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cerebral atrophy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333012/cerebral-cortex-regions-selectively-vulnerable-to-radiation-dose-dependent-atrophy
#1
Tyler M Seibert, Roshan Karunamuni, Samar Kaifi, Jeffrey Burkeen, Michael Connor, Anitha Priya Krishnan, Nathan S White, Nikdokht Farid, Hauke Bartsch, Vyacheslav Murzin, Tanya T Nguyen, Vitali Moiseenko, James B Brewer, Carrie R McDonald, Anders M Dale, Jona A Hattangadi-Gluth
PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deficits after brain radiation therapy (RT) typically involve decline in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and memory rather than sensory defects or paralysis. We sought to determine whether areas of the cortex critical to cognition are selectively vulnerable to radiation dose-dependent atrophy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We measured change in cortical thickness in 54 primary brain tumor patients who underwent fractionated, partial brain RT...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321950/the-cerebellum-shrinks-faster-than-normal-ageing-in-alzheimer-s-disease-but-not-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Hossein Tabatabaei-Jafari, Erin Walsh, Marnie E Shaw, Nicolas Cherbuin
BACKGROUND: While acceleration in age-related cerebral atrophy has been well documented in Alzheimer's disease, the cerebellar contributions to this effect have not been thoroughly investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated cerebellar volume and atrophy rate using magnetic resonance imaging in individuals with normal cognition (CN), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Two hundred twenty-nine CN, 398 MCI and 191 AD participants of stage I ADNI database with screening scans were evaluated for cerebellar volume...
March 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318355/dementia-incidence-and-predictors-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-patients-without-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#3
Li Xiong, Gregoire Boulouis, Andreas Charidimou, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Michael J Jessel, Marco Pasi, Yael D Reijmer, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Alison Ayres, Emily Merrill, Kristin Schwab, Deborah Blacker, M Edip Gurol, Steven M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common cause of cognitive impairment in older individuals. This study aimed to investigate predictors of dementia in CAA patients without intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 158 non-demented patients from the Stroke Service or the Memory Clinic who met the modified Boston Criteria for probable CAA were included. At baseline, neuroimaging markers, including lobar microbleeds (cerebral microbleeds (CMBs)), white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-visible centrum semiovale perivascular spaces (CSO-PVS), lacunes, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA) were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314624/cerebral-white-matter-hypoperfusion-increases-with-small-vessel-disease-burden-data-from-the-third-international-stroke-trial
#4
Francesco Arba, Grant Mair, Trevor Carpenter, Eleni Sakka, Peter A G Sandercock, Richard I Lindley, Domenico Inzitari, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is associated with impaired cerebral perfusion, but the effect of individual and combined small-vessel disease (SVD) features on white matter perfusion is unclear. METHODS: We studied patients recruited with perfusion imaging in the Third International Stroke Trial. We rated individual SVD features (leukoaraiosis, lacunes) and brain atrophy on baseline plain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Separately, we assessed white matter at the level of the lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the stroke for visible areas of hypoperfusion (present or absent) on 4 time-based perfusion imaging parameters...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314594/brain-ischemia-suppresses-immunity-in-the-periphery-and-brain-via-different-neurogenic-innervations
#5
Qiang Liu, Wei-Na Jin, Yaou Liu, Kaibin Shi, Haoran Sun, Fang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Rayna J Gonzales, Kevin N Sheth, Antonio La Cava, Fu-Dong Shi
Brain ischemia inhibits immune function systemically, with resulting infectious complications. Whether in stroke different immune alterations occur in brain and periphery and whether analogous mechanisms operate in these compartments remains unclear. Here we show that in patients with ischemic stroke and in mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, natural killer (NK) cells display remarkably distinct temporal and transcriptome profiles in the brain as compared to the periphery. The activation of catecholaminergic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to splenic atrophy and contraction of NK cell numbers in the periphery through a modulated expression of SOCS3, whereas cholinergic innervation-mediated suppression of NK cell responses in the brain involves RUNX3...
March 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302517/exercise-training-rescues-high-fat-diet-induced-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-expression-in-the-hippocampus-and-cerebral-cortex-of-mice
#6
Yuki Tomiga, Saki Yoshimura, Ai Ito, Shihoko Nakashima, Kentaro Kawanaka, Yoshinari Uehara, Hiroaki Tanaka, Yasuki Higaki
Consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) and being overweight both induce functional deterioration and atrophy of the hippocampus. These alterations are associated with mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Exercise combats obesity and enhances brain health. There is substantial evidence that neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key regulator of affective behavior, and that increased brain nNOS leads to anxiety while environmental enrichment (EE), which reduces brain nNOS, has anxiolytic effects...
March 13, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296268/feasibility-and-efficacy-of-intra-arterial-administration-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-double-toxin-induced-multiple-system-atrophy
#7
Ha Na Kim, Dong Yeol Kim, Se Hee Oh, Hyung Sook Kim, Kyung Suk Kim, Phil Hyu Lee
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disease of the central and autonomic nervous system. Because no drug treatment consistently benefits MSA patients, neuroprotective strategy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has a lot of concern for the management of MSA. In this study, we investigated the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial administration of MSCs via internal carotid artery (ICA) in an animal model of MSA. The study was composed of feasibility test using a ×10 and ×50 of a standard dose of MSCs (4 × 10(7) MSCs) and efficacy test using a ×0...
March 13, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285206/gender-dimorphism-of-brain-reward-system-volumes-in-alcoholism
#8
Kayle S Sawyer, Marlene Oscar-Berman, Olivier J Barthelemy, George M Papadimitriou, Gordon J Harris, Nikos Makris
The brain's reward network has been reported to be smaller in alcoholic men compared to nonalcoholic men, but little is known about the volumes of reward regions in alcoholic women. Morphometric analyses were performed on magnetic resonance brain scans of 60 long-term chronic alcoholics (ALC; 30 men) and 60 nonalcoholic controls (NC; 29 men). We derived volumes of total brain, and cortical and subcortical reward-related structures including the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), orbitofrontal, and cingulate cortices, and the temporal pole, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens septi (NAc), and ventral diencephalon (VDC)...
March 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283819/neurological-complications-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-syndrome
#9
D P Kidd
In this review of the neurological complications of Behçet's syndrome, the clinical features and epidemiology of the systemic disease are summarised before a discussion of the neurological syndromes which may develop is made. Neurological involvement occurs in 9% of cases, and is equally prevalent in each geographical area. Vascular complications occur in 14%, in whom thrombosis of the venous sinuses or cerebral veins occurs, and intracranial hypertension, venous infarction and parenchymal haemorrhage may develop...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282807/radiological-pathological-correlation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-systematic-review-of-antemortem-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings
#10
Caroline Dallaire-Théroux, Brandy L Callahan, Olivier Potvin, Stephan Saikali, Simon Duchesne
BACKGROUND: The standard method of ascertaining Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains postmortem assessment of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration. Vascular pathology, Lewy bodies, TDP-43, and hippocampal sclerosis are frequent comorbidities. There is therefore a need for biomarkers that can assess these etiologies and provide a diagnosis in vivo. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review of published radiological-pathological correlation studies to determine the relationship between antemortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropathological findings in AD...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282806/abnormalities-of-cerebral-deep-medullary-veins-on-7-tesla-mri-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease-a-pilot-study
#11
Willem H Bouvy, Hugo J Kuijf, Jaco J M Zwanenburg, Huiberdina L Koek, L Jaap Kappelle, Peter R Luijten, M Kamran Ikram, Geert Jan Biessels
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) contributes to cognitive impairment and dementia. SVD may affect veins, but veins are difficult to detect with 1.5 and 3T MRI. We compared deep medullary veins (DMVs) visualized on 7T-MRI between patients with early Alzheimer's sisease (eAD; n = 17) or amnestic MCI (aMCI; n = 12) and controls (n = 40). The number and density of DMVs was similar in patients and controls, but tortuosity was higher in eAD (Cohen's d = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.1-1.2, p = 0.02) and aMCI (Cohen's d = 0...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278492/patterns-of-brain-atrophy-associated-with-episodic-memory-and-semantic-fluency-decline-in-aging
#12
Amandine Pelletier, Charlotte Bernard, Bixente Dilharreguy, Catherine Helmer, Melanie Le Goff, Sandra Chanraud, Jean-François Dartigues, Michèle Allard, Hélène Amieva, Catheline Gwénaëlle
The cerebral substratum of age-related cognitive decline was evaluated in an elderly-cohort followed for 12 years (n=306). Participants, free of dementia, received neuropsychological assessments every two years and an MRI exam at baseline and four years later. Cognitive decline was evaluated on two broadly used tests to detect dementia: the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), a verbal episodic memory task, and the Isaacs Set Test (IST), a semantic fluency task. Using voxel-based approach, the relationship between cognitive decline with 1/ baseline grey matter volumes and 2/ grey matter volume loss between the two scans was explored...
March 9, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273725/the-effects-of-environmental-enrichment-on-white-matter-pathology-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#13
Yoshiki Hase, Lucinda Craggs, Mai Hase, William Stevenson, Janet Slade, Aiqing Chen, Di Liang, Abdel Ennaceur, Arthur Oakley, Masafumi Ihara, Karen Horsburgh, Raj N Kalaria
White matter (WM) disintegration is common in the older population and is associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). This study explored the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on pathological sequelae in a mouse model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). Male C57BL/6 J mice underwent BCAS or sham surgery. One-week after surgery, mice were exposed to three different degrees of EE; either standard housing conditions (std), limited 3 h exposure to EE per day (3 h) or full-time exposure to EE (full) for 12 weeks...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269785/the-link-between-type-2-diabetes-and-neurodegeneration-roles-for-amyloid-%C3%AE-amylin-and-tau-proteins
#14
Prashant Bharadwaj, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Milindu Liyanapathirana, Philip Newsholme, Lars Ittner, Paul Fraser, Giuseppe Verdile
A wealth of evidence indicates a strong link between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the precise mechanism remains unclear, T2D can exacerbate neurodegenerative processes. Brain atrophy, reduced cerebral glucose metabolism, and central nervous system insulin resistance are features of both AD and T2D. The T2D phenotype (glucose dyshomeostasis, insulin resistance, impaired insulin signaling) also promotes AD pathology, namely accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau and can induce other aspects of neuronal degeneration including inflammatory and oxidative processes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268209/patterns-of-eye-movement-impairment-correlate-with-regional-brain-atrophy-in-neurodegenerative-parkinsonism
#15
Olga Vintonyak, Martin Gorges, Hans-Peter Müller, Elmar H Pinkhardt, Albert C Ludolph, Hans-Jürgen Huppertz, Jan Kassubek
BACKGROUND: One common feature of neurodegenerative parkinsonism including Parkinson's disease (PD), multisystem atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is altered eye movement control. Characteristic regional structural atrophy patterns in MRI can be observed in PD, MSA, and PSP. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between eye movement disturbances and regional brain atrophy in patients with PD, MSA, and PSP. METHODS: High-resolution 3-dimensional T1-weighted MRI images and video-oculographic recordings (EyeLink®) were obtained from 39 PD, 32 PSP, and 18 MSA patients and 24 matched healthy control subjects...
March 8, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266002/voxel-based-mapping-of-grey-matter-volume-and-glucose-metabolism-profiles-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
M-S Buhour, F Doidy, A Mondou, A Pélerin, L Carluer, F Eustache, F Viader, B Desgranges
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive disease of the nervous system involving both upper and lower motor neurons. The patterns of structural and metabolic brain alterations are still unclear. Several studies using anatomical MRI yielded a number of discrepancies in their results, and a few PET studies investigated the effect of ALS on cerebral glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was threefold: to highlight the patterns of grey matter (GM) atrophy, hypometabolism and hypermetabolism in patients with ALS, then to understand the neurobehavioral significance of hypermetabolism and, finally, to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in ALS patients, using a specially designed voxel-based method...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263214/regional-cerebral-blood-flow-spect-and-mri-in-logopenic-variant-primary-progressive-aphasia
#17
Aristeidis H Katsanos, Spyridon Tsiouris, Chrissa Sioka, Anastasia Zikou, Andreas Fotopoulos
We report a 61-year-old woman who presented because of gradually progressive speech disorders. MRI scan revealed left temporal lobe atrophy with ex vacuo dilatation of the temporal horn and atrophy of the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left inferior parietal lobe. These findings in brain perfusion SPECT corresponded to a generalized hypoperfusion of the left hemisphere, particularly prominent on the rear parietal cortex and the temporal lobe. After taking into consideration the clinical presentation and imaging findings on MRI and SPECT, the diagnosis of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia was finally reached...
March 3, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262813/effects-of-dbs-in-parkinsonian-patients-depend-on-the-structural-integrity-of-frontal-cortex
#18
Muthuraman Muthuraman, Günther Deuschl, Nabin Koirala, Christian Riedel, Jens Volkmann, Sergiu Groppa
While deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has evolved to an evidence-based standard treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), the targeted cerebral networks are poorly described and no objective predictors for the postoperative clinical response exist. To elucidate the systemic mechanisms of DBS, we analysed cerebral grey matter properties using cortical thickness measurements and addressed the dependence of structural integrity on clinical outcome. Thirty one patients with idiopathic PD without dementia (23 males, age: 63...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261936/characterizing-clinical-and-mri-dissociation-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Brian C Healy, Guy J Buckle, Eman N Ali, Svetlana Egorova, Fariha Khalid, Shahamat Tauhid, Bonnie I Glanz, Tanuja Chitnis, Charles R G Guttmann, Howard L Weiner, Rohit Bakshi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two common approaches for measuring disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS) are the clinical exam and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Although most patients show similar disease severity on both measures, some patients have clinical/MRI dissociation. METHODS: Subjects from a comprehensive care MS center who had a concurrent brain MRI, spinal cord MRI, clinical examination, and patient reported outcomes were classified into three groups based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and cerebral T2 hyperintense lesion volume (T2LV)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261781/cognitive-impairment-and-hippocampal-atrophy-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
C-Y Chang, C-C Lin, C-F Tsai, W-C Yang, S-J Wang, F-H Lin, J-L Fuh
BACKGROUND: Cognition impairment is well known in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The relationship between brain structure and cognitive performance in CKD patients is still under investigation. The study aimed to quantitatively assess the relationship between brain structure and cognitive performance in patients with CKD. METHODS: We recruited 39 patients with CKD and 39 age- and sex-matched control participants from a tertiary medical center. All participants underwent 3-T MRI scan neuropsychological assessments, and renal function tests...
March 5, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
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