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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926863/evaluation-of-cannabinoid-and-terpenoid-content-cannabis-flower-compared-to-supercritical-co2-concentrate
#1
Michelle Sexton, Kyle Shelton, Pam Haley, Mike West
A recent cannabis use survey revealed that 60% of cannabis users rely on smelling the flower to select their cannabis. Olfactory indicators in plants include volatile compounds, principally represented by the terpenoid fraction. Currently, medicinal- and adult-use cannabis is marketed in the United States with relatively little differentiation between products other than by a common name, association with a species type, and Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol potency. Because of this practice, how terpenoid compositions may change during an extraction process is widely overlooked...
September 19, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925883/novel-therapeutics-in-glaucoma-management
#2
Claudio Bucolo, Chiara Bianca Maria Platania, Filippo Drago, Michele Reibaldi, Vincenza Bonfiglio, Teresio Avitabile, Maurizio Uva
Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death and alterations of visual field. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is considered the main risk factor of glaucoma, even though other factors cannot be ruled out, such as epigenetic mechanisms. An overview of the ultimate promising experimental drugs to manage glaucoma has been provided. In particular, we have focused on purinergic ligands, KATP channel activators, gases (nitric oxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide), non-glucocorticoid steroidal compounds, neurotrophic factors, PI3K/Akt activators, citicoline, histone deacetylase inhibitors, cannabinoids, dopamine and serotonin receptors ligands, small interference RNA, and Rho kinase inhibitors...
September 15, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923526/results-of-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-study-of-nabiximols-oromucosal-spray-as-adjunctive-therapy-in-advanced-cancer-patients-with-chronic-uncontrolled-pain
#3
Aron H Lichtman, Eberhard Albert Lux, Robert McQuade, Sandro Rossetti, Raymond Sanchez, Wei Sun, Stephen Wright, Elena Kornyeyeva, Marie T Fallon
CONTEXT: Prior phase 2/3 studies found that cannabinoids might provide adjunctive analgesia in advanced cancer patients with uncontrolled pain. OBJECTIVE: To assess adjunctive nabiximols (Sativex(®)), an extract of Cannabis sativa containing two potentially therapeutic cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol [27 mg/mL] and cannabidiol [25mg/mL]), in advanced cancer patients with chronic pain unalleviated by optimized opioid therapy. METHODS: Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with advanced cancer and average pain NRS scores ≥ 4 and ≤ 8 despite optimized opioid therapy...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921814/nabilone-pharmacotherapy-for-cannabis-dependence-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-study
#4
Kevin P Hill, Matthew D Palastro, Staci A Gruber, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Shelly F Greenfield, Scott E Lukas, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of nabilone, a cannabinoid agonist, to treat cannabis dependence. METHODS: Eighteen adults with DSM-IV cannabis dependence were randomized to receive either 2 mg/day of nabilone (n = 10) or placebo (n = 8) for 10 weeks in addition to medication management. Twelve participants, six in each group, completed treatment. The safety and tolerability of nabilone was assessed at each visit...
September 18, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921757/the-neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-r451c-neuroligin-3-mutation-hampers-the-expression-of-long-term-synaptic-depression-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#5
Giuseppina Martella, Maria Meringolo, Laura Trobiani, Antonella De Jaco, Antonio Pisani, Paola Bonsi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders with a complex genetic etiology. Current theories on the pathogenesis of ASDs suggest that they might arise from an aberrant synaptic transmission affecting specific brain circuits and synapses. The striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia circuit, is one of the brain regions involved in ASDs. Mouse models of ASDs have provided evidence for an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Here we investigated the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal striatum of the R451C-NL3 phenotypic mouse model of autism...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921125/exogenous-cannabinoid-efficacy-merely-a-pharmacokinetic-interaction
#6
Jennifer H Martin, Jennifer Schneider, Catherine J Lucas, Peter Galettis
Endocannabinoid pharmacology is now relatively well understood with a number of endocannabinoids and endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitters identified and the pharmacokinetics relatively well ascertained. Further, the cannabinoid receptors are now molecularly and pharmacologically characterised and the cell processes involved in endocannabinoid transcription, synthesis, post-translational modification and protein expression are reported. Endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to have key roles in immune and pain pathways and neuro-behavioural signalling including appetite regulation...
September 18, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918320/in-silico-interaction-analysis-of-cannabinoid-receptor-interacting-protein-1b-crip1b-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor
#7
Pratishtha Singh, Anjali Ganjiwale, Allyn C Howlett, Sudha M Cowsik
Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein isoform 1b (CRIP1b) is known to interact with the CB1 receptor. Alternative splicing of the CNRIP1 gene produces CRIP1a and CRIP1b with a difference in the third exon only. Exons 1 and 2 encode for a functional domain in both proteins. CRIP1a is involved in regulating CB1 receptor internalization, but the function of CRIP1b is not very well characterized. Since there are significant identities in functional domains of these proteins, CRIP1b is a potential target for drug discovery...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917371/cannabinoids-for-spasticity-due-to-multiple-sclerosis-or-paraplegia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Victoria P da Rovare, Gabriel P A Magalhães, Guilherme D A Jardini, Matheus L Beraldo, Mariel O Gameiro, Arnav Agarwal, Gustavo José Luvizutto, Lucas Paula-Ramos, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Luciane Dias de Oliveira, Rodrigo Bazan, Regina El Dib
OBJECTIVES: Spasticity remains highly prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. To summarize the effects of cannabinoids compared with usual care, placebo for spasticity due to multiple sclerosis (MS) or paraplegia. METHODS: Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS to March 2017 were performed to identify randomized controlled trials. The primary outcomes were spasticity and spasm frequency. The criteria were any patient with MS and spasticity affecting upper or lower limbs or both, and that had a confirmed diagnosis of MS based on validated criteria, or however defined by the authors of the included studies...
October 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916833/inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-and-histone-acetyltransferase-activity-by-rimonabant-a-therapeutic-target-for-colon-cancer
#9
Maria Chiara Proto, Donatella Fiore, Chiara Piscopo, Silvia Franceschelli, Valentina Bizzarro, Chiara Laezza, Gianluigi Lauro, Alessandra Feoli, Alessandra Tosco, Giuseppe Bifulco, Gianluca Sbardella, Maurizio Bifulco, Patrizia Gazzerro
In a high percentage (≥85%) of both sporadic and familial adenomatous polyposis forms of colorectal cancer (CRC), the inactivation of the APC tumor suppressor gene initiates tumor formation and modulates the Wnt/β-Catenin transduction pathways involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and metastasis. Increasing evidence showed that the endocannabinoids control tumor growth and progression, both in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the effect of Rimonabant, a Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) inverse agonist, on the Wnt/β-Catenin pathway in HCT116 and SW48 cell lines carrying the genetic profile of metastatic CRC poorly responsive to chemotherapies...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915313/a-metabolomic-approach-applied-to-a-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-hplc-esi-hrms-ms-towards-the-comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-chemical-composition-of-cannabis-medicinal-extracts
#10
Cinzia Citti, Umberto Maria Battisti, Daniela Braghiroli, Giuseppe Ciccarella, Martin Schmid, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giuseppe Cannazza
INTRODUCTION: Cannabis sativa L. is a powerful medicinal plant and its use has recently increased for the treatment of several pathologies. Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur. Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure...
September 15, 2017: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914627/antinociceptive-effects-of-jwh015-in-female-and-male-rats
#11
Rebecca M Craft, Nicholas Z Greene, Alexa A Wakley
Despite greater chronic pain prevalence in females compared with males, and the analgesic potential of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) agonists, CB2 agonists have rarely been tested in females. The aim of the present study was to compare the antinociceptive effects of a CB2-preferring agonist, (2-methyl-1-propyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenylmethanone (JWH015), in female and male rats against acute pain and persistent inflammatory pain. JWH015 (5-20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) produced dose-dependent and time-dependent increases in latency to respond on the tail withdrawal and paw pressure tests that did not differ statistically between the sexes...
September 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913816/re-visiting-the-endocannabinoid-system-and-its-therapeutic-potential-in-obesity-and-associated-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Joyce M Richey, Orison Woolcott
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review was to revisit the possibility of the endocannabinoid system being a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity by focusing on the peripheral roles in regulating appetite and energy metabolism. RECENT FINDINGS: Previous studies with the global cannabinoid receptor blocker rimonabant, which has both central and peripheral properties, showed that this drug has beneficial effects on cardiometabolic function but severe adverse psychiatric side effects...
September 14, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912087/endocannabinoid-mechanism-in-amphetamine-type-stimulant-use-disorders-a-short-review
#13
REVIEW
Hang Su, Min Zhao
Recent evidence shows that the endocannabinoid system is involved in amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) use disorders. To elucidate the role of the endocannabinoid system in ATS addiction, we reviewed results of studies using cannabinoid receptor agonists, antagonists as well as knockout model. The endocannabinoid system seems to play a role in reinstatement and relapse of ATS addiction and ATS-induced psychiatric symptoms. The molecular mechanisms of this system remains unclear, the association with dopamine system in nucleus accumbens is most likely involved...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911631/new-psychoactive-substances-of-natural-origin-a%C3%A2-brief-review
#14
REVIEW
Ling-Yi Feng, Altansuvd Battulga, Eunyoung Han, Heesun Chung, Jih-Heng Li
Plant-based drugs of abuse are as old as recorded human history. Although traditional addictive substances, such as opium, cannabis and coca, have been controlled by the United Nations anti-drug conventions, many, if not most, natural plants with addictive or abuse liability remain elusive. Therefore, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has warned the emerging threat from new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are mostly derived or modified from the constituents of natural origin. For example, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones are derived from the cannabis and khat plant, respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910664/the-analysis-of-132-novel-psychoactive-substances-in-human-hair-using-a-single-step-extraction-by-tandem-lc-ms
#15
Vassiliki A Boumba, Matthew Di Rago, Melissa Peka, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos
A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the targeted screening of 132 NPS in hair is described. Drugs include cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids, as well as amphetamine-type stimulants, piperazines and other hallucinogenic compounds. This method utilizes hair pulverization in acidified methanol followed by analysis using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem MS. The limit of detection varied from 0.001 to 0.1ng/mg hair among the various analytes. The method was validated in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability and stability...
September 5, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905873/cardiovascular-effects-of-marijuana-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly
#16
REVIEW
Pal Pacher, Sabine Steffens, György Haskó, Thomas H Schindler, George Kunos
Dysregulation of the endogenous lipid mediators endocannabinoids and their G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1R and CB2R) has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular pathologies. Activation of CB1R facilitates the development of cardiometabolic disease, whereas activation of CB2R (expressed primarily in immune cells) exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is an agonist of both CB1R and CB2R, and exerts its psychoactive and adverse cardiovascular effects through the activation of CB1R in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems...
September 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901432/effects-of-coadministration-of-low-dose-cannabinoid-type-2-receptor-agonist-and-morphine-on-vanilloid-receptor-1-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-cancer-pain
#17
Mingyue Zhang, Meng Chi, Huichao Zou, Songyu Tian, Zhaodi Zhang, Guonian Wang
Morphine is widely used as an analgesic to treat moderate to severe pain, but chronic morphine use is associated with development of tolerance and dependence, which limits its analgesic efficacy. Our previous research has showed that nonanalgetic dose of a cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor agonist reduced morphine tolerance in cancer pain. A previous study showed the colocalization of CB2 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in human and rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. Whether coadministration of a CB2 receptor agonist and morphine could reduce TRPV1 expression in morphine‑induced antinociception and tolerance in cancer pain is unclear...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901271/the-role-of-cannabinoid-receptors-in-renal-diseases
#18
Hélène François, Lola Lecru
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a major challenge for Public Health systems and corresponds to the replacement of renal functional tissue by extra-cellular matrix proteins such as collagens and fibronectin. There is no efficient treatment to date for CKD except nephroprotective strategies. The cannabinoid system and more specifically the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) may represent a new therapeutic target in CKD. Our review will first focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the cannabinoid system in normal renal physiology and in various experimental nephropathies, especially diabetes...
September 11, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899427/activation-of-dorsal-horn-cannabinoid-cb2-receptor-suppresses-the-expression-of-p2y12-and-p2y13-receptors-in-neuropathic-pain-rats
#19
Juan Niu, Dujuan Huang, Rui Zhou, MingXia Yue, Tao Xu, Junna Yang, Li He, Hong Tian, XiaoHong Liu, Junwei Zeng
BACKGROUND: More evidence suggests that dorsal spinal cord microglia is an important site contributing to CB2 receptor-mediated analgesia. The upregulation of P2Y12 and P2Y13 purinoceptors in spinal dorsal horn microglia is involved in the development of pain behavior caused by peripheral nerve injury. However, it is not known whether the expression of P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors at spinal dorsal horn will be influenced after CB2 receptor activation in neuropathic pain rats. METHODS: Chronic constriction injury (CCI) and intrathecal ADPbetaS injection were performed in rats to induce neuropathic pain...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898309/-psychiatric-complications-of-cannabis-use
#20
Adriana V Bulacia
atural and synthetic cannabinoids modify the modulatory activity of the endocannabinoid system. Psychiatric complications induced by cannabis are analyzed, i.e. those that start with intoxication but persist beyond the removal of the drug (cognitive, psychotic and anxiety disorders) and the development of addictive behavior. Adolescence is the period of greatest vulnerability to cognitive impact. Cannabis-induced psychosis has been linked to consumption of high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol and personality traits of anxiety and somatization...
November 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
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