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cerebral atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762091/rapid-automated-quantification-of-cerebral-leukoaraiosis-on-ct-images-a-multicenter-validation-study
#1
Liang Chen, Anoma Lalani Carlton Jones, Grant Mair, Rajiv Patel, Anastasia Gontsarova, Jeban Ganesalingam, Nikhil Math, Angela Dawson, Basaam Aweid, David Cohen, Amrish Mehta, Joanna Wardlaw, Daniel Rueckert, Paul Bentley
Purpose To validate a random forest method for segmenting cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) on computed tomographic (CT) images in a multicenter cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke, by comparison with fluid-attenuated recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) images and expert consensus. Materials and Methods A retrospective sample of 1082 acute ischemic stroke cases was obtained that was composed of unselected patients who were treated with thrombolysis or who were undergoing contemporaneous MR imaging and CT, and a subset of International Stroke Thrombolysis-3 trial participants...
May 15, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762050/dl-3-n-butylphthalide-attenuates-ischemic-reperfusion-injury-by-improving-the-function-of-cerebral-artery-and-circulation
#2
Chuan Qin, Panting Zhou, Liping Wang, Muyassar Mamtilahun, Wanlu Li, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
Dl-3-N-butylphthalide (NBP) is approved in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Previous studies have shown that NBP promotes recovery after stroke via multiple mechanisms. However, the effect of NBP on vascular function and thrombosis remains unclear. Here, we aim to study the effect of NBP on vascular function using a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and a state-of-the-art high-resolution synchrotron radiation angiography. Eighty SD rats underwent MCAO surgery. NBP (90 mg/kg) was administrated daily by gavage...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761130/spinal-muscular-atrophy-with-respiratory-distress-type-1-a-child-with-atypical-presentation
#3
Annie Ting Gee Chiu, Sophelia Hoi Shan Chan, Shun Ping Wu, Shun Hin Ting, Brian Hon Yin Chung, Angel On Kei Chan, Virginia Chun Nei Wong
The authors report a child with spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1). She presented atypically with hypothyroidism and heart failure due to septal defects that required early heart surgery and microcephaly in association with cerebral atrophy and thin corpus collosum. The subsequent asymmetrical onset of diaphragmatic paralysis, persistent hypotonia, and generalized muscle weakness led to the suspicion of spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1. Sanger sequencing confirmed a compound heterozygous mutation in the Immunoglobulin Mu Binding Protein 2 (IGHMBP2) gene, with a known mutation c...
2018: Child Neurology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759327/immunotherapy-responsive-childhood-neurodegeneration-with-systemic-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation
#4
Mario Sa, Yael Hacohen, Lucy Alderson, W K Kling Chong, Glenn Anderson, Thomas S Jacques, David Neubauer, Elzbieta Szczepanik, Ming Lim, Marios Kaliakatsos
Subacute neuroregression in association with raised neopterin and overexpression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) could indicate a type 1 interferonopathy. Here we describe a novel immunotherapy-responsive, clinico-immunological and imaging phenotype with evidence of innate immune activation. Three children (patient 1: 22-month-old boy; patient 2: 5-year-old girl; patient 3: 4-year-old girl) presented with asymmetric bilateral mixed dystonia and spasticity, regression in language (expressive more than receptive) and bulbar symptoms with no evidence of seizures...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752072/tar-dna-binding-protein-43-and-disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1-coaggregation-disrupts-dendritic-local-translation-and-mental-function-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#5
Ryo Endo, Noriko Takashima, Yoko Nekooki-Machida, Yusuke Komi, Kelvin Kai-Wan Hui, Masaki Takao, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Shigeo Murayama, Akira Sawa, Motomasa Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative diseases involving protein aggregation often accompany psychiatric symptoms. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) associated with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) aggregation is characterized by progressive neuronal atrophy in frontal and temporal lobes of cerebral cortex. Furthermore, patients with FTLD display mental dysfunction in multiple behavioral dimensions. Nevertheless, their molecular origin for psychiatric symptoms remains unclear. METHODS: In FTLD neurons and mouse models with TDP-43 aggregates, we examined coaggregation between TDP-43 and disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a key player in the pathology of mental conditions and its effects on local translation in dendrites and psychiatric behaviors...
March 29, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751775/cxcl12-engineered-endothelial-progenitor-cells-enhance-neurogenesis-and-angiogenesis-after-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mice
#6
Yaning Li, Shuang Chang, Wanlu Li, Guanghui Tang, Yuanyuan Ma, Yanqun Liu, Fang Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Guo-Yuan Yang, Yongting Wang
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes a multitude of brain damage. Neurovascular injury and myelin sheath degradation are two manifestations of ischemic brain damage. Therapeutic strategies aiming only at repairing the neural components or the vessels cannot efficiently restore neurological function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the advantages of both promoting angiogenesis and secreting trophic factors that would promote neurogenesis. Chemokine cxcl12 gene therapy has also been shown to promote angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and remyelination, attracting EPCs, neural progenitor cells, and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to the injured sites of the brain...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750990/streptozotocin-induced-hyperglycemia-stimulates-molecular-signaling-that-promotes-cell-cycle-reentry-in-mouse-hippocampus
#7
Euitaek Yang, Kartheek Gavini, Ami Bhakta, Muralikrishnan Dhanasekaran, Izhar Khan, Kodeeswaran Parameshwaran
AIMS: Cerebral atrophy resulting from neurodegeneration is highly prevalent in individuals with diabetes; however, the underlying mechanisms for diabetic neurodegeneration are not fully understood. Here we hypothesized that hyperglycemia induces molecular signaling that favors induction of proliferation in post mitotic, fully differentiated hippocampal neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Streptozotocin (150 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to four months old male mice to induce diabetes...
May 8, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750744/experience-and-prognosis-of-systemic-neonatal-thrombosis-at-a-level-iii-nicu
#8
Sevim Unal, Deniz Gönülal, Betül Siyah Bilgin, Vildan Koşan Çulha, Neşe Yarali
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to evaluate neonates diagnosed systemic thrombosis and their outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data of neonatal systemic thrombosis between January 2011 and December 2016. RESULTS: Among 4376 hospitalized, 30 neonates (0.69%) were diagnosed systemic thrombosis. Their mean birth weight was 2422±1152 g (680 to 4750 g), gestational age was 35±5.4 weeks (25 to 41 wk). There were 25 neonates (83...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750429/computer-aided-diagnosis-with-radiogenomics-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-genotype-and-morphological-changes-of-the-brain-magnetic-resonance-images
#9
Chiharu Kai, Yoshikazu Uchiyama, Junji Shiraishi, Hiroshi Fujita, Kunio Doi
In the post-genome era, a novel research field, 'radiomics' has been developed to offer a new viewpoint for the use of genotypes in radiology and medicine research which have traditionally focused on the analysis of imaging phenotypes. The present study analyzed brain morphological changes related to the individual's genotype. Our data consisted of magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as their apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes...
May 10, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750339/pre-and-postsurgical-cognitive-trajectories-and-quantitative-mri-changes-in-rasmussen-syndrome
#10
Sarah R Rudebeck, Sara Shavel-Jessop, Sophia Varadkar, Tamsin Owen, J Helen Cross, Faraneh Vargha-Khadem, Torsten Baldeweg
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the longitudinal cognitive trajectory, before and after surgery, of Rasmussen syndrome (RS), a rare disease characterized by focal epilepsy and progressive atrophy of one cerebral hemisphere. METHOD: Thirty-two patients (mean age = 6.7 years; 17 male, 16 left hemispheres affected) were identified from hospital records. The changes in intelligence scores during 2 important phases in the patients' journey to treatment were investigated: (1) during the preoperative period (n = 28, mean follow-up 3...
May 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743209/greater-depressive-symptoms-cognition-and-markers-of-brain-aging-northern-manhattan-study
#11
Adina Zeki Al Hazzouri, Michelle R Caunca, Juan Carlos Nobrega, Tali Elfassy, Ying Kuen Cheung, Noam Alperin, Chuanhui Dong, Mitchell S V Elkind, Ralph L Sacco, Charles DeCarli, Clinton B Wright
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether greater depressive symptoms were associated with domain-specific cognitive performance, change in cognition, and MRI markers of brain atrophy and subclinical cerebrovascular disease in a diverse sample of older adults from the Northern Manhattan Study. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the Northern Manhattan Study, a prospective cohort study of mostly Caribbean Hispanic, stroke-free, older adults. A total of 1,111 participants had baseline measures of depressive symptoms, measured as the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, MRI markers, and cognitive function...
May 9, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740392/anti-saccades-in-cerebellar-ataxias-reveal-a-contribution-of-the-cerebellum-in-executive-functions
#12
Elena Pretegiani, Pietro Piu, Francesca Rosini, Pamela Federighi, Valeria Serchi, Gemma Tumminelli, Maria Teresa Dotti, Antonio Federico, Alessandra Rufa
Objective: Increasing evidence suggests a cerebellar contribution to modulate cognitive aspects of motor behavior and executive functions. Supporting findings come from studies on patients with neurodegenerative diseases, in which however, given the extent of the disease, the specific role of the cerebellum, could not be clearly isolated. Anti-saccades are considered a sensitive tool to test executive functions. The anti-saccade underlying neural network, consisting of different cortical areas and their downstream connections including the lateral cerebellum, has been largely clarified...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740390/a-novel-variant-in-abcd1-gene-presenting-as-adolescent-onset-atypical-adrenomyeloneuropathy-with-spastic-ataxia
#13
Yanxing Chen, Jianfang Zhang, Jianwen Wang, Kang Wang
X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurological disorder with a highly complex clinical presentation. Adrenal function, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and cerebral white matter are commonly affected in adult-onset male patients. Here, we report a family with unusual presentation of X-ALD. The 19-year-old proband had presented with atypical symptoms of adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) for 3 years, only with spastic paraparesis, cerebellar ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy with white matter hyperintensity...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739911/effect-of-antihypertensive-medication-on-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Tessa van Middelaar, Tanja E Argillander, Floris H B M Schreuder, Jaap Deinum, Edo Richard, Catharina J M Klijn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cerebral small vessel disease. We aimed to study the effect of antihypertensive medication (AHM) on the progression of cerebral small vessel disease. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of electronic databases up to January 30, 2017, for randomized controlled trials on the effect of AHM on ≥1 cerebral small vessel disease magnetic resonance imaging markers (ie, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, microbleeds, enlarged perivascular spaces, acute small subcortical infarcts, and brain atrophy) after ≥1 year...
May 8, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739404/a-child-with-multiple-congenital-anomalies-due-to-partial-trisomy-7q22-1-%C3%A2-qter-resulting-from-a-maternally-inherited-balanced-translocation-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
C S Paththinige, N D Sirisena, U G I U Kariyawasam, R C Ediriweera, P Kruszka, M Muenke, V H W Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Parental balanced reciprocal translocations can result in partial aneuploidies in the offspring due to unbalanced meiotic segregation during gametogenesis. Herein, we report the phenotypic and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a 2 years and 4 months old female child with partial trisomy 7q22 → qter. This is the first such reported case resulting from a parental balanced translocation involving the long arms of chromosomes 7 and 14. The phenotype of the proband was compared with that of previously reported cases of trisomy 7q21 → qter or 7q22 → qter resulting from parental balanced translocations...
May 8, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731934/computed-tomography-scan-findings-in-children-from-a-tropical-region
#16
Grace B Inah, Gbenga Kajogbola, Nchiewe Ani
BACKGROUND: Computed Tomography in the diagnosis of pathologies in children is becoming increasingly popular. AIMS: To document indications and findings of referrals for CT scan in children in a private Radio - diagnostic Center in a developing environment. METHOD: Children aged 6 months to 13 years referred to a private Radio - diagnostic Center, between June 2015 to June 2016 were studied. Patients were examined using GE CT Brivo 385 machine...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710708/cerebral-white-matter-lesions-have-low-impact-on-cognitive-function-in-a-large-elderly-memory-clinic-population
#17
Jules J Claus, Mirthe Coenen, Salka S Staekenborg, Jacqueline Schuur, Caroline E M Tielkes, Pieter Koster, Philip Scheltens
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cerebral white matter lesions (WML) play a role in cognitive decline. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cerebral WML on cognitive function relative to absence or presence of medial temporal atrophy (MTA) in a large single-center memory clinic population. METHODS: Patients included had subjective cognitive impairment (SCI, n = 333), mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 492) and Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 832)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706989/caregiver-burden-in-semantic-dementia-with-right-and-left-sided-predominant-cerebral-atrophy-and-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#18
Asuka Koyama, Mamoru Hashimoto, Ryuji Fukuhara, Naoko Ichimi, Akihiro Takasaki, Masateru Matsushita, Tomohisa Ishikawa, Hibiki Tanaka, Yusuke Miyagawa, Manabu Ikeda
Background: Caregiver burden is a serious concern for family caregivers of dementia patients, but its nature is unclear in patients with semantic dementia (SD). This study aimed to clarify caregiver burden for right- (R > L) and left-sided (L > R) predominant SD versus behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) patients. Methods: Using the Japanese version of the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, we examined caregiver burden and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in 43 first-visit outpatient/family caregiver dyads (bvFTD, 20 dyads; SD [L > R], 13 dyads; SD [R > L], 10 dyads)...
January 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706150/neurosyphilis-mighty-imitator-forays-with-benign-presentation-and-unique-neuroimaging-findings
#19
Harmanpreet Tiwana, Aiesha Ahmed
Background: Common causes of temporal lobe hyper intensities are central nervous system infections like herpes simplex encephalitis, Lyme disease, limbic encephalitis and vascular pathology like Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy. Methods: Personal assessment, laboratory data analysis and neuroimaging for the patient who was admitted to a central Pennsylvania tertiary care referral centre were conducted. Results: A 52-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of diffuse dysesthesia in upper and lower extremities with associated intermittent headaches and neck stiffness...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703151/clinical-features-and-risk-factors-of-neurological-involvement-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#20
Wenjing Ye, Siyan Chen, Xinshi Huang, Wei Qin, Ting Zhang, Xiaofang Zhu, Xiaochun Zhu, Chongxiang Lin, Xiaobing Wang
BACKGROUND: To investigated distinct manifestations of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients with neurological complications and the potential risk factors associated with neurological complications in SS, and to produce a disease evaluation and neurological involvement prediction for SS. METHODS: 566 patients who fulfilled the 2002 classification criteria for SS from the Rheumatology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were included in the cross-sectional study...
April 27, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
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