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Early Life Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724221/impact-of-the-nsaid-diclofenac-on-survival-development-behaviour-and-health-of-embryonic-and-juvenile-stages-of-brown-trout-salmo-trutta-f-fario
#1
Simon Schwarz, Hannah Schmieg, Marco Scheurer, Heinz-R Köhler, Rita Triebskorn
The NSAID diclofenac is controversially discussed with respect to its environmental relevance. Since further information is need to assess whether diclofenac should be included as substance of priority in the EU water framework directive, we investigated the impact of this analgesic on the embryonic development of brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) from fertilized egg until the end of sac-fry stage and studied effects in juvenile fish six months post hatch. Embryos were exposed to five test concentrations (0...
July 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722771/navigating-and-negotiating-information-and-support-experiences-of-first-time-mothers
#2
Megan Aston, Sheri Price, Joelle Monaghan, Meaghan Sim, Andrea Hunter, Victoria Little
AIM: To examine how first time mothers in Nova Scotia (NS) identified and prioritized their own postpartum needs and where they went for information and support, inclusive of informal or formal programs and services, social media, family and friends. BACKGROUND: The early postpartum period is an exciting, yet stressful life experience for first time mothers. Mothers have often turned to families, friends and health care professionals for support and information; however, these social networks look differently today due to changes in institutional policies and postpartum health care practices, as well as the emergence of online resources and networks...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720162/maternal-pregnancy-c-reactive-protein-predicts-offspring-birth-size-and-body-composition-in-metropolitan-cebu-philippines
#3
C W Kuzawa, R L Fried, J B Borja, T W McDade
The gestational milieu is an important influence on fetal development and long-term disease risk. Here we assess relationships between maternal pregnancy inflammation, indicated by C-reactive protein (CRP), and offspring anthropometric outcomes measured soon after birth. Data come from female participants (n=327, age 24.4-30.2 years) in a longitudinal study located in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Between 2009 and 2014, pregnancy interviews (n=429) were conducted during which questionnaire and anthropometric data were obtained along with dried blood spot cards for CRP measurement...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720027/long-term-alteration-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-children-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-in-the-first-6-months-of-life
#4
Monica McGauran, Brigid Jordan, Roseriet Beijers, Irma Janssen, Candice Franich-Ray, Carolina de Weerth, Michael Cheung
Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have poorer neurodevelopmental and psychological outcomes. The mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. One mechanism could be that the stressful experience of cardiac surgery early in life influences long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Dysregulation of the HPA axis has been linked to poorer neurocognitive and psychological outcomes in other study populations. This case-control study aims to compare HPA-axis regulation (circadian rhythm and reactivity) using salivary cortisol in 3- to 5-year-olds with CHD who did and did not have cardiac surgery prior to 6 months of age...
July 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718999/resilience-is-decreased-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-associated-with-symptoms-and-cortisol-response
#5
S H Park, B D Naliboff, W Shih, A P Presson, E J Videlock, T Ju, L Kilpatrick, A Gupta, E A Mayer, L Chang
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs...
July 18, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715699/gambling-and-negative-life-events-in-a-nationally-representative-sample-of-uk-men
#6
Amanda Roberts, Stephen Sharman, Jeremy Coid, Raegan Murphy, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Sean Cowlishaw, Jason Landon
INTRODUCTION: The links between gambling problems, trauma and life stressors are known to exist but understanding the extent of these relationships will allow for greater efficacy in early intervention and treatment. We investigated these relationships among men and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by alcohol and drug use problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional UK representative general population survey was conducted in 2009 with 3025 men aged 18-64years...
July 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715387/a-modified-trier-social-stress-test-for-vulnerable-mexican-american-adolescents
#7
Megan M Johnson, Julianna Deardorff, Kimberly Parra, Abbey Alkon, Brenda Eskenazi, Elizabeth Shirtcliff
The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is a well validated and widely used social stressor that has been shown to induce a 2-4 fold increase in cortisol, the biological output produced by the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in humans. While studies have explored how modifications to the TSST influence stress responsivity, few studies have created a modified TSST appropriate for vulnerable youth that elicits a significant cortisol stress response. Thus, the current study sought to modify or adjust the TSST in a culturally sensitive way for a vulnerable sample of 14 year-old adolescents...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713045/cortisol-elevation-post-hatch-affects-behavioural-performance-in-zebrafish-larvae
#8
Carol Best, Mathilakath M Vijayan
Maternal cortisol is essential for cortisol stress axis development and de novo production of this steroid commences only after hatch in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, very little is known about the effect of elevated cortisol levels, during the critical period of stress axis activation, on larval performance. We tested the hypothesis that elevated cortisol levels post-hatch affect behavioural performance and this is mediated by glucocorticoid receptor activation in zebrafish larvae. The behavioural response included measuring larval activity in response to alternating light and dark cycles, as well as thigmotaxis...
July 13, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712943/sex-and-brain-region-specific-effects-of-prenatal-stress-and-lead-exposure-on-permissive-and-repressive-post-translational-histone-modifications-from-embryonic-development-through-adulthood
#9
G Varma, M Sobolewski, D A Cory-Slechta, J S Schneider
Developmental exposure to prenatal stress (PS) and lead (Pb) can affect brain development and adversely influence behavior and cognition. Epigenetic-based gene regulation is crucial for normal brain development and mis-regulation, in any form, can result in neurodevelopmental disorders. Post-translational histone modifications (PTHMs) are an integral and dynamic component of the epigenetic machinery involved in gene regulation. Exposures to Pb and/or PS may alter PTHM profiles, promoting lifelong alterations in brain function observed following Pb±PS exposure...
July 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712816/enhanced-startle-reflexivity-during-presentation-of-visual-nurture-cues-in-young-adults-who-experienced-parental-divorce-in-early-childhood
#10
Xenia Hengesch, Mauro F Larra, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) may influence stress and affective processing in adulthood. Animal and human studies show enhanced startle reflexivity in adult participants with ACE. This study examined the impact of one of the most common ACE, parental divorce, on startle reflexivity in adulthood. Affective modulation of acoustically-elicited startle eye blink was assessed in a group of 23 young adults with self-reported history of parental divorce, compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=18)...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712571/hierarchical-status-predicts-behavioral-vulnerability-and-nucleus-accumbens-metabolic-profile-following-chronic-social-defeat-stress
#11
Thomas Larrieu, Antoine Cherix, Aranzazu Duque, João Rodrigues, Hongxia Lei, Rolf Gruetter, Carmen Sandi
Extensive data highlight the existence of major differences in individuals' susceptibility to stress [1-4]. While genetic factors [5, 6] and exposure to early life stress [7, 8] are key components for such neurobehavioral diversity, intriguing observations revealed individual differences in response to stress in inbred mice [9-12]. This raised the possibility that other factors might be critical in stress vulnerability. A key challenge in the field is to identify non-invasively risk factors for vulnerability to stress...
July 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711174/secondhand-smoke-exposure-and-preclinical-markers-of-cardiovascular-risk-in-toddlers
#12
Judith A Groner, Hong Huang, Mandar S Joshi, Nicholas Eastman, Lisa Nicholson, John Anthony Bauer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate relationships between secondhand smoke exposure in young children and several preclinical markers of cardiovascular risk that have been established as relevant to adult populations. STUDY DESIGN: There were 139 children, 2-5 years of age, enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Secondhand smoke exposure was objectively determined by hair nicotine level; a comprehensive panel of clinical markers (morning blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, lipid profiles, inflammation) and research markers (markers of oxidation, endothelial stress, and endothelial repair) of cardiovascular risk status were assessed...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708887/carried-over-heat-stress-in-the-egg-stage-reduces-subsequent-performance-in-a-butterfly
#13
Michael Klockmann, Friederike Kleinschmidt, Klaus Fischer
Increasing heat stress caused by anthropogenic climate change may pose a substantial challenge to biodiversity due to associated detrimental effects on survival and reproduction. Therefore, heat tolerance has recently received substantial attention, but its variation throughout ontogeny and effects carried over from one developmental stage to another remained largely neglected. To explore to what extent stress experienced early in life affects later life stages, we here investigate effects of heat stress experienced in the egg stage throughout ontogeny in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708202/experience-after-12-cases-with-the-adjustable-transobturator-male-sling-for-postprostatectomy-stress-urinary-incontinence
#14
Andrea Vismara Fugini, Luca Giovanessi, Michelangelo Tosana
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was the prospective evaluation of the efficacy of the adjustable transobturator male system (ArgusT®) for the treatment of postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence (PPI). METHODS: Twelve consecutive patients were treated with ArgusT system for PPI. All patients were comprehensively evaluated preoperatively and after 3 and 6 months regarding daily pad use, residual urine, Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (I-QoL) score and International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score...
July 1, 2017: Urologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707521/increased-risk-of-attempted-suicide-in-australian-veterans-is-associated-with-total-and-permanent-incapacitation-unemployment-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-severity
#15
Katelyn Kerr, Madeline Romaniuk, Sarah McLeay, Andrew Khoo, Michael T Dent, Mark Boshen
BACKGROUND: Military veterans have higher rates of suicidality and completed suicides compared to the general population. Previous research has demonstrated suicidal behaviour is higher in US combat veterans who are younger, suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety and score lower on measures of health. However, research on predictors of suicide for Australian veterans is limited. The aim of this study was to identify significant demographic and psychological differences between veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder who had attempted suicide and those with posttraumatic stress disorder who had not, as well as determine predictors of suicide attempts within an Australian cohort...
July 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706491/early-life-exposure-to-lead-induces-cognitive-impairment-in-elder-mice-targeting-sirt1-phosphorylation-and-oxidative-alterations
#16
Lijie Zhang, Runqi Tu, Yawei Wang, Yazhen Hu, Xing Li, Xuemin Cheng, Yanyan Yin, Wenjie Li, Hui Huang
Pb is a potential risk factor for cognition, mainly mediated by enhanced oxidative stress. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with crucial anti-oxidative property, is recently implicated in preventing cognitive deficits in normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders. Its beneficial effects have been linked to sirtuin 1(SIRT1) activation. The aim of this work is to investigate the possible linkage between alterations in Pb-induced oxidative damage and cognitive impairment by prolonged treatment of resveratrol...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704885/submaximal-markers-of-fatigue-and-overreaching-implications-for-monitoring-athletes
#17
André Siegl, Elisa M Kösel, Nicholas Tam, Susanne Koschnick, Nelleke G Langerak, Sabrina Skorski, Tim Meyer, Robert P Lamberts
The regular monitoring of athletes is important to fine-tune training and detect early symptoms of overreaching. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine if a noninvasive submaximal running test could reflect a state of overreaching. 14 trained runners completed a noninvasive Lamberts Submaximal Running Test, one week before and 2 days after finishing an ultramarathon, and delayed onset of muscle soreness and the daily analysis of life demands for athletes questionnaire were also captured. After the ultramarathon, submaximal heart rate was lower at 70% (-3 beats) and 85% of peak treadmill running speed (P<0...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704274/maternal-separation-induces-long-term-effects-on-monoamines-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-on-the-frontal-cortex-amygdala-and-hippocampus-differential-effects-after-a-stress-challenge
#18
Soledad Récamier-Carballo, Erika Estrada-Camarena, Carolina López-Rubalcava
The maternal separation (MS) paradigm is a well-known animal model that resembles the stress of early adverse life experiences and produces structural and functional abnormalities when animals are adults. The present study analyzed the effect of MS, in adult mice, on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) levels, and the turnover rate in the hippocampus, frontal cortex, and amygdala, and brain regions that are associated with emotion. Also, the effects of MS in depression-like responses in adult mice were studied...
July 12, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701953/astrocyte-activation-in-locus-coeruleus-is-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-exacerbation-mediated-by-maternal-separation-and-social-isolation-stress
#19
Kazuo Nakamoto, Fuka Aizawa, Megumi Kinoshita, Yutaka Koyama, Shogo Tokuyama
Our previous studies demonstrated that emotional dysfunction associated with early life stress exacerbated nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia. Sex differences were observed in several anxiety tests, but not in mechanical allodynia. To elucidate the mechanism underlying these findings, we have now investigated the involvement of astrocytes in emotional dysfunction and enhancement of nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia in mice subjected to maternal separation combined with social isolation (MSSI) as an early life stress...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698731/intermittent-hemiplegia-in-a-boy-with-primary-moyamoya-disease-a-case-report-from-iran
#20
Reza Bidaki, Ehsan Zarepur
Moyamoya is a rare chronic progressive occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Its manifestation varies from stroke, progressive learning impairment and transient ischemic attack to headache and seizure. There is no accepted medical treatment and surgery usually, is needed. We report here a case of 8 yr old boy referred to psychiatrist outpatient. An eight yr old boy with intermittent hemiplegia was brought to Imam Ali Clinic, Yazd, Iran in 2015 because his headache and medical problem began from 6 yr old. Stress and excitement exacerbated his condition...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
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