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cognitive neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748677/subjective-evaluation-of-mood-and-cognitive-functions-in-a-general-neurology-clinic-patients-versus-informants
#1
Adolfo Jiménez-Huete, Antonio Del Barrio, Elena Riva, Pablo Campo, Rafael Toledano, Oriol Franch
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the correlation between subjective evaluations of mood and cognitive functions by patients and informants, and the findings of a battery of neuropsychological tests. METHODS: We analyzed 74 subjects recruited from a general neurology clinic, comprising 37 patients with cognitive complaints and 37 informants (either relatives or caregivers in close contact with the patients). Four ordinal scales concerning recent memory, verbal expression, initiative, and mood were correlated with the findings of a series of neuropsychological tests and questionnaires using the tau b coefficient...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747064/graph-lasso-based-test-for-evaluating-functional-brain-connectivity-in-sickle-cell-disease
#2
Julie Coloigner, Ronald Phlypo, Thomas D Coates, Nastasha Lepore, John C Wood
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a vascular disorder that is often associated with recurrent ischemia-reperfusion injury, anemia, vasculopathy and strokes. These cerebral injuries are associated with neurological dysfunction, limiting the full developing potential of the patient. However, recent large studies of SCD have demonstrated that cognitive impairment occurs even in the absence of brain abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These observations support an emerging consensus that brain injury in SCD is diffuse and that conventional neuroimaging often underestimates the extent of injury...
July 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745667/-prevention-and-correction-of-cognitive-dysfunction-after-general-anesthesia
#3
A Yu Novikov, V A Kovalev, N V Vinichuk, Yu A Chernyh, I E Golub, L V Sorokina
AIM: To evaluate clinical efficacy of intraoperative use of cytoflavin in the prevention and correction of cognitive functions in surgical patients with no history of neurological and psychosomatic disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 60 female patients who underwent surgery on the thyroid gland. Patients were stratified into two equal groups matched for main indices. Patients of the main group received infusions of cytoflavin (20 ml in 200 ml of 5% glucose solution)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745241/the-role-of-innate-immune-system-receptors-in-epilepsy-research
#4
Oscar Arias-Carrion
Epilepsy is one of the most complex neurological disorders whose study requires a broad knowledge of neurology and neuroscience. It comprises a diverse group of neurological disorders that share the central feature of spontaneous recurrent seizures, and are often accompanied by cognitive deficits and mood disorder. This condition is one of the most common neurological disorders. Until recently, alterations of neuronal activities had been the focus of epilepsy research. This neurocentric emphasis did not address issues that arise in more complex models of epileptogenesis...
July 25, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745016/associations-between-self-reported-sleep-quality-and-white-matter-in-community-dwelling-older-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Claire E Sexton, Enikő Zsoldos, Nicola Filippini, Ludovica Griffanti, Anderson Winkler, Abda Mahmood, Charlotte L Allan, Anya Topiwala, Simon D Kyle, Kai Spiegelhalder, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimaki, Clare E Mackay, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Klaus P Ebmeier
Both sleep disturbances and decline in white matter microstructure are commonly observed in ageing populations, as well as in age-related psychiatric and neurological illnesses. A relationship between sleep and white matter microstructure may underlie such relationships, but few imaging studies have directly examined this hypothesis. In a study of 448 community-dwelling members of the Whitehall II Imaging Sub-Study aged between 60 and 82 years (90 female, mean age 69.2 ± 5.1 years), we used the magnetic resonance imaging technique diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and white matter microstructure...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742910/clinicopathological-evaluation-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-players-of-american-football
#6
Jesse Mez, Daniel H Daneshvar, Patrick T Kiernan, Bobak Abdolmohammadi, Victor E Alvarez, Bertrand R Huber, Michael L Alosco, Todd M Solomon, Christopher J Nowinski, Lisa McHale, Kerry A Cormier, Caroline A Kubilus, Brett M Martin, Lauren Murphy, Christine M Baugh, Phillip H Montenigro, Christine E Chaisson, Yorghos Tripodis, Neil W Kowall, Jennifer Weuve, Michael D McClean, Robert C Cantu, Lee E Goldstein, Douglas I Katz, Robert A Stern, Thor D Stein, Ann C McKee
Importance: Players of American football may be at increased risk of long-term neurological conditions, particularly chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Objective: To determine the neuropathological and clinical features of deceased football players with CTE. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 202 football players whose brains were donated for research. Neuropathological evaluations and retrospective telephone clinical assessments (including head trauma history) with informants were performed blinded...
July 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742507/severe-neurological-abnormalities-in-a-young-boy-with-impaired-thyroid-hormone-sensitivity-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-the-mct8-gene
#7
Teresa Rego, Carmen Gomez Lado, Paloma Cabanas Rodríguez, Francisco Sousa Santos, Francisco Barros Angueira, Lidia Castro-Feijóo, Jesús Barreiro Conde, Manuel Castro-Gago
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter into neurons. MCT8 mutations cause an X-linked condition known as Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and are characterized by impaired psychomotor development and typical abnormal thyroid function. We describe a 10-year-old boy with severe cognitive disability, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia and sporadic dyskinetic episodes. He initially presented with thyroid dysfunction (high FT3, low rT3, low FT4 and normal TSH) and generalized retardation of the cerebral and cerebellar myelination in brain magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742192/significance-of-interleukin-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-in-patients-with-cognitive-dysfunction-after-single-valve-replacement
#8
H-Y Guo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in serum neurological function parameters, interleukin (IL) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in patients with cognitive dysfunction after single valve replacement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 51 cases of senile patients with cognitive dysfunction after general anesthesia were selected as the observation group, and 51 senile patients without cognitive dysfunction after general anesthesia were selected as the control group. Serum neurological function parameters and IL and MMP levels were examined and compared between the two groups...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741437/traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-community-based-cohort-of-homeless-and-vulnerably-housed-individuals
#9
Toby Schmitt, Allen Thornton, Iris Rawtaer, Alasdair Barr, Kristina Gicas, Donna Lang, Talia Vertinsky, Alexander Rauscher, Ric Procyshyn, Tari Buchanan, Alex Cheng, Sarah Mackay, Olga Leonova, Verena Langheimer, Thalia Field, Manraj K S Heran, Fidel Vila-Rodriguez, Tiffany-Anne O'Connor, William MacEwan, William Honer, William Panenka
We characterized traumatic brain injury (TBI) and studied its associations with mental and physical health in a community cohort of homeless and vulnerably-housed individuals. METHODS: Detailed mental and physical health structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and multimodal MRI were performed on 283 participants. Two traumatic brain injury (TBI) participant groups were defined for primary analyses: those with a self-reported history of TBI and those with MRI evidence of TBI...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740825/nmdar-hypofunction-and-somatostatin-expressing-gabaergic-interneurons-and-receptors-a-newly-identified-correlation-and-its-effects-in-schizophrenia
#10
REVIEW
Fatemah Alherz, Mohammad Alherz, Hashemiah Almusawi
This review investigates the association between N-methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction and somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons (SST +) and how it contributes to the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia (SZ). This is based on evidence that NMDAR antagonists caused symptoms resembling SZ in healthy individuals. NMDAR hypofunction in GABAergic interneurons results in the modulation of the cortical network oscillation, particularly in the gamma range (30-80 Hz). These gamma-band oscillation (GBO) abnormalities were found to lead to the cognitive deficits observed in the disorder...
June 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740822/neurological-soft-signs-effects-of-trait-schizotypy-psychological-distress-and-auditory-hallucination-predisposition
#11
Saskia de Leede-Smith, Steven Roodenrys, Lauren Horsley, Shannen Matrini, Erin Mison, Emma Barkus
Schizotypy is regarded as a trait vulnerability for psychotic disorders, yet alone is insufficient for development of a diagnosable disorder. Additional symptoms and psychological distress are necessary for help seeking and transition from an at risk mental state to a clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the interaction between trait schizotypy, state auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) predisposition, distress and handedness for the expression of neurological soft signs (NSS), a neurodevelopmental vulnerability factor for psychosis...
March 2017: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740482/both-low-blood-glucose-and-insufficient-treatment-confer-risk-of-neurodevelopmental-impairment-in-congenital-hyperinsulinism-a-multinational-cohort-study
#12
Annett Helleskov, Maria Melikyan, Evgenia Globa, Inna Shcherderkina, Fani Poertner, Anna-Maria Larsen, Karen Filipsen, Klaus Brusgaard, Charlotte Dahl Christiansen, Lars Kjaersgaard Hansen, Henrik T Christesen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a heterogeneous disease most frequently caused by KATP-channel (ABCC8 and KCNJ11) mutations, with neonatal or later onset, variable severity, and with focal or diffuse pancreatic involvement as the two major histological types. CHI confers a high risk of neurological impairment; however, sparsely studied in larger patient series. We assessed the neurodevelopmental outcome in children with CHI at follow-up in a mixed international cohort...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740470/manual-dexterity-in-schizophrenia-a-neglected-clinical-marker
#13
Maxime Térémetz, Loïc Carment, Lindsay Brénugat-Herne, Marta Croca, Jean-Pierre Bleton, Marie-Odile Krebs, Marc A Maier, Isabelle Amado, Påvel G Lindberg
Impaired manual dexterity is commonly observed in schizophrenia. However, a quantitative description of key sensorimotor components contributing to impaired dexterity is lacking. Whether the key components of dexterity are differentially affected and how they relate to clinical characteristics also remains unclear. We quantified the degree of dexterity in 35 stabilized patients with schizophrenia and in 20 age-matched control subjects using four visuomotor tasks: (i) force tracking to quantify visuomotor precision, (ii) sequential finger tapping to measure motor sequence recall, (iii) single-finger tapping to assess temporal regularity, and (iv) multi-finger tapping to measure independence of finger movements...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739639/advances-in-neuroscience-imply-that-harmful-experiments-in-dogs-are-unethical
#14
Jarrod Bailey, Shiranee Pereira
Functional MRI (fMRI) of fully awake and unrestrained dog 'volunteers' has been proven an effective tool to understand the neural circuitry and functioning of the canine brain. Although every dog owner would vouch that dogs are perceptive, cognitive, intuitive and capable of positive emotions/empathy, as indeed substantiated by ethological studies for some time, neurological investigations now corroborate this. These studies show that there exists a striking similarity between dogs and humans in the functioning of the caudate nucleus (associated with pleasure and emotion), and dogs experience positive emotions, empathic-like responses and demonstrate human bonding which, some scientists claim, may be at least comparable with human children...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738538/diosmin-improved-cognitive-deficit-and-amplified-brain-electrical-activity-in-the-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Mohammad Ali Mirshekar, Hamed Fanaei, Fereshteh Keikhaei, Fatemeh Sargolzaee Javan
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of intellectual and cognitive disabilities in humans. Clinically, it is essential to limit the progress of cognitive impairment after TBI. It is reported that diosmin has a neuroprotective effect that can limit the progress of the impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diosmin on neurological score, memory, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level and long-term potentiation in hippocampal dentate gyrus after the injury...
July 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738127/early-onset-alzheimer-disease-and-candidate-risk-genes-involved-in-endolysosomal-transport
#16
Brian W Kunkle, Badri N Vardarajan, Adam C Naj, Patrice L Whitehead, Sophie Rolati, Susan Slifer, Regina M Carney, Michael L Cuccaro, Jeffery M Vance, John R Gilbert, Li-San Wang, Lindsay A Farrer, Christiane Reitz, Jonathan L Haines, Gary W Beecham, Eden R Martin, Gerard D Schellenberg, Richard P Mayeux, Margaret A Pericak-Vance
Importance: Mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 lead to early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD) but account for only approximately 11% of EOAD overall, leaving most of the genetic risk for the most severe form of Alzheimer disease unexplained. This extreme phenotype likely harbors highly penetrant risk variants, making it primed for discovery of novel risk genes and pathways for AD. Objective: To search for rare variants contributing to the risk for EOAD. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this case-control study, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 51 non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients with EOAD (age at onset <65 years) and 19 Caribbean Hispanic families previously screened as negative for established APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 causal variants...
July 24, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737987/factors-associated-with-patient-preferences-for-disease-modifying-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Ana L Hincapie, Jonathan Penm, Craig F Burns
BACKGROUND: Treatment adherence in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is essential to reduce the rate of acute neurological attacks, severity of relapses, and hospitalizations and to slow its progression. Adherence rates in MS patients have been shown to be affected by multiple factors, including physical or cognitive difficulties, perceived lack of treatment efficacy, treatment-related adverse events, injection anxiety, and frequency of administration. OBJECTIVE: To elicit the preferences of MS patients for noneconomic and economic attributes of current disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)...
August 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737452/memory-rehabilitation-for-the-working-memory-of-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-ms
#18
Shokoufeh Mousavi, Hossein Zare, Masoud Etemadifar, Hamid Taher Neshatdoost
OBJECTIVE: The main cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis (MS) affect the working memory, processing speed, and performances that are in close interaction with one another. Cognitive problems in MS are influenced to a lesser degree by disease recovery medications or treatments,but cognitive rehabilitation is considered one of the promising methods for cure. There is evidence regarding the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation for MS patients in various stages of the disease...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736535/mind-body-practice-changes-fractional-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-intrinsic-control-networks
#19
Gao-Xia Wei, Zhu-Qing Gong, Zhi Yang, Xi-Nian Zuo
Cognitive control impairment is a typical symptom largely reported in populations with neurological disorders. Previous studies have provided evidence about the changes in cognitive control induced by mind-body training. However, the neural correlates underlying the effect of extensive mind-body practice on cognitive control remain largely unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we characterized dynamic fluctuations in large-scale intrinsic connectivity networks associated with mind-body practice, and examined their differences between healthy controls and Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) practitioners...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735921/frontal-dysfunction-in-patients-with-restless-legs-syndrome-performing-a-visual-oddball-task-an-event-related-potential-source-imaging-study
#20
Kwang Su Cha, Jeong Woo Choi, Ki-Young Jung, Kyung Hwan Kim
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder that is accompanied by the compelling urge to move one's legs, and unpleasant, disturbing sensations in the legs. Several neuropsychological studies have shown that RLS is associated with deficits in cognitive functions, such as attention, working memory, and frontal executive function, presumably due to abnormal frontal activities. However, the mechanism underlying the cognitive deficits in RLS patients is mostly unknown. To investigate the cortical origin of cognitive dysfunction in RLS, we analyzed the P2 and P3 event-related potential (ERP) components evoked by a visual oddball task using distributed cortical source localization via low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithm...
August 2017: Sleep Medicine
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