keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Bacterial adaptive immunity

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666291/determining-the-specificity-of-cascade-binding-interference-and-primed-adaptation-in-vivo-in-the-escherichia-coli-type-i-e-crispr-cas-system
#1
Lauren A Cooper, Anne M Stringer, Joseph T Wade
In clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) immunity systems, short CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) are bound by Cas proteins, and these complexes target invading nucleic acid molecules for degradation in a process known as interference. In type I CRISPR-Cas systems, the Cas protein complex that binds DNA is known as Cascade. Association of Cascade with target DNA can also lead to acquisition of new immunity elements in a process known as primed adaptation. Here, we assess the specificity determinants for Cascade-DNA interaction, interference, and primed adaptation in vivo , for the type I-E system of Escherichia coli Remarkably, as few as 5 bp of crRNA-DNA are sufficient for association of Cascade with a DNA target...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664835/phagocytosis-by-fibrocytes-as-a-mechanism-to-decrease-bacterial-burden-and-increase-survival-in-sepsis
#2
Dalis Collins, Christopher Fry, Bethany B Moore, Jean A Nemzek
Fibrocytes are unique cells with innate and adaptive immune functions, but these mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to explain the mechanism by which adoptive transfer of exogenous fibrocytes improved bacterial clearance and increased sepsis survival. Initial flow cytometry-based, in vitro assays demonstrated phagocytosis by fibrocytes and intracellular bacterial killing was confirmed by direct plating of cell lysates after exposure to live bacteria. Intravenous adoptive transfer of fibrocytes at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or two hours after CLP in mice increased survivability...
April 16, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658477/-pmn-dtr-mice-a-new-model-to-study-neutrophils-in-vivo
#3
Caitlin M Gillis, Laurent L Reber
Neutrophils play a key role in host defense against pathogens. They can contribute to pathological inflammation, and are thought to exacerbate tissue injury upon exposure to bacterial products, such as endotoxin (LPS). Recent findings suggest that neutrophils can also participate in adaptive immune responses and contribute to inflammation resolution. Many discoveries regarding the in vivo role of neutrophils were made possible by the use of genetically modified neutrophil-deficient mice, or by the use of neutrophil-depleting antibodies...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650491/fecal-microbiota-composition-drives-immune-activation-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#4
Charles Preston Neff, Owen Krueger, Kathy Xiong, Sabrina Arif, Nichole Nusbacher, Jennifer M Schneider, Annie W Cunningham, Abigail Armstrong, Sam Li, Martin D McCarter, Thomas B Campbell, Catherine A Lozupone, Brent E Palmer
The inflammatory properties of the enteric microbiota of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals are of considerable interest because of strong evidence that bacterial translocation contributes to chronic immune activation and disease progression. Altered enteric microbiota composition occurs with HIV infection but whether altered microbiota composition or increased intestinal permeability alone drives peripheral immune activation is controversial. To comprehensively assess the inflammatory properties of HIV-associated enteric microbiota and relate these to systemic immune activation, we developed methods to purify whole fecal bacterial communities (FBCs) from stool for use in in vitro immune stimulation assays with human cells...
March 26, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649855/a-salmonella-typhi-ghost-induced-by-the-e-gene-of-phage-%C3%AF-x174-stimulates-dendritic-cells-and-efficiently-activates-the-adaptive-immune-response
#5
Gayeon Won, Seong Kug Eo, Sang-Youel Park, Jin Hur, John Hwa Lee
We previously genetically engineered a Salmonella Typhi bacterial ghost (STG) as a novel inactivated vaccine candidate against typhoid fever. The underlying mechanism employed by the ghost to stimulate the adaptive immune response remains to be investigated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the immunostimulatory effect of STG on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and its activation of the adaptive immune response in vitro . Immature BMDCs were stimulated with STG, which efficiently stimulated maturation events in BMDCs, as indicated by up-regulated expression of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II molecules on CD11+ BMDCs...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644902/interleukin-il-36-gamma-induces-mucin-5ac-oligomeric-mucus-gel-forming-expression-via-il-36-receptor-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-and-2-and-p38-nuclear-factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer-of-activated-b-cells-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#6
Chang Hoon Bae, Yoon Seok Choi, Hyung Gyun Na, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
BACKGROUND: Mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) expression is significantly increased in allergic and inflammatory airway diseases. Interleukin (IL) 36 gamma is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells and plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-36 gamma is induced by many inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and bacterial and viral infections. However, the association between IL-36 gamma and mucin secretion in human airway epithelial cells has not yet been fully investigated...
March 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628924/defective-phagocytic-properties-of-hiv-infected-macrophages-how-might-they-be-implicated-in-the-development-of-invasive-salmonella-typhimurium
#7
REVIEW
Gabrielle Lê-Bury, Florence Niedergang
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects and kills T cells, profoundly damaging the host-specific immune response. The virus also integrates into memory T cells and long-lived macrophages, establishing chronic infections. HIV-1 infection impairs the functions of macrophages both in vivo and in vitro , which contributes to the development of opportunistic diseases. Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has been identified as the most common cause of bacterial bloodstream infections in HIV-infected adults...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624724/inflammatory-compound-lipopolysaccharide-promotes-the-survival-of-gm-csf-cultured-dendritic-cell-via-pi3-kinase-dependent-up-regulation-of-bcl-x
#8
Shun Chen, Xinchen Li, Wenjie Zhang, Mengting Zi, Yuekang Xu
As professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and regulate immune responses against inflammation. The invasion of pathogens into the body, however, can in turn cause the change of DCs in both activity and viability, which ultimately affect immune homeostasis. The exact mechanisms that the bacteria utilize to alter the lifespan of DCs, however, are far from clear. In this study, we found that the bacterial wall compound lipopolysaccharide(LPS)can promote the survival of GM-CSF-differentiated DCs (GM-DCs)...
April 6, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621180/applications-of-crispr-cas-system-to-bacterial-metabolic-engineering
#9
REVIEW
Suhyung Cho, Jongoh Shin, Byung-Kwan Cho
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) adaptive immune system has been extensively used for gene editing, including gene deletion, insertion, and replacement in bacterial and eukaryotic cells owing to its simple, rapid, and efficient activities in unprecedented resolution. Furthermore, the CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system including deactivated Cas9 (dCas9) with inactivated endonuclease activity has been further investigated for regulation of the target gene transiently or constitutively, avoiding cell death by disruption of genome...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617698/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-adaptation-to-innate-immune-clearance-mechanisms-in-the-lung
#10
Sebastian A Riquelme, Danielle Ahn, Alice Prince
Many different species of gram-negative bacteria are associated with infection in the lung, causing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), and ventilator-associated pneumonias. These airway pathogens must adapt to common host clearance mechanisms that include killing by antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics, oxidative stress, and phagocytosis by leukocytes. Bacterial adaptation to the host is often evident phenotypically, with increased extracellular polysaccharide production characteristic of some biofilm-associated organisms...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617362/a-novel-approach-to-improve-immune-effector-responses-post-transplant-by-restoration-of-ccl21-expression
#11
Heather E Stefanski, Leslie Jonart, Emily Goren, James J Mulé, Bruce R Blazar
Chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy conditioning regimens required for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) cause significant morbidity and mortality as a result of insufficient immune surveillance mechanisms leading to increased risks of infection and tumor recurrence. Such conditioning causes host stromal cell injury, impairing restoration of the central (thymus) and peripheral (spleen and lymph node) T cell compartments and slow immune reconstitution. The chemokine, CCL21, produced by host stromal cells, recruits T- and B-cells that provide lymphotoxin mediated instructive signals to stromal cells for lymphoid organogenesis...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611556/-helicobacter-hepaticus-polysaccharide-induces-an-anti-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-macrophages
#12
COMMENT
Camille Danne, Fiona Powrie
A high density of microbes inhabits the intestine, helping with food digestion, vitamin synthesis, xenobiotic detoxification, pathogen resistance and immune system maturation. Crucial for human health, communities of commensal bacteria (collectively termed microbiota) benefit in return from a nutrient-rich environment. Host-microbiota mutualism results from a long-term co-adaptation. At barrier surfaces, immune cells distinguish harmful from commensal bacteria and tolerate non-self organisms at close proximity to the mucosa; gut inhabitants have developed strategies to ensure beneficial conditions in their preferred niche...
March 22, 2018: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611476/antimicrobial-peptides-phylogenic-sources-and-biological-activities-first-of-two-parts
#13
Thea Magrone, Matteo Antonio Russo, Emilio Jirillo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are phylogenetically ancient substances released by living organisms for self protection against a broad variety of microbes. Moreover, AMPs are endowed with immune modulatory activities, linking innate and adaptive immunity together. Lantibiotics are AMPs of bacterial origin currently investigated for the generation of a new class of anti-infective compounds, owing to the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance against a broad variety of bacteria. Also, plants and marine AMPs are screened as novel drugs against human pathogens...
April 3, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610317/plasticity-in-early-immune-evasion-strategies-of-a-bacterial-pathogen
#14
Quentin Bernard, Alexis A Smith, Xiuli Yang, Juraj Koci, Shelby D Foor, Sarah D Cramer, Xuran Zhuang, Jennifer E Dwyer, Yi-Pin Lin, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Adriana Marques, John M Leong, Juan Anguita, Utpal Pal
Borrelia burgdorferi is one of the few extracellular pathogens capable of establishing persistent infection in mammals. The mechanisms that sustain long-term survival of this bacterium are largely unknown. Here we report a unique innate immune evasion strategy of B. burgdorferi , orchestrated by a surface protein annotated as BBA57, through its modulation of multiple spirochete virulent determinants. BBA57 function is critical for early infection but largely redundant for later stages of spirochetal persistence, either in mammals or in ticks...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599457/streptococcus-pneumoniae-transmission-colonization-and-invasion
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey N Weiser, Daniela M Ferreira, James C Paton
Streptococcus pneumoniae has a complex relationship with its obligate human host. On the one hand, the pneumococci are highly adapted commensals, and their main reservoir on the mucosal surface of the upper airways of carriers enables transmission. On the other hand, they can cause severe disease when bacterial and host factors allow them to invade essentially sterile sites, such as the middle ear spaces, lungs, bloodstream and meninges. Transmission, colonization and invasion depend on the remarkable ability of S...
March 29, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594069/-tetrahymena-thermophila-predation-enhances-environmental-adaptation-of-the-carp-pathogenic-strain-aeromonas-hydrophila-nj-35
#16
Jin Liu, Yuhao Dong, Nannan Wang, Shougang Li, Yuanyuan Yang, Yao Wang, Furqan Awan, Chengping Lu, Yongjie Liu
Persistence of Aeromonas hydrophila in aquatic environments is the principle cause of fish hemorrhagic septicemia. Protistan predation has been considered to be a strong driving force for the evolution of bacterial defense strategies. In this study, we investigated the adaptive traits of A. hydrophila NJ-35, a carp pathogenic strain, in response to Tetrahymena thermophila predation. After subculturing with Tetrahymena , over 70% of A. hydrophila colonies were small colony variants (SCVs). The SCVs displayed enhanced biofilm formation, adhesion, fitness, and resistance to bacteriophage infection and oxidative stress as compared to the non- Tetrahymena- exposed strains...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592810/crispr-cas9-the-jedi-against-the-dark-empire-of-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Sehrish Khan, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Hassan Zafar, Sultan Habibullah, Zulqarnain Khan, Aftab Ahmad
Advances in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR associated system (CRISPR/Cas9) has dramatically reshaped our ability to edit genomes. The scientific community is using CRISPR/Cas9 for various biotechnological and medical purposes. One of its most important uses is developing potential therapeutic strategies against diseases. CRISPR/Cas9 based approaches have been increasingly applied to the treatment of human diseases like cancer, genetic, immunological and neurological disorders and viral diseases...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588538/campylobacter-jejuni-transcriptional-and-genetic-adaptation-during-human-infection
#18
Alexander A Crofts, Frédéric M Poly, Cheryl P Ewing, Janelle M Kuroiwa, Joanna E Rimmer, Clayton Harro, David Sack, Kawsar R Talaat, Chad K Porter, Ramiro L Gutierrez, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, Renée M Laird, Alexander C Maue, Kayla Jaep, Ashley Alcala, David R Tribble, Mark S Riddle, Amritha Ramakrishnan, Andrea J McCoy, Bryan W Davies, Patricia Guerry, M Stephen Trent
Campylobacter jejuni infections are a leading cause of bacterial food-borne diarrhoeal illness worldwide, and Campylobacter infections in children are associated with stunted growth and therefore long-term deficits into adulthood. Despite this global impact on health and human capital, how zoonotic C. jejuni responds to the human host remains unclear. Unlike other intestinal pathogens, C. jejuni does not harbour pathogen-defining toxins that explicitly contribute to disease in humans. This makes understanding Campylobacter pathogenesis challenging and supports a broad examination of bacterial factors that contribute to C...
April 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581033/production-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-capsid-proteins-by-the-tev-protease
#19
Michael Puckette, Justin D Smith, Lindsay Gabbert, Christopher Schutta, José Barrera, Benjamin A Clark, John G Neilan, Max Rasmussen
Protective immunity to viral pathogens often includes production of neutralizing antibodies to virus capsid proteins. Many viruses produce capsid proteins by expressing a precursor polyprotein and related protease from a single open reading frame. The Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) expresses a 3 C protease (3 Cpro) that cleaves a P1 polyprotein intermediate into individual capsid proteins, but the FMDV 3 Cpro also degrades many host cell proteins and reduces the viability of host cells, including subunit vaccine production cells...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580106/flagellin-as-a-vaccine-adjuvant
#20
Baofeng Cui, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yongguang Zhang, Yonglu Wang
Bacterial flagellin, as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), can activate both innate and adaptive immunity. Its unique structural characteristics endow an effective and flexible adjuvant activity, which allow the design of different types of vaccine strategies to prevent various diseases. This review will discuss recent progress in the mechanism of action of flagellin and its prospects for use as a vaccine adjuvant. Areas covered: Herein we summarize various types of information related to flagellin adjuvants from PubMed, including structures, signaling pathways, natural immunity, and extensive applications in vaccines, and it discusses the immunogenicity, safety, and efficacy of flagellin-adjuvanted vaccines in clinical trials...
March 30, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
keyword
keyword
84076
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"