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theanine, memory

David O Kennedy, Emma L Wightman, Joanne Forster, Julie Khan, Crystal F Haskell-Ramsay, Philippa A Jackson
OBJECTIVES: Few previous studies have assessed the effects of concomitant administration of multiple potentially psychoactive nutrients. METHODS: 95 healthy adult participants consumed either a nutrient enriched breakfast bar (containing α-Linolenic acid, l-tyrosine, l-theanine, vitamins, minerals and 21.5 mg of caffeine) or an isocaloric, macronutrient matched control bar for 56 days. Cognitive function and mood were assessed pre-dose and at 40- and 160-min post-dose on the 1st and 56th day of the intervention period...
December 7, 2017: Nutrients
A F Cicero, M Bove, A Colletti, M Rizzo, F Fogacci, M Giovannini, C Borghi
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of senile dementia is increasing worldwide, especially in the developed countries. Nevertheless, drug therapy isn't often enough to treat this condition. Researchers are evaluating the possible impact of a preventive approach, based on an improvement of lifestyle and the intake of micronutrients. Moreover, there is an increasing interest for combined nutraceuticals that can act as memory and learning enhancers, with a significant and beneficial potential on the cognitive disorders...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Edele Mancini, Christoph Beglinger, Jürgen Drewe, Davide Zanchi, Undine E Lang, Stefan Borgwardt
BACKGROUND: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage consumed for thousands of years. Numerous claims about the benefits of its consumption were stated and investigated. As green tea is experiencing a surge in popularity in Western culture and as millions of people all over the world drink it every day, it is relevant to understand its effects on the human brain. PURPOSE: To assess the current state of knowledge in the literature regarding the effects of green tea or green tea extracts, l-theanine and epigallocatechin gallate both components of green tea-on general neuropsychology, on the sub-category cognition and on brain functions in humans...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Christina Dietz, Matthijs Dekker
BACKGROUND: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Shinsuke Hidese, Miho Ota, Chisato Wakabayashi, Takamasa Noda, Hayato Ozawa, Tsutomu Okubo, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: l-theanine, an amino acid uniquely contained in green tea (Camellia sinensis), has been suggested to have various psychotropic effects. This study aimed to examine whether l-theanine is effective for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in an open-label clinical trial. METHODS: Subjects were 20 patients with MDD (four males; mean age: 41.0±14.1 years, 16 females; 42.9±12.0 years). l-theanine (250 mg/day) was added to the current medication of each participant for 8 weeks...
April 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Haruna Tamano, Kotaro Fukura, Miki Suzuki, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, Atsushi Takeda
Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats...
November 2014: Nutritional Neuroscience
Anne L Lardner
Theanine (n-ethylglutamic acid), a non-proteinaceous amino acid component of green and black teas, has received growing attention in recent years due to its reported effects on the central nervous system. It readily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it exerts a variety of neurophysiological and pharmacological effects. Its most well-documented effect has been its apparent anxiolytic and calming effect due to its up-regulation of inhibitory neurotransmitters and possible modulation of serotonin and dopamine in selected areas...
July 2014: Nutritional Neuroscience
Haruna Tamano, Kotaro Fukura, Miki Suzuki, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, Atsushi Takeda
Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after birth on mild stress-induced attenuation of hippocamapal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), the present study evaluated the effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of LTP and recognition memory. Young rats were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning and subjected to water immersion stress for 30min, which was more severe than tail suspension stress for 30s used previously...
June 2013: Brain Research Bulletin
Atsushi Takeda, Kazuhiro Sakamoto, Haruna Tamano, Kotaro Fukura, Naoto Inui, Sang Won Suh, Seok-Joon Won, Hidehiko Yokogoshi
Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. In this study, cognitive function and the related mechanism were examined in theanine-administered young rats. Newborn rats were fed theanine through dams, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine, and then fed water containing 0.3% theanine after weaning. Theanine level in the brain was under the detectable limit 6 weeks after the start of theanine administration. Theanine administration did not influence locomotor activity in the open-field test...
October 2011: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Takami Kakuda
Theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide) characteristically present in tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). It has a similar chemical structure to glutamate, which is a neurotransmitter related to memory. Theanine passes through the blood-brain barrier and has been shown to have a cerebroprotective effect and a preventive effect on neuronal cell death after transient cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective effect is partly due to the antagonistic action of theanine on glutamate receptor subtype AMPA and kainate receptors, but the affinity is very low...
August 2011: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Cui Yin, Lingshan Gou, Yi Liu, Xiaoxing Yin, Ling Zhang, Genguang Jia, Xuemei Zhuang
L-theanine (γ-glutamylethylamide), an amino acid component of green tea, has been shown to reduce mental and physical stress, and to improve memory function. In this study, the antidepressant effect of L-theanine was investigated in mice using the forced swim test, tail suspension test, open-field test and reserpine test. L-theanine produced an antidepressant-like effect, since the administration of L-theanine at doses of 1, 4 and 20 mg/kg for 10 successive days significantly reduced the immobility time in both the forced swim test and tail suspension test, compared with the control group, without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test...
November 2011: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Sang-Ki Park, In-Chul Jung, Won Kyung Lee, Young Sun Lee, Hyoung Kook Park, Hyo Jin Go, Kiseong Kim, Nam Kyoo Lim, Jin Tae Hong, Sun Yung Ly, Seok Seon Rho
A combination of green tea extract and l-theanine (LGNC-07) has been reported to have beneficial effects on cognition in animal studies. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of LGNC-07 on memory and attention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was investigated. Ninety-one MCI subjects whose Mini Mental State Examination-K (MMSE-K) scores were between 21 and 26 and who were in either stage 2 or 3 on the Global Deterioration Scale were enrolled in this study. The treatment group (13 men, 32 women; 57...
April 2011: Journal of Medicinal Food
Benjamin S Weeks
Dietary supplements are widely used for desired effects on memory, insomnia, mood and anxiety. This review focuses on supplements which have anxiolytic or mild relaxation properties and enhance mood. For example, Kava (Piper methysticum) is reported to have anaxiolytic actions and to reduce tension through skeletal muscle relaxation. Dried passion flower (genus Passiflora) is reported to reduce insomnia and hysteria. Skullcap (genus Scutellaria), hops (Humulus lupulus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root are all herbs reported as anaxiolytic calming agents...
November 2009: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Tae Il Kim, Yong Kyung Lee, Sang Gi Park, Im Seop Choi, Jung Ok Ban, Hyoung Kook Park, Sang-Yoon Nam, Young Won Yun, Sang Bae Han, Ki Wan Oh, Jin Tae Hong
Amyloid beta (Abeta)-induced neurotoxicity is a major pathological mechanism of Alzheimer disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of l-theanine, a component of green tea (Camellia sinensis), on Abeta(1-42)-induced neuronal cell death and memory impairment. Oral treatment of l-theanine (2 and 4 mg/kg) for 5 weeks in the drinking water of mice, followed by injection of Abeta(1-42) (2 microg/mouse, icv), significantly attenuated Abeta(1-42)-induced memory impairment. Furthermore, l-theanine reduced Abeta(1-42) levels and the accompanying Abeta(1-42)-induced neuronal cell death in the cortex and hippocampus of the brain...
December 1, 2009: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Gail N Owen, Holly Parnell, Eveline A De Bruin, Jane A Rycroft
The aim of this study was to compare 50 mg caffeine, with and without 100 mg L-theanine, on cognition and mood in healthy volunteers. The effects of these treatments on word recognition, rapid visual information processing, critical flicker fusion threshold, attention switching and mood were compared to placebo in 27 participants. Performance was measured at baseline and again 60 min and 90 min after each treatment (separated by a 7-day washout). Caffeine improved subjective alertness at 60 min and accuracy on the attention-switching task at 90 min...
August 2008: Nutritional Neuroscience
Takashi Yamada, Takehiko Terashima, Hiroyuki Honma, Shinichi Nagata, Tsutomu Okubo, Lekh Raj Juneja, Hidehiko Yokogoshi
We identified an effect of theanine on memory functions in a novel object test. Rats were fed theanine for 3 weeks ad libitum, and then they performed the object test. The theanine-fed group performed search behavior for the novel object in the test session. The results suggest that theanine-fed rats showed improved recognition, and that theanine affected learning and memory.
May 2008: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Crystal F Haskell, David O Kennedy, Anthea L Milne, Keith A Wesnes, Andrew B Scholey
L-Theanine is an amino acid found naturally in tea. Despite the common consumption of L-theanine, predominantly in combination with caffeine in the form of tea, only one study to date has examined the cognitive effects of this substance alone, and none have examined its effects when combined with caffeine. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study investigated the acute cognitive and mood effects of L-theanine (250 mg), and caffeine (150 mg), in isolation and in combination...
February 2008: Biological Psychology
Wilfried Dimpfel, Adolf Kler, Erwin Kriesl, Romanus Lehnfeld
The in-vitro hippocampus slice preparation was used to mimic a physiological situation where nervous tissue is exposed directly to the water soluble extract of green tea and some of its constituents. This investigation provides evidence that L-theanine- and theogallin-enriched decaffeinated green tea extract is able to change the physiological pattern of electrical hippocampus activity in a concentration dependent manner (EC50 3 mg L(-1)). Of the seven fractions or single components tested (fraction containing all amino acids without L-theanine, fractions containing all amino acids plus L-theanine, glutamic acid, theogallin, its metabolites quinic acid and gallic acid, and L-theanine alone), glutamic acid produced the strongest changes in terms of increased population spike amplitude after single stimuli and increased long-term potentiation, commonly taken as representative for enhancement of spatial and time dependent memory...
August 2007: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Nobuaki Egashira, Noriko Ishigami, Fengling Pu, Kenichi Mishima, Katsunori Iwasaki, Kensuke Orito, Ryozo Oishi, Michihiro Fujiwara
The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of gamma-glutamylethylamide (theanine), a component Japanese green tea (Camellia sinensis), on memory impairment induced by twice-repeated cerebral ischemia in rats. Theanine was injected i.p. immediately after the first occlusion. Theanine (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) significantly prevented the impairment of spatial memory in rats subjected to repeated cerebral ischemia, 7 days after the second reperfusion. Moreover, theanine (1 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the decrease in the number of surviving cells in the hippocampal CA1 field in the same rats...
January 2008: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Pradeep J Nathan, Kristy Lu, M Gray, C Oliver
L-theanine (N-ethyl-L-glutamine) or theanine is a major amino acid uniquely found in green tea. L-theanine has been historically reported as a relaxing agent, prompting scientific research on its pharmacology. Animal neurochemistry studies suggest that L-theanine increases brain serotonin, dopamine, GABA levels and has micromolar affinities for AMPA, Kainate and NMDA receptors. In addition has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in animal models possibly through its antagonistic effects on group 1 metabotrophic glutamate receptors...
2006: Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy
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