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cognitive neurology

Annie Hartmann, Deb Kegelmeyer, Anne Kloos
: Individuals with concomitant spinal cord injury and traumatic brain injury have cognitive deficits that may limit the ability to learn novel motor tasks necessary for functional independence. Errorless learning has been shown to improve cognitive task performance in persons with brain injury but little is known about its usefulness for improving novel motor task learning. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 44-year-old man with traumatic spinal cord and brain injuries from a motor vehicle accident was admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Kiran T Thakur, Alexandra Boubour, Deanna Saylor, Mitashee Das, David R Bearden, Gretchen L Birbeck
: Neurological conditions associated with HIV remain major contributors to morbidity and mortality and are increasingly recognized in the aging population on long-standing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Importantly, growing evidence shows that the CNS may serve as a reservoir for viral replication, which has major implications for HIV eradication strategies. Though there has been major progress in the last decade in our understanding of the pathogenesis, burden, and impact of neurological conditions associated with HIV infection, significant scientific gaps remain...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Sakshi Chopra, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ravindra M Pandey, Ashima Nehra
Background: Due to the paucity of quick, cognitive screening tools available in India that are independent of cultural and educational influences, a 6-item paper and pencil test, covering areas of memory, executive functioning, attention, and visuospatial ability domains - the Neuropsychological Evaluation Screening Tool (NEST) was developed. Aim and Method: NEST was administered to 84 healthy controls to analyze, revise, and review items. In the second phase, 408 patients, above 16 years of age, with their educational level ranging from being illiterate to having greater than 25 years of education, with various neurological and psychiatric conditions were independently administered NEST, Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE), and a detailed cognitive evaluation using PGI Memory Scale (PGIMS)...
March 2018: Neurology India
Varinder Singh, Pawan Krishan, Richa Shri
Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of stroke. Strategies using antioxidants to improve neurological functions after stroke have, thus, gained significant attention. Ocimum basilicum L. is used traditionally to treat CNS disorders. Its antioxidant capacity is well established. Our laboratory has reported protective effects of pre-treatment with O. basilicum in experimental stroke, but its curative (post-treatment) effects in ischemic stroke have not been documented. Hence, the present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of O...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Inger Sundström-Poromaa
From a psychological perspective, the menstrual cycle has been a research topic for more than 50 years. The most recent menstrual cycle research has been driven by an increased interest in sex differences in neuroscience, and the urge to understand sex disparities in prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Indeed, the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. This review summarizes the emotion-related and cognitive findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Verònica Gálvez, Adrienne Li, Christina Huggins, Paul Glue, Donel Martin, Andrew A Somogyi, Angelo Alonzo, Anthony Rodgers, Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo
BACKGROUND: Ketamine research in depression has mostly used intravenous, weight-based approaches, which are difficult to translate clinically. Intranasal (IN) ketamine is a promising alternative but no controlled data has been published on the feasibility, safety and potential efficacy of repeated IN ketamine treatments. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study compared a 4-week course of eight treatments of 100 mg ketamine or 4.5 mg midazolam...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Valentina Morsan, Carlo Fantoni, Maria Anna Tallandini
AIM: To verify whether it is appropriate to use age correction for infants born preterm in all the developmental domains (cognitive, linguistic, and motor) considered by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). METHOD: Seventy-three infants born preterm (26-35wks) without major neurological sequelae and 67 infants born at term were assessed at 12 months (corrected age for infants born preterm). The performance of the infants born preterm was assessed with two different evaluations: scores based on uncorrected age and scores based on corrected age...
March 14, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Stefano Tozza, Raffaele Dubbioso, Rosa Iodice, Antonietta Topa, Marcello Esposito, Lucia Ruggiero, Emanuele Spina, Anna De Rosa, Francesco Saccà, Lucio Santoro, Fiore Manganelli
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorder characterized by central nervous system involvement. Miglustat treatment might improve or stabilize neurological manifestations but there is still limited data on the long-term efficacy. The aim of our study was to report a four-year clinical, neuropsychological and electrophysiological follow-up of two sisters under treatment with miglustat. We report data at basal (T0) and after 4 years (T4) of treatment with miglustat from two sisters (P1 and P2) affected by NPC disease...
March 13, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Tianlu Wang, Celine R Gillebert
Visuospatial attention and short-term memory allow us to prioritize, select, and briefly maintain part of the visual information that reaches our senses. These cognitive abilities are quantitatively accounted for by Bundesen's theory of visual attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990). Previous studies have suggested that TVA-based assessments are sensitive to inter-individual differences in spatial bias, visual short-term memory capacity, top-down control, and processing speed in healthy volunteers as well as in patients with various neurological and psychiatric conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nellihela Leel, Hemanshoo S Thakkar, David Drake, Nordeen Bouhadiba
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a paraneoplastic, immune-mediated encephalopathy with a known association with ovarian teratomas. We present the first case in the UK of a 7-year-old patient presenting with this condition. Having been previously fit and healthy, the patient presented with an acute onset of cognitive disturbances. The initial suspicion was that of an infective encephalopathy; however, the lumbar puncture results were negative. Electroencephalography reported diffuse background slowing, supporting a diagnosis of encephalopathy...
March 13, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Faisal S Ali, Maryam R Hussain, Carolina Gutiérrez, Petya Demireva, Leomar Y Ballester, Jiguang-Jay Zhu, Angel Blanco, Yoshua Esquenazi
Cognitive dysfunction is common among patients with intracranial tumors. Most cognitive deficits are subtle, lack specificity, may mimic depression or other neurological disorders and may be recognized in retrospect by the physician. In certain cases, distinguishing between tumor recurrence and cognitive deficits that arise as a consequence of the treatment becomes challenging. Late treatment effects have also become an area of focus as the overall survival and prognosis of patients with brain tumors increases...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Rodrigo Novaes Ferreira, Aline Silva de Miranda, Natalia Pessoa Rocha, Ana Cristina Simoes E Silva, Antonio Lucio Teixeira, Elizabeth Ribeiro da Silva Camargos
BACKGROUND: Parkinson´s Disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive condition, being the second most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide. The classical features include: bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity and festination. These neurological alterations are probably due to the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and consequent reduction of dopamine input into the striatum. The decrease of dopamine levels may also be involved in the emergence of non-motor symptoms, including cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Marta Gómez-Sancho, Jussi Tohka, Vanessa Gómez-Verdejo
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder in which the death of brain cells causes memory loss and cognitive decline. The identification of at-risk subjects yet showing no dementia symptoms but who will later convert to AD can be crucial for the effective treatment of AD. For this, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is expected to play a crucial role. During recent years, several Machine Learning (ML) approaches to AD-conversion prediction have been proposed using different types of MRI features...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Arife Çimen Atalar, Yüksel Erdal, Betül Tekin, Muhammed Yıldız, Özlem Akdoğan, Ufuk Emre
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common chronic neurological disease that causes disability. MS can have various clinical manifestations, one of which is olfactory dysfunction. In clinical practice, olfactory disturbances are usually underdiagnosed. The aim of our study is to assess olfactory function and its relationship with MS disease duration, disability and cognition. METHOD: We assessed 31 MS patients and 24 healthy controls matched in sex and age at our MS outpatient clinic of the Istanbul Education and Research Hospital Neurology Department...
March 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
C Kornreich, P Cole, H Kajosch
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a cheap, easy to use, and relatively safe noninvasive brain stimulation technique. It is increasingly used in several indications in psychiatry and neurology, mainly for depression, chronic pain and cognitive decline due to degenerative brain diseases. Its efficacy is probable in depression and must still be confirmed in numerous other indications. Lowcost devices for the general public are easy to find on the internet and are frequently used for non-therapeutic indications, like the improvement of video gamers' performances...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Erik K St Louis
Apathy has been recently recognized as a distinct neuropsychological syndrome, overlapping with but also separable from mood disorders and cognitive impairment. While it is perhaps seen most often as a cardinal feature of depression as an amotivational symptom, it may occur independently in isolation without other prominent mood, vegetative, or cognitive symptoms or signs. The etymology of apathy is derived from the Greek "pathos" (passion), so apathy may be considered to be an amotivational state, i...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Anas Z Abidin, Adora M DSouza, Mahesh B Nagarajan, Lu Wang, Xing Qiu, Giovanni Schifitto, Axel Wismüller
HIV is capable of invading the brain soon after seroconversion. This ultimately can lead to deficits in multiple cognitive domains commonly referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Clinical diagnosis of such deficits requires detailed neuropsychological assessment but clinical signs may be difficult to detect during asymptomatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore neuroimaging biomarkers are of particular interest in HAND. In this study, we constructed brain connectivity profiles of 40 subjects (20 HIV positive subjects and 20 age-matched seronegative controls) using two different methods: a non-linear mutual connectivity analysis approach and a conventional method based on Pearson's correlation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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