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Early Life Stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822541/only-7-of-the-variation-in-feed-efficiency-in-veal-calves-can-be-predicted-from-variation-in-feeding-motivation-digestion-metabolism-immunology-and-behavioral-traits-in-early-life
#1
M S Gilbert, J J G C van den Borne, C G van Reenen, W J J Gerrits
High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822116/interactions-between-variation-in-candidate-genes-and-environmental-factors-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Błażej Misiak, Filip Stramecki, Łukasz Gawęda, Katarzyna Prochwicz, Maria M Sąsiadek, Ahmed A Moustafa, Dorota Frydecka
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) are complex and multidimensional disorders with high heritability rates. The contribution of genetic factors to the etiology of these disorders is increasingly being recognized as the action of multiple risk variants with small effect sizes, which might explain only a minor part of susceptibility. On the other site, numerous environmental factors have been found to play an important role in their causality. Therefore, in recent years, several studies focused on gene × environment interactions that are believed to bridge the gap between genetic underpinnings and environmental insults...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821809/impact-of-varying-social-experiences-during-life-history-on-behaviour-gene-expression-and-vasopressin-receptor-gene-methylation-in-mice
#3
Carina Bodden, Daniel van den Hove, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Norbert Sachser
Both negative and positive social experiences during sensitive life phases profoundly shape brain and behaviour. Current research is therefore increasingly focusing on mechanisms mediating the interaction between varying life experiences and the epigenome. Here, male mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions until adulthood, when they were subdivided into groups exposed to situations that either matched or mismatched previous conditions. It was investigated whether the resulting four life histories were associated with changes in anxiety-like behaviour, gene expression of selected genes involved in anxiety and stress circuits, and arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (Avpr1a) gene methylation...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820799/regional-anesthesia-and-analgesia-after-surgery-in-icu
#4
Mathieu Capdevila, Séverin Ramin, Xavier Capdevila
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim is to demonstrate that ICU physicians should play a pivotal role in developing regional anesthesia techniques that are underused in critically ill patients despite the proven facts in perioperative and long-term pain, organ dysfunction, and postsurgery patient health-related quality of life improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Regional anesthesia and/or analgesia strategies in ICU reduce the surgical and trauma-stress response in surgical patients as well as complications incidence...
August 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819051/the-effects-of-8-weeks-voluntary-wheel-running-on-the-contractile-performance-of-isolated-locomotory-soleus-and-respiratory-diaphragm-skeletal-muscle-during-early-ageing
#5
Jason Tallis, Matthew F Higgins, Frank Seebacher, Val M Cox, Michael J Duncan, Rob S James
Decreased skeletal muscle performance with increasing age is strongly associated with reduced mobility and quality of life. Increased physical activity is a widely prescribed method of reducing the detrimental effects of ageing on skeletal muscle contractility. The present study uses isometric and work loop testing protocols to uniquely investigate the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running on the contractile performance of isolated dynapenic soleus and diaphragm muscles of 38 week old CD1 mice. When compared to untrained controls, voluntary wheel running induced significant improvements in maximal isometric stress and work loop power, a reduced resistance to fatigue, but greater cumulative work during fatiguing work loop contractions in isolated muscle...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818246/cancer-prevention-during-early-adulthood-highlights-from-a-meeting-of-experts
#6
Dawn M Holman, Mary C White, Meredith L Shoemaker, Greta M Massetti, Mary C Puckett, Claire D Brindis
Using a life course approach, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division of Cancer Prevention and Control and the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors co-hosted a 2-day meeting with 15 multidisciplinary experts to consider evidence linking factors in early adulthood to subsequent cancer risk and strategies for putting that evidence into practice to reduce cancer incidence. This paper provides an overview of key themes from those meeting discussions, drawing attention to the influence that early adulthood can have on lifetime cancer risk and potential strategies for intervention during this phase of life...
September 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817980/pathways-to-pulmonary-hypertension-in-sickle-cell-disease-the-search-for-prevention-and-early-intervention
#7
Natalie R Shilo, Claudia R Morris
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) develops in a significant number of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. This review focuses on PH pathophysiology, risk stratification, and new recommendations for screening and treatment for patients with SCD. Areas covered: An extensive PubMed literature search was performed. While the pathophysiology of PH in SCD is yet to be fully deciphered, it is known that the etiology is multifactorial; hemolysis, hypercoagulability, hypoxemia, ischemic-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, and genetic susceptibility all contribute in varying degrees to endothelial dysfunction...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815538/long-noncoding-rnas-in-the-yeast-s-%C3%A2-cerevisiae
#8
Rachel O Niederer, Evan P Hass, David C Zappulla
Long noncoding RNAs have recently been discovered to comprise a sizeable fraction of the RNA World. The scope of their functions, physical organization, and disease relevance remain in the early stages of characterization. Although many thousands of lncRNA transcripts recently have been found to emanate from the expansive DNA between protein-coding genes in animals, there are also hundreds that have been found in simple eukaryotes. Furthermore, lncRNAs have been found in the bacterial and archaeal branches of the tree of life, suggesting they are ubiquitous...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814784/social-isolation-suppresses-actin-dynamics-and-synaptic-plasticity-through-adf-cofilin-inactivation-in-the-developing-rat-barrel-cortex
#9
Hirobumi Tada, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Kiwamu Takemoto, Susumu Jitsuki, Waki Nakajima, Mayu Koide, Naoko Yamamoto, Akiko Taguchi, Honami Kawai, Kasane Komiya, Kumiko Suyama, Hiroki Abe, Akane Sano, Takuya Takahashi
Exposure to a stressful environment early in life can cause psychiatric disorders by disrupting circuit formation. Actin plays central roles in regulating neuronal structure and protein trafficking. We have recently reported that neonatal isolation inactivated ADF/cofilin, the actin depolymerizing factor, resulted in a reduced actin dynamics at spines and an attenuation of synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor delivery in the juvenile rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), leading to altered social behaviours...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813248/early-stress-parental-motivation-and-reproductive-decision-making-applications-of-life-history-theory-to-parental-behavior
#10
REVIEW
Tomás Cabeza de Baca, Bruce J Ellis
This review focuses on the impact of parental behavior on child development, as interpreted from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. We employ psychosocial acceleration theory to reinterpret the effects of variation in parental investment and involvement on child development, arguing that these effects have been structured by natural selection to match the developing child to current and expected future environments. Over time, an individual's development, physiology, and behavior are organized in a coordinated manner (as instantiated in 'life history strategies') that facilitates survival and reproductive success under different conditions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812375/the-family-caregiver-experience%C3%A2-%C3%A2-examining-the-positive-and-negative-aspects-of-compassion-satisfaction-and-compassion-fatigue-as-caregiving-outcomes
#11
Susan H Lynch, Geoff Shuster, Marie L Lobo
OBJECTIVES: Caregiving results in both positive and negative outcomes for caregivers. The purpose of this study was to examine compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in family caregivers. METHODS: Using a cross sectional descriptive survey design with a convenience sample, 168 family caregivers of individuals with chronic illness completed a web-based survey. Measures included a demographic questionnaire, Caregiver Burden Interview, Brief COPE inventory and Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL)...
August 16, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812272/oxytocin-and-borderline-personality-disorder
#12
Katja Bertsch, Sabine C Herpertz
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a prevalent and severe mental disorder with affect dysregulation, impulsivity, and interpersonal dysfunction as its core features. Up to now, six studies have been performed to investigate the role of oxytocin in the pathogenesis of BPD. While a beneficial effect of oxytocin on threat processing and stress responsiveness was found, other studies using an oxytocin challenge design presented with rather heterogeneous results. Future studies have to include a sufficiently large sample of patients, control for gender, and focus on mechanisms known to be related to aversive early life experiences...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811198/house-sparrows-mitigate-growth-effects-of-post-natal-glucocorticoid-exposure-at-the-expense-of-longevity
#13
Jacquelyn K Grace, Louise Froud, Alizée Meillère, Frédéric Angelier
Acute, short-term effects of early-life stress and associated glucocorticoid upregulation on physiology and survival are widely documented across vertebrates. However, the persistence and severity of these effects are largely unknown, especially through the adult stage and for natural systems. Here, we investigate physiological, morphological, and survival effects of post-natal glucocorticoid upregulation across the nestling, juvenile, and adult life stages in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We manipulate circulating corticosterone concentration in wild, free-living house sparrow nestlings and monitor body size, size-corrected mass, two measures of health (hematocrit and phytohemagglutinin-induced skin swelling), and survival in a captive environment until adulthood...
August 12, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810405/a-case-control-study-of-psychosocial-factors-and-their-relationship-to-impairment-and-functionality-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Laia Briones-Buixassa, Raimon Milà, Francesc X Arrufat, Josep Mª Aragonès, Enric Bufill, Olivier Luminet, Rona Moss-Morris
The stress effect on multiple sclerosis remains unclear. Moderating psychosocial factors may be involved. This study compares some of them in people with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls, and their association with disease parameters. Coping style, social support, anxiety, alexithymia and early-life stress were measured, along with impairment and functionality. People with multiple sclerosis scored significantly higher on anxiety, alexithymia, and avoidance and instinctive coping but lower in social support...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807754/transgenerational-effects-of-early-environmental-insults-on-aging-and-disease-incidence
#15
REVIEW
Mirela Ambeskovic, Tessa J Roseboom, Gerlinde A S Metz
Adverse early life experiences are major influences on developmental trajectories with potentially life-long consequences. Prenatal or early postnatal exposure to stress, undernutrition or environmental toxicants may reprogram brain development and increase risk of behavioural and neurological disorders later in life. Not only experience within a single lifetime, but also ancestral experience affects health trajectories and chances of successful aging. The central mechanism in transgenerational programming of a disease may the formation of epigenetic memory...
August 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807706/the-relationship-between-psychological-symptoms-and-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#16
Himali Weerahandi, Nathan Goldstein, Laura P Gelfman, Ulrich Jorde, James N Kirkpatrick, Edith Meyerson, Judith Marble, Yoshifumi Naka, Sean Pinney, Mark S Slaughter, Emilia Bagiella, Deborah D Ascheim
CONTEXT: Ventricular assist devices (VADs) improve quality of life in advanced heart failure (HF) patients, but there are little data exploring psychological symptoms in this population. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and disease over time in VAD patients. METHODS: This prospective multicenter cohort study enrolled patients immediately before or after VAD implant and followed them up to forty-eight weeks...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807133/the-tense-the-hostile-and-the-distressed-multidimensional-psychosocial-risk-profiles-based-on-the-esc-interview-in-coronary-artery-disease-patients-the-thoresci-study
#17
Eveline van Montfort, Johan Denollet, Jeroen K Vermunt, Jos Widdershoven, Nina Kupper
BACKGROUND: While single psychosocial factors have been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, it is still unclear how they cluster. Therefore, we examined whether latent multidimensional psychosocial risk profiles could be identified in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) psychosocial screening interview. Additionally we examined whether these profiles were associated with specific sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics. METHOD: 681 coronary artery disease patients (age=64...
July 2017: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806748/temperature-effects-on-gene-expression-and-morphological-development-of-european-eel-anguilla-anguilla-larvae
#18
Sebastian N Politis, David Mazurais, Arianna Servili, Jose-Luis Zambonino-Infante, Joanna J Miest, Sune R Sørensen, Jonna Tomkiewicz, Ian A E Butts
Temperature is important for optimization of rearing conditions in aquaculture, especially during the critical early life history stages of fish. Here, we experimentally investigated the impact of temperature (16, 18, 20, 22 and 24°C) on thermally induced phenotypic variability, from larval hatch to first-feeding, and the linked expression of targeted genes [heat shock proteins (hsp), growth hormone (gh) and insulin-like growth factors (igf)] associated to larval performance of European eel, Anguilla anguilla...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802900/adolescent-chronic-variable-social-stress-influences-exploratory-behavior-and-nicotine-responses-in-male-but-not-female-balb-cj-mice
#19
M J Caruso, D E Reiss, J I Caulfield, J L Thomas, A N Baker, S A Cavigelli, H M Kamens
Anxiety disorders and nicotine use are significant contributors to global morbidity and mortality as independent and comorbid diseases. Early-life stress, potentially via stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, can exacerbate both. However, little is known about the factors that predispose individuals to the development of both anxiety disorders and nicotine use. Here, we examined the relationship between anxiety-like behaviors and nicotine responses following adolescent stress...
August 9, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801407/the-boundaries-of-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-design-of-the-searching-clinical-copd-onset-soon-study
#20
Gonzalo Labarca, Andrea Bustamante, Gonzalo Valdivia, Rodrigo Díaz, Álvaro Huete, Paul Mac Nab, Laura Mendoza, Jaime Leppe, Carmen Lisboa, Fernando Saldías, Orlando Díaz
INTRODUCTION: Clinical onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the point at which the disease is first identifiable by physicians. It is a poorly defined stage which seems to include both mild spirometric and non-spirometric disease, and could be described as early grade COPD, for practical purposes. While dyspnoea; chronic bronchitis and CT imaging evidence of emphysema and airway disease may be present very early, the lone significance of dyspnoea, the most relevant symptom in COPD in identifying these individuals, has been scarcely assessed...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
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