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Bacterial adaptive immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821865/identification-of-bacterial-biofilm-and-the-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-protease-staphopain-on-the-skin-surface-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#1
Andreas Sonesson, Kornelia Przybyszewska, Sigrid Eriksson, Matthias Mörgelin, Sven Kjellström, Julia Davies, Jan Potempa, Artur Schmidtchen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an impaired epidermal barrier, dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and a high susceptibility to bacterial colonization and infection. In the present study, bacterial biofilm was visualized by electron microscopy at the surface of AD skin. Correspondingly, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from lesional skin of patients with AD, produced a substantial amount of biofilm in vitro. S. aureus biofilms showed less susceptibility to killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 when compared with results obtained using planktonic cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817719/t-cell-expression-of-il-18r-and-dr3-is-essential-for-non-cognate-stimulation-of-th1-cells-and-optimal-clearance-of-intracellular-bacteria
#2
Oanh H Pham, Hope O'Donnell, Aymen Al-Shamkhani, Tobias Kerrinnes, Renée M Tsolis, Stephen J McSorley
Th1 cells can be activated by TCR-independent stimuli, but the importance of this pathway in vivo and the precise mechanisms involved require further investigation. Here, we used a simple model of non-cognate Th1 cell stimulation in Salmonella-infected mice to examine these issues. CD4 Th1 cell expression of both IL-18R and DR3 was required for optimal IFN-γ induction in response to non-cognate stimulation, while IL-15R expression was dispensable. Interestingly, effector Th1 cells generated by immunization rather than live infection had lower non-cognate activity despite comparable IL-18R and DR3 expression...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811347/tifa-signaling-in-gastric-epithelial-cells-initiates-the-cag-type-4-secretion-system-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#3
Alevtina Gall, Ryan G Gaudet, Scott D Gray-Owen, Nina R Salama
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809151/the-pentameric-complex-of-human-cytomegalovirus-cell-tropism-virus-dissemination-immune-response-and-vaccine-development
#4
Giuseppe Gerna, Maria Grazia Revello, Fausto Baldanti, Elena Percivalle, Daniele Lilleri
Between the 1980s and 1990s, three assays were developed for diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections: leuko (L)-antigenemia, l-viremia and l-DNAemia, detecting viral protein pp65, infectious virus and viral DNA, respectively, in circulating leukocytes Repeated initial attempts to reproduce the three assays in vitro using laboratory-adapted strains and infected cell cultures were consistently unsuccessful. Results were totally reversed when wild-type HCMV strains were used to infect either fibroblasts or endothelial cells...
August 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806546/parental-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-and-its-analogs-influences-zebrafish-offspring-immunity
#5
Xing Dong, Zhen Zhang, Shunlong Meng, Chenyuan Pan, Ming Yang, Xiangyang Wu, Liuqing Yang, Hai Xu
Transgenerational effects of environmental pollutants on humans and animals are complex. Thus, we used zebrafish to evaluate the effects of parental whole-life cycle exposure to bisphenol A and its analogs (bisphenol S and F) on offspring innate immunity. At adulthood, offspring were examined with/without continued chemicals treatment until 72h post-fertilization (hpf). To measure offspring immune function, larvae at 72 hpf were expose for 24h with/without the viral mimic polyinosinic-cytidylic acid (Poly I:C) or the bacterial mimic Pam3Cys-Ser-Lys4 (PAM3CSK4)...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806528/surface-adaptive-gold-nanoparticles-with-effective-adherence-and-enhanced-photothermal-ablation-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm
#6
Dengfeng Hu, Huan Li, Bailiang Wang, Zi Ye, Wenxi Lei, Fan Jia, Qiao Jin, Ke-Feng Ren, Jian Ji
Biofilms that contribute to the persistent bacterial infections pose serious threats to global public health, mainly due to their resistance to antibiotics penetration and escaping innate immune attacks by phagocytes. Here, we report a kind of surface-adaptive gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exhibiting (1) a self-adaptive target to the acidic microenvironment of biofilm, (2) an enhanced photothermal ablation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm under near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation, and (3) no damage to the healthy tissues around the biofilm...
August 17, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802841/effects-of-symbiotic-status-on-cellular-immunity-dynamics-in-sitophilus-oryzae
#7
Sergio López-Madrigal, Justin Maire, Séverine Balmand, Anna Zaidman-Rémy, Abdelaziz Heddi
Many insects maintain intracellular symbiosis with mutualistic bacteria that improve their adaptive capabilities in nutritionally poor habitats. Adaptation of insect immune systems to such associations has been shown in several symbiotic consortia, including that of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae with the gammaproteobacterium Sodalis pierantonius. Although authors have mostly focused on the role of humoral immunity in host-symbiont interactions, recent studies suggest that symbiotic bacteria may also interfere with the cellular, hemocyte-based, immunity...
August 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796840/yes-research-matters
#8
Mari L Shinohara
My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99%) have been infected with H...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796780/transcriptome-and-proteome-analysis-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-systemic-infection-of-wild-type-and-immune-deficient-mice
#9
Olusegun Oshota, Max Conway, Maria Fookes, Fernanda Schreiber, Roy R Chaudhuri, Lu Yu, Fiona J E Morgan, Simon Clare, Jyoti Choudhary, Nicholas R Thomson, Pietro Lio, Duncan J Maskell, Pietro Mastroeni, Andrew J Grant
Salmonella enterica are a threat to public health. Current vaccines are not fully effective. The ability to grow in infected tissues within phagocytes is required for S. enterica virulence in systemic disease. As the infection progresses the bacteria are exposed to a complex host immune response. Consequently, in order to continue growing in the tissues, S. enterica requires the coordinated regulation of fitness genes. Bacterial gene regulation has so far been investigated largely using exposure to artificial environmental conditions or to in vitro cultured cells, and little information is available on how S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795524/resin-foraging-dynamics-in-varroa-destructor-infested-hives-a-case-of-medication-of-kin
#10
Michelina Pusceddu, Giannella Piluzza, Panagiotis Theodorou, Franco Buffa, Luca Ruiu, Simonetta Bullitta, Ignazio Floris, Alberto Satta
Social insects have evolved colony behavioral, physiological and organizational adaptations (social immunity) to reduce the risks of parasitization and/or disease transmission. The collection of resin from various plants and its use in the hive as propolis, is a clear example of behavioral defense. For Apis mellifera, an increased propolis content in the hive may correspond to variations in the microbial load of the colony and to a down-regulation of an individual bee's immune response. However, many aspects of such antimicrobial mechanism still need to be clarified...
August 10, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791255/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-changes-in-the-benchmark-corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-biovar-equi-exoproteome-after-passage-in-a-murine-host
#11
Wanderson M Silva, Rodrigo D De Oliveira Carvalho, Fernanda A Dorella, Edson L Folador, Gustavo H M F Souza, Adriano M C Pimenta, Henrique C P Figueiredo, Yves Le Loir, Artur Silva, Vasco Azevedo
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis biovar equi is the etiologic agent of ulcerative lymphangitis. To investigate proteins that could be related to the virulence of this pathogen, we combined an experimental passage process using a murine model and high-throughput proteomics with a mass spectrometry, data-independent acquisition (LC-MS(E)) approach to identify and quantify the proteins released into the supernatants of strain 258_equi. To our knowledge, this approach allowed characterization of the exoproteome of a C...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790160/card9-mediates-susceptibility-to-intestinal-pathogens-through-microbiota-modulation-and-control-of-bacterial-virulence
#12
Bruno Lamas, Marie-Laure Michel, Nadine Waldschmitt, Hang-Phuong Pham, Vassiliki Zacharioudaki, Louise Dupraz, Myriam Delacre, Jane M Natividad, Gregory Da Costa, Julien Planchais, Bruno Sovran, Chantal Bridonneau, Adrien Six, Philippe Langella, Mathias L Richard, Mathias Chamaillard, Harry Sokol
OBJECTIVE: In association with innate and adaptive immunity, the microbiota controls the colonisation resistance against intestinal pathogens. Caspase recruitment domain 9 (CARD9), a key innate immunity gene, is required to shape a normal gut microbiota. Card9(-/-) mice are more susceptible to the enteric mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium that mimics human infections with enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Here, we examined how CARD9 controls C. rodentium infection susceptibility through microbiota-dependent and microbiota-independent mechanisms...
August 8, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780074/intra-hepatic-depletion-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells-in-hepatitis-c-virus-induced-liver-inflammation
#13
Fabian J Bolte, Ashley C O'Keefe, Lauren M Webb, Elisavet Serti, Elenita Rivera, T Jake Liang, Marc Ghany, Barbara Rehermann
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic hepatitis affects phenotypes of innate and adaptive immune cells. Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are enriched in the liver as compared to the blood, respond to intra-hepatic cytokines, and (via the semi-invariant T-cell receptor) to bacteria translocated from the gut. Little is known about the role of MAIT cells in livers of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and their fate after antiviral therapy. METHODS: We collected blood samples from 42 patients with chronic HCV infection who achieved a sustained virologic response after 12 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir...
August 2, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767735/engaging-the-cd40-cd40l-pathway-augments-t-helper-cell-responses-and-improves-control-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#14
Jonathan Kevin Sia, Erica Bizzell, Ranjna Madan-Lala, Jyothi Rengarajan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) impairs dendritic cell (DC) functions and induces suboptimal antigen-specific CD4 T cell immune responses that are poorly protective. Mucosal T-helper cells producing IFN-γ (Th1) and IL-17 (Th17) are important for protecting against tuberculosis (TB), but the mechanisms by which DCs generate antigen-specific T-helper responses during Mtb infection are not well defined. We previously reported that Mtb impairs CD40 expression on DCs and restricts Th1 and Th17 responses. We now demonstrate that CD40-dependent costimulation is required to generate IL-17 responses to Mtb...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764812/anopheles-gambiae-larvae-mount-stronger-immune-responses-against-bacterial-infection-than-adults-evidence-of-adaptive-decoupling-in-mosquitoes
#15
Garrett P League, Tania Y Estévez-Lao, Yan Yan, Valeria A Garcia-Lopez, Julián F Hillyer
BACKGROUND: The immune system of adult mosquitoes has received significant attention because of the ability of females to vector disease-causing pathogens while ingesting blood meals. However, few studies have focused on the immune system of larvae, which, we hypothesize, is highly robust due to the high density and diversity of microorganisms that larvae encounter in their aquatic environments and the strong selection pressures at work in the larval stage to ensure survival to reproductive maturity...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763485/cxcr2-signaling-and-the-microbiome-suppress-inflammation-bile-duct-injury-and-the-phenotype-of-experimental-biliary-atresia
#16
Junbae Jee, Reena Mourya, Pranavkumar Shivakumar, Lin Fei, Michael Wagner, Jorge A Bezerra
Biliary atresia is progressive fibro-inflammatory cholangiopathy of young children. Central to pathogenic mechanisms of injury is the tissue targeting by the innate and adaptive immune cells. Among these cells, neutrophils and the IL-8/Cxcl-8 signaling via its Cxcr2 receptor have been linked to bile duct injury. Here, we aimed to investigate whether the intestinal microbiome modulates Cxcr2-dependent bile duct injury and obstruction. Adult wild-type (WT) and Cxcr2-/- mice were fed a diet supplemented with sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) during pregnancy and lactation, and their pups were injected intraperitoneally with rhesus rotavirus (RRV) within 24 hours of life to induce experimental biliary atresia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762573/evolution-of-defence-cocktails-antimicrobial-peptide-combinations-reduce-mortality-and-persistent-infection
#17
Caroline Zanchi, Paul R Johnston, Jens Rolff
The simultaneous expression of costly immune effectors such as multiple antimicrobial peptides is a hallmark of innate immunity of multicellular organisms, yet the adaptive advantage remains unresolved. Here we test current hypotheses on the evolution of such defence cocktails. We use RNAi gene knock-down to explore, the effects of three highly-expressed antimicrobial peptides, displaying different degrees of activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, during an infection in the beetle Tenebrio molitor...
August 1, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752940/protective-effects-of-in-vivo-expressed-autotransporters-against-bordetella-pertussis-infection
#18
Koichiro Suzuki, Naoaki Shinzawa, Keisuke Ishigaki, Keiji Nakamura, Hiroyuki Abe, Aya Fukui-Miyazaki, Kazuyoshi Ikuta, Yasuhiko Horiguchi
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a severe and prolonged respiratory disease that results in high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly in developing countries. The number of whooping cough cases is increasing in many countries despite high vaccine coverage. Causes for the re-emergence of the disease include the limited duration of protection conferred by the acellular pertussis vaccines (aP) and pathogenic adaptations that involve antigenic divergence from vaccine strains. Therefore, current vaccines need to be improved...
July 28, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752110/escherichia-coli-infection-of-drosophila
#19
Charles Tracy, Helmut Krämer
Following septic insults, healthy insects, just like vertebrates, mount a complex immune response to contain and destroy pathogens. The failure to efficiently clear bacterial infections in immuno-compromised fly mutants leads to higher mortality rates which provide a powerful indicator for genes with important roles in innate immunity. The following protocol is designed to reproducibly inject a known amount of non-pathogenic E. coli into otherwise sterile flies and to measure the survival of flies after infection...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752109/conjugation-assay-for-testing-crispr-cas-anti-plasmid-immunity-in-staphylococci
#20
Forrest C Walker, Asma Hatoum-Aslan
CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic adaptive immune system that prevents uptake of mobile genetic elements such as bacteriophages and plasmids. Plasmid transfer between bacteria is of particular clinical concern due to increasing amounts of antibiotic resistant pathogens found in humans as a result of transfer of resistance plasmids within and between species. Testing the ability of CRISPR-Cas systems to block plasmid transfer in various conditions or with CRISPR-Cas mutants provides key insights into the functionality and mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas as well as how antibiotic resistance spreads within bacterial communities...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
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