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Early Life Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913254/quetiapine-treatment-reverses-depressive-like-behavior-and-reduces-dna-methyltransferase-activity-induced-by-maternal-deprivation
#1
Zuleide M Ignácio, Gislaine Z Réus, Helena M Abelaira, Amanda L Maciel, Airam B de Moura, Danyela Matos, Júlia P Demo, Júlia B I da Silva, Fernanda F Gava, Samira S Valvassori, André F Carvalho, João Quevedo
Stress in early life has been appointed as an important phenomenon in the onset of depression and poor response to treatment with classical antidepressants. Furthermore, childhood trauma triggers epigenetic changes, which are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, exerts therapeutic effect for MDD patients and induces epigenetic changes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of chronic treatment with quetiapine (20mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior of rats submitted to maternal deprivation (MD), as well as the activity of histone acetylation by the enzymes histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methylation, through DNA methyltransferase enzyme (DNMT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909290/highly-sensitive-detection-of-minimal-cardiac-ischemia-using-positron-emission-tomography-imaging-of-activated-platelets
#2
Melanie Ziegler, Karen Alt, Brett M Paterson, Peter Kanellakis, Alex Bobik, Paul S Donnelly, Christoph E Hagemeyer, Karlheinz Peter
A reliable method for the diagnosis of minimal cardiac ischemia would meet a strong demand for the sensitive diagnosis of coronary artery disease in cardiac stress testing and risk stratification in patients with chest pain but unremarkable ECGs and biomarkers. We hypothesized that platelets accumulate early on in ischemic myocardium and a newly developed technology of non-invasive molecular PET imaging of activated platelets can thus detect minimal degrees of myocardial ischemia. To induce different degrees of minimal cardiac ischemia, the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was ligated for 10, 20 or 60 min...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906522/educating-executive-function
#3
REVIEW
Clancy Blair
Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906088/folie-%C3%A3-deux-and-its-interaction-with-early-life-stress-a-case-report
#4
Alessandra Vargas Alves Nunes, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes, Talita Strano, Gilberto Pascolat, Gustavo Manoel Schier Doria, Mauricio Nasser Ehlke
BACKGROUND: Folie à deux is a very rare psychiatric syndrome in which a psychotic symptom is transmitted from one individual to another. We present a case of folie à deux occurring during childhood, which is not an usual presentation of this syndrome. In this case, the disorder is correlated with child abuse and neglect, which possibly had a role in the development of the symptoms in our case. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of folie à deux between an "induced" 9-year-old black Brazilian boy and the "inducer", his grandmother...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903898/transfer-rna-is-highly-unstable-during-early-amino-acid-starvation-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Sine Lo Svenningsen, Mette Kongstad, Thomas Søndergaard Stenum, Ana J Muñoz-Gómez, Michael A Sørensen
Due to its long half-life compared to messenger RNA, bacterial transfer RNA is known as stable RNA. Here, we show that tRNAs become highly unstable as part of Escherichia coli's response to amino acid starvation. Degradation of the majority of cellular tRNA occurs within twenty minutes of the onset of starvation for each of several amino acids. Both the non-cognate and cognate tRNA for the amino acid that the cell is starving for are degraded, and both charged and uncharged tRNA species are affected. The alarmone ppGpp orchestrates the stringent response to amino acid starvation...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903512/thyroid-hormone-stimulated-increases-in-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-ucp2-promote-life-history-specific-endocrine-changes-and-maintain-a-lipid-based-metabolism
#6
Bridget Martinez, José G Soñanez-Organis, Jose A Godoy-Lugo, Lillian Horin, Daniel E Crocker, Rudy M Ortiz
Thyroid hormones (TH) regulate metabolism, but are typically suppressed during times of stressful physiological conditions, including fasting. Interestingly, prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups is associated with reliance on a lipid-based metabolism and increased levels of circulating thyroid hormones that are partially attributed to active secretion as opposed to reduced clearance. This apparent paradox is coupled with complementary increases in cellular TH-mediated activity suggesting that in mammals naturally adapted to prolonged fasting TH are necessary to support metabolism...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902754/how-do-growth-and-sibling-competition-affect-telomere-dynamics-in-the-first-month-of-life-of-long-lived-seabird
#7
Yuichi Mizutani, Yasuaki Niizuma, Ken Yoda
Telomeres are nucleotide sequences located at the ends of chromosomes that promote genome stability. Changes in telomere length (dynamics) are related to fitness or life expectancy, and telomere dynamics during the development phase are likely to be affected by growth and stress factors. Here, we examined telomere dynamics of black-tailed gull chicks (Larus crassirostris) in nests with and without siblings. We found that the initial telomere lengths of singletons at hatching were longer than those of siblings, indicating that singletons are higher-quality chicks than siblings in terms of telomere length...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901414/cognitive-deficits-and-inflammatory-response-resulting-from-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats-are-exacerbated-by-repeated-pre-exposure-to-an-innate-stress-stimulus
#8
Michaël Ogier, Amor Belmeguenai, Thomas Lieutaud, Béatrice Georges, Sandrine Bouvard, Emilie Carré, Frédéric Canini, Laurent Bezin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in both military and civilian populations, and often results in neurobehavioral sequelae that impair quality of life in both patients and their family. Although individuals who are chronically exposed to stress are more likely to experience TBI, it is still unknown whether pre-injury stress influences the outcome after TBI. The present study tested whether behavioral and cognitive long-term outcome after TBI in rats is affected by prior exposure to an innate stress stimulus...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901290/early-life-trauma-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-allostatic-load-in-a-sample-of-american-indian-adults
#9
Zaneta Thayer, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Michael McDonell, Lonnie Nelson, Dedra Buchwald, Spero Manson
OBJECTIVES: Among American Indians, prior research has found associations between early life trauma and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Given the physiological changes associated with PTSD, early life trauma could indirectly contribute to chronic disease risk. However, the impact of early life trauma on adult physical health in this population has not been previously investigated. METHODS: We evaluated associations among early life trauma, PTSD, and 13 physiological biomarkers that index cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine, anthropometric, and immune function in adulthood by conducting correlation and structural equation modeling path analyses (N = 197)...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898587/maternal-epigenetics-and-fetal-and-neonatal-growth
#10
Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898075/maternal-high-fat-diet-prevents-developmental-programming-by-early-life-stress
#11
M Rincel, A L Lépinay, P Delage, J Fioramonti, V S Théodorou, S Layé, M Darnaudéry
Anxiety disorders and depression are well-documented in subjects exposed to adverse childhood events. Recently, maternal obesity and/or maternal consumption of high-fat diets (HFD) have been also proposed as risk factors for offspring mental health. Here using an animal model in rats, we explored the combinatorial effects of a maternal HFD (40% of energy from fat without impact on maternal weight; during gestation and lactation) and maternal separation (MS) in offspring. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of pups, MS led to changes in the expression of several genes such as Bdnf (brain derived neurotrophic factor), 5HT-r1a (serotonin receptor 1a) and Rest4 (neuron-restrictive silencer element, repressor element 1, silencing transcription factor (Rest), splicing variant 4)...
November 29, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892807/the-effect-of-early-life-stress-on-the-cognitive-phenotype-of-children-with-an-extra-x-chromosome-47-xxy-47-xxx
#12
Sophie van Rijn, Petra Barneveld, Mie-Jef Descheemaeker, Jacques Giltay, Hanna Swaab
Studies on gene-environment interactions suggest that some individuals may be more susceptible to life adversities than others due to their genetic profile. This study assesses whether or not children with an extra X chromosome are more vulnerable to the negative impact of early life stress on cognitive functioning than typically-developing children. A total of 50 children with an extra X chromosome and 103 non-clinical controls aged 9 to 18 years participated in the study. Cognitive functioning in domains of language, social cognition and executive functioning were assessed...
November 28, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884793/sex-stress-and-sleep-apnoea-decreased-susceptibility-to-upper-airway-muscle-dysfunction-following-intermittent-hypoxia-in-females
#13
REVIEW
Ken D O'Halloran, Philip Lewis, Fiona McDonald
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a devastating respiratory control disorder more common in men than women. The reasons for the sex difference in prevalence are multifactorial, but are partly attributable to protective effects of oestrogen. Indeed, OSAS prevalence increases in post-menopausal women. OSAS is characterized by repeated occlusions of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Dysfunction of the upper airway muscles controlling airway calibre and collapsibility is implicated in the pathophysiology of OSAS, and sex differences in the neuro-mechanical control of upper airway patency are described...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#14
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880876/an-integrative-review-of-methylation-at-the-serotonin-transporter-gene-and-its-dialogue-with-environmental-risk-factors-psychopathology-and-5-httlpr
#15
REVIEW
H Palma-Gudiel, L Fañanás
Gene-environment (GxE) interactions have largely been regarded as the root of many complex disorders, including several psychiatric disorders. In this regard, it has been hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms may be the main mediators of such interactions. Of particular interest is the previously described interaction between psychosocial stress and genetic variability of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in its polymorphic region 5-HTTLPR. Here we review the literature concerning SLC6A4 methylation in association with environmental, clinical or genetic variables...
November 20, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870450/the-immune-system-as-a-novel-regulator-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavioral-development
#16
REVIEW
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs early in life as a result of sex-typical hormone action and sex chromosome effects. Immunocompetent cells are being recognized as underappreciated regulators of sex differences in brain and behavioral development, including microglia, astrocytes, and possibly other less well studied cell types, including T cells and mast cells. Immunocompetent cells in the brain are responsive to steroid hormones, but their role in sex-specific brain development is an emerging field of interest...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870440/sex-differences-modulating-serotonergic-polymorphisms-implicated-in-the-mechanistic-pathways-of-risk-for-depression-and-related-disorders
#17
REVIEW
LeeAnn M Perry, Andrea N Goldstein-Piekarski, Leanne M Williams
Despite consistent observations of sex differences in depression and related emotional disorders, we do not yet know how these sex differences modulate the effects of genetic polymorphisms implicated in risk for these disorders. This Mini-Review focuses on genetic polymorphisms of the serotonergic system to illustrate how sex differences might modulate the neurobiological pathways involved in the development of depression. We consider the interacting role of environmental factors such as early-life stress. Given limited current knowledge about this topic, we highlight methodological considerations, challenges, and guidelines for future research...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869245/predictors-of-early-return-to-work-after-a-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-cabg
#18
Ramin Mehrdad, Noroja Ghadiri Asli, Gholamreza Pouryaghoub, Maryam Saraei, Firoozeh Salimi, Mostafa Nejatian
OBJECTIVES: Identifying factors predictive of early return to work in patients who underwent a coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two hundred twenty-six working patients who volunteered and underwent a primary coronary artery bypass surgery between September 2013 and May 2014 were selected for the study and followed up for 6 months. Predictors of early return to work (RTW) (within 2 months) were analyzed from variables in a prospectively collected database and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire carried out in the hospital and rehabilitation center as well as from the follow-up performed via the phone...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865975/differences-in-placental-telomere-length-suggest-a-link-between-racial-disparities-in-birth-outcomes-and-cellular%C3%A2-aging
#19
Christopher W Jones, Cecilia Gambala, Kyle C Esteves, Maeve Wallace, Reid Schlesinger, Marguerite O'Quinn, Laura Kidd, Katherine P Theall, Stacy S Drury
BACKGROUND: Health disparities begin early in life and persist across the life course. Despite current efforts, black women exhibit greater risk for pregnancy complications and negative perinatal outcomes compared with white women. The placenta, which is a complex multi-tissue organ, serves as the primary transducer of bidirectional information between the mother and fetus. Altered placental function is linked to multiple racially disparate pregnancy complications; however, little is known about racial differences in molecular factors within the placenta...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865525/maternal-stress-modifies-the-effect-of-exposure-to-lead-during-pregnancy-and-24-month-old-children-s-neurodevelopment
#20
Marcela Tamayo Y Ortiz, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Belem Trejo-Valdivia, Lourdes Schnaas, Erika Osorio-Valencia, Brent Coull, David Bellinger, Rosalind J Wright, Robert O Wright
BACKGROUND: Lead and psychosocial stress disrupt similar but not completely overlapping mechanisms. Exposure during the prenatal period to each of these insults singularly has been found to alter normal neurodevelopment; however, longitudinal associations with stress modifying the effect of lead have not been sufficiently analyzed in epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prenatal stress as an effect modifier of gestational lead neurotoxicity. METHODS: We used a structural equations modeling approach with a trivariate response to evaluate cognitive, language and motor scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III in 24month-old children (n=360)...
November 16, 2016: Environment International
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