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Stratification epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338526/associations-of-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-fat-with-insulin-resistance-and-secretion-differ-between-men-and-women-the-netherlands-epidemiology-of-obesity-study
#1
Renée de Mutsert, Karin Gast, Ralph Widya, Eelco de Koning, Ingrid Jazet, Hildo Lamb, Saskia le Cessie, Albert de Roos, Jan Smit, Frits Rosendaal, Martin den Heijer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women)...
January 17, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321125/efficacy-of-a-web-based-safety-decision-aid-for-women-experiencing-intimate-partner-violence-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Jane Koziol-McLain, Alain C Vandal, Denise Wilson, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Terry Dobbs, Christine McLean, Rose Sisk, Karen B Eden, Nancy E Glass
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a human rights violation and leading health burden for women. Safety planning is a hallmark of specialist family violence intervention, yet only a small proportion of women access formal services. A Web-based safety decision aid may reach a wide audience of women experiencing IPV and offer the opportunity to prioritize and plan for safety for themselves and their families. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a Web-based safety decision aid (isafe) for women experiencing IPV...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313474/clinical-bacteriologic-and-geographic-stratification-of-melioidosis-emerges-from-the-sri-lankan-national-surveillance-program
#3
Harindra D Sathkumara, Adam J Merritt, Enoka M Corea, Shivankari Krishnananthasivam, Mohan Natesan, Timothy J J Inglis, Aruna Dharshan De Silva
Melioidosis, a potentially fatal tropical infection, is said to be underdiagnosed in low-income countries. An increase in melioidosis cases in Sri Lanka allowed us to analyze the relationship among clinical outcome, bacteriology, epidemiology, and geography in the first 108 laboratory-confirmed cases of melioidosis from a nationwide surveillance program. The additional 76 cases of laboratory-confirmed melioidosis confirmed additional associations between Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and infection phenotype; ST1137/unifocal bacteremic infection (χ2 = 3...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306731/the-impact-of-lymph-node-metastases-burden-at-radical-prostatectomy
#4
Felix Preisser, Michele Marchioni, Sebastiano Nazzani, Marco Bandini, Zhe Tian, Raisa S Pompe, Francesco Montorsi, Fred Saad, Firas Abdollah, Thomas Steuber, Hans Heinzer, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Derya Tilki, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that a cut-off in positive lymph node (LN) counts may discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates in clinically localized prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). OBJECTIVE: To test this relationship, we relied on different LN count cut-offs, as well as the continuously coded number of positive LNs (NPN). METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2014), we identified patients with D'Amico intermediate- or high-risk characteristics who underwent RP and pelvic LN dissection, regardless of pathologic LN stage...
January 3, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298133/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-isolation-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-in-patients-with-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#5
Francesco M Labricciosa, Massimo Sartelli, Lilian M Abbo, Pamela Barbadoro, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, Fausto Catena
BACKGROUND: Patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) have been identified as being at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Prompt identification and stratification of these patients is essential in the clinical management, allowing the physician timely optimization of empiric antimicrobial therapy while awaiting results of intra-operative cultures to streamline antibiotic treatment. METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis from two prospective multi-center color surveillance studies...
January 3, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290999/impact-of-neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant-radiotherapy-on-disease-specific-survival-in-patients-with-stages-ii-iv-rectal-cancer
#6
Yinying Wu, Haiyang Liu, Xianglin L Du, Fan Wang, Jing Zhang, Xiaohai Cui, Enxiao Li, Jin Yang, Min Yi, Yunfeng Zhang
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine whether neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy affected disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with rectal cancer and whether stratification by tumor stage affected the results. Results: 55.5% patients had neoadjuvant-radiotherapy (NRT), and 18.3% patients had adjuvant- radiotherapy (ART). Multivariable models showed that treatment type was independently associated with DSS. Patients with stages III/IV tumors who received ART plus chemotherapy had significantly worse DSS than did those who received NRT plus chemotherapy (NCRT) (P = 0...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282508/a-nomogram-to-predict-prognosis-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#7
Shuai Wang, Ke Ma, Zongwei Chen, Xiaodong Yang, Fenghao Sun, Yulin Jin, Yu Shi, Wei Jiang, Qun Wang, Cheng Zhan
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy with heterogeneous outcomes. This study was aimed to develop a nomogram to precisely and visually predict survival of MPM patients. METHODS: Data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2014) on MPM were screened and retrieved. The prognostic effects of variables, including age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, laterality, histology, tumor stage, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278142/a-stratification-approach-using-logit-based-models-for-confounder-adjustment-in-the-study-of-continuous-outcomes
#8
Chuen Seng Tan, Nathalie C Støer, Ying Chen, Marielle Andersson, Yilin Ning, Hwee-Lin Wee, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, E-Shyong Tai, Shih Ling Kao, Marie Reilly
The control of confounding is an area of extensive epidemiological research, especially in the field of causal inference for observational studies. Matched cohort and case-control study designs are commonly implemented to control for confounding effects without specifying the functional form of the relationship between the outcome and confounders. This paper extends the commonly used regression models in matched designs for binary and survival outcomes (i.e. conditional logistic and stratified Cox proportional hazards) to studies of continuous outcomes through a novel interpretation and application of logit-based regression models from the econometrics and marketing research literature...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275189/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-gene-polymorphisms-with-liver-cirrhosis-risk-a-meta-analysis
#9
Pengfei Guo, Xiangru Sun, Xiufang Feng, Chaolong Zhang
Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-ß1) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to liver cirrhosis (LC), controversial results exist. Consequently, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate the relationship of TGF-ß1-509C/T and codon 10T/C polymorphisms with the risk of LC introduced by chronic hepatitis B/V virus (HBV/HCV) infection. A total of 9 case-control studies, involving 985 LC patients and 909 controls, were recruited for meta-analysis...
December 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273376/validation-of-the-american-joint-committee-on-cancer-eighth-edition-staging-system-in-patients-undergoing-hepatectomy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-us-population-based-study
#10
Guoqing Zhang, Renfeng Li, Xiaoyang Zhao, Songfeng Meng, Jianwen Ye, Longshuan Zhao
BACKGROUND: The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition staging system for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has incorporated several significant changes. This study aims to evaluate the newly proposed staging system and assess its strengths and weaknesses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified patients with pathologically confirmed stage I-III HCC diagnosed between 2004 and 2014. RESULTS: After all exclusion criteria were applied, AJCC seventh and eighth edition staging was possible in 4931 patients...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260299/-updates-to-the-who-classification-of-bone-tumours
#11
REVIEW
G Jundt
The fourth edition of the WHO Classification of Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours, published in 2013, extends the approach to describe genetics and pathology of these tumours in the context of epidemiological, clinical and imaging data, which was adopted in the third edition. Added are a few new entities, reclassifications and renamings. The most important point, also of clinical relevance and with consequences for treatment, is the introduction of a stratification of bone tumours based on their biological behaviour into three groups (benign, intermediate, malignant) in analogy to soft tissue tumours...
December 19, 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249917/postprandial-metabolite-profiles-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-clearly-stratify-individuals-with-impaired-fasting-glucose
#12
Ruifang Li-Gao, Renée de Mutsert, Patrick C N Rensen, Jan Bert van Klinken, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Astrid van Hylckama Vlieg, Martin den Heijer, Saskia le Cessie, Frits R Rosendaal, Ko Willems van Dijk, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori
Introduction: Fasting metabolite profiles have been shown to distinguish type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals. Objectives: We investigated whether, besides fasting metabolite profiles, postprandial metabolite profiles associated with T2D can stratify individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) by their similarities to T2D. Methods: Three groups of individuals (age 45-65 years) without any history of IFG or T2D were selected from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study and stratified by baseline fasting glucose concentrations (NGT (n = 176), IFG (n = 186), T2D (n = 171))...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248148/acute-kidney-injury-in-pediatric-patients
#13
REVIEW
David M Kwiatkowski, Scott M Sutherland
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is highly prevalent among hospitalized children, especially those who are critically ill. The incorporation of pediatric elements into consensus definitions has led to a greater understanding of pediatric AKI epidemiology, risk factors, and outcomes. The best available data suggest that AKI occurs in 5% and 27% of non-critically ill and critically ill children, respectively. Additionally, AKI and fluid overload are independently associated with worse outcomes including mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of AKI relies upon urine output and creatinine measurements, both of which pose unique problems in children...
September 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246147/health-care-professionals-attitudes-towards-population-based-genetic-testing-and-risk-stratification-for-ovarian-cancer-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Katie E J Hann, Lindsay Fraser, Lucy Side, Sue Gessler, Jo Waller, Saskia C Sanderson, Madeleine Freeman, Ian Jacobs, Anne Lanceley
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at a late stage when outcomes are poor. Personalised ovarian cancer risk prediction, based on genetic and epidemiological information and risk stratified management in adult women could improve outcomes. Examining health care professionals' (HCP) attitudes to ovarian cancer risk stratified management, willingness to support women, self-efficacy (belief in one's own ability to successfully complete a task), and knowledge about ovarian cancer will help identify training needs in anticipation of personalised ovarian cancer risk prediction being introduced...
December 16, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236708/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-fish-and-epa-dha-consumption-in-17-us-and-european-cohorts
#15
Dariush Mozaffarian, Hassan S Dashti, Mary K Wojczynski, Audrey Y Chu, Jennifer A Nettleton, Satu Männistö, Kati Kristiansson, Mägi Reedik, Jari Lahti, Denise K Houston, Marilyn C Cornelis, Frank J A van Rooij, Maria Dimitriou, Stavroula Kanoni, Vera Mikkilä, Lyn M Steffen, Marcia C de Oliveira Otto, Lu Qi, Bruce Psaty, Luc Djousse, Jerome I Rotter, Kennet Harald, Markus Perola, Harri Rissanen, Antti Jula, Fischer Krista, Evelin Mihailov, Mary F Feitosa, Julius S Ngwa, Luting Xue, Paul F Jacques, Mia-Maria Perälä, Aarno Palotie, Yongmei Liu, Nike A Nalls, Luigi Ferrucci, Dena Hernandez, Ani Manichaikul, Michael Y Tsai, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Loukianos Rallidis, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Julie E Buring, Terho Lehtimäki, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Rozenn Lemaitre, Veikko Salomaa, Paul Knekt, Andres Metspalu, Ingrid B Borecki, L Adrienne Cupples, Johan G Eriksson, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Stefania Bandinelli, David Siscovick, Oscar H Franco, Panos Deloukas, George Dedoussis, Daniel I Chasman, Olli Raitakari, Toshiko Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Regular fish and omega-3 consumption may have several health benefits and are recommended by major dietary guidelines. Yet, their intakes remain remarkably variable both within and across populations, which could partly owe to genetic influences. OBJECTIVE: To identify common genetic variants that influence fish and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) consumption. DESIGN: We conducted genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of fish (n = 86,467) and EPA+DHA (n = 62,265) consumption in 17 cohorts of European descent from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium Nutrition Working Group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226705/survival-prediction-in-pancreatic-cancer-patients-with-no-distant-metastasis-a-large-scale-population-based-estimate
#16
Ning Pu, Yang Lv, Guochao Zhao, Wanling Lee, Abulimiti Nuerxiati, Dansong Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Tiantao Kuang, Wenchuan Wu, Wenhui Lou
AIM: To identify the risk factors for overall survival (OS) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with no distant metastasis, and formulate a novel nomogram for prognostic prediction. PATIENTS & METHODS: Data were obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients with no distant metastasis as the primary cohort, and 127 patients at our institution were enrolled as the validation cohort. The prognostic nomogram integrating all independent risk factors for predicting OS was established to achieve superior discriminatory ability...
December 11, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200112/epidemiology-treatment-and-complications-of-central-nervous-system-metastases
#17
Amy A Pruitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurologic problems resulting from systemic cancer metastases to brain parenchyma, dura, spinal cord, and leptomeninges are among the most common types of consultations addressed by neurologists. With patients surviving longer from systemic cancer, along with the rapidly evolving therapeutic options, the treatment of these devastating complications has become both more effective and more complicated. This article reviews current patterns of metastatic disease and the increasingly nuanced landscape of evolving therapies, their complications, and their impact on quality of survival...
December 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198741/pregnancy-as-an-early-stress-test-for-cardiovascular-and-kidney-disease-diagnosis
#18
Thaís Alquezar Facca, Gianna Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Amélia Rodrigues Pereira Sabino, Michelle Tiveron Passos, Larissa Fátima Dos Santos, Eduardo Augusto Brosco Famá, Sonia Kiyomi Nishida, Nelson Sass
OBJECTIVES: Pregnancy is a cardiometabolic and renal stress test for women, primarily when associated with hypertension syndrome, which can have deleterious effects in the long term. We undertook this study to make a long-term evaluation on these women. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate voluntary women who had pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome versus normal pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated a total of 85 women, divided in case (n = 25) and control (n = 60) groups, by clinical, anthropometric and epidemiological profiles, general, metabolic and renal tests, and risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
November 23, 2017: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194068/polycythemia-vera-and-essential-thrombocythemia-algorithmic-approach
#19
Alessandro M Vannucchi, Paola Guglielmelli, Ayalew Tefferi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe an algorithm-based approach, whenever available, to the diagnosis, the risk stratification criteria informing therapy and the current management of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Description of recurrent genetic abnormalities in driver genes, including Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2), myeloproliferative leukemia and calreticulin, a better appreciation of the key diagnostic role of bone marrow features, results of large epidemiologic studies and a few but landmark controlled clinical trials produced in the last decade, all resulted in a reappraisal of the approach to polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia...
November 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185020/the-positive-lymph-node-number-and-postoperative-n-staging-used-to-estimate-survival-in-patients-with-differentiated-thyroid-cancer-results-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-dataset-1988-2008
#20
Wen-Jun Wei, Zhong-Wu Lu, Duo Wen, Tian Liao, Duan-Shu Li, Yu Wang, Yong-Xue Zhu, Zhuo-Ying Wang, Yi Wu, Yu-Long Wang, Qing-Hai Ji
BACKGROUND: Lymph node metastasis is important when evaluating the prognosis of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the current N-staging system cannot fully reflect the clinical significance of cervical lymph node metastasis in DTC. In this study, we employed Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-registered DTC cases with lymph node metastasis to determine whether the positive lymph node number (PLNN) could be used to improve stratification of patients in terms of survival...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
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