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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338866/the-growing-challenge-of-major-trauma-in-older-people-a-role-for-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment
#1
James Michael Fisher, Charlotte Bates, Jay Banerjee
In this commentary article, we describe the impact that an ageing population is having on the nature of major trauma seen in emergency departments. The proportion of major trauma victims who are older people is rapidly increasing and a fall from standing is now the most common mechanism of injury in major trauma. Potential barriers to effective care of this patient group are highlighted, including: a lack of consensus regarding triage criteria; potentially misleading physiological parameters within triage criteria; non-linear patient presentations and diagnostic nihilism...
March 10, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338646/type-iv-secretion-and-signal-transduction-of-helicobacter-pylori-caga-through-interactions-with-host-cell-receptors
#2
REVIEW
Steffen Backert, Nicole Tegtmeyer
Helicobacter pylori is a highly successful human bacterium, which is exceptionally equipped to persistently inhabit the human stomach. Colonization by this pathogen is associated with gastric disorders ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers to cancer. Highly virulent H. pylori strains express the well-established adhesins BabA/B, SabA, AlpA/B, OipA, and HopQ, and a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded by the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). The adhesins ascertain intimate bacterial contact to gastric epithelial cells, while the T4SS represents an extracellular pilus-like structure for the translocation of the effector protein CagA...
March 24, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338100/hyperspectral-imaging-using-the-single-pixel-fourier-transform-technique
#3
Senlin Jin, Wangwei Hui, Yunlong Wang, Kaicheng Huang, Qiushuai Shi, Cuifeng Ying, Dongqi Liu, Qing Ye, Wenyuan Zhou, Jianguo Tian
Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400-1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325239/the-unique-issues-with-brachytherapy-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#4
REVIEW
Surbhi Grover, John Longo, John Einck, Priya Puri, Derek Brown, Junzo Chino, Umesh Mahantshetty, Catheryn Yashar, Beth Erickson
Gynecologic carcinomas, including cervical cancer, present a significant burden on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Brachytherapy plays an integral role in the treatment of gynecologic carcinomas, as it is essential for both curative and palliative treatment. However, there are numerous geographic and economic barriers to providing brachytherapy to cancer patients in LMICs. This article examines the role and delivery of brachytherapy in gynecological cancer treatment; brachytherapy capacity in LMICs, including infrastructure, equipment, and human resources considerations; commissioning, training, and clinical implementation of brachytherapy in LMICs; other challenges, and strategies for improvement in brachytherapy delivery in LMICs, including innovation and current and upcoming international initiatives...
April 2017: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314926/american-football-and-fatal-exertional-heat-stroke-a-case-study-of-korey-stringer
#5
Andrew Grundstein, John A Knox, Jennifer Vanos, Earl R Cooper, Douglas J Casa
On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314416/prevention-of-sport-related-facial-injuries
#6
REVIEW
Amanda M Black, Declan A Patton, Paul H Eliason, Carolyn A Emery
There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment...
April 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299527/do-pharmacists-use-social-media-for-patient-care
#7
Arcelio Benetoli, Timothy F Chen, Marion Schaefer, Betty Chaar, Parisa Aslani
Background Social media are frequently used by consumers and healthcare professionals. However, it is not clear how pharmacists use social media as part of their daily professional practice. Objective This study investigated the role social media play in pharmacy practice, particularly in patient care and how pharmacists interact online with patients and laypeople. Setting Face-to-face, telephone, or Skype interviews with practising pharmacists (n = 31) from nine countries. Method In-depth semi-structured interviews; audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288699/longevity-regulation-by-nmd-mediated-mrna-quality-control
#8
Heehwa G Son, Seung-Jae V Lee
Proper maintenance of biological components is crucial for longevity and healthy aging. Although the role of homeostatic maintenance systems for DNA and protein in longevity is established, it remained largely unknown for RNA. In our recent work, we show that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) promotes longevity in the roundworm C. elegans by enhancing RNA quality control. We find that the activity of NMD decreases during aging, raising the possibility that RNA quality declines in old animals. We then show that key components of NMD complex are required for long lifespan in C...
March 14, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281199/unraveling-new-functions-of-superoxide-dismutase-using-yeast-model-system-beyond-its-conventional-role-in-superoxide-radical-scavenging
#9
REVIEW
Woo-Hyun Chung
To deal with chemically reactive oxygen molecules constantly threatening aerobic life, cells are readily equipped with elaborate biological antioxidant systems. Superoxide dismutase is a metalloenzyme catalytically eliminating superoxide radical as a first-line defense mechanism against oxidative stress. Multiple different SOD isoforms have been developed throughout evolution to play distinct roles in separate subcellular compartments. SOD is not essential for viability of most aerobic organisms and intriguingly found even in strictly anaerobic bacteria...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281117/game-based-training-improves-the-surgeon-s-situational-awareness-in-the-operation-room-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Maurits Graafland, Willem A Bemelman, Marlies P Schijven
BACKGROUND: Equipment-related malfunctions directly relate to one-fourth of the adverse events in the surgical theater. A serious game trains residents to recognize and respond to equipment problems in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). These include disturbed vision, gas transport, electrocautery, and pathophysiological disturbances. This randomized controlled trial explores whether game-based training improves surgical residents' response to equipment-related problems during surgery...
March 9, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280809/metal-organic-complex-functionalized-protein-nanopore-sensor-for-aromatic-amino-acids-chiral-recognition
#11
Yanli Guo, Aihua Niu, Feifei Jian, Ying Wang, Fujun Yao, Yongfeng Wei, Lei Tian, Xiaofeng Kang
Chiral recognition at single-molecule level for small active molecules is important, as exhibited by many nanostructures and molecular assemblies in biological systems, but it presents a significant challenge. We report a simple and rapid sensing strategy to discriminate all enantiomers of natural aromatic amino acids (AAA) using a metal-organic complex-functionalized protein nanopore, in which a chiral recognition element and a chiral recognition valve were equipped. A trifunctional molecule, heptakis-(6-deoxy-6-amino)-β-cyclodextrin (am7βCD), was non-covalently lodged within the nanopore of an α-hemolysin (αHL) mutant, (M113R)7-αHL...
March 10, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273551/the-importance-of-spatial-orientation-and-knowledge-of-traffic-signs-for-children-s-traffic-safety
#12
Aleksandar Trifunović, Dalibor Pešić, Svetlana Čičević, Boris Antić
Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills...
March 5, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270043/roles-of-atp-sensitive-potassium-channel-in-modulating-gastric-tone-and-accommodation-in-dogs
#13
Shiying Li, Yong Lei, Jiande Dz Chen
OBJECTIVE: The ATP sensitive potassium (KATP) channel plays an important role in the regulation of resting membrane potential and membrane excitability. The role of the KATP channel in modulating gastric motility is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of the KATP channel in modulating gastric tone and accommodation in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gastric volume under a constant pressure reflecting gastric tone was measured using a barostat device in dogs equipped with a gastric cannula...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264691/endothelial-responses-of-the-alveolar-barrier-in-vitro-in-a-dose-controlled-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-particulate-matter
#14
Sebastian G Klein, Sébastien Cambier, Jennifer Hennen, Sylvain Legay, Tommaso Serchi, Inge Nelissen, Aline Chary, Elisa Moschini, Andreas Krein, Brunhilde Blömeke, Arno C Gutleb
BACKGROUND: During the last 250 years, the level of exposure to combustion-derived particles raised dramatically in western countries, leading to increased particle loads in the ambient air. Among the environmental particles, diesel exhaust particulate matter (DEPM) plays a special role because of its omnipresence and reported effects on human health. During recent years, a possible link between air pollution and the progression of atherosclerosis is recognized. A central effect of DEPM is their impact on the endothelium, especially of the alveolar barrier...
March 6, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264187/making-trade-offs-for-safe-effective-and-secure-patient-care
#15
Dan Lyon
As the health care model evolves to deliver on demand care, patients are becoming more responsible and interested in their data. The security of the medical devices and connected systems becomes increasingly more important because it plays a significant role in achieving better patient outcomes. Diabetes patients are at the forefront of this evolution and yet on the receiving end of diabetic equipment manufacturers delivering systems that support secure care. In order to deliver the best patient outcomes, complex trade-offs are required, including (1) usability, (2) cost, (3) time to market, (4) device life cycle, and (5) patient privacy...
March 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263542/smartphone-based-colorimetric-detection-of-glutathione
#16
Irena Vobornikova, Miroslav Pohanka
OBJECTIVES: Glutathione belongs to the family of small-molecular weight antioxidants like ascorbic acid, cysteine, α-tocopherol, uric acid, etc. These molecules play important role in the neutralization of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress may lead to ageing and the development of large scale of pathological states of organism. This low molecular weight antioxidant´s level can alter under pathological conditions from reduced (GSH, thiols) to oxidized (oxidized glutathione -GSSG, disulfides) form...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259655/accumbens-volumes-are-reduced-among-crack-cocaine-users
#17
Silvia Bassani Schuch-Goi, Pedro Domingues Goi, Mariane Bermudez, Leticia Schwanck Fara, Félix Paim Kessler, Flavio Pechansky, Clarissa Severino Gama, Raffael Massuda, Lisia von Diemen
The brain reward system is known to be the neuroanatomical basis of addictive behaviors. Systemic, cognitive and functional consequences of crack-cocaine addiction are clinically evident, but the neuroanatomical underpinnigs are not yet well understood. We aim to assess the neuroanatomical differences between crack-cocaine patients and paired healthy controls. Fifteen crack-cocaine patients recently discharged from the Addiction Unit of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre and fifteen controls matched for gender, age, education and handedness were scanned using a Philips Achieva 1...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254643/rheological-measurements-as-a-tool-for-monitoring-the-performance-of-high-pressure-and-high-temperature-treatment-of-sewage-sludge
#18
Kevin Hii, Raj Parthasarathy, Saeid Baroutian, Daniel J Gapes, Nicky Eshtiaghi
Hydrothermal processing plays a significant role in sewage sludge treatment. However, the rheological behaviour of sludge during these processes is not fully understood. A better understanding of the sludge rheology under hydrothermal processing conditions can help improve process efficiency. Moreover, sludge rheology is easier to measure than chemical analyses. If a relationship could be established, it provides a possibility of using rheological measurement as a basis for monitoring the performance of hydrothermal processing...
February 16, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243033/the-use-of-ultrasound-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Torsten Kucharzik, Klaus Kannengiesser, Frauke Petersen
Imaging in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) plays a pivotal role in the primary diagnosis, as well as during the management of patients with known IBD. The evolution of ultrasound equipment and the growing expertise of examiners have both enhanced the role of intestinal ultrasound in the assessment of the gastrointestinal tract in IBD patients. Intestinal ultrasound has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity, as well as high positive and negative predictive value, in the detection or exclusion of intestinal inflammatory activity in IBD...
2017: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239511/reducing-disaster-exacerbated-non-communicable-diseases-through-public-health-infrastructure-resilience-perspectives-of-australian-disaster-service-providers
#20
Benjamin J Ryan, Richard C Franklin, Frederick M Burkle, Peter Aitken, Erin Smith, Kerrianne Watt, Peter Leggat
BACKGROUND: The exposure of people and infrastructure to flood and storm related disasters across the world is increasing faster than vulnerability is decreasing. For people with non-communicable diseases this presents a significant risk as traditionally the focus of disaster management systems has been on immediate trauma and communicable diseases. This focus must now be expanded to include the management of non-communicable diseases because these conditions are generating the bulk of ill health, disability and premature death around the globe...
December 21, 2016: PLoS Currents
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