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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186099/the-effect-of-increasing-risk-and-challenge-in-the-school-playground-on-physical-activity-and-weight-in-children-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-play
#1
V L Farmer, S M Williams, J I Mann, G Schofield, J C McPhee, R W Taylor
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether changing the play environment in primary schools to one that includes greater risk and challenge increases physical activity and reduces body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS/METHODS: A two-year cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 16 New Zealand schools (Years 1-8). Intervention schools (n=8) redesigned their play environments to encourage imaginative and independent free play by increasing opportunities for risk and challenge (e...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141716/apraxia-autism-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-do-we-have-a-new-spectrum
#2
Jayna Schumacher, Kristine E Strand, Marilyn Augustyn
Gio is a bilingual 6-year 10-month-old boy new to your practice who presents for an unscheduled visit with concerns for speech and language delay. He was born in Portugal, and his native language is Portuguese. When he was 21 months old, his family moved to Italy and then moved to the United States 3 years later. He had very little contact with other children while living in Italy, but his parents report that he has made friends quickly in the United States. His family speaks Portuguese at home, although his father is fluent in English...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116590/relationship-between-recreational-resources-in-the-school-neighborhood-and-changes-in-fitness-in-new-york-city-public-school-students
#3
Carla P Bezold, James H Stark, Andrew Rundle, Kevin Konty, Sophia E Day, James Quinn, Kathryn Neckerman, Ana V Diez Roux
Physical fitness in children has many beneficial effects, including the maintenance of a healthy weight. The built environment may influence youths' physical fitness by encouraging physical activity. This paper assessed whether higher density of parks, playgrounds, and sports facilities around a school is related to improvements in fitness in middle school boys and girls. Fitness scores and other student covariates collected as part of NYC FITNESSGRAM between the 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 school years were linked with school neighborhood data on characteristics of the built environment for NYC public school students in grades 6-8...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056908/an-evaluation-of-outdoor-school-environments-to-promote-physical-activity-in-delhi-india
#4
Samiksha Tarun, Monika Arora, Tina Rawal, Sara E Benjamin Neelon
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012313/typologies-of-neighbourhood-environments-and-children-s-physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-television-viewing
#5
Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon
This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between clusters of neighbourhood attributes (typologies) and non-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time (objectively measured) and proxy-reported television viewing among children aged 5-6 and 10-12 years. Four distinct clusters were identified from seven objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes (land use mix, traffic exposure, playgrounds, sports venues, intersections and cul-de-sacs within 800m, crime/postcode). Some cross-sectional associations with behavior were found...
December 21, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939267/are-children-living-on-dead-end-streets-more-active-near-home-street-patterns-and-school-going-children-s-time-spent-outdoors-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#6
Muntazar Monsur, Mohaimen Mansur, Mohammed Zakiul Islam
This study aimed to investigate relationships between near-home street patterns and children's time spent outdoors (TSO). Participants were 60 (n=60) school-age Dhaka children, 7-11years old (16 girls and 44 boys) selected by a two-phase cluster sampling method. Data were collected from September 2010 to June 2011 by visiting each of 60 children's homes. Children's mean TSOs (in minutes) were reported by parents' face-to-face interviews, and near-home street pattern data were collected by systematic direct observations...
December 6, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932193/associations-between-built-environment-and-physical-activity-of-7-8-year-old-children-cross-sectional-results-from-the-lithuanian-cosi-study
#7
Vilma Žaltauskė, Aušra Petrauskienė
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Research shows that regular engagement in physical activity in childhood is associated with multiple physical and psychosocial health benefits. The data on associations between children physical activity level and built environment in Lithuania are limited. The built environment is one of many variables thought to affect children physical activity level. But consequently there is growing interest in how physical environment influences physical activity of school age children...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899709/the-art-of-camouflage-gender-differences-in-the-social-behaviors-of-girls-and-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Michelle Dean, Robin Harwood, Connie Kasari
This study examined the extent to which gender-related social behaviors help girls with autism spectrum disorder to seemingly mask their symptoms. Using concurrent mixed methods, we examined the social behaviors of 96 elementary school children during recess (autism spectrum disorder = 24 girls and 24 boys, typically developing = 24 girls and 24 boys). Children with autism spectrum disorder had average intelligence (IQ ⩾ 70), a confirmed diagnosis, and were educated in the general education classroom...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889649/heavy-metal-burdens-of-public-primary-school-children-related-to-playground-soils-and-classroom-dusts-in-ibadan-north-west-local-government-area-nigeria
#9
F Akinwunmi, T F Akinhanmi, Z A Atobatele, O Adewole, K Odekunle, L A Arogundade, O O Odukoya, O M Olayiwola, O Ademuyiwa
Information about heavy metal burden of children in Nigeria related to playground soils and classroom dusts is lacking. Playground soil, classroom dust, blood and spot urine samples (n=253) were collected from 6 urban and 2 semi-rural public schools in Ibadan North-West, Nigeria. Samples were analysed for Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Mean blood Pb levels in urban area (male, 41.66±8.78μg/dl vs. female, 40.64±5.46μg/dl) were twice as high as those in semi-rural area (male, 19.71±3.73μg/dl vs. female, 20.65±2...
January 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782257/characteristics-and-determinants-of-ambient-volatile-organic-compounds-in-primary-schools
#10
Yu-Chun Wang, Chitsan Lin, Yu-Kai Lin, Ya-Fen Wang, Wei-Huang Weng, Yi-Ming Kuo
This study evaluates the effects of a sampling strategy that includes the sampling season, time period, ambient environment, and location on determining the concentrations and species of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may affect children in primary schools. Air samples were collected from playgrounds in primary schools, with four sites near an oil refinery plant in Taoyuan and two sites in Zhongli (one site near a bus terminal and the other site in a suburban area) in Taiwan. The samples were obtained on eight occasions from August 2010 to June 2011...
November 9, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633617/where-are-children-active-and-does-it-matter-for-physical-activity-a-latent-transition-analysis
#11
Natalie Colabianchi, Jamie L Griffin, Kerry L McIver, Marsha Dowda, Russell R Pate
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have focused on the role of environments in promoting physical activity, but few studies have examined the specific locations where children are active and whether being active in these locations is associated with physical activity levels over time. METHODS: Self-reported locations of where physical activity occurred and physical activity measured via accelerometry were obtained for a cohort of 520 children in 5th and 6th grades. Latent class analysis was used to generate classes of children defined by the variety of locations where they were active (ie, home, school grounds, gyms, recreational centers, parks or playgrounds, neighborhood, and church)...
December 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620949/characteristics-of-socially-successful-elementary-school-aged-children-with-autism
#12
Jill Locke, Justin Williams, Wendy Shih, Connie Kasari
BACKGROUND: The extant literature demonstrates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty interacting and socially connecting with typically developing classmates. However, some children with ASD have social outcomes that are consistent with their typically developing counterparts. Little is known about this subgroup of children with ASD. This study examined the stable (unlikely to change) and malleable (changeable) characteristics of socially successful children with ASD...
January 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612574/effects-of-physical-activity-on-schoolchildren-s-academic-performance-the-active-smarter-kids-ask-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Geir K Resaland, Eivind Aadland, Vegard Fusche Moe, Katrine N Aadland, Turid Skrede, Mette Stavnsbo, Laura Suominen, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Øyvind Glosvik, John R Andersen, Olav M Kvalheim, Gunn Engelsrud, Lars B Andersen, Ingar M Holme, Yngvar Ommundsen, Susi Kriemler, Willem van Mechelen, Heather A McKay, Ulf Ekelund, Sigmund A Anderssen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a seven-month, school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial on academic performance in 10-year-old children. METHODS: In total, 1129 fifth-grade children from 57 elementary schools in Sogn og Fjordane County, Norway, were cluster-randomized by school either to the intervention group or to the control group. The children in the 28 intervention schools participated in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015 consisting of three components: 1) 90min/week of physically active educational lessons mainly carried out in the school playground; 2) 5min/day of physical activity breaks during classroom lessons; 3) 10min/day physical activity homework...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557641/scaling-up-an-efficacious-school-based-physical-activity-intervention-study-protocol-for-the-internet-based-professional-learning-to-help-teachers-support-activity-in-youth-iplay-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-and-scale-up-implementation-evaluation
#14
Chris Lonsdale, Taren Sanders, Kristen E Cohen, Philip Parker, Michael Noetel, Tim Hartwig, Diego Vasoncellos, Morwenna Kirwan, Philip Morgan, Jo Salmon, Marj Moodie, Heather McKay, Andrew Bennie, Ron Plotnikoff, Renata L Cinelli, David Greene, Louisa R Peralta, Dylan P Cliff, Gregory S Kolt, Jennifer M Gore, Lan Gao, David R Lubans
BACKGROUND: Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children's physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness...
August 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548856/promoting-health-well-being-and-quality-of-life-for-children-who-are-overweight-or-obese-and-their-families
#15
Michael A Pizzi
Obesity is a complex, multidimensional challenge that compromises occupational participation for children and families. Children who are overweight or obese are at serious risk for being stigmatized, bullied, or marginalized, and they often are medically compromised. They cope daily with occupational participation issues at home, in school, on playgrounds, and in their communities. Prevention and health promotion assessment and intervention in occupational therapy are imperative for the profession to make a significant and sustainable difference in the lives of these children and families...
September 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548504/understanding-the-importance-of-context-a-qualitative-study-of-a-location-based-exergame-to-enhance-school-childrens-physical-activity
#16
Judy Robertson, Ruth Jepson, Andrew Macvean, Stuart Gray
Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s)) and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof) is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a) modify the intervention; b) modify the context; c) stop providing the intervention...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462985/motor-skill-development-in-italian-pre-school-children-induced-by-structured-activities-in-a-specific-playground
#17
Patrizia Tortella, Monika Haga, Håvard Loras, Hermundur Sigmundsson, Guido Fumagalli
This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460212/recent-exposure-to-ultrafine-particles-in-school-children-alters-mir-222-expression-in-the-extracellular-fraction-of-saliva
#18
Annette Vriens, Tim S Nawrot, Nelly D Saenen, Eline B Provost, Michal Kicinski, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Jan Van Deun, Olivier De Wever, Karen Vrijens, Patrick De Boever, Michelle Plusquin
BACKGROUND: Ultrafine particles (<100 nm) are ubiquitous present in the air and may contribute to adverse cardiovascular effects. Exposure to air pollutants can alter miRNA expression, which can affect downstream signaling pathways. miRNAs are present both in the intracellular and extracellular environment. In adults, miR-222 and miR-146a were identified as associated with particulate matter exposure. However, there is little evidence of molecular effects of ambient air pollution in children...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392384/energy-cost-of-free-play-activities-in-10-to-11-year-old-children
#19
Kelly Alexandra Mackintosh, Kate Ridley, Gareth Stratton, Nicola D Ridgers
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to ascertain the energy expenditure (EE) associated with different sedentary and physically active free-play activities in primary school-aged children. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (13 boys; 11.4 ± 0.3 years; 1.45 ± 0.09 m; 20.0 ± 4.7 kg∙m-2) from 1 primary school in Northwest England engaged in 6 activities representative of children's play for 10 minutes (drawing, watching a DVD, playground games and free-choice) and 5 minutes (self-paced walking and jogging), with 5 minutes rest between each activity...
June 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27351689/-effectiveness-of-school-based-interventions-for-the-prevention-and-or-reduction-of-psychosocial-problems-among-children-and-adolescents-a-review-of-reviews
#20
S Muellmann, K Landgraf-Rauf, T Brand, H Zeeb, C R Pischke
Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers...
June 28, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
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