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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654029/measuring-g-protein-coupled-receptor-signaling-via-radio-labeled-gtp-binding
#1
Chirag Vasavda, Nicholas W Zaccor, Paul C Scherer, Charlotte J Sumner, Solomon H Snyder
G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of transmembrane receptors that play critical roles in normal cellular physiology and constitute a major pharmacological target for multiple indications, including analgesia, blood pressure regulation, and the treatment of psychiatric disease. Upon ligand binding, GPCRs catalyze the activation of intracellular G-proteins by stimulating the incorporation of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Activated G-proteins then stimulate signaling pathways that elicit cellular responses...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651163/ex-vivo-assessment-of-valve-thickness-calcification-of-patients-with-calcific-aortic-stenosis-in-relation-to-in-vivo-clinical-outcomes
#2
Ching-Li Cheng, Hsiao-Huang Chang, Pei-Jung Huang, Wei-Chen Wang, Shan-Yang Lin
Calcific aortic stenosis (AS) plays a critical role in the risk of cardiovascular disease. This preliminary study examined the relationship between the ex vivo valve thickness/calcification and in vivo clinical outcomes of Chinese patients with calcific AS. Six Chinese patients (3 patients with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV)) and 3 patients with. bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) with calcific AS undergoing heart valve replacement were initially chosen for this study. In vivo medical imaging of these calcific AS patients was evaluated using computed tomography and echocardiography...
June 22, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647945/the-emerging-adult-with-diabetes-transitioning-from-pediatric-to-adult-care
#3
Jodi Krall, Ingrid Libman, Linda Siminerio
Transfer from pediatric to adult health care is a significant life event for youth with chronic medical conditions. Unfortunately, youth may not be well prepared to navigate the shift in health care services, increasing their risk for loss to follow up and poor health outcomes. This review explores transition in care through the lens of type 1 diabetes, highlighting current practices and guidelines and offering recommendations for future consideration. Limited evidence suggests that transition programs that focus on strategies to prepare youth developmentally and equip the health care system appropriately have positive impact on the hand off of care, and health outcomes...
June 2017: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646211/increasing-cell-density-globally-enhances-the-biogenesis-of-piwi-interacting-rnas-in-bombyx-mori-germ-cells
#4
Shozo Honda, Phillipe Loher, Keisuke Morichika, Megumi Shigematsu, Takuya Kawamura, Yoriko Kirino, Isidore Rigoutsos, Yohei Kirino
Piwi proteins and their bound Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are predominantly expressed in the germline and play crucial roles in germline development by silencing transposons and other targets. Bombyx mori BmN4 cells are culturable germ cells that equip the piRNA pathway. Because of the scarcity of piRNA-expressing culturable cells, BmN4 cells are being utilized for the analyses of piRNA biogenesis. We here report that the piRNA biogenesis in BmN4 cells is regulated by cell density. As cell density increased, the abundance of Piwi proteins and piRNA biogenesis factors was commonly upregulated, resulting in an increased number of perinuclear nuage-like granules where Piwi proteins localize...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639452/-magnetic-resonance-strength-of-1-5-t-possibilities-detailed-view-of-the-optic-nerve
#5
P Hanzlíková, J Chmelová
Due to the increased availability of MRI, this modality is the first choice for patients with a suspected pathology of the optic nerve, chiasm and optic tracts. Magnetic resonance imaging allows to evaluate the optic nerve itself as well as the gain or atrophy, its focal changes; it also allows detailed views of the surrounding structures such as vagina of the optic nerve and the mutual ratio between the full thickness of the nerve and the vagina, and the nerve itself. MR method uses a tissue contrast of an adipose tissue structures to a detailed imaging of the orbit...
2017: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632018/exploring-the-learnability-and-usability-of-a-near-field-communication-based-application-for-semantic-enrichment-in-children-with-language-disorders
#6
Maria Luisa Lorusso, Emilia Biffi, Massimo Molteni, Gianluigi Reni
Recently, a few software applications (apps) have been developed to enhance vocabulary and conceptual networks to address the needs of children with language impairments (LI), but there is no evidence about their impact and their usability in therapy contexts. Here, we try to fill this gap presenting a system aimed at improving the semantic competence and the structural knowledge of children with LI. The goal of the study is to evaluate learnability, usability, user satisfaction and quality of the interaction between the system and the children...
February 13, 2017: Assistive Technology: the Official Journal of RESNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624506/cellular-gauge-symmetry-and-the-li-organization-principle-general-considerations
#7
REVIEW
Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Jorge Navarro, Wu Kun, Bi Lin, Pedro C Marijuán
Based on novel topological considerations, we postulate a gauge symmetry for living cells and proceed to interpret it from a consistent Eastern perspective: the li organization principle. In our framework, the reference system is the living cell, equipped with general symmetries and energetic constraints standing for the intertwined biochemical, metabolic and signaling pathways that allow the global homeostasis of the system. Environmental stimuli stand for forces able to locally break the symmetry of metabolic/signaling pathways, while the species-specific DNA is the gauge field that restores the global homeostasis after external perturbations...
June 14, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623186/assessment-of-active-video-gaming-using-adapted-controllers-by-individuals-with-physical-disabilities-a-protocol
#8
Laurie A Malone, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Justin McCroskey, Mohanraj Thirumalai
BACKGROUND: Individuals with disabilities are typically more sedentary and less fit compared to their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, engaging in physical activity can be extremely challenging due to physical impairments associated with disability and fewer opportunities to participate. One option for increasing physical activity is playing active video games (AVG), a category of video games that requires much more body movement for successful play than conventional push-button or joystick actions...
June 16, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617414/obesity
#9
REVIEW
Pedro González-Muniesa, Miguel-Angel Mártinez-González, Frank B Hu, Jean-Pierre Després, Yuji Matsuzawa, Ruth J F Loos, Luis A Moreno, George A Bray, J Alfredo Martinez
Excessive fat deposition in obesity has a multifactorial aetiology, but is widely considered the result of disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Despite specific public health policies and individual treatment efforts to combat the obesity epidemic, >2 billion people worldwide are overweight or obese. The central nervous system circuitry, fuel turnover and metabolism as well as adipose tissue homeostasis are important to comprehend excessive weight gain and associated comorbidities. Obesity has a profound impact on quality of life, even in seemingly healthy individuals...
June 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617330/identification-of-pathogenic-factors-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-using-impedimetric-sensor-equipped-with-biomimetic-surfaces
#10
Duyen Thi Ngoc Huynh, Ah-Young Kim, Young-Rok Kim
K.pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that causes nosocomial infections, such as, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, septic shock, and gastro intestinal disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide, and fimbriae are recognized major virulence factors of K.pneumoniae and play key roles during early stages of infections. In this study, we functionalized the surface of gold electrode with mannose and mucin to monitor the adhesion-associated virulence factors of K.pneumoniae. The binding characteristics of K...
June 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615716/lipid-vesicles-containing-transferrin-receptor-binding-peptide-tfr-t12-and-octa-arginine-conjugate-stearyl-r8-efficiently-treat-brain-glioma-along-with-glioma-stem-cells
#11
Li-Min Mu, Ying-Zi Bu, Lei Liu, Hong-Jun Xie, Rui-Jun Ju, Jia-Shuan Wu, Fan Zeng, Yao Zhao, Jing-Ying Zhang, Wan-Liang Lu
Surgery and radiotherapy cannot fully remove brain glioma; thus, chemotherapy continues to play an important role in treatment of this illness. However, because of the restriction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the regeneration of glioma stem cells, post-chemotherapy relapse usually occurs. Here, we report a potential solution to these issues that involves a type of novel multifunctional vinblastine liposomes equipped with transferrin receptor binding peptide TfR-T12 and octa-arginine conjugate stearyl-R8...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614306/photoacoustic-confocal-dermoscope-with-a-waterless-coupling-and-impedance-matching-opto-sono-probe
#12
Haigang Ma, Sihua Yang, Zhongwen Cheng, Da Xing
Recently, intensive research on photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been conducted to accelerate the development of dermoscopy of the human skin. In this Letter, we first developed a PA dermoscope equipped with a waterless coupling and impedance matching opto-sono probe to achieve quantitative, high-resolution, and high-contrast imaging of the human skin. Compared with the commonly used liquid-coupled PA probes, the human-skin-adapted probe can facilitate implementation in the clinical setting. The noninvasive imaging experiments of epidermal and dermal structures in volunteers have been carried out to demonstrate the high imaging quality that can be obtained by using such an opto-sono probe for a PA dermoscope...
June 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613196/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-in-initiation-and-progression-of-inflammation-and-infection
#13
Türkan Ertay, Mine Sencan Eren, Meral Karaman, Gülgün Oktay, Hatice Durak
OBJECTIVE: Detection/localization of infection and inflammation is important for the initiation of correct treatment as well as its maintenance. Nuclear medicine imaging methods play an important role in determining infection and inflammation. (18)F-2'-deoxy-2-fluoro-d-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is highly sensitive in such cases when used with tomographic cross-sections. In this study, the development and progression of infection and inflammation were monitored on rats by using (18)F-FDG via PET/CT...
June 1, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611718/barking-up-the-wrong-tree-why-and-how-we-may-need-to-revise-alcohol-addiction-therapy
#14
Ann-Kathrin Stock
One of the main characteristics of alcohol abuse and addiction is the loss of control over alcohol intake and the continuation of drinking in the face of negative consequences. Mounting evidence strongly suggests that an alcohol-induced imbalance between goal-directed and habitual behavior may be one of the main driving factors of this key feature of addiction and furthermore play a key role in staying abstinent. Current therapies often focus only on deficient inhibitory control (i.e., goal-directed behavior), but largely neglect the potential of the well-functioning habit formation found in patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608171/genetic-approaches-to-understanding-psychiatric-disease
#15
REVIEW
Jacob J Michaelson
Human genetic studies have been the driving force in bringing to light the underlying biology of psychiatric conditions. As these studies fill in the gaps in our knowledge of the mechanisms at play, we will be better equipped to design therapies in rational and targeted ways, or repurpose existing therapies in previously unanticipated ways. This review is intended for those unfamiliar with psychiatric genetics as a field and provides a primer on different modes of genetic variation, the technologies currently used to probe them, and concepts that provide context for interpreting the gene-phenotype relationship...
June 12, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605837/from-waste-plastics-to-industrial-raw-materials-a-life-cycle-assessment-of-mechanical-plastic-recycling-practice-based-on-a-real-world-case-study
#16
Fu Gu, Jianfeng Guo, Wujie Zhang, Peter A Summers, Philip Hall
Mechanical recycling of waste plastics is an environmental solution to the problem of waste plastic disposal, and has already become a common practice in industry. However, limited information can be found on either the industralised plastic recycling or the recycled materials, despite the use of recycled plastics has already extended to automobile production. This study investigates the life cycle environmental impacts of mechanical plastic recycling practice of a plastic recycling company in China. Waste plastics from various sources, such as agricultural wastes, plastic product manufacturers, collected solid plastic wastes and parts dismantled from waste electric and electronic equipments, are processed in three routes with products end up in different markets...
June 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603523/kir3ds1-mediated-recognition-of-hla-b51-modulation-of-kir3ds1-responsiveness-by-self-hla-b-allotypes-and-effect-on-nk-cell-licensing
#17
Simona Carlomagno, Michela Falco, Maria Bono, Claudia Alicata, Lucia Garbarino, Michela Mazzocco, Lorenzo Moretta, Alessandro Moretta, Simona Sivori
Several studies described an association between killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)/HLA gene combinations and clinical outcomes in various diseases. In particular, an important combined role for KIR3DS1 and HLA-B Bw4-I80 in controlling viral infections and a higher protection against leukemic relapses in donor equipped with activating KIRs in haplo-HSCT has been described. Here, we show that KIR3DS1 mediates positive signals upon recognition of HLA-B*51 (Bw4-I80) surface molecules on target cells and that this activation occurs only in Bw4-I80(neg) individuals, including those carrying particular KIR/HLA combination settings...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602276/fungal-aerocontamination-exposure-risk-for-patients-in-3-successive-locations-of-a-pediatric-hematology-unit-department-influence-of-air-equipment-and-building-structure-on-air-quality
#18
Anne-Pauline Bellanger, Gabriel Reboux, Florent Demonmerot, Houssein Gbaguidi-Haore, Laurence Millon
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) play an important role in the mortality of immunocompromised patients. The pediatric hematology department (PHD) at Besançon University Hospital has relocated 3 times: (1) from a building without an air filtration system (B1), (2) to a renovated building with low air pressure (B2), and (3) to a new building with high air pressure and high-efficiency particulate air filters (B3). This study aimed to investigate how these relocations influenced the fungal exposure risk for the PHD's patients...
June 8, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601767/pooled-human-liver-preparations-heparg-or-hepg2-cell-lines-for-metabolism-studies-of-new-psychoactive-substances-a-study-using-mdma-mdbd-butylone-mdppp-mdpv-mdpb-5-mapb-and-5-api-as-examples
#19
Lilian H J Richter, Veit Flockerzi, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
Metabolism studies play an important role in clinical and forensic toxicology. Because of potential species differences in metabolism, human samples are best suitable for elucidating metabolism. However, in the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS), human samples of controlled studies are not available. Primary human hepatocytes have been described as gold standard for in vitro metabolism studies, but there are some disadvantages such as high costs, limited availability, and variability of metabolic enzymes...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597245/protein-kinase-ck2-regulates-redox-homeostasis-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-bcl-xl-in-cardiomyoblasts
#20
Susanne Schaefer, Barbara Guerra
Oxygen consumption is particularly elevated in cardiac cells as they are equipped with a large number of mitochondria and high levels of respiratory chain components. Consequently, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is tightly controlled as an imbalance in redox reactions can lead to irreversible cellular damage. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the accumulation of ROS in cells. The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the role of CK2 in redox homeostasis in cardiomyoblasts...
June 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
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