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Bacterial adaptive immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720679/potential-for-monitoring-gut-microbiota-for-diagnosing-infections-and-graft-versus-host-disease-in-cancer-and-stem-cell-transplant-patients
#1
Andrew Y Koh
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota, the collective community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine, have been shown to provide many beneficial functions for the host. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and advanced molecular biology approaches have allowed researchers to identify gut microbiota signatures associated with disease processes and, in some cases, establish causality and elucidate underlying mechanisms. CONTENT: This report reviews 3 commonly used methods for studying the gut microbiota and microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microorganisms): 16S rRNA gene sequencing, bacterial group or species-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS)...
July 18, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720097/a-versatile-papaya-mosaic-virus-papmv-vaccine-platform-based-on-sortase-mediated-antigen-coupling
#2
Ariane Thérien, Mikaël Bédard, Damien Carignan, Gervais Rioux, Louis Gauthier-Landry, Marie-Ève Laliberté-Gagné, Marilène Bolduc, Pierre Savard, Denis Leclerc
BACKGROUND: Flexuous rod-shaped nanoparticles made of the coat protein (CP) of papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) have been shown to trigger innate immunity through engagement of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). PapMV nanoparticles can also serve as a vaccine platform as they can increase the immune response to fused peptide antigens. Although this approach shows great potential, fusion of antigens directly to the CP open reading frame (ORF) is challenging because the fused peptides can alter the structure of the CP and its capacity to self assemble into nanoparticles-a property essential for triggering an efficient immune response to the peptide...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716827/galectin-1-driven-tolerogenic-programs-aggravate-yersinia-enterocolitica-infection-by-repressing-antibacterial-immunity
#3
Roberto C Davicino, Santiago P Méndez-Huergo, Ricardo J Eliçabe, Juan C Stupirski, Ingo Autenrieth, María S Di Genaro, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogenic bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations. To subvert the host's immune response, Y. enterocolitica uses a type III secretion system consisting of an injectisome and effector proteins, called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), that modulate activation, signaling, and survival of immune cells. In this article, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory lectin widely expressed in mucosal tissues, contributes to Y...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715992/the-hibernator-microbiome-host-bacterial-interactions-in-an-extreme-nutritional-symbiosis
#4
Hannah V Carey, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Animals that undergo seasonal cycles of feeding and fasting have adaptations that maintain integrity of organ systems when dietary nutrients are lacking. Food deprivation also challenges the gut microbiota, which relies heavily on host diet for metabolic substrates and the gastrointestinal tract, which is influenced by enteral nutrients and microbial activity. Winter fasting in hibernators shifts the microbiota to favor taxa with the capacity to degrade and utilize host-derived substrates and disfavor taxa that prefer complex plant polysaccharides...
July 17, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714889/staphylococcus-aureus-regulator-sigma-b-is-important-to-develop-chronic-infections-in-hematogenous-murine-osteomyelitis-model
#5
Lorena Tuchscherr, Jennifer Geraci, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing bone infections that can become chronic and difficult to treat. Recently, we described the mechanism employed by S. aureus to switch to small colony variants (SCVs) and trigger intracellular bacterial persistence through the global stress regulator SigB. Here, we studied the role of SigB in the formation of chronic osteomyelitis. We used a murine hematogenous osteomyelitis model, where the mice were infected via the tail vein and subsequently developed chronic osteomyelitis...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714057/population-specific-responses-to-interspecific-competition-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-two-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-populations
#6
Xiaoping He, Subba Rao Chaganti, Daniel D Heath
The gut microbial community in vertebrates plays a role in nutrient digestion and absorption, development of intestine and immune systems, resistance to infection, regulation of bone mass and even host behavior and can thus impact host fitness. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reintroduction efforts into Lake Ontario, Canada, have been unsuccessful, likely due to competition with non-native salmonids. In this study, we explored interspecific competition effects on the gut microbiota of two Atlantic salmon populations (LaHave and Sebago) resulting from four non-native salmonids...
July 16, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707702/secondary-immune-response-of-rainbow-trout-following-repeated-immersion-vaccination
#7
R M Jaafar, A Al-Jubury, J K Chettri, I Dalsgaard, P W Kania, K Buchmann
Teleosts are able to raise a protective immune response, comprising both innate and adaptive elements, against various pathogens. This is the basis for a widespread use of vaccines, administered as injection or immersion, in the aquaculture industry. It has been described that repeated injection vaccination of fish raises a secondary immune response, consisting of rapid, accelerated and increased antibody reaction. This study reports how rainbow trout responds to repeated immersion vaccination against yersiniosis (ERM) caused by the bacterial pathogen Yersinia ruckeri...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705494/inflammation-initiated-by-stressed-organelles
#8
Fabio Martinon
Key cellular functions including those related to energy metabolism, organization of the genetic information or production of membrane-bound and secreted proteins are compartmentalized within organelles. Various stresses such as differentiation programs, viral and bacterial infections, perturbations in protein production, mechanical constraints, changes in the environment and nutriment accessibility can impact cellular homeostasis and organelle integrity. Perturbations of these cellular compartments trigger repair and adaptation programs aimed at restoring homeostasis...
July 10, 2017: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700573/crispr-cas-encoding-of-a-digital-movie-into-the-genomes-of-a-population-of-living-bacteria
#9
Seth L Shipman, Jeff Nivala, Jeffrey D Macklis, George M Church
DNA is an excellent medium for archiving data. Recent efforts have illustrated the potential for information storage in DNA using synthesized oligonucleotides assembled in vitro. A relatively unexplored avenue of information storage in DNA is the ability to write information into the genome of a living cell by the addition of nucleotides over time. Using the Cas1-Cas2 integrase, the CRISPR-Cas microbial immune system stores the nucleotide content of invading viruses to confer adaptive immunity. When harnessed, this system has the potential to write arbitrary information into the genome...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698278/on-the-origin-of-reverse-transcriptase-using-crispr-cas-systems-and-their-hyperdiverse-enigmatic-spacer-repertoires
#10
Sukrit Silas, Kira S Makarova, Sergey Shmakov, David Páez-Espino, Georg Mohr, Yi Liu, Michelle Davison, Simon Roux, Siddharth R Krishnamurthy, Becky Xu Hua Fu, Loren L Hansen, David Wang, Matthew B Sullivan, Andrew Millard, Martha R Clokie, Devaki Bhaya, Alan M Lambowitz, Nikos C Kyrpides, Eugene V Koonin, Andrew Z Fire
Cas1 integrase is the key enzyme of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas adaptation module that mediates acquisition of spacers derived from foreign DNA by CRISPR arrays. In diverse bacteria, the cas1 gene is fused (or adjacent) to a gene encoding a reverse transcriptase (RT) related to group II intron RTs. An RT-Cas1 fusion protein has been recently shown to enable acquisition of CRISPR spacers from RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the CRISPR-associated RTs demonstrates monophyly of the RT-Cas1 fusion, and coevolution of the RT and Cas1 domains...
July 11, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698122/transcriptome-analysis-and-discovery-of-genes-involved-in-immune-pathways-in-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea-under-high-stocking-density-stress
#11
Peng Sun, Peibo Bao, Baojun Tang
The large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea, is an economically important maricultured species in southeast China. Owing to the importance of stocking densities in commercial fish production, it is crucial to establish the physiological responses and molecular mechanisms that govern adaptation to crowding in order to optimize welfare and health. In the present study, an extensive immunity-related analysis was performed at the transcriptome level in L. crocea in response to crowding stress. Over 145 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into a final set of 40,123 unigenes...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698120/effectiveness-of-formalin-killed-vaccines-containing-cpg-oligodeoxynucleotide-1668-adjuvants-against-vibrio-harveyi-in-orange-spotted-grouper
#12
Hai Trong Nguyen, Thuy Thi Thu Nguyen, Yi-Ting Wang, Pei-Chyi Wang, Shih-Chu Chen
Vibrio harveyi is a major bacterial pathogen that causes serious vibriosis in cultured groupers, leading to massive deaths. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and protective efficacy of vaccines containing V. harveyi formalin-killed cells (FKC) formulated with CpG ODN 1668-enriched plasmids (p30CpG and p60CpG) in the orange-spotted grouper. Results indicated that antibody titres were remarkably increased in vaccinated fish 2 weeks post-immunisation. Expression level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, CD 8, and toll-like receptor 9 was significantly upregulated in the spleen of fish immunised with CpG ODN 1668-adjuvanted vaccines, as recorded at 6 weeks after immunisation...
July 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686630/caspase-6-mediates-resistance-against-burkholderia-pseudomallei-infection-and-influences-the-expression-of-detrimental-cytokines
#13
Alexander Bartel, André Göhler, Verena Hopf, Katrin Breitbach
Caspase-6 is a member of the executioner caspases and known to play a role in innate and adaptive immune processes. However, its role in infectious diseases has rarely been addressed yet. We here examined the impact of caspase-6 in an in vivo infection model using the Gram-negative rod Burkholderia pseudomallei, causing the infectious disease melioidosis that is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. Caspase-6-/- and C57BL/6 wild type mice were challenged with B. pseudomallei for comparing mortality, bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokine expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680857/cyclic-dinucleotides-in-oral-bacteria-and-in-oral-biofilms
#14
Ulvi K Gürsoy, Mervi Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Herman O Sintim
Oral cavity acts as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for systemic infections and several oral microorganisms have been linked to systemic diseases. Quorum sensing and cyclic dinucleotides, two "decision-making" signaling systems, communicate to regulate physiological process in bacteria. Discovery of cyclic dinucleotides has a long history, but the progress in our understanding of how cyclic dinucleotides regulate bacterial lifestyle is relatively new. Oral microorganisms form some of the most intricate biofilms, yet c-di-GMP, and c-di-AMP signaling have been rarely studied in oral biofilms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670573/the-intestinal-eukaryotic-and-bacterial-biome-of-spotted-hyenas-the-impact-of-social-status-and-age-on-diversity-and-composition
#15
Emanuel Heitlinger, Susana C M Ferreira, Dagmar Thierer, Heribert Hofer, Marion L East
In mammals, two factors likely to affect the diversity and composition of intestinal bacteria (bacterial microbiome) and eukaryotes (eukaryome) are social status and age. In species in which social status determines access to resources, socially dominant animals maintain better immune processes and health status than subordinates. As high species diversity is an index of ecosystem health, the intestinal biome of healthier, socially dominant animals should be more diverse than those of subordinates. Gradual colonization of the juvenile intestine after birth predicts lower intestinal biome diversity in juveniles than adults...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662203/detection-of-bacterial-reactive-natural-igm-antibodies-in-desert-bighorn-sheep-populations
#16
Brian S Dugovich, Melanie J Peel, Amy L Palmer, Ryszard A Zielke, Aleksandra E Sikora, Brianna R Beechler, Anna E Jolles, Clinton W Epps, Brian P Dolan
Ecoimmunology is a burgeoning field of ecology which studies immune responses in wildlife by utilizing general immune assays such as the detection of natural antibody. Unlike adaptive antibodies, natural antibodies are important in innate immune responses and often recognized conserved epitopes present in pathogens. Here, we describe a procedure for measuring natural antibodies reactive to bacterial antigens that may be applicable to a variety of organisms. IgM from desert bighorn sheep plasma samples was tested for reactivity to outer membrane proteins from Vibrio coralliilyticus, a marine bacterium to which sheep would have not been exposed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649402/evolutionary-adaptations-of-biofilms-infecting-cystic-fibrosis-lungs-promote-mechanical-toughness-by-adjusting-polysaccharide-production
#17
Kristin Kovach, Megan Davis-Fields, Yasuhiko Irie, Kanishk Jain, Shashvat Doorwar, Katherine Vuong, Numa Dhamani, Kishore Mohanty, Ahmed Touhami, Vernita D Gordon
Biofilms are communities of microbes embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, largely polysaccharides. Multiple types of extracellular polymeric substances can be produced by a single bacterial strain. The distinct polymer components of biofilms are known to provide chemical protection, but little is known about how distinct extracellular polysaccharides may also protect biofilms against mechanical stresses such as shear or phagocytic engulfment. Decades-long infections of Pseudomonas. aeruginosa biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients are natural models for studies of biofilm fitness under pressure from antibiotics and the immune system...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649237/outer-membrane-vesicles-omvs-of-gram-negative-bacteria-a-perspective-update
#18
REVIEW
Arif Tasleem Jan
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria are spherical membrane-enclosed entities of endocytic origin. Reported in the consortia of different bacterial species, production of OMVs into extracellular milieu seems essential for their survival. Enriched with bioactive proteins, toxins, and virulence factors, OMVs play a critical role in the bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-host interactions. Emergence of OMVs as distinct cellular entities helps bacteria in adaptating to diverse niches, in competing with other bacteria to protect members of producer species and more importantly play a crucial role in host-pathogen interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646853/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-salmonella-enteritidis-sptp-mutant-as-a-live-attenuated-vaccine-candidate
#19
Zhijie Lin, Peipei Tang, Yang Jiao, Xilong Kang, Qiuchun Li, Xiulong Xu, Jun Sun, Zhiming Pan, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a highly adaptive pathogen in both humans and animals. As a Salmonella Type III secretion system (T3SS) effector, Salmonella protein tyrosine phosphatase (SptP) is critical for virulence in this genus. To investigate the feasibility of using C50336ΔsptP as a live attenuated oral vaccine in mice, we generated the sptP gene deletion mutant C50336ΔsptP in S. Enteritidis strain C50336 by λ-Red mediated recombination and evaluated the protective ability of the S...
June 24, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645300/bacterial-ghosts-as-adjuvants-mechanisms-and-potential
#20
REVIEW
Irshad A Hajam, Pervaiz A Dar, Gayeon Won, John Hwa Lee
Bacterial ghosts (BG) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. They contain many innate immunostimulatory agonists, and are potent activators of a broad range of cell types involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Several considerable studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of BG as adjuvants as well as their ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine production by a range of immune and non-immune cell types. These proinflammatory cytokines trigger a generalized recruitment of T and B lymphocytes to lymph nodes that maximize the chances of encounter with their cognate antigen, and subsequent elicitation of potent immune responses...
June 24, 2017: Veterinary Research
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