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Cindy Lin, Ellen Casey, Daniel Herman, Nicole Katz, Adam Tenforde
Common sports injuries include bone stress injuries (BSI), anterior cruciate ligament injuries (ACL), and concussions. Less commonly recognized are the specific sex differences in epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes of these conditions by sex. An understanding of these factors can improve their clinical management, from prescribing appropriate prehabilitation to guiding post injury rehabilitation and return to play. This narrative review summarizes the sex differences in the diagnosis and management of BSI, ACL injuries, and concussions...
March 14, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Ajit Ghosh, Zhong-Guang Li, Md Nurealam Siddiqui, Masayuki Fujita, Lam-Son Phan Tran
Abiotic stresses are the most common harmful factors, adversely affecting all aspects of plants' life. Plants have to elicit appropriate responses against multifaceted effects of abiotic stresses by reprogramming various cellular processes. Signaling molecules play vital roles in sensing environmental stimuli to modulate gene expression, metabolism and physiological processes in plants to cope with the adverse effects. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound, is known to accumulate in cells as a byproduct of various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis...
March 12, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Stefano Falone, Silvano Santini, Valeria Cordone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Carla Tatone, Marisa Cacchio, Fernanda Amicarelli
Electrical devices currently used in clinical practice and common household equipments generate extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) that were classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as "possible carcinogenic." Assuming that ELF-MF plays a role in the carcinogenic process without inducing direct genomic alterations, ELF-MF may be involved in the promotion or progression of cancers. In particular, ELF-MF-induced responses are suspected to activate redox-responsive intracellular signaling or detoxification scavenging systems...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Carlos H Trasviña-Arenas, Noe Baruch-Torres, Francisco J Cordoba-Andrade, Víctor M Ayala-García, Paola L García-Medel, Corina Díaz-Quezada, Antolín Peralta-Castro, José Juan Ordaz-Ortiz, Luis G Brieba
Plant mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes encode essential proteins for oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis. For proper cellular function, plant organelles must ensure genome integrity. Although plant organelles repair damaged DNA using the multi-enzyme Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway, the details of this pathway in plant organelles are largely unknown. The initial enzymatic steps in BER produce a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate (5'-dRP) moiety that must be removed to allow DNA ligation and in plant organelles, the enzymes responsible for the removal of a 5'-dRP group are unknown...
February 27, 2018: DNA Repair
Lauren P Grant, Chris Gennings, Edmond P Wickham, Derek Chapman, Shumei Sun, David C Wheeler
In public health research, it has been well established that geographic location plays an important role in influencing health outcomes. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on the impact of neighborhood or contextual factors as potential risk factors for childhood obesity. Some neighborhood factors relevant to childhood obesity include access to food sources, access to recreational facilities, neighborhood safety, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables. It is common for neighborhood or area-level variables to be available at multiple spatial scales (SS) or geographic units, such as the census block group and census tract, and selection of the spatial scale for area-level variables can be considered as a model selection problem...
March 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Bart Morlion, Flaminia Coluzzi, Dominic Aldington, Magdalena Kocot-Kepska, Joseph Pergolizzi, Ana Cristina Mangas, Karsten Ahlbeck, Eija Kalso
OBJECTIVE: Pain is one of the most common reasons for an individual to consult their primary care physician, with the majority of chronic pain being treated in the primary care setting. However, many primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists lack enough awareness, education and skills to manage pain patients appropriately, and there is currently no clear, common consensus/formal definition of `pain chronification'. METHODS: This article, based on an international Change Pain Chronic Advisory Board meeting which was held in Wiesbaden, Germany, in October 2016, provides primary care physicians/non-pain medicine specialists with a narrative overview of pain chronification, including underlying physiological and psychosocial processes, predictive factors for pain chronification, a brief summary of preventive strategies, and the role of primary care physicians and non-pain medicine specialists in the holistic management of pain chronification...
March 7, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Kseniia Boriachek, Muhammad Umer, Md Nazmul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred K Lam, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Muhammad J A Shiddiky
Recent evidence suggests that small non-coding RNAs such as microRNA (miRNA) encapsulated in exosomes represent an important mechanism of communication between the cells. Exosomal miRNAs play an important role in carcinogenesis via enhancing the cell to cell communication and targeting the cell growth molecular pathways which in turn facilitate metastasis in cancers. Despite progressive advances, the current methods for the exosomal miRNA detection mostly rely on labor-intensive sequencing approaches which are often prone to amplification bias and require costly and bulky equipment...
March 7, 2018: Analyst
Stéphanie Ward, Amanda Froehlich Chow, M Louise Humbert, Mathieu Bélanger, Nazeem Muhajarine, Hassan Vatanparast, Anne Leis
BACKGROUND: The Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention was developed to promote physical activity, gross motor skills and healthy eating among preschoolers attending childcare centers. This process evaluation aimed to report the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention. METHODS: The RE-AIM framework was used to guide this process evaluation. Data were collected across 140 childcare centers who received the Healthy Start-Départ Santé intervention in the provinces of Saskatchewan and New Brunswick, Canada...
February 14, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Winfried Bulach, Doris Schüler, Guido Sellin, Tobias Elwert, Dieter Schmid, Daniel Goldmann, Matthias Buchert, Ulrich Kammer
Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum...
March 1, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Xiangyu Gong, Kristen L Mills
Biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are known to play a significant role in cell behavior. To gain a better understanding of the effects of the biophysical microenvironment on cell behavior, the practical challenge is longitudinally monitoring behavioral variations within a population to make statistically powerful assessments. Population-level measurements mask heterogeneity in cell responses, and large-scale individual cell measurements are often performed in a one-time, snapshot manner after removing cells from their matrix...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jumpei Arata, Kazunari Fukami, Susumu Oguri, Shinya Onogi, Tetsuo Ikeda, Ryu Nakadate, Masamichi Sakaguchi, Tomohiko Akahoshi, Kanako Harada, Mamoru Mitsuishi, Makoto Hashizume
PURPOSE: Image guidance is a key technology that can improve the outcome of laparoscopic surgery. However, due to the large deformation caused by digestive organs, a computer-aided navigation system based on preoperative imaging data cannot indicate the correct target position of the lesion (e.g., liver tumors and vessels invisible from the organ surface). To overcome this issue, we developed a laparoscopic ultrasound manipulator with two motorized degrees of freedom at the tip, allowing for the performance of a dexterous ultrasound scan in a confined laparoscopic surgical area...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Dong Luo, Mian Li, Xiao-Ping Zhou, Dan Li
A set of planar organic fluorophores (R = benzene, naphthalene, pyrene) and luminescence promotors (X = Cl, Br, I) are equipped, respectively, on the alternatively-arranged vertices of cubic Zn(II)-imidazolate cages through orthogonal subcomponent self-assembly. It is found that supramolecular interactions, especially weak CHX interactions, play a key role in activating an efficient radiative pathway, coupled with reduced nonradiative decay rate through metal coordination, therefore significantly boosting the emission quantum yields of the system...
February 28, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Lawrence Z Cai, John A M Paro, Gordon K Lee, Rahim S Nazerali
BACKGROUND: Aesthetics plays a large role in determining a successful outcome in plastic and reconstructive surgery. As such, understanding perceptions of favorable aesthetics is crucial for optimizing patient satisfaction. Eye-tracking technology offers an unbiased way of measuring how viewers evaluate breast reconstructions. METHODS: Twenty-nine raters with varied plastic surgery experience were shown 20 images of breast reconstruction at various stages. Breasts were divided into those with nipples and no reconstruction scars, those with nipples and reconstruction scars, and those with reconstruction scars and no nipples...
March 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Que Chen, Jeroen B van der Steen, Jos C Arents, Aloysius F Hartog, Srividya Ganapathy, Willem J de Grip, Klaas J Hellingwerf
In many pro- and eukaryotes, a retinal-based proton pump equips the cell to drive ATP synthesis with (sun)light. Such pumps, therefore, have been proposed as a plug-in for cyanobacteria, to artificially increase the efficiency of oxygenic photosynthesis. However, little information on metabolism of retinal, their chromophore, is available for these organisms. We have studied the in vivo role of five genes ( sll1541 ; slr1648 ; slr0091 ; slr1192 ; slr0574 ) potentially involved in retinal metabolism in Synechocystis sp...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sonya Marcus, Micah Timen, Gregory R Dion, Mark A Fritz, Ryan C Branski, Milan R Amin
OBJECTIVE: Given that financial considerations play an increasingly prominent role in clinical decision-making, we sought (1) to determine the cost-effectiveness of in-office biopsy for the patient, the provider, and the health-care system, and (2) to determine the diagnostic accuracy of in-office biopsy. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, financial analyses were performed. METHODS: Patients who underwent in-office (Current Procedural Terminology Code 31576) or operative biopsy (CPT Code 31535) for laryngopharyngeal lesions were included...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
Charles A Ishak, Matthew J Cecchini, Christopher J Howlett, Frederick A Dick
The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) plays a key role in proliferative control and genome stability. For these reasons its functions are considered to be tumor suppressive. Its functional status offers critical insight into proliferative control signaling in tissues and in developing malignancies. In this chapter, we outline basic procedures to detect the retinoblastoma protein in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections. In addition, we provide protocols to detect phosphorylation levels of pRB in tissues and offer controls to ensure fidelity of measurement...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jessica B Stokes-Parish, Robbert Duvivier, Brian Jolly
BACKGROUND: Simulation Based Education (SBE) is used as a primer for clinical education in nursing and other health professions. Participant engagement strategies and good debriefing have been identified as key for effective simulations. The environment in which the simulation is situated also plays a large role in the degree of participant engagement. Various cues are staged within simulations to enhance this engagement process. Moulage techniques are used in current-day simulation to mimic illnesses and wounds, acting as visual and tactile cues for the learner...
February 15, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Xin Tong, Dongmei An, Markus Reuber, Qin Zhang, Dong Zhou
PURPOSE: This study is intended to provide an overview of diagnostic and treatment services for patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) across China. METHODS: Using a questionnaire devised by the PNES Task Force of Neuropsychiatry Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), we conducted a survey among Chinese health professionals at the Sixth Advanced International Course: Clinical Epileptology. Descriptive analyses were performed...
January 31, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Daniela Ballotta, Fausta Lui, Carlo Adolfo Porro, Paolo Frigio Nichelli, Francesca Benuzzi
According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study...
2018: PloS One
M S Golvardi Yazdi, M Naderizadeh, R Afzalipour, H A Abedi, M Radmehr, R Golvardi Yazdi, Sh Salari Pashaghi
Introduction: Many items are needed for dressing including sterile dressing set, antiseptic and washing solutions, leucoplast tape, waste bin for infectious garbage, waste bin for noninfectious garbage, safe disposal trash for sharp cutting instruments, bedpan and sometimes drugs. All the items are laid out on a simple wheeled trolley. The multiplicity of items together with problems in placing tools on trolley, forgetting some items, disturbing sterile condition, falling and damaging equipment and the need for at least two people for each procedure, all are the reasons to design and develop Automatic Trolley for Washing and Dressing the Wounds...
December 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
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