most often unilateral (4/5), involving the posterior/entire thalamus in 3 cases and the anterior thalamus in 2...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428194/detrimental-effects-of-centrally-administered-angiotensin-ii-are-enhanced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-independently-of%C3%A2-blood-pressure
#3
Koki Takane, Yu Hasegawa, Bowen Lin, Nobutaka Koibuchi, Cheng Cao, Takashi Yokoo, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND: The significance of brain angiotensin II in Alzheimer disease (AD) is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the role of brain angiotensin II in AD, intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion was performed on 5XFAD mice, a mouse model of AD, and wild-type mice, and the detrimental effects of brain angiotensin II was compared between the 2 strains of mice. Intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion significantly impaired cognitive function in 5XFAD mice but not in wild-type mice...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426417/neuropathological-lesions-of-clinical-and-sub-clinical-coenurosis-coenurus-cerebralis-in-organized-goat-farms-in-india
#4
Nayakwadi Shivasharanappa, Nitika Sharma, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Rajveer Singh Pawaiya, Beena Vamadevan, Anil Kumar Mishra, Souvik Paul
Clinical and sub clinical cases of Coenurosis due to Coenurus cerebralis in goats were documented based on clinical, post mortem examination, identification of parasitic stages, gross and histopathological lesions in brain of animals died due to abnormal neurological symptoms. The most prominent site of predilection of coenuri cysts in brain was cerebral hemispheres and multiple cysts were found in majority of the cases. Generalized congestion, thinning of brain parenchyma due to pressure atrophy, gliosis, neuronal degeneration, protoscolices in brain parenchyma and inflammatory cell reactions predominantly comprised of lymphocytes and macrophages were prominent neuropathological lesions observed in brain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420817/association-of-kidney-dysfunction-with-asymptomatic-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-in-a-japanese-population-with-health-checkups
#5
Kaori Hayashi, Michiyo Takayama, Takeshi Kanda, Kazuhiro Kashiwagi, Akihito Hishikawa, Yasushi Iwao, Hiroshi Itoh
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in stroke patients. This study evaluated the correlation between kidney dysfunction and asymptomatic findings on carotid ultrasonography (US) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a Japanese population with health checkups.Methods and Results:In total, 1,716 subjects aged 40-80 years, who received health checkups from January 1 to December 31, 2015, were included...
April 14, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414666/just-a-puff-of-smoke
#6
A Leonard
CASE: A 44 year old woman with a history of stroke s/p aneurysm clipping, seizure, and substance abuse was brought to the hospital after a family member received a call from her friend saying she was acting unusual and may have had a seizure while hanging out on the street. At her baseline, she needed modest assistance in daily activities after her CVA and conversed without issue. Her mother died of a stroke. On exam the patient was afebrile, normotensive with mild tachycardia to 110...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402042/mm1-type-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-1-month-total-disease-duration-and-early-pathologic-indicators
#7
Yasushi Iwasaki, Hiroko Kato, Tetsuo Ando, Maya Mimuro, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Mari Yoshida
A 62-year-old man presented with abnormal behavior and cognitive impairment. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) obtained on MRI showed extensive hyperintense regions in the cerebral cortex and striatum. Myoclonus was recognized, and the patient died 1 month after the onset; his condition did not reach the akinetic mutism state. The brain weighed 1300 g and showed no apparent atrophy. Extensive spongiform changes were observed in the cerebral neocortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellar cortex, but gliosis was mild or absent...
April 12, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400986/combining-injectable-plasma-scaffold-with-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-for-repairing-infarct-cavity-after-ischemic-stroke
#8
Hongxia Zhang, Fen Sun, Jixian Wang, Luokun Xie, Chenqi Yang, Mengxiong Pan, Bei Shao, Guo-Yuan Yang, Shao-Hua Yang, Qichuan ZhuGe, Kunlin Jin
Stroke survivors are typically left with structural brain damage and associated functional impairment in the chronic phase of injury, for which few therapeutic options exist. We reported previously that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem cells together with Matrigel scaffolding into the brains of rats after focal ischemia reduced infarct volume and improved neurobehavioral performance. Matrigel is a gelatinous protein mixture extracted from mouse sarcoma cells, thus would not be approved for use as a scaffold clinically...
April 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396199/hypoxia-response-element-regulated-mmp-9-promotes-neurological-recovery-via-glial-scar-degradation-and-angiogenesis-in-delayed-stroke
#9
Hongxia Cai, Yuanyuan Ma, Lu Jiang, Zhihao Mu, Zhen Jiang, Xiaoyan Chen, Yongting Wang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Zhijun Zhang
Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) plays a beneficial role in the delayed phase of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). However, the mechanism is obscure. Here, we constructed hypoxia response element (HRE)-regulated MMP-9 to explore its effect on glial scars and neurogenesis in delayed ischemic stroke. Adult male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice underwent MCAO and received a stereotactic injection of lentivirus carrying HRE-MMP-9 or normal saline (NS)/lentivirus-GFP 7 days after ischemia. We found that HRE-MMP-9 improved neurological outcomes, reduced ischemia-induced brain atrophy, and degraded glial scars (p < 0...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395089/methylmalonate-induces-inflammatory-and-apoptotic-potential-a-link-to-glial-activation-and-neurological-dysfunction
#10
Patricia Gabbi, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Gutierres Jessié Martins, Alexandra Seide Cardoso, Fernanda Haupental, Fernanda Silva Rodrigues, Alencar Kolinski Machado, Juliana Sperotto Brum, M M Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Ivana Beatrice Mânica da Cruz, Ana Flávia Furian, Mauro Schneider Oliveira, Adair Roberto Soares Dos Santos, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Michele Rechia Fighera, Mayara Lutchemeyer de Freitas
Methylmalonic acid (MMA) accumulates in tissues in methylmalonic acidemia, a heterogeneous group of inherited childhood diseases characterized by neurological dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation; it is associated with degeneration of striatal neurons and cerebral cortical atrophy. It is presently unknown, however, whether transient exposure to MMA in the neonatal period is sufficient to trigger inflammatory and apoptotic processes that lead to brain structural damage. Here, newborn mice were given a single intracerebroventricular dose of MMA at 12 hours after birth...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387450/severe-demyelination-in-a-patient-with-a-late-infantile-form-of-niemann-pick-disease-type-c
#11
Tsuyoshi Kodachi, Shizuko Matsumoto, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hitoshi Osaka, Nobuyuki Kanai, Eiji Nanba, Kousaku Ohno, Takanori Yamagata
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a cholesterol storage disease caused by defective cellular cholesterol transportation. The onset and progression of NPC are variable, and autopsy findings have mainly been reported for the adult and juvenile forms of this disease. Here we report the clinical and pathological findings from a 9-year-old female patient with the late infantile form of NPC due to NPC1 gene mutation. She had notable splenomegaly at 4 months of age. She lost the ability to speak at 18 months of age...
April 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386688/beyond-the-midbrain-atrophy-wide-spectrum-of-structural-mri-finding-in-cases-of-pathologically-proven-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#12
REVIEW
Keita Sakurai, Aya M Tokumaru, Keigo Shimoji, Shigeo Murayama, Kazutomi Kanemaru, Satoru Morimoto, Ikuko Aiba, Motoo Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki Ozawa, Masashi Shimohira, Noriyuki Matsukawa, Yoshio Hashizume, Yuta Shibamoto
PURPOSE: Recently, it has been recognized that pathologically proven progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) cases are classified into various clinical subtypes with non-uniform symptoms and imaging findings. This article reviews essential imaging findings, general information, and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques for PSP and presents these MRI findings of pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases for educational purposes. METHODS: With the review of literatures, notably including atypical pathologically proven PSP cases, MRI and clinical information of 15 pathologically proven typical and atypical PSP cases were retrospectively evaluated...
April 6, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378817/severe-neurodegeneration-progressive-cerebral-volume-loss-and-diffuse-hypomyelination-associated-with-a-homozygous-frameshift-mutation-in-cstb
#13
Alan Brien, Christian R Marshall, Susan Blaser, Peter N Ray, Grace Yoon
Mutations of the cystatin B gene (CSTB; OMIM 601145) are known to cause Unverricht-Lundborg disease or progressive myoclonic epilepsy-1A (EPM1A, MIM #254800). Most patients are homozygous for an expanded (>30) dodecamer repeat in the promoter region of CSTB, or are compound heterozygotes for the dodecamer repeat and a point mutation. We report two adolescent sisters born to consanguineous parents of Sri Lankan descent who presented with profound global developmental delay, microcephaly, cortical blindness and axial hypotonia with appendicular hypertonia...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374696/-mechanisms-of-development-of-chronic-cerebral-ischemia-in-arterial-hypertension
#14
O N Voskresenskaya, N B Zakharova, M V Ivanov
AIM: To study a relationship of arterial hypertension (AH) severity with the cerebral blood flow and structural changes in the brain matter, processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense, parameters of homeostasis, indicators of endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A complex study of 84 patients with AH, aged from 43 to 64 years, was carried out. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The severity of atherosclerotic damage increased with the increasing of the AH degree...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374506/g-csf-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-diabetic-mice-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-preventive-intervention-effects-and-underlying-mechanisms
#15
Zhu-Fei Guan, Ying-Hong Tao, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Qi-Lin Guo, Ying-Chao Liu, Yu Zhang, Yan-Mei Wang, Gang Ji, Guo-Feng Wu, Na-Na Wang, Hao Yang, Zhong-Yu Yu, Jing-Chun Guo, Hou-Guang Zhou
AIMS: Although cognitive dysfunction is a common neurological complication in elderly patients with diabetes, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear, and effective preventive interventions have yet to be developed. Thus, this study investigated the preventive effects and mechanisms of action associated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on cognitive dysfunction in elderly diabetic mice with cerebral small vessel disease. METHODS: This study included 40 male db/db diabetic and wild-type (WT) mice that were categorized into the following four groups at the age of 3 weeks: db/db group (DG), db/db+G-CSF group (DGG), WT group (WG), and WT+G-CSF group (WGG)...
April 4, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374256/analysis-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-of-children-with-neurologic-complications-after-liver-transplantation
#16
Mehmet Öztürk, İsmail Akdulum, Nurullah Dağ, Ahmet Sığırcı, Serdal Güngör, Sezai Yılmaz
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the magnetic resonance imaging findings in children diagnosed with neurologic complications after liver transplantation (LT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 39 patients diagnosed with neurologic complications following LT between 2010 and 2016. Neuroradiologic imaging was performed using cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Descriptive statistics regarding age, gender, type of complication, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities were calculated and presented as number and percentage...
April 3, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374239/radiological-imaging-findings-of-dyke-davidoff-masson-syndrome
#17
Erkan Gökçe, Murat Beyhan, Recep Sade
Radiological findings of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) in patients with different etiologies are presented in our study. The study included 12 patients (seven females, five males) for whom radiological examinations were requested due to reasons such as epilepsy, mental retardation, and/or hemiplegia. CT was performed in 12, MRI in 6, MRA in 1, and DSA in 1 patient. Following imaging findings were evaluated: cerebral and cerebellar involvement (laterality, encephalomalacia), affected territories, ventricular enlargement, sulcal enlargement, calvarial thickening, and paranasal sinus enlargement hyperaeration...
April 3, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374233/neurological-deficits-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#18
REVIEW
Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Giulia Elisabetta Lombardi, Sara Marelli, Andrea Galbiati
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of complete or partial obstruction of the upper airway. The prevalence of this disorder is strictly dependent on its gravity. At ≥15 events/h apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), it ranges from 6 to 17% in the general population, with higher rates in men and increasing with age. The hypoxia induced by OSA severely affects the structure and function of blood vessels, culminating in mortality and morbidity...
April 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374019/cntnap1-mutations-cause-cns-hypomyelination-and-neuropathy-with-or-without-arthrogryposis
#19
Holger Hengel, Alex Magee, Muhammad Mahanjah, Jean-Michel Vallat, Robert Ouvrier, Mohammad Abu-Rashid, Jamal Mahamid, Rebecca Schüle, Martin Schulze, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Peter Bauer, Stephan Züchner, Rajech Sharkia, Ludger Schöls
OBJECTIVE: To explore the phenotypic spectrum and pathophysiology of human disease deriving from mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene. METHODS: In a field study on consanguineous Palestinian families, we identified 3 patients carrying homozygous mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene using whole-exome sequencing. An unrelated Irish family was detected by screening the GENESIS database for further CNTNAP1 mutations. Neurophysiology, MRI, and nerve biopsy including electron microscopy were performed for deep phenotyping...
April 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371088/cerebral-gray-matter-atrophy-is-associated-with-the-csf-igg-index-in-african-american-with-multiple-sclerosis
#20
Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Omar Khan, Bruce A C Cree, Fen Bao, Christina Caon, Imad Zak, Sara Razmjou, Alexandros Tselis, Scott Millis, Evanthia Bernitsas
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: African American (AA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been reported to have a more aggressive disease course compared to their white counterparts. We explored the relation of gray matter (GM) volume, a marker of tissue injury, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG index in both AA and white MS patients. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 150 self-identified AA and 150 white patients with MS who underwent magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain and CSF sampling...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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