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Bacterial adaptive immunity

Larissa O C P Rodrigues, Rodrigo S F Graça, Leticia A M Carneiro
Activation of an appropriate innate immune response to bacterial infection is critical to limit microbial spread and generate cytokines and chemokines to instruct appropriate adaptive immune responses. Recognition of bacteria or bacterial products by pattern recognition molecules is crucial to initiate this response. However, it is increasingly clear that the context in which this recognition occurs can dictate the quality of the response and determine the outcome of an infection. The cross talk established between host and pathogen results in profound alterations on cellular homeostasis triggering specific cellular stress responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shoukai Yu
Vibrio vulnificus causes human sickness throughout the world via the consumption of undercooked seafood or exposure to contaminated water. Previous attempts at phylogenetic analyses of V. vulnificus have proven unsuccessful, mainly due to the poorly understood impact of factors on its divergence. In this study, we used advanced statistical and phylogenetic methods to strengthen the classification of V. vulnificus . This updated classification included the impact of geographical and host factors. The results demonstrate the existence of hierarchies and multidimensional effects in the classification of V...
July 2018: Evolutionary Applications
Andrzej Tkacz, Marion Hortala, Philip S Poole
BACKGROUND: Microbial communities (microbiota) influence human and animal disease and immunity, geochemical nutrient cycling and plant productivity. Specific groups, including bacteria, archaea, eukaryotes or fungi, are amplified by PCR to assess the relative abundance of sub-groups (e.g. genera). However, neither the absolute abundance of sub-groups is revealed, nor can different amplicon families (i.e. OTUs derived from a specific pair of PCR primers such as bacterial 16S, eukaryotic 18S or fungi ITS) be compared...
June 19, 2018: Microbiome
Dandan Huang, Zhiyi Bai, Jiexuan Shen, Liting Zhao, Jiale Li
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) acts as a central intracellular signal adapter molecule that mediates the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor family in vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, HcTRAF6, a molluscan homologue of TRAF6 from Hyriopsis cumingii, has been cloned and identified. The entire open reading frame of HcTRAF6 was found to comprise a 1965-bp region that encodes a predicted protein of 654 amino acids, which contains conserved characteristic domains including a RING domain, two TRAF-type zinc finger domains, a typical coiled coil and the MATH domain...
June 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
A Attaya, T Wang, J Zou, T Herath, A Adams, C J Secombes, S Yoon
Increased knowledge of the immune response of the intestine, a physiologically critical organ involved in absorption, secretion and homeostasis in a non-sterile environment, is needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the induction of long-lasting immunity and, subsequently, the development of efficacious gastrointestinal immunization approaches. To this end, analysis of isolated gut cells will give an insight into the cell types present and their immune capability. Hence, in this study we first optimised a method for salmonid gut leucocyte isolation and characterised the cells on the basis of their expression of a range of selected cell markers associated with T & B cells and dendritic cells...
June 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tong Shao, Wei Shi, Jia-Yu Zheng, Xiao-Xiao Xu, Ai-Fu Lin, Li-Xin Xiang, Jian-Zhong Shao
CD58 and CD2 have long been known as a pair of reciprocal adhesion molecules involved in the immune modulations of CD8+ T and NK-mediated cellular immunity in humans and several other mammals. However, the functional roles of CD58 and CD2 in CD4+ T-mediated adaptive humoral immunity remain poorly defined. Moreover, the current functional observations of CD58 and CD2 were mainly acquired from in vitro assays, and in vivo investigation is greatly limited due to the absence of a Cd58 homology in murine models...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karoline Rieckmann, Anna Seydel, Kristin Szewczyk, Kerstin Klimke, Viktoria Rungelrath, Christoph Georg Baums
Streptococcus (S.) suis is an important porcine pathogen causing meningitis, arthritis and septicemia. As cps7 emerged recently in Germany in association with severe herd problems, the objective of this study was to characterize the geno- and phenotype of invasive cps7 strains. Twenty cps7 strains were isolated from diseased pigs from different farms with S. suis herd problems due to meningitis and other pathologies. Eighteen of the cps7 isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 29. Most of these cps7 strains secreted a short MRP variant in agreement with a premature stop codon...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Research
Sirikamon Koosakulnirand, Phornpun Phokrai, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Rosemary A Roberts, Pongsak Utaisincharoen, Susanna J Dunachie, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a flagellated Gram-negative bacterium which is the causative agent of melioidosis. The disease poses a major public health problem in tropical regions and diabetes is a major risk factor. The high mortality rate of melioidosis is associated with severe sepsis which involves the overwhelming production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacterial flagellar protein (flagellin) activates Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-mediated innate immune signaling pathways and induces adaptive immune response...
2018: PloS One
Peter Alexander Vistar Gade, Terkel Bo Olsen, Peter Østrup Jensen, Mette Kolpen, Niels Høiby, Kaj-Åge Henneberg, Thomas Sams
OUTLINE: In chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) the bacteria thrive in biofilm structures protected from the immune system of the host and from antibiotic treatment. Increasing evidence suggests that the susceptibility of the bacteria to antibiotic treatment can be significantly enhanced by hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The aim of this study is to simulate the effect of ciprofloxacin treatment in a PAO1 biofilm model with aggregates in agarose when combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment...
2018: PloS One
Adèle Friot, Blanche Dekeyzer, Armelle Guingand, Justine Guguin, Amélie Joly, Sylvia Vuillier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Margaret Coleman, Christopher Elkins, Bradford Gutting, Emmanuel Mongodin, Gloria Solano-Aguilar, Isabel Walls
SRA Dose-Response and Microbial Risk Analysis Specialty Groups jointly sponsored symposia that addressed the intersections between the "microbiome revolution" and dose response. Invited speakers presented on innovations and advances in gut and nasal microbiota (normal microbial communities) in the first decade after the Human Microbiome Project began. The microbiota and their metabolites are now known to influence health and disease directly and indirectly, through modulation of innate and adaptive immune systems and barrier function...
June 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Shuyue Wang, Xu Li, Tingting Li, Huizhen Wang, Xiangchao Zhang, Jiarun Lou, Qiang Xing, Xiaoli Hu, Zhenmin Bao
The 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) belonging to the HSP90 family is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone. It plays critical roles in ER quality control, and has been implicated as a specialized immune chaperone to regulate both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we identified and characterized a GRP94 gene (PyGRP94) from Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). The protein sequence of PyGRP94 is highly conserved with its homologs in vertebrates, with a signal sequence in N-terminal, an ER retrieval signal sequence in C-terminal and a HATPase_c domain...
June 9, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Catherine J Reynolds, Kathryn Quigley, Xiaoming Cheng, Apurva Suresh, Sundas Tahir, Fiyyaz Ahmed-Jushuf, Khizr Nawab, Katherine Choy, Simone Alexandra Walker, Sara A Mathie, Malcolm Sim, Janet Stowell, Jiten Manji, Tracey Pollard, Daniel M Altmann, Rosemary J Boyton
RATIONALE: IL-8 dependent inflammation is a hallmark of host lung innate immunity to bacterial pathogens, yet in many human lung diseases including COPD, bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis, there are progressive, irreversible pathologic, changes associated with elevated levels of IL-8 in the lung. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the duality of IL-8 dependent host immunity to bacterial infection and lung pathology, we targeted human IL-8 to express transgenically in murine bronchial epithelium, investigating the impact of over-expression on lung bacterial clearance, host immunity, lung pathology and function...
June 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Michael D Stutz, Samar Ojaimi, Gregor Ebert, Marc Pellegrini
The dwindling list of antimicrobial agents exhibiting broad efficacy against clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has forced the medical community to redefine current approaches to the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Host receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) has been flagged recently as a potential target, given that it is believed to regulate necroptosis-independent signaling pathways, which have been implicated in exacerbating several inflammatory conditions and which reportedly play a role in the necrosis of Mtb-infected macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
J Magarian Blander, Gaetan Barbet
Live attenuated vaccines elicit stronger protective immunity than dead vaccines. Distinct PAMPs designated as vita-PAMPs signify microbial viability to innate immune cells. Two vita-PAMPs have been characterized: cyclic-di-adenosine-monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and prokaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA). c-di-AMP produced by live Gram-positive bacteria elicits augmented production of STING-dependent type-I interferon, whereas prokaryotic mRNA from live bacteria is detected by TLR8 enabling discrimination of live from dead bacteria...
June 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Meredith A J Hullar, Johanna W Lampe, Beverly J Torok-Storb, Michael A Harkey
BACKGROUND: Large and giant dog breeds have a high risk for gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) which is an acute, life-threatening condition. Previous work by our group identified a strong risk of GDV linked to specific alleles in innate and adaptive immune genes. We hypothesize that variation in the genes of the immune system act through modulation of the gut microbiome, or through autoimmune mechanisms, or both, to predispose dogs to this condition. Here, we investigate whether differences in the canine fecal microbiome are associated with GDV and are linked to previously identified risk alleles...
2018: PloS One
David Boutboul, Hye Sun Kuehn, Zoé Van de Wyngaert, Julie E Niemela, Isabelle Callebaut, Jennifer Stoddard, Christelle Lenoir, Vincent Barlogis, Catherine Farnarier, Frédéric Vely, Nao Yoshida, Seiji Kojima, Hirokazu Kanegane, Akihiro Hoshino, Fabian Hauck, Ludovic Lhermitte, Vahid Asnafi, Philip Roehrs, Shaoying Chen, James W Verbsky, Katherine R Calvo, Ammar Husami, Kejian Zhang, Joseph Roberts, David Amrol, John Sleaseman, Amy P Hsu, Steven M Holland, Rebecca Marsh, Alain Fischer, Thomas A Fleisher, Capucine Picard, Sylvain Latour, Sergio D Rosenzweig
Ikaros/IKZF1 is an essential transcription factor expressed throughout hematopoiesis. IKZF1 is implicated in lymphocyte and myeloid differentiation and negative regulation of cell proliferation. In humans, somatic mutations in IKZF1 have been linked to the development of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adults. Recently, heterozygous germline IKZF1 mutations have been identified in patients with a B cell immune deficiency mimicking common variable immunodeficiency. These mutations demonstrated incomplete penetrance and led to haploinsufficiency...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Huanxin Zhang, Hongshuo Tang, Yu Zang, Xuexi Tang, Ying Wang
The relationship between the internal microbiome of an individual organism and that of its external environment has been little investigated in freshwater ecosystems. Thus, this is an area of interest in freshwater fish biology. Along with the genotype of the fish host, external environment plays an important role in determining the composition of the internal microbiome. Here, we characterized the variability of the microbiome of wild Crucian carp (Carassius auratus), along with those of their surrounding environments (water and mud)...
June 6, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Jérôme Zervudacki, Agnès Yu, Delase Amesefe, Jingyu Wang, Jan Drouaud, Lionel Navarro, Angélique Deleris
Mobilization of transposable elements (TEs) in plants has been recognized as a driving force of evolution and adaptation, in particular by providing genes with regulatory modules that impact their transcription. In this study, we employed an ATCOPIA93 long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter- GUS fusion to show that this retrotransposon behaves like an immune-responsive gene during pathogen defense in Arabidopsis We also showed that the endogenous ATCOPIA93 copy " EVD ", which is activated in the presence of bacterial stress, is negatively regulated by both DNA methylation and polycomb-mediated silencing, a mode of repression typically found at protein-coding and microRNA genes...
June 5, 2018: EMBO Journal
Natascha Köstlin, Carolin Schoetensack, Julian Schwarz, Bärbel Spring, Alexander Marmé, Rangmar Goelz, Gerhard Brodbeck, Christian F Poets, Christian Gille
Nosocomial bacterial infections (NBI) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are among the main reasons for death in preterm infants. Both are often caused by bacteria coming from the infected infant's gut and feeding with breast milk (BM) seems beneficial in their pathogenesis. However, mechanisms causing the protective effect of BM are only incompletely understood. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are myeloid cells with suppressive activity on other immune cells, recently described to play a role in mediating maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy and immune adaptation in newborns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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