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Healthcare regulation

Jaeyong Shin, Young Choi, Sang Gyu Lee, Tae Hyun Kim, Eun-Cheol Park
Unnecessary use of high-quality resources in general hospitals hinders treatment of patients with urgent and complicated conditions. Thus, the Korean Government has sought to reduce general hospital visiting of patients with 52 mild diseases, including hypertension. The higher cost sharing for medical expenses and medications from general hospitals were enacted in 2009 and 2011, respectively.We determined whether these regulations were effective through evaluating changing trends in first-visited healthcare organizations and defined the first visiting healthcare organization level (primary clinics, hospital, and general hospital) as an outcome measure...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Amy Tanti, Benjamin Micallef, Anthony Serracino-Inglott, John-Joseph Borg
Regulatory authorities have a legal mandate to implement and maintain a Pharmacovigilance System designed to monitor the safety of authorised medicinal products and detect any change to their risk-benefit balance. Areas covered: This review maps the implementation of pharmacovigilance activities in Malta since accession in the EU in mid 2004 and discusses the challenges the Maltese Regulator encountered while setting up adequate and effective systems to fulfil its legal mandate. Areas reviewed are those around ADR reporting, promotion and safety communications including rapid alerts and recalls, direct healthcare professional communications, risk minimisation measures and safety circulars and quality systems...
October 12, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Jagdish Patel, Siddarth David
Rapid industrialisation in India is giving employment to millions of people in the formal sector, and many more in the unorganised sector. However, the absence of clear policies, poorly enforced regulations, lack of systematic reporting of occupational diseases, lamentable socioeconomic conditions of the workers and their limited access to healthcare make occupational health and safety (OHS) a critical area.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Ian Bates, Christopher John, Andreia Bruno, Pamela Fu, Shirin Aliabadi
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there is a global healthcare workforce shortage of 7.2 million, which is predicted to grow to 12.9 million by 2035. Globally, people are living longer with multiple co-morbidities and require increased access and use of medicines. Pharmacists are a key component of the healthcare workforce, and in many countries, pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare profession. This paper identifies key issues and current trends affecting the global pharmacy workforce, in particular workforce distribution, country economic status, capacity, and workforce gender balance...
October 10, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Chao Xu Peh, Jianlin Liu, George D Bishop, Hui Yu Chan, Shi Min Chua, Ee Heok Kua, Rathi Mahendran
PURPOSE: A proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients may experience anxiety and depression. Emotion suppression has been associated with poorer psycho-emotional outcomes, while reappraisal may be an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. Few studies have examined potential mechanisms linking reappraisal to psycho-emotional outcomes in cancer patients. This study aims to replicate findings on reappraisal and suppression, and further examine if hope mediates the association between reappraisal and anxiety/depression in patients newly diagnosed with cancer...
October 10, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Vitaliy M Pashkov, Iryna A Golovanova, Andrii A Olefir
INTRODUCTION: the functioning of the healthcare industry in any country is impossible without providing enough medicines for patient care. This problem can best be resolved only when the majority of drugs, especially vital, will be made at national plants (industry). In this context, competition from generic drugs is the most optimal strategy to reduce drug's prices. AIM: the paper should examine how the legal regime of intellectual property affects the availability of medicines for people and identify ways of supporting breakthrough inventions and counter ≪unreal innovations≫...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Ana Paula Jucá Silva, Patrícia Oliveira Pereira Tagliari
The present article describes the changing relationship among healthcare regulatory authorities in various international settings, with special emphasis on the Americas. As other sectors, healthcare also faces the need to regulate international practices, while at the same time taking into consideration the specific realities of each country. Regulatory convergence - a movement towards technical alignment to enable the adoption of local regulatory mechanisms that take into account internationally recognized standards and principles to promote a single sanitary goal - has emerged as a means to address this challenge...
May 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Pearl Siganporia, George Astrakianakis, Hasanat Alamgir, Aleck Ostry, Anne-Marie Nicol, Mieke Koehoorn
BACKGROUND: Outsourcing labor is linked to negative impacts on occupational health and safety (OHS). In British Columbia, Canada, provincial health care service providers outsource support services such as cleaners and food service workers (CFSWs) to external contractors. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the impact of outsourcing on the occupational health safety of hospital CFSWs through a mixed methods approach. METHODS: Worker's compensation data for hospital CFSWs were analyzed by negative binomial and multiple linear regressions supplemented by iterative thematic analysis of telephone interviews of the same job groups...
October 4, 2016: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Omer Ben-Aharon, Oren Shavit, Racheli Magnezi
BACKGROUND: Increasing health costs in developed countries are a major concern for decision makers. A variety of cost containment tools are used to control this trend, including maximum price regulation and reimbursement methods for health technologies. Information regarding expenditure-related outcomes of these tools is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between different cost-regulating mechanisms and national health expenditures in selected countries...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Marcin Kautsch, Mateusz Lichoń, Natalia Matuszak
E-health has experienced a dynamic development across the European Union in the recent years and enjoys support from the European Commission that seeks to achieve interoperability of national healthcare systems in order to facilitate free movement. Differences that can be observed between the member states in legal regulations, cultural approaches and technological solutions may hinder this process. This study compares the legal standing of e-health in Denmark, Poland, Spain and the UK, along with key legal acts and their implications...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Prosanta Gope, Ruhul Amin
Electronic Patient Health Record (EPHR) systems may facilitate a patient not only to share his/her health records securely with healthcare professional but also to control his/her health privacy, in a convenient and easy way even in case of emergency. In order to fulfill these requirements, it is greatly desirable to have the access control mechanism which can efficiently handle every circumstance without negotiating security. However, the existing access control mechanisms used in healthcare to regulate and restrict the disclosure of patient data are often bypassed in case of emergencies...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Lifang Wang, Ju Cao, Congya Li, Liping Zhang
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of antibiotic- and healthcare-associated diarrhea. CXCL13 is a well-known CXC chemokine involved in inflammation, but its role in CDI remains unknown. In this study, serum and fecal samplings were collected from 51 CDI patients, 50 diarrhea patients without CDI and 50 healthy control subjects to determine the CXCL13 levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Besides, a mouse model of C. difficile infection was established, and murine serum and colon tissues were collected for detection of CXCL13 expression using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, or immunohistochemistry...
December 2016: Cytokine
Mary Casey, Adeline Cooney, Rhona O' Connell, Josephine Hegarty, Anne-Marie Brady, Pauline O'Reilly, Catriona Kennedy, Elizabeth Heffernan, Gerard Fealy, Martin Mcnamara, Laserina O' Connor
AIM: To present the qualitative findings from a study on the development of scheme(s) to provide evidence of maintenance of professional competence for nurses and midwives. BACKGROUND: Key issues in maintenance of professional competence include notions of self- assessment, verification of engagement and practice hours, provision of an evidential record, the role of the employer and articulation of possible consequences for non-adherence with the requirements. Schemes to demonstrate the maintenance of professional competence have application to nurses, midwives and regulatory bodies and healthcare employers worldwide...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Andrea Arfè, Lorenza Scotti, Cristina Varas-Lorenzo, Federica Nicotra, Antonella Zambon, Bianca Kollhorst, Tania Schink, Edeltraut Garbe, Ron Herings, Huub Straatman, René Schade, Marco Villa, Silvia Lucchi, Vera Valkhoff, Silvana Romio, Frantz Thiessard, Martijn Schuemie, Antoine Pariente, Miriam Sturkenboom, Giovanni Corrao
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and estimate the risk of hospital admission for heart failure with use of individual NSAIDs. DESIGN:  Nested case-control study. SETTING:  Five population based healthcare databases from four European countries (the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom). PARTICIPANTS:  Adult individuals (age ≥18 years) who started NSAID treatment in 2000-10...
September 28, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Elisabeth Dahlborg Lyckhage, Sandra Pennbrant, Åse Boman
The Swedish welfare debate increasingly focuses on market liberal notions and its healthcare perspective aims for more patient-centered care. This article examines the new Swedish Patient Act describing and analyzing how the patient is constructed in government documents. This study takes a Foucauldian discourse analysis approach following Willig's analysis guide. The act contains an entitlement discourse for patients and a requirement discourse for healthcare personnel. These two discourses are governed by a values-based healthcare discourse...
September 29, 2016: Nursing Inquiry
Deepak Chand, Vellore Sunder Avinash, Yashpal Yadav, Archana Vishnu Pundle, Cheravakattu Gopalan Suresh, Sureshkumar Ramasamy
BACKGROUND: Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) enzyme is responsible for the de-conjugation of bile salts by commensal bacteria, thus playing a vital role in their colonization and survival in the mammalian intestine and determination of their probiotic potential. Further, bile deconjugation also leads to lowering of cholesterol and alterations in energy homeostasis, thus making BSH a clinically important enzyme. SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: Many recent observations have indicated that BSH may be involved in a multifaceted array of roles, directly or indirectly in the host and microbial physiology...
September 25, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Nancy Carter, Esther Sangster-Gormley, Jenny Ploeg, Ruth Martin-Misener, Faith Donald, Abigail Wickson-Griffiths, Sharon Kaasalainen, Carrie McAiney, Kevin Brazil, Alan Taniguchi, Lori Schindel Martin
The aim of this paper is to explore the role and activities of nurse practitioners (NPs) working in long-term care (LTC) to understand concepts of access to primary care for residents. Utilizing the "FIT" framework developed by Penchanksy and Thomas, we used a directed content analysis method to analyze data from a pan-Canadian study of NPs in LTC. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted at four sites in western, central and eastern regions of Canada with 143 participants, including NPs, RNs, regulated and unregulated nursing staff, allied health professionals, physicians, administrators and directors and residents and family members...
2016: Nursing Leadership
Dora M Raymaker, Katherine E McDonald, Elesia Ashkenazy, Martha Gerrity, Amelia M Baggs, Clarissa Kripke, Sarah Hourston, Christina Nicolaidis
Our objective was to use a community-based participatory research approach to identify and compare barriers to healthcare experienced by autistic adults and adults with and without other disabilities. To do so, we developed a Long- and Short-Form instrument to assess barriers in clinical and research settings. Using the Barriers to Healthcare Checklist-Long Form, we surveyed 437 participants (209 autistic, 55 non-autistic with disabilities, and 173 non-autistic without disabilities). Autistic participants selected different and greater barriers to healthcare, particularly in areas related to emotional regulation, patient-provider communication, sensory sensitivity, and healthcare navigation...
September 22, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
Corinna Klingler, Georg Marckmann
BACKGROUND: With Germany facing a shortage of doctors, hospitals have been increasingly recruiting physicians from abroad. Studies in other countries have shown that migrant physicians experience various difficulties in their work, which might impact the quality of patient care, physician job satisfaction, and, accordingly, retention. The experiences of migrant doctors in Germany have not been systematically studied so far and will likely differ from experiences migrant physicians make in other contexts...
2016: Human Resources for Health
Laura M Gottlieb, Andrea Quiñones-Rivera, Rishi Manchanda, Holly Wing, Sara Ackerman
INTRODUCTION: Relationships between socioeconomic adversity and poor health have been well documented. Given these associations, Medicaid MCOs (MMCOs) have shown increasing interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) to improve health and decrease healthcare costs. The authors sought to better understand how contractual relationships with State Medicaid Agencies influence MMCO investments in addressing members' SDH. METHODS: In 52 semi-structured key informant interviews, MMCO executives representing 17 geographically diverse MMCOs ranging in size, commercial status, and state participation in Medicaid expansion were asked to describe existing state and other influences on MMCO SDH-related activities...
September 14, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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