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Bacterial adaptive immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045901/by-capturing-inflammatory-lipids-released-from-dying-cells-the-receptor-cd14-induces-inflammasome-dependent-phagocyte-hyperactivation
#1
Ivan Zanoni, Yunhao Tan, Marco Di Gioia, James R Springstead, Jonathan C Kagan
A heterogeneous mixture of lipids called oxPAPC, derived from dying cells, can hyperactivate dendritic cells (DCs) but not macrophages. Hyperactive DCs are defined by their ability to release interleukin-1 (IL-1) while maintaining cell viability, endowing these cells with potent aptitude to stimulate adaptive immunity. Herein, we found that the bacterial lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 captured extracellular oxPAPC and delivered these lipids into the cell to promote inflammasome-dependent DC hyperactivation...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043347/zinc-ing-it-out-zinc-homeostasis-mechanisms-and-their-impact-on-the-pathogenesis-of-human-pathogen-group-a-streptococcus
#2
REVIEW
Nishanth Makthal, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Group A Streptococccus (GAS) is a major human pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Zinc is an essential trace element required for GAS growth, however, zinc can be toxic at excess concentrations. The bacterial strategies to maintain zinc sufficiency without incurring zinc toxicity play a crucial role in host-GAS interactions and have a significant impact on GAS pathogenesis. The host deploys nutritional immune mechanisms to retard GAS growth by causing either zinc deprivation or zinc poisoning...
October 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043249/interactions-between-bacteria-and-bile-salts-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-hepatobiliary-tracts
#3
REVIEW
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034747/long-term-supplementation-of-rhodiola-kirilowii-extracts-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-does-not-affect-mother-health-status
#4
Sławomir Lewicki, Ewa Skopińska-Różewska, Aneta Lewicka, Robert Zdanowski
Antibiotics treatment during pregnancy and lactation is problematic. The alternative to the antibiotic treatment is the use of plant-derived supplements, which stimulate immune system to prevent and eliminate bacterial infection. Here we evaluated the effect of long-term use of Rhodiola kirilowii on the health of mouse mothers. Pregnant mice were fed daily, for whole pregnancy and for 28 days after giving birth, with Rhodiola kirilowii water (RKW) or hydroalcoholic extract (RKW-A) (at 20 mg of extracts/kg)...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034217/evolution-of-salmonella-host-cell-interactions-through-a-dynamic-bacterial-genome
#5
REVIEW
Bushra Ilyas, Caressa N Tsai, Brian K Coombes
Salmonella Typhimurium has a broad arsenal of genes that are tightly regulated and coordinated to facilitate adaptation to the various host environments it colonizes. The genome of Salmonella Typhimurium has undergone multiple gene acquisition events and has accrued changes in non-coding DNA that have undergone selection by regulatory evolution. Together, at least 17 horizontally acquired pathogenicity islands (SPIs), prophage-associated genes, and changes in core genome regulation contribute to the virulence program of Salmonella...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034109/multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-induce-systemic-pro-inflammatory-immune-responses-in-colonized-mice
#6
Eliane von Klitzing, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The World Health Organization has rated multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a critical threat to human health. In the present study, we performed a survey of intestinal colonization, and local and systemic immune responses following peroral association of secondary abiotic mice with either a clinical MDR P. aeruginosa or a commensal murine Escherichia coli isolate. Depletion of the intestinal microbiota following antibiotic treatment facilitated stable intestinal colonization of both P. aeruginosa and E...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991267/cytotoxic-and-regulatory-roles-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-type-1-diabetes
#7
Ophélie Rouxel, Jennifer Da Silva, Lucie Beaudoin, Isabelle Nel, Céline Tard, Lucie Cagninacci, Badr Kiaf, Masaya Oshima, Marc Diedisheim, Marion Salou, Alexandra Corbett, Jamie Rossjohn, James McCluskey, Raphael Scharfmann, Manuela Battaglia, Michel Polak, Olivier Lantz, Jacques Beltrand, Agnès Lehuen
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of pancreatic β-cells by the immune system that involves innate and adaptive immune cells. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) are innate-like T-cells that recognize derivatives of precursors of bacterial riboflavin presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related molecule MR1. Since T1D is associated with modification of the gut microbiota, we investigated MAIT cells in this pathology. In patients with T1D and mice of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) strain, we detected alterations in MAIT cells, including increased production of granzyme B, which occurred before the onset of diabetes...
October 9, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987733/how-inflammasomes-inform-adaptive-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Charles Evavold, Jonathan C Kagan
An immune response consists of a finely orchestrated interplay between initial recognition of potential microbial threats by the innate immune system and subsequent licensed adaptive immune neutralization. The initial recognition integrates environmental cues derived from pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and cell intrinsic damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to contextualize the insult and inform a tailored adaptive response via T and B lymphocytes. While there is much data to support the role of transcriptional responses downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in informing the adaptive immune response, markedly less attention has been paid to the role of post-translational responses to PAMP and DAMP recognition by the innate immune system, and how this may influence adaptive immunity...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985291/mobile-genetic-elements-and-evolution-of-crispr-cas-systems-all-the-way-there-and-back
#9
Eugene V Koonin, Kira S Makarova
The CRISPR-Cas systems of bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity show multifaceted evolutionary relationships with at least five classes of mobile genetic elements (MGE). First, the adaptation module of CRISPR-Cas that is responsible for the formation of the immune memory apparently evolved from a Casposon, a self-synthesizing transposon that employs the Cas1 protein as the integrase and might have brought additional cas genes to the emerging immunity loci. Second, a large subset of type III CRISPR-Cas systems recruited a reverse transcriptase from a Group II intron, providing for spacer acquisition from RNA...
September 18, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978436/mechanism-of-genome-interrogation-how-crispr-rna-guided-cas9-proteins-locate-specific-targets-on-dna
#10
Alexey A Shvets, Anatoly B Kolomeisky
The ability to precisely edit and modify a genome opens endless opportunities to investigate fundamental properties of living systems as well as to advance various medical techniques and bioengineering applications. This possibility is now close to reality due to a recent discovery of the adaptive bacterial immune system, which is based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated proteins (Cas) that utilize RNA to find and cut the double-stranded DNA molecules at specific locations...
October 3, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978323/synergistic-oligodeoxynucleotide-strongly-promotes-cpg-induced-interleukin-6-production
#11
Shireen Nigar, Yoshinari Yamamoto, Takuma Okajima, Suguru Shigemori, Takashi Sato, Tasuku Ogita, Takeshi Shimosato
BACKGROUND: Bacterial genomes span a significant portion of diversity, reflecting their adaptation strategies; these strategies include nucleotide usage biases that affect chromosome configuration. Here, we explore an immuno-synergistic oligodeoxynucleotide (iSN-ODN, named iSN34), derived from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) genomic sequences, that exhibits a synergistic effect on immune response to CpG-induced immune activation. METHODS: The sequence of iSN34 was designed based on the genomic sequences of LGG...
October 4, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969463/meconium-microbiome-as-a-new-source-of-information-about-long-term-health-and-disease-questions-and-answers
#12
P Wilczyńska, E Skarżyńska, B Lisowska-Myjak
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic role of meconium microbiota as a source of information about the intrauterine environment of the developing fetus and possibly health and disease in later life. METHODS: The literature review of over 30 papers published in international journals in the years 2001-2017, on the bacterial composition of meconium and early feces, investigated by metagenomic DNA sequencing in experimental studies on animals and clinical studies in neonates born after normal and pathological pregnancies...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968805/a-link-between-a-common-mutation-in-cftr-and-impaired-innate-and-adaptive-viral-defence
#13
Emma Svedin, Renata Utorova, Michael H Hühn, Pär Larsson, Virginia M Stone, Manasa Garimella, Katharina Lind, Thomas Hägglöf, Terezia Pincikova, Olli Laitinen, Gerald M McInerney, Bob Scholte, Lena Hjelte, Mikael C I Karlsson, Malin Flodström-Tullberg
Acute respiratory virus infections predispose the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) lung to chronic bacterial colonization, which contributes to high mortality. For reasons unknown, respiratory virus infections have a prolonged duration in CF. Here, we demonstrate that mice carrying the most frequent CFTR mutation in humans, F508del, show increased morbidity and mortality following infection with a common human enterovirus. F508del mice demonstrated impaired viral clearance, a slower type I interferon response and delayed production of virus neutralizing antibodies...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967901/mobilan-a-recombinant-adenovirus-carrying-toll-like-receptor-5-self-activating-cassette-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
V Mett, E A Komarova, K Greene, I Bespalov, C Brackett, B Gillard, A S Gleiberman, I A Toshkov, S Aygün-Sunar, C Johnson, E Karasik, M Bapardekar-Nair, O V Kurnasov, A L Osterman, P S Stanhope-Baker, C Morrison, M T Moser, B A Foster, A V Gudkov
Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is considered an attractive target for anticancer immunotherapy. TLR5 agonists, bacterial flagellin and engineered flagellin derivatives, have been shown to have potent antitumor and metastasis-suppressive effects in multiple animal models and to be safe in both animals and humans. Anticancer efficacy of TLR5 agonists stems from TLR5-dependent activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) that mediates innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses. To extend application of TLR5-targeted anticancer immunotherapy to tumors that do not naturally express TLR5, we created an adenovirus-based vector for intratumor delivery, named Mobilan that drives expression of self-activating TLR5 signaling cassette comprising of human TLR5 and a secreted derivative of Salmonella flagellin structurally analogous to a clinical stage TLR5 agonist, entolimod...
October 2, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963611/sexual-dimorphism-in-innate-immunity
#15
REVIEW
Sébastien Jaillon, Kevin Berthenet, Cecilia Garlanda
Sexual dimorphisms account for differences in clinical manifestations or incidence of infectious or autoimmune diseases and malignancy between females and males. Females develop enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses than males and are less susceptible to many infections of bacterial, viral, parasitic, and fungal origin and malignancies but in contrast, they are more prone to develop autoimmune diseases. The higher susceptibility to infections in males is observed from birth to adulthood, suggesting that sex chromosomes and not sex hormones have a major role in sexual dimorphism in innate immunity...
September 30, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962005/dynamic-changes-in-the-cd4-t-cell-transcriptome-are-associated-with-disease-severity-during-primary-rsv-infection-in-young-infants
#16
Thomas J Mariani, Xing Qiu, Chin Yi Chu, Lu Wang, Juilee Thakar, Jeanne Holden-Wiltse, Anthony Corbett, David J Topham, Ann R Falsey, Mary T Caserta, Edward E Walsh
Background: Nearly all children are infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) within the first 2 years of life, with a minority developing severe disease (1-3% hospitalized). We hypothesized that an assessment of the adaptive immune system, using CD4+ T lymphocyte transcriptomics, would identify gene expression correlates of disease severity. Methods: RSV infected infants, representing extremes of clinical severity were studied. Mild illness (N=23) was defined as a respiratory rate (RR) <55 and room air SaO2 ≥ 97% and severe illness (N=23) as RR ≥ 65 and SaO2 ≤ 92%...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959243/rnase-h-as-gene-modifier-driver-of-evolution-and-antiviral-defense
#17
REVIEW
Karin Moelling, Felix Broecker, Giancarlo Russo, Shinichi Sunagawa
Retroviral infections are 'mini-symbiotic' events supplying recipient cells with sequences for viral replication, including the reverse transcriptase (RT) and ribonuclease H (RNase H). These proteins and other viral or cellular sequences can provide novel cellular functions including immune defense mechanisms. Their high error rate renders RT-RNases H drivers of evolutionary innovation. Integrated retroviruses and the related transposable elements (TEs) have existed for at least 150 million years, constitute up to 80% of eukaryotic genomes and are also present in prokaryotes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951419/group-a-streptococcal-pharyngitis-immune-responses-involved-in-bacterial-clearance-and-gas-associated-immunopathologies
#18
REVIEW
Amelia T Soderholm, Timothy C Barnett, Matthew J Sweet, Mark J Walker
Streptococcus pyogenes, the Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis in children and adults. Innate and adaptive host immune responses are fundamental for defense against streptococcal pharyngitis and are central to the clinical manifestation of disease. Host immune responses also contribute to the severe poststreptococcal immune diseases that constitute the major disease burden for this organism. However, until recently, little was known about the host responses elicited during infection...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945814/broad-recruitment-of-mgbp-family-members-to-chlamydia-trachomatis-inclusions
#19
Valesca Lindenberg, Katja Mölleken, Elisabeth Kravets, Sonja Stallmann, Johannes H Hegemann, Daniel Degrandi, Klaus Pfeffer
Chlamydia, the most common sexually transmitted pathogen, is an exquisitely adapted Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. Intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis replicate in a specialized vacuole, termed inclusion, which shields the bacterium from antimicrobial immunity of the host cells and acts as a signalling interface. Previously it was shown that members of the interferon induced guanylate binding protein (mGBP) family, in particular murine GBP1 and mGBP2, were found to accumulate at the bacterial inclusions, similar to previously published recruitment of GBPs to the parasitophorous vacuole of Toxoplasma gondii...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945679/resurgence-of-pertussis-and-emergence-of-the-ptxp3-toxin-promoter-allele-in-south-italy
#20
Daniela Loconsole, Anna Lisa De Robertis, Anna Morea, Angela Metallo, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Maria Chironna
BACKGROUND: Despite universal immunization programs, pertussis remains a major public health concern. This study aimed to describe the pertussis epidemiology in the Puglia region in 2006-2015 and to identify recent polymorphisms in Bordetella pertussis (BP) virulence-associated genes. METHODS: The pertussis cases in 2006-2015 were identified from the National Hospital Discharge Database and the Information System of Infectious Diseases. Samples of pertussis cases in 2014-2016 that were confirmed by the Regional Reference Laboratory were subjected to ptxA, ptxP, and prn gene sequencing and, in 10 cases, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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