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Early Life Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468019/disentangling-population-strategies-of-two-cladocerans-adapted-to-different-ultraviolet-regimes
#1
Carla E Fernández, Melina Campero, Cintia Uvo, Lars-Anders Hansson
Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex . The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden. Nine life-history variables of each lineage were analyzed in laboratory experiments in the presence and the absence of sub-lethal doses of UVR (UV-A band), and we identified trade-offs among variables through structural equation modeling (SEM)...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467616/molecular-characterization-of-gaba-a-receptor-subunit-diversity-within-major-peripheral-organs-and-their-plasticity-in-response-to-early-life-psychosocial-stress
#2
Ethan A Everington, Adina G Gibbard, Jerome D Swinny, Mohsen Seifi
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) subtype A receptors (GABAA Rs) are integral membrane ion channels composed of five individual proteins or subunits. Up to 19 different GABAA R subunits (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, θ, π, and ρ1-3) have been identified, resulting in anatomically, physiologically, and pharmacologically distinct multiple receptor subtypes, and therefore GABA-mediated inhibition, across the central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, GABAA R-modulating drugs are important tools in clinical medicine, although their use is limited by adverse effects...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466713/daily-maternal-separations-during-stress-hyporesponsive-period-decrease-the-thresholds-of-panic-like-behaviors-to-electrical-stimulation-of-the-dorsal-periaqueductal-gray-of-the-adult-rat
#3
Ana Cristina Borges-Aguiar, Luana Zanoni Schauffer, Edo Ronald de Kloet, Luiz Carlos Schenberg
The present study examined whether early life maternal separation (MS), a model of childhood separation anxiety, predisposes to panic at adulthood. For this purpose, male pups were submitted to 3-h daily maternal separations along postnatal (PN) days of either the 'stress hyporesponsive period' (SHRP) from PN4 to PN14 (MS11) or throughout lactation from PN2 to PN21 (MS20). Pups were further reunited to conscious (CM) or anesthetized (AM) mothers to assess the effect of mother-pup interaction upon reunion. Controls were subjected to brief handling (15 s) once a day throughout lactation (BH20)...
February 18, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464752/voluntary-wheel-running-attenuates-urinary-bladder-hypersensitivity-and-dysfunction-following-neonatal-maternal-separation-in-female-mice
#4
Angela N Pierce, Olivia C Eller-Smith, Julie A Christianson
AIMS: Patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) commonly suffer from widespread pain and mood disorder, which has been attributed to improper functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Voluntary exercise has been shown to improve HPA axis function, therefore we are determining whether voluntary wheel running can attenuate urological pain and dysfunction following neonatal maternal separation (NMS) in female mice. METHODS: Mice underwent NMS for 3 h/day from postnatal Day 1-21, were caged with free access to running wheels at 4 weeks of age, and assessed 4 weeks later for bladder sensitivity, micturition, reward behavior, mast cell degranulation, and HPA axis-related in vitro analysis...
February 21, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463821/amygdala-hyper-connectivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-unpredictable-early-life-stress
#5
REVIEW
Frances K Johnson, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Garth J Thompson, Lan Wei, Jin Hao, Peter Herman, Fahmeed Hyder, Arie Kaffman
Childhood maltreatment is associated with a wide range of psychopathologies including anxiety that emerge in childhood and in many cases persist in adulthood. Increased amygdala activation in response to threat and abnormal amygdala connectivity with frontolimbic brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex, are some of the most consistent findings seen in individuals exposed to childhood maltreatment. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these changes are difficult to study in humans but can be elucidated using animal models of early-life stress...
February 21, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462970/approaches-for-reducing-the-risk-of-early-life-iron-deficiency-induced-brain-dysfunction-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Sarah E Cusick, Michael K Georgieff, Raghavendra Rao
Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Women of reproductive age and young children are particularly vulnerable. Iron deficiency in late prenatal and early postnatal periods can lead to long-term neurobehavioral deficits, despite iron treatment. This may occur because screening and treatment of iron deficiency in children is currently focused on detection of anemia and not neurodevelopment. Anemia is the end-stage state of iron deficiency. The brain becomes iron deficient before the onset of anemia due to prioritization of the available iron to the red blood cells (RBCs) over other organs...
February 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459472/association-of-spontaneous-preterm-delivery-and-future-maternal-cardiovascular-disease
#7
REVIEW
Margo B Minissian, Sarah Kilpatrick, Jo-Ann Eastwood, Wendie A Robbins, Eynav E Accortt, Janet Wei, Chrisandra L Shufelt, Lynn V Doering, C Noel Bairey Merz
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are well established. However, little is known about a woman's cardiovascular response to pregnancy, which appears to be an early marker of future maternal CVD risk. Spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) has been associated with a ≤3-fold increased risk of maternal CVD death later in life compared with having a term delivery. This review focuses on 3 key areas to critically assess the association of sPTD and future maternal CVD risk: (1) CVD risk factors, (2) inflammatory biomarkers of interest, and (3) specific forms of vascular dysfunction, such as endothelial function and arterial stiffness, and mechanisms by which each may be linked to sPTD...
February 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459471/gender-sex-as-a-social-determinant-of-cardiovascular-risk
#8
REVIEW
Adrienne O'Neil, Anna J Scovelle, Allison J Milner, Anne Kavanagh
The social gradient for cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset and outcomes is well established. The American Heart Association's Social Determinants of Risk and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Disease Scientific Statement advocates looking beyond breakthroughs in biological science toward a social determinants approach that focuses on socioeconomic position, race and ethnicity, social support, culture and access to medical care, and residential environments to curb the burden of CVD going forward. Indeed, the benefits of this approach are likely to be far reaching, enhancing the positive effects of advances in CVD related to prevention and treatment while reducing health inequities that contribute to CVD onset and outcomes...
February 20, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459280/the-moderating-impact-of-childhood-adversity-profiles-and-conflict-on-psychological-health-and-suicidal-behaviour-in-the-northern-ireland-population
#9
Margaret McLafferty, Siobhan O'Neill, Sam Murphy, Cherie Armour, Finola Ferry, Brendan Bunting
Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population's psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n = 1986). The aims of the study were to assess co-occurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behaviour...
February 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458841/early-life-stress-induces-cognitive-disorder-in-middle-aged-mice
#10
Hiroyuki Yajima, Asahi Haijima, Miski Aghnia Khairinisa, Noriaki Shimokawa, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru
Early-life stress can induce several neuropsychological disorders in adulthood. However, the underlying mechanisms inducing such disorders are still not fully understood. Furthermore, the effects of early-life stress on the changes in cognitive function with age are still not clarified. In this study, we used maternal deprivation (MD) to examine the cognitive function in middle-aged mice using a touchscreen-equipped operant chamber. In the visual-discrimination task, the aged (∼1.4 years old) control mice could accurately learn to discriminate between different visual stimuli...
April 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455895/childhood-trauma-and-resilience-in-psoriatic-patients-a-preliminary-report
#11
Maria Luigia Crosta, Clara De Simone, Salvatore Di Pietro, Mariateresa Acanfora, Giacomo Caldarola, Lorenzo Moccia, Antonino Callea, Isabella Panaccione, Ketty Peris, Lucio Rinaldi, Luigi Janiri, Marco Di Nicola
AIMS: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex etiology, involving the immune system, genetic factors, and external/internal triggers, with psychosomatic aspects. The aim of the study was to investigate childhood trauma and resilience in a psoriatic sample compared with healthy controls. Correlations between childhood trauma, resilience, quality of life, clinical data and psoriatic features were also evaluated. METHODS: Seventy-seven psoriatic patients and seventy-six homogeneous healthy controls were enrolled...
March 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453937/trajectory-classes-of-cannabis-use-and-heavy-drinking-among-rural-african-american-adolescents-multilevel-predictors-of-class-membership
#12
Allen W Barton, Gene H Brody, Tamika C B Zapolski, Trenette C Goings, Steven M Kogan, Michael Windle, Tianyi Yu
AIMS: To inform research on the etiology and prevention of substance use among rural African American youth by (a) identifying developmental trajectory classes of cannabis use and heavy drinking across adolescence and young adulthood, and (b) examining associations between trajectory class membership and multi-level assessments of risk factors. DESIGN: A prospective study spanning nine years with assessments of cannabis use and heavy drinking, the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, perceived stress, and psychosocial risk factors...
February 17, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452966/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-of-childhood-trauma-and-the-course-of-illness-in-schizophrenia
#13
Krisztina Kocsis-Bogár, Veronika Mészáros, Dóra Perczel-Forintos
INTRODUCTION: Different types of childhood trauma have been repeatedly shown to contribute to psychotic symptoms. Gender differences in schizophrenia are well known. Some studies argue that trauma history means a significantly higher risk of psychosis for women than men. However, there is evidence of early adverse life events to be associated with higher stress-sensitivity in men. Little is known about the connection of specific type of trauma and specific psychotic symptoms as well as the course of illness with explicit regard to gender differences...
February 13, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449757/why-and-how-the-early-life-environment-affects-development-of-coping-behaviours
#14
REVIEW
M Rohaa Langenhof, Jan Komdeur
Understanding the ways in which individuals cope with threats, respond to challenges, make use of opportunities and mediate the harmful effects of their surroundings is important for predicting their ability to function in a rapidly changing world. Perhaps one of the most essential drivers of coping behaviour of adults is the environment experienced during their early-life development. Although the study of coping, defined as behaviours displayed in response to environmental challenges, has a long and rich research history in biology, recent literature has repeatedly pointed out that the processes through which coping behaviours develop in individuals are still largely unknown...
2018: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447162/early-experiences-mediate-distinct-adult-gene-expression-and-reproductive-programs-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Maria C Ow, Kirill Borziak, Alexandra M Nichitean, Steve Dorus, Sarah E Hall
Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441001/early-life-stress-related-elevations-in-reaction-time-variability-are-associated-with-brain-volume-reductions-in-hiv-adults
#16
Uraina S Clark, Miguel Arce Rentería, Rachal R Hegde, Susan Morgello
There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS) is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV), which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439325/prediction-and-early-detection-of-alzheimer-s-dementia-professional-disclosure-practices-and-ethical-attitudes
#17
Mark Schweda, Anna Kögel, Claudia Bartels, Jens Wiltfang, Anja Schneider, Silke Schicktanz
BACKGROUND: Biomarker-supported testing for preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) finds its way into clinical practice. Professional attitudes and practices regarding disclosure and ethical issues are controversial in many countries. OBJECTIVES: Against this background, the objective was to survey the actual practice and the attitudes of physicians in German hospitals and memory clinics in order to explore possible practical insecurities and ethical concerns...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438728/long-term-early-life-adverse-experience-impairs-responsiveness-to-exteroceptive-stimuli-in-adult-rats
#18
Anna Holubová, Anna Mikulecká, Marie Pometlová, Kateryna Nohejlová, Romana Šlamberová
It has been shown that early life traumatic events strongly alter the physiology and behavior in adult rats. In the present study, the effect of postnatal stressor on the spontaneous behavior of adult male rats was evaluated. A method of positive habituation based on a detailed analysis of behavioral patterns and attention of animals to a stimulus object was used. Twenty-four dams and twenty-four of their male progeny were used. Pups were divided into three groups (n = 8): controls (C); maternal social stressor (S); maternal social and physical stressors (SW)...
February 10, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438661/early-life-socioeconomic-status-associates-with-interleukin-6-responses-to-acute-laboratory-stress-in-adulthood
#19
Kimberly G Lockwood, Neha A John-Henderson, Anna L Marsland
It is proposed that environmental exposures in early life influence immune programming. Specifically, socioeconomic disadvantage is thought to program an immune phenotype that is prone to inflammation and associated with increased risk for inflammatory disease later in life. Existing literature shows an inverse association of early childhood socioeconomic status (SES) with adult levels of systemic inflammation. Here, we extend that literature to examine whether early childhood SES also relates to the magnitude of inflammatory response to acute psychological stress in adulthood...
February 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435696/early-life-stress-and-childhood-aggression-mediating-and-moderating-effects-of-child-callousness-and-stress-reactivity
#20
Dominika A Winiarski, Melissa L Engel, Niranjan S Karnik, Patricia A Brennan
Early life stress (ELS) has been implicated in the development of aggression, though the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study tested associations between ELS, callousness, and stress reactivity in the prediction of school-age and persistent early childhood aggression. A longitudinal sample of 185 mother-child dyads completed a lab visit and mothers completed an online follow-up when children were preschool-aged and school-aged, respectively. Physiological and behavioral measures of stress reactivity were collected during the preschool period...
February 13, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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