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Bacterial adaptive immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433889/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-for-clarification-of-the-crucial-roles-of-lysosomes-in-microbial-infections
#1
Benhong Xu, Yanpan Gao, Shaohua Zhan, Wei Ge
Lysosomes play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. It is widely accepted that lysosomes do not function exclusively as a digestive organelle. It is also involved in the process of immune cells against pathogens. However, the changes in the lysosomal proteome caused by infection with various microbes are still largely unknown, and our understanding of the proteome of the purified lysosome is another obstacle that needs to be resolved. Here, we performed a proteomic study on lysosomes enriched from THP1 cells after infection with Listeria monocytogenes (L...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432131/do-the-microbiota-influence-vaccines-and-protective-immunity-to-pathogens-if-so-is-there-potential-for-efficacious-microbiota-based-vaccines
#2
Dan R Littman
The gut-resident constituents of the microbiota protect the mucosa from invasive pathogens through engagement of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. They are also likely to provide systemic protection from pathogens, by enhancing host robustness and tolerance to the invasive microbes and by inducing immune responses that prevent their growth. These properties of commensal microbiota, particularly the capacity of some bacteria to induce diverse types of antigen-specific immune responses, raises the prospect that they could be deployed as vaccine vectors to generate effective local and systemic immunity to viral and bacterial pathogens...
April 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427896/toll-like-receptor-2-an-important-immunomodulatory-molecule-during-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#3
REVIEW
Maryam Nemati, Tiziana Larussa, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Merat Mahmoodi, Abdollah Jafarzadeh
Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an essential subset of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) which identify the microbial components and contribute in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against the infectious agents. The TLRs, especially TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, participate in the induction of immune response against H. pylori. TLR2 is expressed on a number of immune and non-immune cells and recognizes a vast broad of microbial components due to its potential to form heterodimers with other TLRs, including TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10...
April 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427330/pan-genome-and-crispr-analyses-of-the-bacterial-fish-pathogen-moritella-viscosa
#4
Christian Karlsen, Erik Hjerde, Terje Klemetsen, Nils Peder Willassen
BACKGROUND: Winter-ulcer Moritella viscosa infections continue to be a significant burden in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) farming. M. viscosa comprises two main clusters that differ in genetic variation and phenotypes including virulence. Horizontal gene transfer through acquisition and loss of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) is a major driving force of bacterial diversification. To gain insight into genomic traits that could affect sublineage evolution within this bacterium we examined the genome sequences of twelve M...
April 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#5
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424616/whole-blood-cytokine-response-to-local-traffic-related-particulate-matter-in-peruvian-children-with-and-without-asthma
#6
Jesse P Negherbon, Karina Romero, D'Ann L Williams, Rafael E Guerrero-Preston, Thomas Hartung, Alan L Scott, Patrick N Breysse, William Checkley, Nadia N Hansel
This study sought to investigate if acute phase immune responses of whole blood from Peruvian children with controlled and uncontrolled asthma differed from children without asthma, following exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (TRPM). TRPM, including particulate matter from diesel combustion, has been shown to stimulate acute airway inflammation in individuals with and without asthma. For this study, a whole blood assay (WBA) was used to test peripheral whole blood samples from 27 children with asthma, and 12 without asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424239/aim2-inflammasome-is-critical-for-influenza-induced-lung-injury-and-mortality
#7
Hongbo Zhang, Jiadi Luo, John F Alcorn, Kong Chen, Songqing Fan, Joseph Pilewski, Aizhong Liu, Wei Chen, Jay K Kolls, Jieru Wang
The absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome plays an important role in many viral and bacterial infections, but very little is known about its role in RNA virus infection, including influenza A virus (IAV). In this study, we have designed in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the role of AIM2 in infections with lethal doses of IAVs A/PR8/34 and A/California/07/09. In wild-type mice, IAV infection enhanced AIM2 expression, induced dsDNA release, and stimulated caspase-1 activation and release of cleaved IL-1β in the lung, which was significantly reduced in AIM2-deficient mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423169/innate-immune-response-to-lipooligosaccharide-pivotal-regulator-of-the-pathobiology-of-invasive-neisseria-meningitidis-infections
#8
Constance M John, Nancy J Phillips, Daniel C Stein, Gary A Jarvis
Infections due to Neisseria meningitidis afflict more than one million people worldwide annually and cause death or disability in many survivors. The clinical course of invasive infections has been well studied, but our understanding of the cause of differences in patient outcomes has been limited because these are dependent on multiple factors including the response of the host, characteristics of the bacteria and interactions between the host and the bacteria. The meningococcus is a highly inflammatory organism, and the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) on the outer membrane is the most potent inflammatory molecule it expresses due to the interactions of the lipid A moiety of LOS with receptors of the innate immune system...
April 1, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418004/host-determinants-of-expression-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-baba-adhesin
#9
Mary E Kable, Lori M Hansen, Cathy M Styer, Samuel L Deck, Olena Rakhimova, Anna Shevtsova, Kathryn A Eaton, Miriam E Martin, Pär Gideonsson, Thomas Borén, Jay V Solnick
Expression of the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin A (BabA) is more common in strains isolated from patients with peptic ulcer disease or gastric cancer, rather than asymptomatic colonization. Here we used mouse models to examine host determinants that affect H. pylori BabA expression. BabA expression was lost by phase variation as frequently in WT mice as in RAG2-/- mice that do not have functional B or T cells, and in MyD88-/-, TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- mice that are defective in toll like receptor signaling...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414794/intestinal-extra-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-toxoplasma-gondii-induced-acute-ileitis-in-mice-harboring-a-human-gut-microbiota
#10
Eliane von Klitzing, Ira Ekmekciu, Anja A Kühl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th) -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414716/dynamics-of-adaptive-immunity-against-phage-in-bacterial-populations
#11
Serena Bradde, Marija Vucelja, Tiberiu Teşileanu, Vijay Balasubramanian
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mechanism allows bacteria to adaptively defend against phages by acquiring short genomic sequences (spacers) that target specific sequences in the viral genome. We propose a population dynamical model where immunity can be both acquired and lost. The model predicts regimes where bacterial and phage populations can co-exist, others where the populations exhibit damped oscillations, and still others where one population is driven to extinction...
April 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413453/amelioration-of-intestinal-and-systemic-sequelae-of-murine-campylobacter-jejuni-infection-by-probiotic-vsl-3-treatment
#12
Ira Ekmekciu, Ulrike Fiebiger, Kerstin Stingl, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni infections is progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic compounds might open up valuable tools to decrease pathogen burden and subsequent pro-inflammatory immune responses, but in vivo data are scarce. METHODS AND RESULTS: Secondary abiotic mice generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment were perorally challenged with the commercial probiotic compound VSL#3 consisting of Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412972/mammary-microbiota-of-dairy-ruminants-fact-or-fiction
#13
Pascal Rainard
Explorations of how the complex microbial communities that inhabit different body sites might contribute to health and disease have prompted research on the ways the harmonious relationship between a host and its microbiota could be used to keep animals healthy in their production conditions. In particular, there is a growing interest in the bacterial signatures that can be found in the milk of healthy or mastitic dairy cows. The concept of sterility of the healthy mammary gland of dairy ruminants has been challenged by the results of studies using bacterial DNA-based methodology...
April 17, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412519/vitamin-d-signaling-in-intestinal-innate-immunity-and-homeostasis
#14
REVIEW
Vassil Dimitrov, John H White
The lumen of the gut hosts a plethora of microorganisms that participate in food assimilation, inactivation of harmful particles and in vitamin synthesis. On the other hand, enteric flora, a number of food antigens, and toxins are capable of triggering immune responses causing inflammation, which, when unresolved, may lead to chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important, therefore, to contain the gut bacteria within the lumen, control microbial load and composition, as well as ensure adequate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic threats...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411220/the-global-transcription-factor-lrp-is-both-essential-for-and-inhibitory-to-xenorhabdus-nematophila-insecticidal-activity
#15
Ángel M Casanova-Torres, Upasana Shokal, Neta Morag, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Heidi Goodrich-Blair
In the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, cell-to-cell variation in the abundance of the Lrp transcription factor leads to virulence modulation: low Lrp levels are associated with a virulent phenotype and suppression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in Manduca sexta insects, while cells that lack lrp or express high Lrp levels are virulence attenuated and elicit AMP expression. To better understand the basis of these phenotypes we examined X. nematophila expressing fixed Lrp levels. Unlike the lrp null mutant, the high-lrp strain is fully virulent in Drosophila melanogaster suggesting that these two strains have distinct underlying causes of virulence attenuation in M...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410407/bacterial-amyloid-curli-acts-as-a-carrier-for-dna-to-elicit-an-autoimmune-response-via-tlr2-and-tlr9
#16
Sarah A Tursi, Ernest Y Lee, Nicole J Medeiros, Michael H Lee, Lauren K Nicastro, Bettina Buttaro, Stefania Gallucci, Ronald Paul Wilson, Gerard C L Wong, Çagla Tükel
Bacterial biofilms are associated with numerous human infections. The predominant protein expressed in enteric biofilms is the amyloid curli, which forms highly immunogenic complexes with DNA. Infection with curli-expressing bacteria or systemic exposure to purified curli-DNA complexes triggers autoimmunity via the generation of type I interferons (IFNs) and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. Here, we show that DNA complexed with amyloid curli powerfully stimulates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) through a two-step mechanism...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401066/importance-of-metabolic-adaptations-in-francisella-pathogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Jason Ziveri, Monique Barel, Alain Charbit
Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. This bacterial pathogen can infect a broad variety of animal species and can be transmitted to humans in numerous ways with various clinical outcomes. Although, Francisella possesses the capacity to infect numerous mammalian cell types, the macrophage constitutes the main intracellular niche, used for in vivo bacterial dissemination. To survive and multiply within infected macrophages, Francisella must imperatively escape from the phagosomal compartment...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400130/salmonella-typhimurium-induces-cloacitis-like-symptomsin-zebrafish-larvae
#18
Macarena Varas, Javiera Ortíz-Severín, Andrés E Marcoleta, Francisco Díaz-Pascual, Miguel L Allende, Carlos A Santiviago, Francisco P Chávez
Pathogenic Salmonella strains have a set of virulence factors allowing them to generate systemic infections and damage in a variety of hosts. Among these factors, bacterial proteins secreted by specialized systems are used to penetrate the host's intestinal mucosa, through the invasion and destruction of specialized epithelial M cells in the intestine. On the other hand, numerous studies have demonstrated that humans, as well as experimental animal hosts, respond to Salmonella infection by activating both innate and adaptive immune responses...
April 8, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396663/bacterial-secretant-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dampens-inflammasome-activation-in-a-quorum-sensing-dependent-manner
#19
Jungmin Yang, Kang-Mu Lee, Sangjun Park, Yoeseph Cho, Eunju Lee, Jong-Hwan Park, Ok Sarah Shin, Junghyun Son, Sang Sun Yoon, Je-Wook Yu
Inflammasome signaling can contribute to host innate immune defense against bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, bacterial evasion of host inflammasome activation is still poorly elucidated. Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication mechanism that promotes coordinated adaptation by triggering expression of a wide range of genes. QS is thought to strongly contribute to the virulence of P. aeruginosa, but the molecular impact of bacterial QS on host inflammasome defense is completely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396655/enhanced-probiotic-potential-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-when-delivered-as-a-biofilm-on-dextranomer-microspheres-that-contain-beneficial-cargo
#20
Jason B Navarro, Lauren Mashburn-Warren, Lauren O Bakaletz, Michael T Bailey, Steven D Goodman
As with all orally consumed probiotics, the Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri encounters numerous challenges as it transits through the gastrointestinal tract of the host, including low pH, effectors of the host immune system, as well as competition with commensal and pathogenic bacteria, all of which can greatly reduce the availability of live bacteria for therapeutic purposes. Recently we showed that L. reuteri, when adhered in the form of a biofilm to a semi-permeable biocompatible dextranomer microsphere, reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis by 50% in a well-defined animal model following delivery of a single prophylactic dose...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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