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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549331/does-self-efficacy-causally-influence-initial-smoking-cessation-an-experimental-study
#1
William G Shadel, Steven C Martino, Claude Setodji, Daniel Cervone, Katie Witkiewitz
Self-efficacy has been associated with smoking cessation outcomes in many correlational research studies, but strong causal inferences are lacking. This study tested whether self-efficacy affects initial smoking cessation in a laboratory experiment, which will allow for stronger causal inferences in this domain of inquiry. Participants (n=103 motivated adult smokers) were provided with brief cessation treatment over three days in preparation for quitting on a target quit day (TQD). In addition, participants were randomized to one of two standard self-efficacy manipulations in the form of bogus feedback about their chances of quitting smoking...
May 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546876/self-monitoring-symptoms-in-glaucoma-a-feasibility-study-of-a-web-based-diary-tool
#2
Leanne McDonald, Fiona C Glen, Deanna J Taylor, David P Crabb
Purpose. Glaucoma patients annually spend only a few hours in an eye clinic but spend more than 5000 waking hours engaged in everything else. We propose that patients could self-monitor changes in visual symptoms providing valuable between clinic information; we test the hypothesis that this is feasible using a web-based diary tool. Methods. Ten glaucoma patients with a range of visual field loss took part in an eight-week pilot study. After completing a series of baseline tests, volunteers were prompted to monitor symptoms every three days and complete a diary about their vision during daily life using a bespoke web-based diary tool...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546145/intensive-blood-pressure-lowering-provides-no-additional-benefits-and-results-in-more-adverse-events
#3
Else Charlotte Sandset, Urs Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545657/durability-of-a-low-shrinkage-tegdma-hema-free-resin-composite-system-in-class-ii-restorations-a-6-year-follow-up
#4
Jan W V van Dijken, Ulla Pallesen
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this randomized controlled prospective trial was to evaluate the durability of a low shrinkage and TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system in posterior restorations in a 6-year follow up. METHODS: 139 Class II restorations were placed in 67 patients with a mean age of 53 years (range 29-82). Each participant received at random two, as similar as possible, Class II restorations. In the first cavity of each pair the TEGDMA/HEMA-free resin composite system was placed with its 3-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (cmf-els)...
May 22, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544870/the-killing-of-kitty-genovese-what-else-does-this-case-tell-us
#5
Saul M Kassin
Well known in popular culture, the 1964 murder of Kitty Genovese in Queens, New York, became famous because not one of an alleged 38 bystanders called police until it was too late. Within psychology, this singular event inspired the study of bystander intervention. With the spotlight of history focused on Ms. Genovese and bystanders, other events, also profound for what they tell us about human social behavior, have escaped public notice. Based on archival records and current interviews, this article describes the three issues linked to Genovese...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540472/modelling-malpighian-tubule-crystals-within-the-predatory-soil-mite-pergamasus-longicornis-mesostigmata-parasitidae
#6
Clive E Bowman
The occurrence of refractive crystals (aka guanine) is characterised in the Malpighian tubules of the free-living predatory parasitiform soil mite Pergamasus longicornis (Berlese) from a temporal series of histological sections during and after feeding on larval dipteran prey. The tubular system behaves as a single uniform entity during digestion. Malpighian mechanisms are not the 'concentrative' mechanism sought for the early stasis in gut size during the second later phase of prey feeding. Nor are Malpighian changes associated with the time of 'anal dabbing' during feeding...
May 24, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539070/mitogenomics-data-reveal-effective-population-size-historical-bottlenecks-and-the-effects-of-hunting-on-new-zealand-fur-seals-arctocephalus-forsteri
#7
Arsalan Emami-Khoyi, Adrian M Paterson, David A Hartley, Laura J Boren, Robert H Cruickshank, James G Ross, Elaine C Murphy, Terry-Ann Else
The New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) passed through a population bottleneck due to commercial sealing during the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries. To facilitate future management options, we reconstructed the demographic history of New Zealand fur seals in a Bayesian framework using maternally inherited, mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mitogenomic data suggested two separate clades (most recent common ancestor 5000 years ago) of New Zealand fur seals that survived large-scale human harvest. Mitochondrial haplotype diversity was high, with 45 singletons identified from 46 individuals although mean nucleotide diversity was low (0...
May 25, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538732/cps1-maintains-pyrimidine-pools-and-dna-synthesis-in-kras-lkb1-mutant-lung-cancer-cells
#8
Jiyeon Kim, Zeping Hu, Ling Cai, Kailong Li, Eunhee Choi, Brandon Faubert, Divya Bezwada, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Pamela Villalobos, Yu-Fen Lin, Min Ni, Kenneth E Huffman, Luc Girard, Lauren A Byers, Keziban Unsal-Kacmaz, Christopher G Peña, John V Heymach, Els Wauters, Johan Vansteenkiste, Diego H Castrillon, Benjamin P C Chen, Ignacio Wistuba, Diether Lambrechts, Jian Xu, John D Minna, Ralph J DeBerardinis
Metabolic reprogramming by oncogenic signals promotes cancer initiation and progression. The oncogene KRAS and tumour suppressor STK11, which encodes the kinase LKB1, regulate metabolism and are frequently mutated in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Concurrent occurrence of oncogenic KRAS and loss of LKB1 (KL) in cells specifies aggressive oncological behaviour. Here we show that human KL cells and tumours share metabolomic signatures of perturbed nitrogen handling. KL cells express the urea cycle enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 (CPS1), which produces carbamoyl phosphate in the mitochondria from ammonia and bicarbonate, initiating nitrogen disposal...
May 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534380/investigation-of-depression-and-quality-of-life-factors-in-cancer-patients-caregivers
#9
Duygu Ayabakan-Cot, Emine Ates, Burak Kurt, Ersin Nazlican, Muhsin Akbala
PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore depression and quality of life (QoL) factors among caregivers of patients with cancer and to better understand who the caregivers are and how caregiving affects them. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted at the Medical Oncology Department of Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital. The study consisted of 150 cancer patients' caregivers who had been treated between September 1 and October 15, 2015. Percent distribution was used to evaluate the sociodemographic characteristics of caregivers...
March 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534033/the-population-attributable-fraction-of-occupational-copd-among-danish-women
#10
Else Würtz, Vivi Schlünssen, Tine Malling, Jens Georg Hansen, Øyvind Omland
The PAF of occupational COPD among Danish women http://ow.ly/CEmy308XEgl.
April 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533462/thermal-consequences-of-colour-and-near-infrared-reflectance
#11
REVIEW
Devi Stuart-Fox, Elizabeth Newton, Susana Clusella-Trullas
The importance of colour for temperature regulation in animals remains controversial. Colour can affect an animal's temperature because all else being equal, dark surfaces absorb more solar energy than do light surfaces, and that energy is converted into heat. However, in reality, the relationship between colour and thermoregulation is complex and varied because it depends on environmental conditions and the physical properties, behaviour and physiology of the animal. Furthermore, the thermal effects of colour depend as much on absorptance of near-infrared ((NIR), 700-2500 nm) as visible (300-700 nm) wavelengths of direct sunlight; yet the NIR is very rarely considered or measured...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533418/hdac1-links-early-life-stress-to-schizophrenia-like-phenotypes
#12
Sanaz Bahari-Javan, Hristo Varbanov, Rashi Halder, Eva Benito, Lalit Kaurani, Susanne Burkhardt, Heike Anderson-Schmidt, Ion Anghelescu, Monika Budde, Roman M Stilling, Joan Costa, Juan Medina, Detlef E Dietrich, Christian Figge, Here Folkerts, Katrin Gade, Urs Heilbronner, Manfred Koller, Carsten Konrad, Sara Y Nussbeck, Harald Scherk, Carsten Spitzer, Sebastian Stierl, Judith Stöckel, Andreas Thiel, Martin von Hagen, Jörg Zimmermann, Antje Zitzelsberger, Sybille Schulz, Andrea Schmitt, Ivana Delalle, Peter Falkai, Thomas G Schulze, Alexander Dityatev, Farahnaz Sananbenesi, André Fischer
Schizophrenia is a devastating disease that arises on the background of genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors, such as early life stress (ELS). In this study, we show that ELS-induced schizophrenia-like phenotypes in mice correlate with a widespread increase of histone-deacetylase 1 (Hdac1) expression that is linked to altered DNA methylation. Hdac1 overexpression in neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex, but not in the dorsal or ventral hippocampus, mimics schizophrenia-like phenotypes induced by ELS...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533206/myostatin-like-proteins-regulate-synaptic-function-and-neuronal-morphology
#13
Hrvoje Augustin, Kieran McGourty, Joern R Steinert, Helena M Cochemé, Jennifer Adcott, Melissa Cabecinha, Alec Vincent, Els F Halff, Josef T Kittler, Emmanuel Boucrot, Linda Partridge
Growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily play key roles in regulating neuronal and muscle function. Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass. However, expression of both Myostatin and its cognate receptors in other tissues, including brain and peripheral nerves, suggests a potential wider biological role. Here, we show that Myoglianin (MYO), the Drosophila homolog of Myostatin and GDF11, regulates not only body weight and muscle size, but also inhibits neuromuscular synapse strength and composition in a Smad2-dependent manner...
May 22, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532671/ochratoxin-a-transport-by-the-human-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-bcrp-multidrug-resistance-protein-2-mrp2-and-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptides-1a2-1b1-and-2b1
#14
Xiaozhe Qi, Els Wagenaar, Wentao Xu, Kunlun Huang, Alfred H Schinkel
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal secondary metabolite that can contaminate various foods. OTA has several toxic effects like nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and neurotoxicity in different animal species, but its mechanisms of toxicity are still unclear. How OTA accumulates in kidney, liver, and brain is as yet unknown, but transmembrane transport proteins are likely involved. We studied transport of OTA in vitro, using polarized MDCKII cells transduced with cDNAs of the efflux transporters mouse (m)Bcrp, human (h)BCRP, mMrp2, or hMRP2, and HEK293 cells overexpressing cDNAs of the human uptake transporters OATP1A2, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OATP2B1 at pH7...
May 19, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532236/evaluating-the-american-nurses-association-s-arguments-against-nurse-participation-in-assisted-suicide
#15
Eric Vogelstein
This discussion paper critically assesses the American Nurses Association's stated arguments against nurse participation in assisted suicide, as found in its current (2013) position statement. Seven distinct arguments can be gleaned from the American Nurses Association's statement, based on (1) the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements and its injunction against nurses acting with the sole intent to end life, (2) the risks of abuse and misuse of assisted suicide, (3) nursing's social contract or covenant with society, (4) the contention that nurses must not harm their patients, (5) the sanctity of life, (6) the traditions of nursing, and (7) the fundamental goals of nursing...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531097/evolution-not-revolution-nutrition-and-obesity
#16
Elaine C Rush, Mary R Yan
The increasing prevalence of obesity over the course of life is a global health challenge because of its strong and positive association with significant health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and some cancers. The complex causes and drivers of obesity include genetic factors, social, ecological and political influences, food production and supply, and dietary patterns. Public health messages and government food and activity guidelines have little impact; the retail food environment has many low-priced, nutrient-poor, but energy-dense products and there is a gap between what an individual knows and what they do...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529300/yi-kwang-su-s-love-and-history-records-of-modern-hospital-under-the-japanese-colonial-period
#17
Byoung Hoon Lee
This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su's novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528261/perfluoroalkylated-acids-in-the-eggs-of-great-tits-parus-major-near-a-fluorochemical-plant-in-flanders-belgium
#18
Thimo Groffen, Ana Lopez-Antia, Wendy D'Hollander, Els Prinsen, Marcel Eens, Lieven Bervoets
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent substances which have been detected in wildlife around the world, including birds. Although bird eggs have often been used to determine and monitor PFAAs levels in the marine environment, this has rarely been done in the terrestrial environment. In the present study we examined the concentrations and composition profile of 12 PFAAs (4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and 8 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the eggs of great tits (Parus major) collected at a fluorochemical plant and in three other areas, representing a gradient in distance from the pollution source (from 1 to 70 km), in Antwerp, Belgium...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526705/assisted-dying-for-healthy-older-people-a-step-too-far
#19
Els van Wijngaarden, Ab Klink, Carlo Leget, Anne-Mei The
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517235/new-psychoactive-substances-purchasing-and-supply-patterns-in-australia
#20
Rachel Sutherland, Raimondo Bruno, Amy Peacock, Paul Dietze, Courtney Breen, Lucinda Burns, Monica J Barratt
OBJECTIVE: To examine the purchasing and supply patterns of new psychoactive substance (NPS) consumers in Australia. METHOD: Data were obtained from a self-selected sample of 296 past-year NPS consumers, with comparisons made across dimethyltryptamine (n = 104), 2C-x (n = 59), NBOMe (n = 27), and synthetic cannabinoid (n = 22) users. RESULTS: Most consumers (58%) nominated a friend as their main NPS source, and almost half (46%) reported that they had supplied NPS to others in the past year (predominantly "social supply")...
May 18, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
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