keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Bacterial adaptive immunity

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#1
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#2
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078341/the-role-of-uv-radiation-and-vitamin-d-in-the-seasonality-and-outcomes-of-infectious-disease
#3
Abhimanyu, Anna K Coussens
The seasonality of infectious disease outbreaks suggests that environmental conditions have a significant effect on disease risk. One of the major environmental factors that can affect this is solar radiation, primarily acting through ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and its subsequent control of vitamin D production. Here we show how UVR and vitamin D, which are modified by latitude and season, can affect host and pathogen fitness and relate them to the outcomes of bacterial, viral and vector-borne infections...
January 12, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069754/the-influence-of-the-microbiome-on-type-1-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Alexandra Paun, Christopher Yau, Jayne S Danska
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. The rapid rise in T1D incidence during the past 50 y suggests environmental factors contribute to the disease. The trillion symbiotic microorganisms inhabiting the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (i.e., the microbiota) influence numerous aspects of host physiology. In this study we review the evidence linking perturbations of the gut microbiome to pancreatic autoimmunity. We discuss data from rodent models demonstrating the essential role of the gut microbiota on the development and function of the host's mucosal and systemic immune systems...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066944/the-effect-of-lactobacillus-isolates-on-growth-performance-immune-response-intestinal-bacterial-community-composition-of-growing-rex-rabbits
#5
REVIEW
C Wang, Y Zhu, F Li, L Huang
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus isolates on intestinal bacterial community composition of growing Rex Rabbits. A total of 120 weaned Rex Rabbits (30 days old, 30 per group) were used for the experiment, which started after an adaptation period of 7 days. The control group was fed with basal diet only, while the treatment I, II and III groups were fed with basal diet adding antibiotics, Lactobacillus zeae (LB1) and Lactobacillus casei (L3) respectively. Growth performance, immune response and intestinal flora have been examined...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065517/peritoneal-macrophage-heterogeneity-is-associated-with-different-peritoneal-dialysis-outcomes
#6
Chia-Te Liao, Robert Andrews, Leah E Wallace, Mohd Wajid A Khan, Ann Kift-Morgan, Nicholas Topley, Donald J Fraser, Philip R Taylor
Peritonitis remains the major obstacle for the maintenance of long-term peritoneal dialysis and dysregulated host peritoneal immune responses may compromise local anti-infectious defense, leading to treatment failure. Whilst, tissue mononuclear phagocytes, comprising macrophages and dendritic cells, are central to a host response to pathogens and the development of adaptive immune responses, they are poorly characterized in the human peritoneum. Combining flow cytometry with global transcriptome analysis, the phenotypic features and lineage identity of the major CD14(+) macrophage and CD1c(+) dendritic cell subsets in dialysis effluent were defined...
January 5, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063885/identification-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-related-genes-in-channel-catfish-and-their-expression-profiles-in-mucosal-tissues-after-columnaris-bacterial-infection
#7
Xiaozhu Wang, Shikai Liu, Yujia Yang, Qiang Fu, Ash Abebe, Zhanjiang Liu
Interactions of NF-κB family, IκB family and IKK complex are the key components of NF-κB pathway that is essential for many biological processes including innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation and stress responses. In spite of their importance, systematic analysis of these genes in fish has been lacking. Here we report a systematic study of the NF-κB related genes in channel catfish. Five NF-κB family genes, five IκB family genes and three IKK complex genes were identified in the channel catfish genome...
January 4, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062002/cd44-enhances-macrophage-phagocytosis-and-plays-a-protective-role-in-streptococcus-equi-subsp-zooepidemicus-infection
#8
Qiang Fu, Zigong Wei, Pingping Xiao, Yaosheng Chen, Xiaohong Liu
Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is an important pathogen associated with a wide range of diseases in many mammalian species. CD44 is a transmembrane adhesion molecule involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. The aim of this study was to determine the protective role of CD44 during S. zooepidemicus infection. CD44-deficient mice exhibited reduced macrophage accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space and enhanced bacterial outgrowth and dissemination, which resulted in reduced mouse survival...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057851/corticotropin-releasing-hormone-improves-survival-in-pneumococcal-pneumonia-by-reducing-pulmonary-inflammation
#9
Brittney Burnley, Harlan P Jones
The use of glucocorticoids to reduce inflammatory responses is largely based on the knowledge of the physiological action of the endogenous glucocorticoid, cortisol. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a neuropeptide released from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the central nervous system. This hormone serves as an important mediator of adaptive physiological responses to stress. In addition to its role in inducing downstream cortisol release that in turn regulates immune suppression, CRH has also been found to mediate inflammatory responses in peripheral tissues...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036380/two-component-signaling-system-vgrrs-directly-senses-extracytoplasmic-and-intracellular-iron-to-control-bacterial-adaptation-under-iron-depleted-stress
#10
Li Wang, Yue Pan, Zhi-Hui Yuan, Huan Zhang, Bao-Yu Peng, Fang-Fang Wang, Wei Qian
Both iron starvation and excess are detrimental to cellular life, especially for animal and plant pathogens since they always live in iron-limited environments produced by host immune responses. However, how organisms sense and respond to iron is incompletely understood. Herein, we reveal that in the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, VgrS (also named ColS) is a membrane-bound receptor histidine kinase that senses extracytoplasmic iron limitation in the periplasm, while its cognate response regulator, VgrR (ColR), detects intracellular iron excess...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013554/the-emerging-roles-of-b-cells-as-partners-and-targets-in-periodontitis
#11
Moncef Zouali
Initial studies of periodontal disease suggested that T cell-mediated immunity against oral Gram-negative microorganisms is a key player in the pathogenesis of this inflammatory disease. Recent investigations, however, revealed that B cells are also engaged. Given their chief role in innate-like and adaptive immune responses, B cells could exert protective functions in periodontitis. However, the periodontal bacteria-specific antibody response is generally unable to halt disease progression in affected subjects, suggesting that the antibodies produced could exhibit low anti-bacterial blocking functions or opsonophagocytic potential, and/or unfavorable effects...
December 26, 2016: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008952/antibodies-from-multiple-sclerosis-patients-preferentially-recognize-hyperglucosylated-adhesin-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#12
Marthe T C Walvoort, Chiara Testa, Raya Eilam, Rina Aharoni, Francesca Nuti, Giada Rossi, Feliciana Real-Fernandez, Roberta Lanzillo, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Francesco Lolli, Paolo Rovero, Barbara Imperiali, Anna Maria Papini
In autoimmune diseases, there have been proposals that exogenous "molecular triggers", i.e., specific this should be 'non-self antigens' accompanying infectious agents, might disrupt control of the adaptive immune system resulting in serious pathologies. The etiology of the multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear. However, epidemiologic data suggest that exposure to infectious agents may be associated with increased MS risk and progression may be linked to exogenous, bacterially-derived, antigenic molecules, mimicking mammalian cell surface glycoconjugates triggering autoimmune responses...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002492/cell-based-screen-identifies-human-interferon-stimulated-regulators-of-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#13
Sofya S Perelman, Michael E Abrams, Jennifer L Eitson, Didi Chen, Alyssa Jimenez, Marcel Mettlen, John W Schoggins, Neal M Alto
The type I interferon (IFN) activated transcriptional response is a critical antiviral defense mechanism, yet its role in bacterial pathogenesis remains less well characterized. Using an intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) as a model bacterial pathogen, we sought to identify the roles of individual interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in context of bacterial infection. Previously, IFN has been implicated in both restricting and promoting Lm growth and immune stimulatory functions in vivo. Here we adapted a gain-of-function flow cytometry based approach to screen a library of more than 350 human ISGs for inhibitors and enhancers of Lm infection...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999159/collateral-damage-detrimental-effect-of-antibiotics-on-the-development-of-protective-immune-memory
#14
REVIEW
Joseph M Benoun, Jasmine C Labuda, Stephen J McSorley
Antibiotic intervention is an effective treatment strategy for many bacterial infections and liberates bacterial antigens and stimulatory products that can induce an inflammatory response. Despite the opportunity for bacterial killing to enhance the development of adaptive immunity, patients treated successfully with antibiotics can suffer from reinfection. Studies in mouse models of Salmonella and Chlamydia infection also demonstrate that early antibiotic intervention reduces host protective immunity to subsequent infection...
December 20, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977798/il-1%C3%AE-il-6-crp-and-il-18-ferritin-distinct-inflammatory-programs-in-infections
#15
REVIEW
Jeroen Slaats, Jaap Ten Oever, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Mihai G Netea
The host inflammatory response against infections is characterized by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, driving both innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. Distinct patterns of circulating cytokines and acute-phase responses have proven indispensable for guiding the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. This review discusses the profiles of acute-phase proteins and circulating cytokines encountered in viral and bacterial infections. We also propose a model in which the inflammatory response to viral (IL-18/ferritin) and bacterial (IL-6/CRP) infections presents with specific plasma patterns of immune biomarkers...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965446/chlamydia-trachomatis-is-resistant-to-inclusion-ubiquitination-and-associated-host-defense-in-gamma-interferon-primed-human-epithelial-cells
#16
Arun K Haldar, Anthony S Piro, Ryan Finethy, Scott T Espenschied, Hannah E Brown, Amanda M Giebel, Eva-Maria Frickel, David E Nelson, Jörn Coers
: The cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) induces cell-autonomous immunity to combat infections with intracellular pathogens, such as the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis The present study demonstrates that IFN-γ-primed human cells ubiquitinate and eliminate intracellular Chlamydia-containing vacuoles, so-called inclusions. We previously described how IFN-γ-inducible immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) employ ubiquitin systems to mark inclusions for destruction in mouse cells and, furthermore, showed that the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum blocks ubiquitination of its inclusions by interfering with mouse IRG function...
December 13, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940660/march1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-dampens-the-innate-inflammatory-response-by-modulating-monocyte-functions-in-mice
#17
Tristan Galbas, Maxime Raymond, Antoine Sabourin, Marie-Claude Bourgeois-Daigneault, Fanny Guimont-Desrochers, Tae Jin Yun, Jean-François Cailhier, Satoshi Ishido, Sylvie Lesage, Cheolho Cheong, Jacques Thibodeau
Ubiquitination was recently identified as a central process in the pathogenesis and development of numerous inflammatory diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, and asthma. Treatment with proteasomal inhibitors led to severe side effects because ubiquitination is heavily involved in a plethora of cellular functions. Thus, new players regulating ubiquitination processes must be identified to improve therapies for inflammatory diseases. In addition to their role in adaptive immunity, endosomal MHC class II (MHCII) molecules were shown to modulate innate immune responses by fine tuning the TLR4 signaling pathway...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940091/pathogenesis-of-nec-role-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-response
#18
REVIEW
Timothy L Denning, Amina M Bhatia, Andrea F Kane, Ravi M Patel, Patricia L Denning
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease in premature infants with high case fatality and significant morbidity among survivors. Immaturity of intestinal host defenses predisposes the premature infant gut to injury. An abnormal bacterial colonization pattern with a deficiency of commensal bacteria may lead to a further breakdown of these host defense mechanisms, predisposing the infant to NEC. Here, we review the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the pathophysiology of NEC.
December 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939014/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-induced-by-self-amplifying-mrna-vaccines-encoding-bacterial-antigens
#19
Giulietta Maruggi, Emiliano Chiarot, Cinzia Giovani, Scilla Buccato, Stefano Bonacci, Elisabetta Frigimelica, Immaculada Margarit, Andrew Geall, Giuliano Bensi, Domenico Maione
Nucleic acid vaccines represent an attractive approach to vaccination, combining the positive attributes of both viral vectors and live-attenuated vaccines, without the inherent limitations of each technology. We have developed a novel technology, the Self-Amplifying mRNA (SAM) platform, which is based on the synthesis of self-amplifying mRNA formulated and delivered as a vaccine. SAM vaccines have been shown to stimulate robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and non-human primates against a variety of viral antigens, thus representing a safe and versatile tool against viral infections...
January 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933042/the-role-of-stress-and-stress-adaptations-in-determining-the-fate-of-the-bacterial-pathogen-listeria-monocytogenes-in-the-food-chain
#20
REVIEW
Kerrie NicAogáin, Conor P O'Byrne
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a highly adaptable organism that can persist in a wide range of environmental and food-related niches. The consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat foods can cause infections, termed listeriosis, in vulnerable humans, particularly those with weakened immune systems. Although these infections are comparatively rare they are associated with high mortality rates and therefore this pathogen has a significant impact on food safety. L. monocytogenes can adapt to and survive a wide range of stress conditions including low pH, low water activity, and low temperature, which makes it problematic for food producers who rely on these stresses for preservation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
keyword
keyword
84076
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"