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Ling Shih Quek, Nicolas Grasset, Joanita Binte Jasmen, Kim S Robinson, Sophie Bellanger
Cdc20 and Cdh1 activate the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a master cell cycle regulator. Although cell cycle modifications occur during differentiation of stem cells, a role for the APC/C on stem cell fate has not been established in embryonic or adult human tissues. We found that differentiated human primary keratinocytes (HPKs) from the skin express extremely low levels of Cdc20 compared to HPK stem cells (holoclones). In agreement with this, staining of human skin biopsies showed that Cdc20 is expressed in occasional cells from the basal and epibasal layers of the epidermis and is absent from the differentiated layers...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Wenhao Guo, Kunhong Zhong, Heng Wei, Chunlai Nie, Zhu Yuan
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a critical role in the development of human cancers including pancreatic cancer. Long non-coding RNA SPRY4-IT1 (sprouty4-intron transcript 1) has been reported to play an oncogenic role in various types of human carcinomas. However, the role of SPRY4-IT1 in pancreatic cancer is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the function of SPRY4-IT1 on proliferation and invasion in pancreatic cancer. In the current study, we dissected the function and mechanism of SPRY4-IT1 by multiple approaches including Real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting analysis, MTT assay, Wound healing assay, Transwell assay, and transfection...
2018: PloS One
Nam Nhut Phan, Chih-Yang Wang, Kuan-Lun Li, Chien-Fu Chen, Chung-Chieh Chiao, Han-Gang Yu, Pung-Ling Huang, Yen-Chang Lin
Breast cancer is a dangerous disease that results in high mortality rates for cancer patients. Many methods have been developed for the treatment and prevention of this disease. Determining the expression patterns of certain target genes in specific subtypes of breast cancer is important for developing new therapies for breast cancer. In the present study, we performed a holistic approach to screening the mRNA expression of six members of the cell division cycle-associated gene family (CDCA) with a focus on breast cancer using the Oncomine and The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) databases...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Chunguang Li, Liangtao Luo, Sheng Wei, Xiongbiao Wang
Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) is a common histological type of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the potential crucial genes associated with IDC and to provide valid biological information for further investigations. The gene expression profiles of GSE10780 which contained 42 histologically normal breast tissues and 143 IDC tissues were downloaded from the GEO database. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were performed and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was analyzed using Cytoscape...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Danielle Sitry-Shevah, Sharon Kaisari, Adar Teichner, Shirly Miniowitz-Shemtov, Avram Hershko
The mitotic checkpoint system ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis by preventing premature initiation of anaphase until correct bipolar attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle is reached. It promotes the assembly of a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of BubR1, Bub3, Cdc20, and Mad2, which inhibits the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. When the checkpoint is satisfied, anaphase is initiated by the disassembly of MCC. Previous studies indicated that the dissociation of APC/C-bound MCC requires ubiquitylation and suggested that the target of ubiquitylation is the Cdc20 component of MCC...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hoi Tang Ma, Randy Y C Poon
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) prevents premature segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. This process requires structural remodeling of MAD2 from O-MAD2 to C-MAD2 conformation. After the checkpoint is satisfied, C-MAD2 is reverted to O-MAD2 to allow anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) to trigger anaphase. Recently, the AAA+-ATPase TRIP13 was shown to act in concert with p31comet to catalyze C- to O-MAD2. Paradoxically, although C-MAD2 is present in TRIP13-deficient cells, the SAC cannot be activated...
February 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Yuping Han, Xuefei Jin, Hui Zhou, Bin Liu
The aim of the present study was to further investigate the molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer. The microarray data GSE52519 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, comprising 9 bladder cancer and 3 normal bladder tissue samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using Limma package analysis. Subsequently, Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Reactome pathway enrichment analyses were performed for down- and upregulated DEGs. Transcription factors and genes associated with cancer from DEGs were identified...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Charlotte Trussart, Céline Pirlot, Emmanuel Di Valentin, Jacques Piette, Yvette Habraken
Overexpression of the ubiquitous type II melanoma antigen-D2 (MAGED2) in numerous types of cancer suggests that this protein contributes to carcinogenesis, a well-documented characteristic of other MAGE proteins. Modification of MAGED2 intracellular localization during cell cycle phases and following treatment with camptothecin (CPT) and phosphorylation by ATM/ATR following ionizing irradiation led us to investigate the molecular functions of MAGED2 in the cellular response to DNA damage. Cell cycle regulators, cell cycle progression, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation were compared between MAGED2-sufficient and -depleted U2OS cells following exposure to CPT...
February 1, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Srinadh Choppara, Sunil K Malonia, Ganga Sankaran, Michael R Green, Manas Kumar Santra
The F-box protein FBXO31 is a tumor suppressor that is encoded in 16q24.3, for which there is loss of heterozygosity in various solid tumors. FBXO31 serves as the substrate-recognition component of the SKP/Cullin/F-box protein class of E3 ubiquitin ligases and has been shown to direct degradation of pivotal cell-cycle regulatory proteins including cyclin D1 and the p53 antagonist MDM2. FBXO31 levels are normally low but increase substantially following genotoxic stress through a mechanism that remains to be determined...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Shi-Wen Jiang, Wei Zhou, Jianhao Wang, Lauren M Little, Lynn Leaphart, Jacob Jay, Eseosaserea Igbinigie, Haibin Chen, Jinping Li
Cell fusion is a hallmark of placental trophoblast cell differentiation and the mature syncytiotrophoblasts play essential roles for fetal-maternal exchange and production of pregnancy-related hormones. Using a well-established in vitro trophoblast differentiation model, we performed a microarray analysis on mRNA expression in trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast cell cultures. Dramatic changes in gene expression patterns were detected during trophoblast differentiation. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the reliability of the microarray data...
January 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Xiaona He, Cheng Zhang, Chao Shi, Quqin Lu
Compared to other types of lung cancer, lung adenocarcinoma patients with a history of smoking have a poor prognosis during the treatment of lung cancer. How lung adenocarcinoma-related genes are differentially expressed between smoker and non-smoker patients has yet to be fully elucidated. We performed a meta-analysis of four publicly available microarray datasets related to lung adenocarcinoma tissue in patients with a history of smoking using R statistical software. The top 50 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in smoking vs...
January 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
S Q Shi, J-J Ke, Q S Xu, W Q Wu, Y Y Wan
HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), which can be induced by cirrhosis and viral hepatitis infection, is the most frequent form of liver cancer. This study is performed to investigate the mechanisms of HCC. GSE57957 was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database, including 39 HCC samples and 39 adjacent non-tumorous samples. The DEGs (differentially expressed genes) were screened using the limma package in R, and then were conducted with enrichment analysis using "BioCloud" platform. Using STRING database, WebGestalt tool, as well as ITFP and TRANSFAC databases, PPI (protein-protein interaction) pairs, miRNA (microRNA)-target pairs, and TF (transcription factor)-target pairs separately were predicted...
2018: Neoplasma
Junjie Piao, Jie Sun, Yang Yang, Tiefeng Jin, Liyan Chen, Zhenhua Lin
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This study aims to explore molecular mechanism of NSCLC. METHODS: Microarray dataset was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and analyzed by using GEO2R. Functional and pathway enrichment analysis were performed based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Then, STRING, Cytoscape and MCODE were applied to construct the Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and screen hub genes...
March 20, 2018: Gene
Lingwei Li, Liqing Fan, Nanni Peng, Lihua Yang, Lisha Mou, Weiren Huang
Idiopathic azoospermia (IA) is a severe form of male infertility due to unknown causes. To investigate relative gene expression in human idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermia, we sequenced all the exons of cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) in 766 patients diagnosed with IA, as well as in 521 normally fertile men. Three novel missense mutations (S72G, R322Q, R383C) of CDC20 were detected and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The mRNA levels of securin, cyclin B, cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), which are all targeted for destruction via the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosomeCDC20 (APC/CCDC20) pathway, were detected at relatively high levels using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
Aaron M Horning, Yao Wang, Che-Kuang Lin, Anna D Louie, Rohit R Jadhav, Chia-Nung Hung, Chiou-Miin Wang, Chun-Lin Lin, Nameer B Kirma, Michael A Liss, Addanki P Kumar, LuZhe Sun, Zhijie Liu, Wei-Ting Chao, Qianben Wang, Victor X Jin, Chun-Liang Chen, Tim H-M Huang
Increasing evidence suggests the presence of minor cell subpopulations in prostate cancer that are androgen independent and poised for selection as dominant clones after androgen deprivation therapy. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon by stratifying cell subpopulations based on transcriptome profiling of 144 single LNCaP prostate cancer cells treated or untreated with androgen after cell-cycle synchronization. Model-based clustering of 397 differentially expressed genes identified eight potential subpopulations of LNCaP cells, revealing a previously unappreciable level of cellular heterogeneity to androgen stimulation...
February 15, 2018: Cancer Research
Weibing Yang, Raymond Wightman, Elliot M Meyerowitz
In eukaryotes, most RNA molecules are exported into the cytoplasm after transcription. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) reside and function primarily inside the nucleus, but nuclear localization of mRNAs has been considered rare in both animals and plants. Here we show that Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) coactivator genes CDC20 and CCS52B (CDH1 ortholog) are co-expressed with their target cyclin B genes (CYCBs) during mitosis. CYCB transcripts can be exported and translated; however, CDC20 and CCS52B mRNAs are confined to the nucleus at prophase, and the cognate proteins are not translated until the redistribution of the mRNAs to the cytoplasm after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) at prometaphase...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
Daniela de Paula Borges, Antônio Wesley Araújo Dos Santos, Carlos Roberto Koscky Paier, Howard Lopes Ribeiro, Marília Braga Costa, Izabelle Rocha Farias, Roberta Taiane Germano de Oliveira, Ivo Gabriel da Frota França, Gabrielle Melo Cavalcante, Sílvia Maria Meira Magalhães, Ronald Feitosa Pinheiro
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal disease characterized by insufficiency of bone marrow, increase of apoptosis and increased risk of acute leukemia progression. Proteins related to the mitotic spindle (AURKA, AURKB, TPX2), to the mitotic checkpoint (MAD2, CDC20) and the regulation of the cell cycle (p21) are directly related to chromosomal stability and tumor development. This study aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of these genes in 101 MDS patients using a real-time PCR methodology...
January 2018: Leukemia Research
Jan Budczies, Carsten Denkert, Balázs Győrffy, Peter Schirmacher, Albrecht Stenzinger
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the PD-L1/PD-1 immune checkpoint axis represents one of the most promising approaches of immunotherapy for various cancer types. However, immune checkpoint inhibition is successful only in subpopulations of patients emphasizing the need for powerful biomarkers that adequately reflect the complex interaction between the tumor and the immune system. Recently, recurrent copy number gains (CNG) in chromosome 9p involving PD-L1 were detected in many cancer types including lung cancer, melanoma, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, cervical cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, prostate cancer, gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, and triple-negative breast cancer...
December 6, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
Melissa L Brulotte, Byung-Cheon Jeong, Faxiang Li, Bing Li, Eric B Yu, Qiong Wu, Chad A Brautigam, Hongtao Yu, Xuelian Luo
The spindle checkpoint maintains genomic stability and prevents aneuploidy. Unattached kinetochores convert the latent open conformer of the checkpoint protein Mad2 (O-Mad2) to the active closed conformer (C-Mad2), bound to Cdc20. C-Mad2-Cdc20 is incorporated into the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The C-Mad2-binding protein p31comet and the ATPase TRIP13 promote MCC disassembly and checkpoint silencing. Here, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we show that TRIP13 and p31comet catalyze the conversion of C-Mad2 to O-Mad2, without disrupting its stably folded core...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Manoj B Parmar, Daniel Nisakar Meenakshi Sundaram, Remant Bahadur K C, Robert Maranchuk, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Judith C Hugh, Raimar Löbenberg, Hasan Uludağ
Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer with few therapeutic options if it recurs after adjuvant chemotherapy. RNA interference could be an alternative therapy for metastatic breast cancer, where small interfering RNA (siRNA) can silence the expression of aberrant genes critical for growth and migration of malignant cells. Here, we formulated a siRNA delivery system using lipid-substituted polyethylenimine (PEI) and hyaluronic acid (HA), and characterized the size, ζ-potential and cellular uptake of the nanoparticulate delivery system...
January 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
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