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Myeloablative Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913497/response-adapted-frontline-therapy-for-hodgkin-lymphoma-are-we-there-yet
#1
Peter W M Johnson
Treating Hodgkin lymphoma by using chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy is highly successful, with substantially fewer deaths from lymphoma than from other causes in recent studies of both early-stage and advanced-stage disease. Long-term toxicity is a major consideration in this context, and recent trials have used functional imaging with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography early in the course of treatment (interim PET) to assess response and modulate subsequent therapy. In early-stage disease, this has allowed omission of consolidation radiotherapy after a good response to doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy, and trials have shown that this can be done without detriment to overall survival, despite a small increase in rates of recurrence of ∼5%...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912088/enhancing-stem-cell-transplantation-with-nutri-technology
#2
Valter D Longo, Salvatore Cortellino
It is necessary to employ myeloablative irradiation or chemotherapy to deplete the HSC niche to optimize hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In a recent issue of Science, Taya and colleagues provide evidence for an alternative to the toxic chemoirradiative procedure by showing that a valine-restricted diet is sufficient to empty the bone marrow niche.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900092/primary-orbital-precursor-t-cell-lymphoblastic-lymphoma-report-of-a-unique-case
#3
Lisa Stenman, Marta Persson, Fredrik Enlund, Erik Clasen-Linde, Göran Stenman, Steffen Heegaard
Primary T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) in the eye region is very rare. The present study described a unique case of T-LBL involving the extraocular muscles. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a 3-week history of headache, reduced visual acuity and edema of the left eye. Clinical examination revealed left-sided exophthalmus, periorbital edema, chemosis, and reduced motility of the left eye. A magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed thickening of the left orbital muscles and a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan also demonstrated activity in a subclavicular lymph node...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881982/milestones-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-first-human-studies-to-current-developments
#4
REVIEW
Mateja Kralj Juric, Sakhila Ghimire, Justyna Ogonek, Eva M Weissinger, Ernst Holler, Jon J van Rood, Machteld Oudshoorn, Anne Dickinson, Hildegard T Greinix
Since the early beginnings, in the 1950s, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established curative treatment for an increasing number of patients with life-threatening hematological, oncological, hereditary, and immunological diseases. This has become possible due to worldwide efforts of preclinical and clinical research focusing on issues of transplant immunology, reduction of transplant-associated morbidity, and mortality and efficient malignant disease eradication. The latter has been accomplished by potent graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) effector cells contained in the stem cell graft...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875952/in-vitro-sensitivity-profiling-of-neuroblastoma-cells-against-a-comprehensive-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitor-library-to-identify-agents-for-future-therapeutic-studies
#5
Anjali Singh, Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Aarthi Jayanthan, Aru Narendran
Solid tumors represent one of the most widespread causes of death in children across the world. Neuroblastoma (NB) constitutes about 8% of all childhood tumors, yet accounts for more than 15% of death, with an unacceptable overall survival rate. Despite the current multimodal therapeutic approaches involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy with myeloablative therapy and hematopoietic stem cell rescue, there is growing realization of the limitations of conventional agents to improve the outcome in high risk metastatic disease...
November 22, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830764/neuroblastoma
#6
Katherine K Matthay, John M Maris, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Akira Nakagawara, Crystal L Mackall, Lisa Diller, William A Weiss
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour occurring in childhood and has a diverse clinical presentation and course depending on the tumour biology. Unique features of these neuroendocrine tumours are the early age of onset, the high frequency of metastatic disease at diagnosis and the tendency for spontaneous regression of tumours in infancy. The most malignant tumours have amplification of the MYCN oncogene (encoding a transcription factor), which is usually associated with poor survival, even in localized disease...
November 10, 2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780981/longitudinal-observation-of-serum-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-three-girls-after-cancer-treatment
#7
Yoko Miyoshi, Kie Yasuda, Makiko Tachibana, Hisao Yoshida, Emiko Miyashita, Takako Miyamura, Yoshiko Hashii, Kae Hashimoto, Tadashi Kimura, Keiichi Ozono
Gonadal dysfunction and infertility are major endocrinological late effects among childhood cancer survivors. Chemotherapy and radiation have gonadotoxic effects and diminish the ovarian reserve. The serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a useful marker of ovarian reserve in survivors. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the variations of AMH in evaluating the acute and chronic effects of cancer therapy on the ovary. Three young female patients with different hematological diseases were registered, and their medical records were reviewed...
October 2016: Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology: Case Reports and Clinical Investigations: Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778197/outcome-of-flt3-itd-positive-acute-myeloid-leukemia-impact-of-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-treatment
#8
Maximilian Fleischmann, Ulf Schnetzke, Karin G Schrenk, Volker Schmidt, Herbert G Sayer, Inken Hilgendorf, Andreas Hochhaus, Sebastian Scholl
BACKGROUND: Activating mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 (fms-related tyrosine kinase 3) reflect the most frequent molecular aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) are characterized by an unfavorable prognosis and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allogeneic SCT) in first complete remission is recommended. In case of imminent or frank relapse following allogeneic SCT, treatment with FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) constitutes a promising clinical approach to induce hematologic remission without conventional chemotherapy...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770281/long-term-safety-of-growth-hormone-replacement-therapy-after-childhood-medulloblastoma-and-pnet-it-is-time-to-set-aside-old-concerns
#9
Alice Indini, Elisabetta Schiavello, Veronica Biassoni, Luca Bergamaschi, Maria Chiara Magni, Nadia Puma, Stefano Chiaravalli, Federica Pallotti, Ettore Seregni, Barbara Diletto, Emilia Pecori, Lorenza Gandola, Geraldina Poggi, Maura Massimino
To assess the long-term safety of administering growth hormone (GH) in patients with GH deficiency due to treatment for childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Data were retrospectively retrieved on children receiving GH supplementation, assessing their disease-free and overall survival outcomes and risk of secondary malignancies using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Overall 65 children were consecutively collected from May 1981 to April 2013. All patients had undergone craniospinal irradiation (total dose 18-39 Gy), and subsequently received GH for a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 81 (50...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708204/evidence-for-the-efficacy-of-immunotherapy-in-children-with-high-risk-neuroblastoma
#10
Elwira Szychot, Jarosław Peregud-Pogorzelski, Paweł Wawryków, Andrzej Brodkiewicz
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial malignancy of childhood, with the highest incidence in children younger than 4 years. The prognosis depends on many factors, such as age at diagnosis, stage of disease and molecular genetic subtype. More than 50% of children who present with the disease are deemed to have high-risk neuroblastoma. The standard therapy for children with high-risk neuroblastoma consists of intensive chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, myeloablative consolidation with autologous haematopoietic stem cell rescue followed by the treatment of minimal residual disease with 13-cis-retinoic acid...
September 28, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662779/ocular-disposition-of-treosulfan-and-its-active-epoxy-transformers-following-intravenous-administration-in-rabbits
#11
Michał Romański, Anna Kasprzyk, Agnieszka Karbownik, Franciszek K Główka
Treosulfan (TREO) has an established position in chemotherapy of advanced ovarian cancer but has been also applied in uveal melanoma patients. Moreover, it is used as an orphan drug for a myeloablative conditioning prior to stem cell transplantation. In this paper, biodistribution of prodrug TREO and its active monoepoxide (S,S-EBDM) and diepoxide (S,S-DEB) into aqueous humor of the eye was studied for the first time. For that purpose, alone TREO and the mixture of TREO, S,S-EBDM and S,S-DEB were administered intravenously to New Zealand White rabbits...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589851/renal-dysfunction-following-bone-marrow-transplantation
#12
Stephan Kemmner, Mareike Verbeek, Uwe Heemann
Acute kidney injury and long-term renal dysfunction are common problems following bone morrow transplantation (BMT) and highly related to mortality. The frequency and risk of renal dysfunction are directly related to the method of BMT, with myeloablative allogeneic BMT being associated to the highest risk followed by non-myeloablative allogeneic and myeloablative autologous BMT. The type of BMT is, thus, more important than co-factors such as advanced age, comorbidities, or high baseline serum creatinine. The causes for renal failure are multiple and include chemotherapy and high-dose radiation with fluid loss by diarrhea or vomiting, sepsis or nephrotoxic drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors and antimicrobials...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530055/the-role-of-conditioning-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-gene-therapy
#13
Maria Ester Bernardo, Alessandro Aiuti
Gene therapy (GT) approaches based on autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) corrected ex vivo have shown therapeutic benefit in a number of inherited disorders. GT bares the advantage of allowing each patient to be her/his own donor while reducing the risks of immune-mediated complications as compared with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT). In order to achieve stable engraftment of HSC, patients undergoing transplantation of allogeneic or autologous HSC receive a chemotherapy- and/or radiotherapy-based preparation...
August 16, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486759/chemo-immunotherapy-induces-tumor-regression-in-a-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-mammary-carcinogenesis
#14
Eleonora Aricò, Paola Sestili, Giulia Carpinelli, Rossella Canese, Serena Cecchetti, Giovanna Schiavoni, Maria Teresa D'Urso, Filippo Belardelli, Enrico Proietti
Tumor-specific immune tolerance represents an obstacle for the development of effective anti-tumor immune responses through cancer vaccines. We here evaluated the efficacy of chemo-immunotherapy in breaking tumor-specific immune tolerance in an almost incurable mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis.Transgenic HER-2/neu mice bearing large mammary tumors received the adoptive transfer of splenocytes and serum isolated from immune donors, with or without pre-conditioning with cyclophosphamide. Treatment efficacy was assessed by monitoring tumor growth by manual inspection and by magnetic resonance imaging...
July 28, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471868/first-line-therapy-of-peripheral-t-cell-lymphoma-extension-and-long-term-follow-up-of-a-study-investigating-the-role-of-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation
#15
M Wilhelm, M Smetak, P Reimer, E Geissinger, T Ruediger, B Metzner, N Schmitz, A Engert, K Schaefer-Eckart, J Birkmann
Current guidelines recommend consolidation with autologous stem cell transplantation (autoSCT) after induction chemotherapy for most patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). This assumption is based on five prospective phase II studies, three of which included <50 patients with limited follow-up. Here we present the final analysis of the prospective German study. The treatment regimen consisted of four to six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy followed by mobilizing therapy and stem cell collection. Patients in complete remission (CR) or partial remission (PR) underwent myeloablative chemo(radio)therapy and autoSCT...
2016: Blood Cancer Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465621/severe-motor-aphasia-after-reinfusion-of-cryopreserved-autologous-stem-cells-after-myeloablative-conditioning
#16
Andreas Hausmann, Norbert Fischer, Stephan Breitkopf, Franziska Menne, Kerstin Jess, Stefan Schmidmayr, Clemens M Wendtner, Marcus Hentrich
BACKGROUND: Autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) are usually cryopreserved before high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The freezing process requires the addition of cryoprotectants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is vital for cell viability in frozen aliquots. DMSO has a number of well-described side effects. However, severe neurologic side effects assigned to DMSO are exceedingly rare. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old female underwent HDCT followed by PBSCT as consolidation therapy in relapsed high-grade (Grade 3B) Stage IIIA follicular lymphoma...
October 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416910/comparative-value-of-post-remission-treatment-in-cytogenetically-normal-aml-subclassified-by-npm1-and-flt3-itd-allelic-ratio
#17
J Versluis, F E M In 't Hout, R Devillier, W L J van Putten, M G Manz, M-C Vekemans, M-C Legdeur, J R Passweg, J Maertens, J Kuball, B J Biemond, P J M Valk, B A van der Reijden, G Meloni, H C Schouten, E Vellenga, T Pabst, R Willemze, B Löwenberg, G Ossenkoppele, F Baron, G Huls, J J Cornelissen
Post-remission treatment (PRT) in patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) is debated. We studied 521 patients with CN-AML in CR1, for whom mutational status of NPM1 and FLT3-ITD was available, including the FLT3-ITD allelic ratio. PRT consisted of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) (n=68), myeloablative conditioning (MAC) alloHSCT (n=137), autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) (n=168) or chemotherapy (n=148)...
July 15, 2016: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408349/effective-treatment-of-a-childhood-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm-with-a-cutaneous-tumor-alone-by-stem-cell-transplantation-with-reduced-intensity-conditioning
#18
Maiko Shimomura, Takaki Asano, Aya Furue, Mizuka Miki, Yasuhiko Sera, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Masao Kobayashi
Pediatric blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy that has an extremely poor prognosis despite the use of intensive chemotherapy. Recently, treatment of BPDCN with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using myeloablative conditioning has been reported to increase survival in adults. We report a 9-year-old girl with cutaneous BPDCN who was successfully treated with combination chemotherapy followed by BMT using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), without any adverse complications...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384975/a-paediatric-case-of-successful-non-myeloablative-bone-marrow-transplantation-after-azacitidine-therapy-for-non-down-syndrome-acute-megakaryoblastic-leukaemia-with-monosomy-7
#19
Yuhki Koga, Utako Oba, Wakako Kato, Hiroaki Ono, Kentaro Nakashima, Hidetoshi Takada
We report a patient with non-Down syndrome AML, also known as AMKL, with monosomy 7, who was also obese and had a hearing impairment and mental retardation. Non-myeloablative bone marrow transplantation was performed successfully after the patient received less aggressive azacitidine treatment, without the usual intensive induction chemotherapy regimen for AML.
September 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291859/post-thaw-viability-of-cryopreserved-peripheral-blood-stem-cells-pbsc-does-not-guarantee-functional-activity-important-implications-for-quality-assurance-of-stem-cell-transplant-programmes
#20
Daniel A Morgenstern, Gulrukh Ahsan, Margaret Brocklesby, Stuart Ings, Carmen Balsa, Paul Veys, Penelope Brock, John Anderson, Persis Amrolia, Nicholas Goulden, Catherine M Cale, Michael J Watts
Standard quality assurance (QA) of cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) uses post-thaw viable CD34(+) cell counts. In 2013, concerns arose at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH) about 8 patients with delayed engraftment following myeloablative chemotherapy with cryopreserved cell rescue, despite adequate post-thaw viable cell counts in all cases. Root cause analysis was undertaken; investigations suggested the freeze process itself was a contributing factor to suboptimal engraftment. Experiments were undertaken in which a single PBSC product was divided into three and cryopreserved in parallel using a control-rate freezer (CRF) or passive freezing method (-80°C freezer) at GOSH, or the same passive freezing at another laboratory...
September 2016: British Journal of Haematology
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