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Natalie Colabianchi, Jamie L Griffin, Kerry L McIver, Marsha Dowda, Russell R Pate
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have focused on the role of environments in promoting physical activity, but few studies have examined the specific locations where children are active and whether being active in these locations is associated with physical activity levels over time. METHODS: Self-reported locations of where physical activity occurred and physical activity measured via accelerometry were obtained for a cohort of 520 children in 5(th) and 6(th) grades...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Jill Locke, Justin Williams, Wendy Shih, Connie Kasari
BACKGROUND: The extant literature demonstrates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty interacting and socially connecting with typically developing classmates. However, some children with ASD have social outcomes that are consistent with their typically developing counterparts. Little is known about this subgroup of children with ASD. This study examined the stable (unlikely to change) and malleable (changeable) characteristics of socially successful children with ASD...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Geir K Resaland, Eivind Aadland, Vegard Fusche Moe, Katrine N Aadland, Turid Skrede, Mette Stavnsbo, Laura Suominen, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Øyvind Glosvik, John R Andersen, Olav M Kvalheim, Gunn Engelsrud, Lars B Andersen, Ingar M Holme, Yngvar Ommundsen, Susi Kriemler, Willem van Mechelen, Heather A McKay, Ulf Ekelund, Sigmund A Anderssen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a seven-month, school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial on academic performance in 10-year-old children. METHODS: In total, 1129 fifth-grade children from 57 elementary schools in Sogn og Fjordane County, Norway, were cluster-randomized by school either to the intervention group or to the control group. The children in the 28 intervention schools participated in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015 consisting of three components: 1) 90min/week of physically active educational lessons mainly carried out in the school playground; 2) 5min/day of physical activity breaks during classroom lessons; 3) 10min/day physical activity homework...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
Chris Lonsdale, Taren Sanders, Kristen E Cohen, Philip Parker, Michael Noetel, Tim Hartwig, Diego Vasoncellos, Morwenna Kirwan, Philip Morgan, Jo Salmon, Marj Moodie, Heather McKay, Andrew Bennie, Ron Plotnikoff, Renata L Cinelli, David Greene, Louisa R Peralta, Dylan P Cliff, Gregory S Kolt, Jennifer M Gore, Lan Gao, David R Lubans
BACKGROUND: Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children's physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness...
August 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Michael A Pizzi
Obesity is a complex, multidimensional challenge that compromises occupational participation for children and families. Children who are overweight or obese are at serious risk for being stigmatized, bullied, or marginalized, and they often are medically compromised. They cope daily with occupational participation issues at home, in school, on playgrounds, and in their communities. Prevention and health promotion assessment and intervention in occupational therapy are imperative for the profession to make a significant and sustainable difference in the lives of these children and families...
September 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Judy Robertson, Ruth Jepson, Andrew Macvean, Stuart Gray
Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s)) and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof) is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a) modify the intervention; b) modify the context; c) stop providing the intervention...
2016: PloS One
Patrizia Tortella, Monika Haga, Håvard Loras, Hermundur Sigmundsson, Guido Fumagalli
This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills...
2016: PloS One
Annette Vriens, Tim S Nawrot, Nelly D Saenen, Eline B Provost, Michal Kicinski, Wouter Lefebvre, Charlotte Vanpoucke, Jan Van Deun, Olivier De Wever, Karen Vrijens, Patrick De Boever, Michelle Plusquin
BACKGROUND: Ultrafine particles (<100 nm) are ubiquitous present in the air and may contribute to adverse cardiovascular effects. Exposure to air pollutants can alter miRNA expression, which can affect downstream signaling pathways. miRNAs are present both in the intracellular and extracellular environment. In adults, miR-222 and miR-146a were identified as associated with particulate matter exposure. However, there is little evidence of molecular effects of ambient air pollution in children...
2016: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Kelly Alexandra Mackintosh, Kate Ridley, Gareth Stratton, Nicola D Ridgers
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to ascertain the energy expenditure (EE) associated with different sedentary and physically active free-play activities in primary school-aged children. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (13 boys; 11.4 ± 0.3 years; 1.45 ± 0.09 m; 20.0 ± 4.7 kg∙m-2) from 1 primary school in Northwest England engaged in 6 activities representative of children's play for 10 minutes (drawing, watching a DVD, playground games and free-choice) and 5 minutes (self-paced walking and jogging), with 5 minutes rest between each activity...
June 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
S Muellmann, K Landgraf-Rauf, T Brand, H Zeeb, C R Pischke
Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers...
June 28, 2016: Das Gesundheitswesen
Steffen Andreas Schüle, Hermann Fromme, Gabriele Bolte
BACKGROUND: Structural factors of neighbourhood environments in which children live have attracted increasing attention in epidemiological research. This study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP), public playground and park space, and perceived environmental exposures were independently associated with overweight in preschool aged children while simultaneously considering individual child and family factors. METHODS: Body-Mass-Index (BMI) data from 3499 children (53% boys and 47% girls) from three surveys between 2004 and 2007 from 18 school enrolment zones in the city of Munich, Germany, were analysed with hierarchical logistic regression models...
October 2016: Environmental Research
Loren Abell, Pamela Qualter, Gayle Brewer, Alexandra Barlow, Maria Stylianou, Peter Henzi, Louise Barrett
The current study investigated the association between Machiavellianism and children's peer interactions in the playground using observational methods. Primary school children (N = 34; 17 female), aged 9 to 11 years, completed the Kiddie Mach scale and were observed in natural play during 39 recesses (average observed time = 11.70 hours) over a full school year. Correlations for boys revealed that Machiavellianism was related to more time engaging in direct and indirect aggression, being accepted into other peer groups, and accepting peers into their own social group...
August 2015: Europe's journal of psychology
Tabitha A Cheng, Jeneita M Bell, Tadesse Haileyesus, Julie Gilchrist, David E Sugerman, Victor G Coronado
OBJECTIVE: To describe the circumstances, characteristics, and trends of emergency department (ED) visits for nonfatal, playground-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) among persons aged ≤14 years. METHODS: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2013, was examined. US Census bridged-race population estimates were used as the denominator to compute rates per 100 000 population. SAS and Joinpoint linear weighted regression analyses were used to analyze the best-fitting join-point and the annual modeled rate change...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Helena Elisabeth Elsje Caro, Teatske Maria Altenburg, Christine Dedding, Mai Jeanette Maidy Chinapaw
School playgrounds are important physical activity (PA) environments for children, yet only a small number of children reaches the target of 40% of moderate-to-vigorous PA time during recess. The aim of this study was to explore children's perspectives (i.e., child-identified determinants) of activity-friendly school playgrounds. We conducted participatory research with children as co-researchers, framed as a project to give children the opportunity to discuss their views and ideas about their school playgrounds...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Leslie Cunningham-Sabo, Barbara Lohse, Stephanie Smith, Ray Browning, Erin Strutz, Claudio Nigg, Meena Balgopal, Kathleen Kelly, Elizabeth Ruder
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity remains a serious concern in the United States and in many other countries. Direct experience preparing and tasting healthful foods and increasing activity during the school day are promising prevention approaches. Engaging parents and families remains an important challenge. Fuel for Fun: Cooking with Kids Plus Parents and Play is a multi-component school- and family-based intervention for 4th graders and their families intended to promote positive food and activity environments, policies and behaviors at the individual, family and school levels...
2016: BMC Public Health
Diego José Díaz, Clara Boj, Cristina Portalés
This paper presents HybridPLAY, a novel technology composed of a sensor and mobile-based video games that transforms urban playgrounds into game scenarios. With this technology we aim to stimulate physical activity and playful learning by creating an entertaining environment in which users can actively participate and collaborate. HybridPLAY is different from other existing technologies that enhance playgrounds, as it is not integrated in them but can be attached to the different elements of the playgrounds, making its use more ubiquitous (i...
2016: Sensors
Ho Hyun Kim, Chung Soo Lee, Seung Do Yu, Jung Sub Lee, Jun Young Chang, Jun Min Jeon, Hye Rim Son, Chan Jung Park, Dong Chun Shin, Young Wook Lim
PURPOSE: The study aims to classify schools based on traffic pollutants and their complex sources, to assess the environment, to determine the state of allergic diseases among students using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in children (ISAAC) questionnaire, and to assess their connection to air pollutants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of seven schools were divided into three categories according to the characteristics of their surrounding environments: three schools in traffic-related zones, two schools in complex source zones I (urban), and two schools in complex source zones II (industrial complex)...
May 2016: Yonsei Medical Journal
Sara Crosatti Barbosa, Diogo Henrique Constantino Coledam, Antonio Stabelini Neto, Rui Gonçalves Marques Elias, Arli Ramos de Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To analyze physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children during their stay at school and the associated factors. METHODS: 370 preschoolers, aged 4 to 6 years, stratified according to gender, age and school region in the city of Londrina, PR, participated in the study. A questionnaire was applied to principals of preschools to analyze the school infrastructure and environment. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were estimated using accelerometers for five consecutive days during the children's stay at school...
September 2016: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Ester Cerin, Tom Baranowski, Anthony Barnett, Nancy Butte, Sheryl Hughes, Rebecca E Lee, Jason A Mendoza, Debbe Thompson, Teresia Margareta O'Connor
BACKGROUND: To combat the disproportionately higher risk of childhood obesity in Latino preschool-aged children, multilevel interventions targeting physical (in) activity are needed. These require the identification of environmental and psychosocial determinants of physical (in) activity for this ethnic group. The objectives were to examine differences in objectively-measured physical activity and sedentary behavior across objectively-determined types of locations in Latino preschool-aged children; and determine whether the differences in physical activity by location were greater in children of parents with higher neighborhood-safety perceptions and physical activity-supportive parenting practices...
2016: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Elizabeth Edgerton, Erin Reiney, Siobhan Mueller, Barry Reicherter, Katherine Curtis, Stephanie Waties, Susan P Limber
Every day in classrooms, playgrounds and school hallways, through text messages and mobile technology apps, children are bullied by other children. Conversations about this bullying-what it is, who is involved, and how to stop it-are taking place online. To fill a need for relevant, research-based materials on bullying, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Services Administration worked with Widmeyer Communications to investigate the scope of media conversations about bullying and discover new strategies for promoting appropriate public health messages about bullying to intended audiences...
May 2016: Health Promotion Practice
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