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Early Life Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678754/sex-and-age-dependent-effects-of-orexin-1-receptor-blockade-on-open-field-behavior-and-neuronal-activity
#1
Shannon R Blume, Hannah Nam, Sandra Luz, Debra A Bangasser, Seema Bhatnagar
Adolescence is a sensitive and critical period in brain development where psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to emerge following a stressful life event. Females are two times more likely to suffer from psychiatric disorders than males. Patients with these disorders show alterations in orexins (also called hypocretins), important neuropeptides that regulate arousal, wakefulness and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Little is known on the role of orexins in mediating arousal behaviors in male and female rats during adolescence or adulthood...
April 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677034/functional-somatic-symptoms-across-cultures-perceptual-and-health-care-issues
#2
Bernd Löwe, Christian Gerloff
Functional neurological disorders are conceptualized as patterns of neurological symptoms that cannot be attributed to a clear organic etiology. The study by Wilkins et al. published in this issue of Psychosomatic Medicine, revealed that 8.2% of patients who were initially presented with suspected stroke were later diagnosed with functional disorders, i.e., "functional stroke mimics." However, the percentage of functional stroke mimics varied substantially with patients' nationality, age, and sex...
April 19, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675841/early-life-conditions-that-impact-song-learning-in-male-zebra-finches-also-impact-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-song-in-females
#3
Kendra B Sewall, Rindy C Anderson, Jill A Soha, Susan Peters, Stephen Nowicki
Early life stressors can impair song in songbirds by negatively impacting brain development and subsequent learning. Even in species in which only males sing, early life stressors might also impact female behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms, but fewer studies have examined this possibility. We manipulated brood size in zebra finches to simultaneously examine the effects of developmental stress on male song learning and female behavioral and neural response to song. Although adult male HVC volume was unaffected, we found that males from larger broods imitated tutor song less accurately...
April 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672992/life-in-the-fast-lane-settled-pastoralism-in-the-central-eurasian-steppe-during-the-middle-bronze-age
#4
Margaret A Judd, Jessica L Walker, Alicia Ventresca Miller, Dmitry Razhev, Andrey V Epimakhov, Bryan K Hanks
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that the purported unstable climate in the South Urals region during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) resulted in health instability and social stress as evidenced by skeletal response. METHODS: The skeletal sample (n = 99) derived from Kamennyi Ambar 5 (KA-5), a MBA kurgan cemetery (2040-1730 cal. BCE, 2 sigma) associated with the Sintashta culture. Skeletal stress indicators assessed included cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and tibia periosteal new bone growth...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670001/epigenetic-programming-of-synthesis-release-and-or-receptor-expression-of-common-mediators-participating-in-the-risk-resilience-for-comorbid-stress-related-disorders-and-coronary-artery-disease
#5
REVIEW
Carlos Manuel Zapata-Martín Del Campo, Martín Martínez-Rosas, Verónica Guarner-Lans
Corticotrophin releasing factor, vasopressin, oxytocin, natriuretic hormones, angiotensin, neuregulins, some purinergic substances, and some cytokines contribute to the long-term modulation and restructuring of cardiovascular regulation networks and, at the same time, have relevance in situations of comorbid abnormal stress responses. The synthesis, release, and receptor expression of these mediators seem to be under epigenetic control since early stages of life, possibly underlying the comorbidity to coronary artery disease (CAD) and stress-related disorders (SRD)...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669047/effects-of-early-nutrition-and-transport-of-1-day-old-chickens-on-production-performance-and-fear-response
#6
M S Hollemans, S de Vries, A Lammers, C Clouard
The importance of optimal early life conditions of broilers to sustain efficient and healthy production of broiler meat is increasingly recognized. Therefore, novel husbandry systems are developed, in which immediate provision of nutrition post hatch is combined with on-farm hatching. In these novel systems, 1-day-old-chick handling and transport are minimized. To study whether early nutrition and reduced transport are beneficial for broiler performance and behavior, the effects of early or delayed nutrition and post-hatch handling and transport were tested from hatch until 35 d of age, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement...
April 13, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665163/lowered-quality-of-life-in-mood-disorders-is-associated-with-increased-neuro-oxidative-stress-and-basal-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-and-use-of-anticonvulsant-mood-stabilizers
#7
Caroline Sampaio Nunes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Juliana Brum Moraes, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, George Anderson, Luiz Gustavo Piccoli de Melo, Stoyanov Drozdstoj, Estefania Moreira, André F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
RATIONALE, AIMS: Major affective disorders including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated with impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Oxidative stress and subtle thyroid abnormalities may play a pathophysiological role in both disorders. Thus, the current study was performed to examine whether neuro-oxidative biomarkers and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels could predict HRQoL in BD and MDD. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 68 BD and 37 MDD patients and 66 healthy controls...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664812/health-related-quality-of-life-and-body-image-disturbance-of-adolescents-with-severe-untreated-idiopathic-early-onset-scoliosis-in-a-developing-country
#8
Hany Abdel Gawwad Soliman
STUDY DESIGN: A cross sectional study OBJECTIVE.: This study aimed to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and body image disturbance of adolescents with untreated severe idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) in a developing country. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: IEOS has the potential to progress rapidly and may lead to significant disability if left untreated. Moreover, it can lead to significant body image changes that may lead to social and psychological stresses on developing adolescents...
April 16, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662204/feeding-circuit-development-and-early-life-influences-on-future-feeding-behaviour
#9
REVIEW
Lori M Zeltser
A wide range of maternal exposures - undernutrition, obesity, diabetes, stress and infection - are associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease in offspring. Developmental influences can cause persistent structural changes in hypothalamic circuits regulating food intake in the service of energy balance. The physiological relevance of these alterations has been called into question because maternal impacts on daily caloric intake do not persist to adulthood. Recent behavioural and epidemiological studies in humans provide evidence that the relative contribution of appetitive traits related to satiety, reward and the emotional aspects of food intake regulation changes across the lifespan...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661879/accelerating-early-anti-tuberculosis-drug-discovery-by-creating-mycobacterial-indicator-strains-that-predict-mode-of-action
#10
Maikel Boot, Susanna Commandeur, Amit K Subudhi, Meriem Bahira, Trever C Smith, Abdallah M Abdallah, Mae van Gemert, Joël Lelièvre, Lluís Ballell, Bree B Aldridge, Arnab Pain, Alexander Speer, Wilbert Bitter
Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660695/metabolite-profiles-of-striped-marsh-frog-limnodynastes-peronii-larvae-exposed-to-the-anti-androgenic-fungicides-vinclozolin-and-propiconazole-are-consistent-with-altered-steroidogenesis-and-oxidative-stress
#11
Steven D Melvin, Frederic D L Leusch, Anthony R Carroll
Amphibians use wetlands in urban and agricultural landscapes for breeding, growth and development. Fungicides and other pesticides used in these areas have therefore been identified as potential threats that could contribute towards amphibian population declines. However, relatively little is known about how such chemicals influence sensitive early life-stages or how short episodic exposures influence sub-lethal physiological and metabolic pathways. The present study applied untargeted metabolomics to evaluate effects in early post-hatch amphibian larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole...
April 11, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658306/-how-do-they-want-to-know-doctors-perspectives-on-making-and-communicating-a-diagnosis-of-dementia
#12
Cate Bailey, Jemima Dooley, Rose McCabe
Recent drives to facilitate earlier identification of dementia have led to increased memory clinic referrals and diagnoses. This study explored the perspectives of memory clinic doctors on making and delivering diagnoses. Four focus groups were conducted with 13 psychiatrists and two geriatricians in the UK. Transcripts were coded line by line using NVIVO. Thematic analysis identified 39 categories, 18 sub-themes and eight overarching themes. Inter-rater reliability on 31% of the data was 0.89. Increased public awareness of dementia was viewed positively in facilitating access to diagnosis and treatment...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657818/developmental-plasticity-of-the-stress-response-in-female-but-not-in-male-guppies
#13
L Chouinard-Thuly, A R Reddon, I Leris, R L Earley, S M Reader
To survive, animals must respond appropriately to stress. Stress responses are costly, so early-life experiences with potential stressors could adaptively tailor adult stress responses to local conditions. However, how multiple stressors influence the development of the stress response remains unclear, as is the role of sex. Trinidadian guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ) are small fish with extensive life-history differences between the sexes and population variation in predation pressure and social density. We investigated how sex and early-life experience influence hormonal stress responses by manipulating conspecific density and perceived predation risk during development...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656595/pathways-of-association-from-stress-to-obesity-in-early-childhood
#14
REVIEW
Alison L Miller, Julie C Lumeng
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to critically review the literature on early life stress in relation to obesity in humans, including the multiple biological and behavioral mechanisms through which early life stress exposure (birth to the age of 5 years) may associate with obesity risk during childhood. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted to identify studies on associations between early childhood stress and risk for obesity and the mechanisms of association...
April 14, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644942/postnatal-undernutrition-in-mice-causes-cardiac-arrhythmogenesis-which-is-exacerbated-when-pharmacologically-stressed
#15
J R Visker, D P Ferguson
Growth restriction caused by postnatal undernutrition increases risk for cardiovascular disease in adulthood with the potential to induce arrhythmogenesis. Thus, the purpose was to determine if undernutrition during development produced arrhythmias at rest and when stressed with dobutamine in adulthood. Mouse dams were fed (CON: 20% protein), or low-protein (LP: 8%) diet before mating. A cross-fostering model was used where pups nursed by dams fed LP diet in early [EUN; postnatal day (PN) 1-10], late (LUN; PN11-21) and whole (PUN; 1-21) phases of postnatal life...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643218/maternal-effects-impact-decision-making-in-a-viviparous-lizard
#16
Kirke L Munch, Daniel W A Noble, Thomas Botterill-James, Iain S Koolhof, Ben Halliwell, Erik Wapstra, Geoffrey M While
Stressful conditions experienced during early development can have deleterious effects on offspring morphology, physiology and behaviour. However, few studies have examined how developmental stress influences an individual's cognitive phenotype. Using a viviparous lizard, we show that the availability of food resources to a mother during gestation influences a key component of her offspring's cognitive phenotype: their decision-making. Offspring from females who experienced low resource availability during gestation did better in an anti-predatory task that relied on spatial associations to guide their decisions, whereas offspring from females who experienced high resource availability during gestation did better in a foraging task that relied on colour associations to inform their decisions...
April 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629491/regulation-of-autophagy-affects-the-prognosis-of-mice-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#17
Jianhua Wan, Jie Chen, Dangyan Wu, Xiaoyu Yang, Yaobin Ouyang, Yin Zhu, Liang Xia, Nonghua Lu
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common inflammatory disease that may develop to severe AP (SAP), resulting in life-threatening complications. Impaired autophagic flux is a characteristic of early AP, and its accumulation could activate oxidative stress and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathways, which aggravate the disease process. AIM: To explore the therapeutic effects of regulating autophagy after the onset of AP. METHODS: In this study, intraperitoneal injections of 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and rapamycin (RAPA) in the L-arginine or cerulein plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Balb/C mouse model...
April 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628283/weathering-the-storm-a-review-of-pre-pregnancy-stress-and-risk-of-spontaneous-abortion
#18
REVIEW
Tyralynn Frazier, Carol J Rowland Hogue, Elizabeth A Bonney, Kathryn M Yount, Brad D Pearce
The Weathering Effect is a theory that links stress exposure, over the life-course, with racial disparities in reproductive outcomes, through the effects of social adversity on a woman's body. The concept of maternal "weathering" captures cumulative somatic and psychological adversities that can exacerbate the effects of aging. Much of the evidence for weathering comes from observational studies linking self-report measures with reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore biological mechanisms that underlie these observations...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627435/ventricular-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-arrest-in-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy-incidence-predictive-factors-and-clinical-implications
#19
Laurence Jesel, Charlotte Berthon, Nathan Messas, Han S Lim, Mélanie Girardey, Halim Marzak, Benjamin Marchandot, Annie Trinh, Patrick Ohlmann, Olivier Morel
BACKGROUND: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a stress-related transient cardiomyopathy. Life threatening arrhythmias (LTA) can occur and worsen prognosis. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and outcome of LTA in TTC, its predictive factors and clinical implications. METHODS: We studied 214 consecutive cases of TTC over 8 years. The study cohort was divided into two groups - those with LTA (LTA-group) and those without (non-LTA-group)...
April 5, 2018: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626662/can-early-life-growth-disruptions-predict-longevity-testing-the-association-between-vertebral-neural-canal-vnc-size-and-age-at-death
#20
Alexandra Amoroso, Susana J Garcia
This study tests the association of vertebral neural canal (VNC) size and age-at-death in a Portuguese skeletal collection from the 19th -20th century. If the plasticity and constraint model best explains this association, VNC size would be negatively related to mortality risk. If the predictive adaptive response (PAR) model is a better fit, no association can be inferred between VNC size and age-at-death. Ninety individuals were used in this study. The anteroposterior and transverse diameters of all vertebrae were measured...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
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