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cerebral atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132035/brain-volume-in-early-ms-patients-with-and-without-igg-oligoclonal-bands-in-csf
#1
G Fenu, L Lorefice, V Sechi, L Loi, F Contu, F Cabras, G Coghe, J Frau, M A Secci, C Melis, L Schirru, G Costa, V Melas, M Arru, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Oligoclonal bands of IgG (OB) are proposed as an early prognostic factor of the disease. Growing attention is directed towards brain volume evaluation as a possible marker of the severity of MS. Previous studies found that MS patients lacking OB have less brain atrophy. AIM: to evaluate a possible relationship between OB and cerebral volume in a cohort of early MS patients. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis of relapsing-remitting MS; CSF analysis and MRI acquired simultaneously and within 12 months from clinical onset...
November 8, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120920/the-growing-clinical-spectrum-of-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#2
Marieke J H Wermer, Steven M Greenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is diagnosed primarily as a cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) in elderly patients. With improving MRI techniques, however, the role of CAA in causing other symptoms has become clear. Recognizing the full clinical spectrum of CAA is important for diagnosis and treatment. In this review we summarize recent insights in clinical CAA features, MRI biomarkers, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The rate of ICH recurrence in CAA is among the highest of all stroke subtypes...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110613/a-biomarker-combining-imaging-and-neuropsychological-assessment-for-tracking-early-alzheimer-s-disease-in-clinical-trials
#3
Nishant Verma, S Natasha Beretvas, Belen Pascual, Joseph C Masdeu, Mia K Markey, The Alzheimer S Disease Neuroimaging Initiative
BACKGROUND: Combining optimized cognitive (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale, ADAS-Cog) and atrophy markers of Alzheimer's disease for tracking progression in clinical trials may provide greater sensitivity than currently used methods, which have yielded negative results in multiple recent trials. Furthermore, it is critical to clarify the relationship among the subcomponents yielded by cognitive and imaging testing, to address the symptomatic and anatomical variability of Alzheimer's disease...
November 6, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110334/frontotemporal-dementia-with-trans-activation-response-dna-binding-protein-43-presenting-with-catatonic-syndrome
#4
Ryohei Watanabe, Ito Kawakami, Mitsumoto Onaya, Shinji Higashi, Nobutaka Arai, Haruhiko Akiyama, Masato Hasegawa, Tetsuaki Arai
Catatonia is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms such as immobility, mutism, stupor, stereotypy, echophenomena, catalepsy, automatic obedience, posturing, negativism, gegenhalten and ambitendency. This syndrome occurs mostly in mood disorder and schizophrenic patients, and is related to neuronal dysfunction involving the frontal lobe. Some cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with catatonia have been reported, but these cases were not examined by autopsy. Here, we report on a FTD case which showed catatonia after the first episode of brief psychotic disorder...
November 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103037/circulating-progenitor-cells-correlate-with-memory-posterior-cortical-thickness-and-hippocampal-perfusion
#5
Daniel A Nation, Alick Tan, Shubir Dutt, Elissa C McIntosh, Belinda Yew, Jean K Ho, Anna E Blanken, Jung Yun Jang, Kathleen E Rodgers, Aimée Gaubert
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells survey the vasculature and home to sites of tissue injury where they can promote repair and regeneration. It has been hypothesized that these cells may play a protective role neurodegenerative and vascular cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate progenitor cell levels in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to relate circulating levels to memory, brain volume, white matter lesion volume, and cerebral perfusion...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099708/neuroimaging-characteristics-and-post-stroke-fatigue-within-the-first-6-months-after-ischemic-strokes
#6
M Delva, I Delva
Aim - identify neuroimaging characteristics associated with different post-stroke fatigue (PSF) domains within first 6 months after ischemic strokes. There were enrolled in the study 107 patients with acute ischemic strokes. General PSF and certain PSF domains (global, physical, mental, motivational, activity-related) were measured by multidimensional fatigue inventory-20 (MFI-20) scale at hospital stay, in 1, 3 and 6 months after stroke occurrence. Brain MRI studies included cerebral infarct localization, planimetric measurements of infarct volumes, measurement of brain atrophy indexes (bifrontal, bicaudate, cortical atrophy indexes, width of third ventricle) and evaluation of leukoaraiosis severity, according to Fazekas scale...
October 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099351/corticospinal-tract-atrophy-and-motor-fmri-predict-motor-preservation-after-functional-cerebral-hemispherectomy
#7
Anthony C Wang, George M Ibrahim, Andrew V Poliakov, Page I Wang, Aria Fallah, Gary W Mathern, Robert T Buckley, Kelly Collins, Alexander G Weil, Hillary A Shurtleff, Molly H Warner, Francisco A Perez, Dennis W Shaw, Jason N Wright, Russell P Saneto, Edward J Novotny, Amy Lee, Samuel R Browd, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE The potential loss of motor function after cerebral hemispherectomy is a common cause of anguish for patients, their families, and their physicians. The deficits these patients face are individually unique, but as a whole they provide a framework to understand the mechanisms underlying cortical reorganization of motor function. This study investigated whether preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could predict the postoperative preservation of hand motor function. METHODS Thirteen independent reviewers analyzed sensorimotor fMRI and colored fractional anisotropy (CoFA)-DTI maps in 25 patients undergoing functional hemispherectomy for treatment of intractable seizures...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075018/impact-of-healthcare-strategies-on-patterns-of-paediatric-sight-impairment-in-a-developed-population-1984-2011
#8
K Shirley, S Chamney, P Satkurunathan, S McLoone, E McLoone
PurposeThe aim of our study was to analyse paediatric sight-impairment trends in Northern Ireland (NI) over a 28-year period to better understand the impact which changes in health-care provision may be having on childhood blindness and to enable us to assess our progress towards achieving the World Health Organisation (WHO) aims.MethodsA database of Certificates of Visual Impairment completed for NI children aged <16 years was used to determine the cause of sight impairment from 1984 to 2011. Causes were classified into preventable or treatable conditions and analysed for trends...
November 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056365/computational-human-head-models-of-tdcs-influence-of-brain-atrophy-on-current-density-distribution
#9
Shirin Mahdavi, Farzad Towhidkhah
Despite increasing attention to the application of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for enhancing cognitive functions in subjects exposing to varying degree of cerebral atrophy such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), aging, and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), there is no general information for customizing stimulation protocol. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine how cerebral shrinkage associated with cognitive impairment and aging can perturb current density distribution through the brain...
September 28, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056363/pramipexole-reduces-soluble-mutant-huntingtin-and-protects-striatal-neurons-through-dopamine-d3-receptors-in-a-genetic-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#10
Diego Luis-Ravelo, Héctor Estévez-Silva, Pedro Barroso-Chinea, Domingo Afonso-Oramas, Josmar Salas-Hernández, Julia Rodríguez-Núñez, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Daniel Marcellino, Tomás González-Hernández
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by abnormal expansion of the polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein (HTT). The toxicity of mutant HTT (mHTT) is associated with intermediate mHTT soluble oligomers that subsequently form intranuclear inclusions. Thus, interventions promoting the clearance of soluble mHTT are regarded as neuroprotective. Striatal neurons are particularly vulnerable in HD. Their degeneration underlies motor symptoms and striatal atrophy, the anatomical hallmark of HD...
October 19, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039597/whole%C3%A2-genome-scale-identification-of-methylation-markers-specific-for-cerebral-palsy-in-monozygotic-discordant-twins
#11
Zhe Jiao, Zhimei Jiang, Jingtao Wang, Hui Xu, Qiang Zhang, Shuang Liu, Ning Du, Yuanyuan Zhang, Hongbin Qiu
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a severe type of brain disease affecting movement and posture. Although CP has strong genetic and environmental components, considerable differences in the methylome between monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for CP implicates epigenetic contributors as well. In order to determine the differences in methylation in patients with CP without interference of the interindividual genomic variation, four pairs of MZ twins discordant for CP were profiled for DNA methylation changes using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing on the genomic‑scale...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034421/hippocampal-deformations-and-entorhinal-cortex-atrophy-as-an-anatomical-signature-of-long-term-cognitive-impairment-from-the-mcao-rat-model-to-the-stroke-patient
#12
C Delattre, C Bournonville, F Auger, R Lopes, C Delmaire, H Henon, A M Mendyk, S Bombois, J C Devedjian, D Leys, C Cordonnier, R Bordet, M Bastide
Stroke patients have an elevated risk of developing long-term cognitive disorders or dementia. The latter is often associated with atrophy of the medial temporal lobe. However, it is not clear whether hippocampal and entorhinal cortex atrophy is the sole predictor of long-term post-stroke dementia. We hypothesized that hippocampal deformation (rather than atrophy) is a predictive marker of long-term post-stroke dementia on a rat model and tested this hypothesis in a prospective cohort of stroke patients.Male Wistar rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and assessed 6 months later...
October 16, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033410/total-small-vessel-disease-score-in-neurologically-healthy-japanese-adults-in-the-kashima-scan-study
#13
Yusuke Yakushiji, Andreas Charidimou, Tomoyuki Noguchi, Masashi Nishihara, Makoto Eriguchi, Yusuke Nanri, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Tatsumi Hirotsu, David J Werring, Hideo Hara
Objective We explored the association between the total small vessel disease (SVD) score obtained with magnetic resonance imaging and risk factors and outcomes in the Japanese population. Methods The presence of SVD features, including lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, white matter changes, and basal ganglia perivascular spaces on MRI, was summed to obtain a "total SVD score" (range 0-4). Ordinal and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of higher total SVD scores with vascular risk factors, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and cerebral atrophy...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031602/microstructural-mri-basis-of-the-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-2
#14
G Olivito, M Lupo, C Iacobacci, S Clausi, S Romano, M Masciullo, M Molinari, M Cercignani, M Bozzali, M Leggio
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebellum. The particular atrophy pattern results in some typical clinical features mainly including motor deficits. In addition, the presence of cognitive impairments, involving language, visuospatial and executive functions, has been also shown in SCA2 patients and it is now widely accepted as a feature of the disease. The aim of the study is to investigate the microstructural patterns and the anatomo-functional substrate that could account for the cognitive symptomatology observed in SCA2 patients...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028480/revisiting-the-cholinergic-hypothesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-emerging-evidence-from-translational-and-clinical-research
#15
Harald Hampel, Marsel M Mesulam, A Claudio Cuello, Ara S Khachaturian, Martin R Farlow, Peter J Snyder, Ezio Giacobini, Zaven S Khachaturian
Scientific evidence collected over the past four decades suggests that a loss of cholinergic innervation in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an early pathogenic event correlated with cognitive impairment. This evidence led to the formulation of the "cholinergic hypothesis of AD" and the development of cholinesterase inhibitor therapies. Although approved only as symptomatic therapies, recent studies suggest that long-term use of these drugs may also have disease-modifying benefits...
October 10, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#16
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021757/cerebral-small-vessel-disease-burden-is-associated-with-motor-performance-of-lower-and-upper-extremities-in-community-dwelling-populations
#17
Ning Su, Fei-Fei Zhai, Li-Xin Zhou, Jun Ni, Ming Yao, Ming-Li Li, Zheng-Yu Jin, Gao-Lang Gong, Shu-Yang Zhang, Li-Ying Cui, Feng Tian, Yi-Cheng Zhu
Objective: To investigate the correlation between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) burden and motor performance of lower and upper extremities in community-dwelling populations. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis on 770 participants enrolled in the Shunyi study, which is a population-based cohort study. CSVD burden, including white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), perivascular spaces (PVS), and brain atrophy were measured using 3T magnetic resonance imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988334/a-systematic-review-of-cerebral-microdialysis-and-outcomes-in-tbi-relationships-to-patient-functional-outcome-neurophysiologic-measures-and-tissue-outcome
#18
REVIEW
Frederick A Zeiler, Eric Peter Thelin, Adel Helmy, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J A Hutchinson, David K Menon
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review on commonly measured cerebral microdialysis (CMD) analytes and their association to: (A) patient functional outcome, (B) neurophysiologic measures, and (C) tissue outcome; after moderate/severe TBI. The aim was to provide a foundation for next-generation CMD studies and build on existing pragmatic expert guidelines for CMD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library (inception to October 2016)...
October 7, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987197/neuropathology-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#19
Isidro Ferrer, Noemi Vidal
The chapter describes the epidemiology of cerebrovascular diseases, anatomy of the cerebral blood vessels, pathophysiology of ischemia, hypoxia, hypoxemia, anemic hypoxia, histotoxic hypoxia, carbon monoxide damage, hyperoxid brain damage and decompression sickness, and selective cell and regional vulnerability; diseases of the blood vessels including atherosclerosis, hypertensive angiopathy, small vessel disease, inflammatory vascular diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathies, CADASIL, CARASIL and other diseases that can lead to cerebrovascular occlusion; intracranial and intraspinal aneurysms and vascular malformations; hematologic disorders that can cause cerebral infarct or hemorrhage; brain ischemic damage; and spontaneous intracranial bleeding...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980090/isolated-sulfite-oxidase-deficiency
#20
Helena Claerhout, Peter Witters, Luc Régal, Katrien Jansen, Marie-Rose Van Hoestenberghe, Jeroen Breckpot, Pieter Vermeersch
Isolated sulfite oxidase deficiency (ISOD) is a life-threatening, autosomal recessive disease characterized by severe neurological impairment. As no long-term effective treatment is available, distinction from other treatable diseases, such as molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) type A, should be made. We reviewed 47 patients (45 previously reported in the literature). Cases were reviewed for consanguinity, sex, age at onset, death, clinical findings (including spasticity, seizures, psychomotor retardation, feeding difficulties, ectopia lentis, microcephaly), laboratory findings [urinary sulfite, S-sulfocysteine (in plasma and urine), plasma cystine, total homocysteine, uric acid, and oxypurines in urine] and radiological findings (including cerebral/cerebellar atrophy, cystic white matter changes, ventriculomegaly)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
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