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Stratification epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161885/critical-limb-ischemia-a-practical-up-to-date-review
#1
Iacopo Fabiani, Enrico Calogero, Nicola Riccardo Pugliese, Rossella Di Stefano, Irene Nicastro, Flavio Buttitta, Marco Nuti, Caterina Violo, Danilo Giannini, Alessandro Morgantini, Lorenzo Conte, Valentina Barletta, Raffaella Berchiolli, Daniele Adami, Mauro Ferrari, Vitantonio Di Bello
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the most advanced form of peripheral artery disease. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and high management costs. It carries a high risk of amputation and local infection. Moreover, cardiovascular complications remain a major concern. Although it is a well-known entity and new technological and therapeutic advances have been made, this condition remains poorly addressed, with significantly heterogeneous management, especially in nonexperienced centers...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151013/decreasing-the-incidence-of-surgical-site-infections-following-joint-replacement-surgery
#2
Lorraine Hutzler, Jarrett Williams
OBJECTIVE: Despite the generalized use of prophylactic antibiotics in orthopaedic surgery, Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are still a major source of morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. This is due in part to the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant organisms. METHODS: A review of local epidemiology, the importance of an antibiotic stewardship program, patient optimization, and risk stratification options to reduce SSIs. RESULTS: The proportion of revisions due to infection is projected to rise rapidly over the next 25 years...
December 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146647/initial-non-operative-management-of-uncomplicated-appendicitis-in-children-a-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-apac-trial
#3
Max Knaapen, Johanna H van der Lee, Roel Bakx, Sarah-May L The, Ernst W E van Heurn, Hugo A Heij, Ramon R Gorter
INTRODUCTION: Based on epidemiological, immunological and pathology data, the idea that appendicitis is not necessarily a progressive disease is gaining ground. Two types are distinguished: simple and complicated appendicitis. Non-operative treatment (NOT) of children with simple appendicitis has been investigated in several small studies. So far, it is deemed safe. However, its effectiveness and effect on quality of life (QoL) have yet to be established in an adequately powered randomised trial...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131282/prognostic-value-of-daytime-heart-rate-blood-pressure-their-products-and-quotients-in-chronic-heart-failure
#4
Anna Kowalczys, Michał Bohdan, Marcin Gruchała
BACKGROUND: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is an important epidemiological and therapeuthic issue with poor prognosis. The aim of the study was to estimate the prognostic value of daytime heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), their products and quotients in patients with CHF. METHODS: The study included 80 stable patients with CHF and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 35%). Physical examination, laboratory blood tests, electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, echocardiography, 6-minute walk test (6MWT), telemetry monitoring and BP measurements were performed in all participants...
November 13, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119760/-tuberculosis-in-prato-tuscany-region-central-italy-in-the-period-2007-2014
#5
Irene Bellini, Sara Pugi, Carolina Degl'Innocenti, Annalisa Roselli, Davide Biagiotti, Luana Paliaga, Cristiana Berti, Vanna Margheri, Luigi Ricci, Antonino Nastasi
OBJECTIVES: a description of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in the province of Prato (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) during the period 2007-2014 and verify the latency time between the onset of symptoms and the start of therapy. DESIGN: descriptive, observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: tuberculosis cases were identified for the period 2007-2014 through an analysis of the notification files available at the Hygiene and Public Health Service of the Local Health Unit of Prato and through the Information System on Infectious Diseases database...
September 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115718/impact-of-radiation-therapy-and-extent-of-resection-for-ependymoma-in-young-children-a-population-based-study
#6
C A Snider, K Yang, S C Mack, J H Suh, S T Chao, T E Merchant, E S Murphy
BACKGROUND: Young children with posterior fossa ependymoma (PF-EPN) have a worse prognosis than older children, and they have a unique molecular profile (PF-EPN-A subtype). Alternative treatment strategies are often used in these young patients, and their prognostic factors are less clear. METHODS: We characterized the prognostic factors and treatment outcomes of 482 patients between ages 0 and 3 years with the diagnosis of ependymoma identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (1973-2013)...
November 8, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099113/mapeo-geoepidemiol%C3%A3-gico-en-la-nueva-vigilancia-de-salud-p%C3%A3%C2%BAblica-el-caso-de-la-malaria-en-chiapas-m%C3%A3-xico-en-2002
#7
Carlos Castillo-Salgado
The new public health surveillance requires at the global, national and local levels the use of new authoritative analytical approaches and tools for better recognition of the epidemiologic characteristics of the priority health events and risk factors affecting the population health. The identification of the events in time and space is of fundamental importance so that the geo-spatial description of the situation of diseases and health events facilitates the identification of social, environmental and health care related risks...
2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064262/prognostic-comparison-between-creatinine-based-glomerular-filtration-rate-formulas-for-the-prediction-of-10-year-outcome-in-patients-with-non-st-elevation-acute-coronary-syndrome-treated-by-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#8
Piercarlo Ballo, Tania Chechi, Gaia Spaziani, Veronica Fibbi, Duccio Conti, Giuseppe Ferro, Santi Nigrelli, Pietro Dattolo, Antonio Fazi, Giovanni Maria Santoro, Alfredo Zuppiroli, Francesco Pizzarelli
BACKGROUND: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a predictor of outcome among patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS), but which estimation formula provides the best long-term risk stratification in this setting is still unclear. We compared the prognostic performance of four creatinine-based formulas for the prediction of 10-year outcome in a NSTE-ACS population treated by percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: In 222 NSTE-ACS patients submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention, eGFR was calculated using four formulas: Cockcroft-Gault, re-expressed modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-Epi), and Mayo-quadratic...
March 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056991/atherosclerotic-renovascular-disease-epidemiology-treatment-and-current-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Diana Vassallo, Philip A Kalra
The neutral results of recent large randomized controlled trials comparing renal revascularization with optimal medical therapy in patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) have cast doubt on the role of revascularization in the management of unselected patients with this condition. However, these studies have strengthened the evidence base for the role of contemporary intensive medical vascular protection therapy and aggressive risk factor control in improving clinical outcomes in ARVD. Patients presenting with 'high-risk' clinical features such as uncontrolled hypertension, rapidly declining renal function or flash pulmonary oedema are underrepresented in these studies; hence these results may not be applicable to all patients with ARVD...
2017: Postępy W Kardiologii Interwencyjnej, Advances in Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054840/contemporary-risk-stratification-after-myocardial-infarction-in-the-community-performance-of-scores-and-incremental-value-of-soluble-suppression-of-tumorigenicity-2
#10
Yariv Gerber, Susan A Weston, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano, Allan S Jaffe, Sheila M Manemann, Ruoxiang Jiang, Véronique L Roger
BACKGROUND: Current American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines recommend the GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) and TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) scores to assess myocardial infarction (MI) prognosis. Changes in the epidemiological characteristics of MI and the availability of new biomarkers warrant an assessment of the performance of these scores in contemporary practice. We assessed the following: (1) the performance of GRACE and TIMI to predict 1-year mortality in a cohort of patients stratified by ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and (2) the incremental discriminatory power of soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2, a myocardial fibrosis biomarker...
October 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050965/the-revised-staging-system-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-based-on-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-database
#11
Shuai Wang, Ke Ma, Qun Wang, Fenghao Sun, Yu Shi, Cheng Zhan, Wei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Several staging systems for MPM have been introduced. However, none of them provide perfect survival stratification among heterogeneous patients. The aim of this population-based cohort study was to propose adjustments to current staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). METHODS: We retrieved MPM data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2014). Kaplan-Meier method was derived to examine the prognostic effects of tumor, lymph node, metastasis and histology features...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031911/gene-polymorphisms-of-disc1-is-associated-with-schizophrenia-evidence-from-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Hong-Yu Wang, Yong Liu, Jun-Wei Yan, Xing-Long Hu, Dao-Min Zhu, Xiao-Tong Xu, Xiao-Si Li
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest an association between Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) polymorphisms and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, the available data are often inconsistent, regarding the difference in sample size, ethnicity, genotyping method, etc. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to determine whether DISC1 polymorphisms contributed susceptibility to SCZ. METHODS: A methodical literature review was operated using the English and Chinese core electronic databases...
October 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029707/epidemiology-pathophysiology-stratification-and-natural-history-of-pulmonary-embolism
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas J Giordano, Paul S Jansson, Michael N Young, Kaitlin A Hagan, Christopher Kabrhel
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal form of venous thromboembolism that can be challenging to diagnose and manage. PE occurs when there is obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. A combination of acquired and inherited factors may contribute to the development of this disease and should be considered, since they have implications for both susceptibility to PE and treatment. Patients with suspected PE should be evaluated efficiently to diagnose and administer therapy as soon as possible, but the presentation of PE is variable and nonspecific so diagnosis is challenging...
September 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025156/risk-factors-associated-with-mortality-from-vascular-thromboembolic-events-in-patients-diagnosed-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-population-based-analysis
#14
Xian-Jun He, Ying-Ying Wu, Ming-Rong Xia, Zhi-Qiang Li, Ming Zhao, Quan-De Dai, Jian-Ping Zhang, Jian-Hua Xia, Jie-Wen Zhang
Background: Lung cancer patients are at increased risk for vascular events possibly due to cancer induced hypercoagulation. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with the mortality from vascular thromboembolic events in patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Design: Retrospective population-based analysis. Methods: We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 2004 - 2013 and evaluated 199,337 patients with NSCLC...
August 24, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020316/machine-learning-for-healthcare-on-the-verge-of-a-major-shift-in-healthcare-epidemiology
#15
Jenna Wiens, Erica S Shenoy
The increasing availability of electronic health data presents a major opportunity in healthcare for both discovery and practical applications to improve healthcare. However, for healthcare epidemiologists to best utilize these data, computational techniques that can handle large complex datasets are required. Machine learning (ML), the study of tools and methods for identifying patterns in data, can help. The appropriate application of ML to these data promises to transform patient risk stratification broadly in the field of medicine, and especially in infectious diseases...
August 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981537/an-ancestral-human-genetic-variant-linked-to-an-ancient-disease-a-novel-association-of-fmo2-polymorphisms-with-tuberculosis-tb-in-ethiopian-populations-provides-new-insight-into-the-differential-ethno-geographic-distribution-of-fmo2-1
#16
Ephrem Mekonnen, Endashaw Bekele
The human FMO2 (flavin-containing monooxygenase 2) gene has been shown to be involved in innate immunity against microbial infections, including tuberculosis (TB), via the modulation of oxidative stress levels. It has also been found to possess a curious loss-of-function mutation (FMO2*1/FMO2*2) that demonstrates a distinctive differentiation in expression, function and ethno-geographic distribution. However, despite evidences of ethnic-specific genetic associations in the inflammatory profile of TB, no studies were done to investigate whether these patterns of variations correlate with evidences for the involvement of FMO2 in antimicrobial immune responses and ethnic differences in the distribution of FMO2 polymorphisms except for some pharmacogenetic data that suggest a potentially deleterious role for the functional variant (FMO2*1)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967731/new-assessment-for-advanced-age-italian-study-protocol-on-the-assessment-of-surgical-risk-in-the-over-75-year-age-group
#17
Annarita Pilleri, Giampaolo Scorcu
The role of age in the risk stratification of patients candidate for non-cardiac surgery is still today an unresolved issue. European guidelines, in contrast to American guidelines, do not attribute to age an independent role in increasing the risk, and the indices for assessment of perioperative cardiovascular risk are based on studies that were carried out on middle-aged subgroups of the population without specific attention to the elderly patient. While the indices of geriatric assessment have still not yet gained a standardized role in the risk stratification of patients candidate to non-cardiac surgery, their need is becoming increasingly urgent considering the epidemiological impact of elderly patients with multi-comorbidities who more and more in the future will undergo such interventions...
July 18, 2017: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966417/latent-class-survival-models-linked-by-principal-stratification-to-investigate-heterogenous-survival-subgroups-among-individuals-with-early-stage-kidney-cancer
#18
Brian L Egleston, Robert G Uzzo, Yu-Ning Wong
Rates of kidney cancer have been increasing, with small incidental tumors experiencing the fastest growth rates. Much of the increase could be due to increased use of CT scans, MRIs, and ultrasounds for unrelated conditions. Many tumors might never have been detected or become symptomatic in the past. This suggests that many patients might benefit from less aggressive therapy, such as active surveillance by which tumors are surgically removed only if they become sufficiently large. However, it has been difficult for clinicians to identify subgroups of patients for whom treatment might be especially beneficial or harmful...
2017: Journal of the American Statistical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965820/ct-imaging-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-insights-disappointments-and-promise
#19
George R Washko, Harvey O Coxson, Denis E O'Donnell, Shawn D Aaron
CT imaging is a readily quantifiable tool that can provide in-vivo assessments of lung structure in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The information extracted from these data has been used in many clinical, epidemiological, and genetic investigations for patient stratification and prognostication, and to determine intermediate endpoints for clinical trials. Although these efforts have informed our understanding of the heterogeneity of pulmonary disease in smokers, they have not yet translated into new treatments for COPD or the personalisation of patient care...
September 28, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957687/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-antihypertensive-drug-treatment-in-the-beijing-longitudinal-study-of-aging
#20
Lina Ma, Rui Han, Li Li, Zhenzhen Li, Fei Sun, Lijun Diao, Zhe Tang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the epidemiological characteristics of antihypertensive drug use by community residents in Beijing, China. METHODS: Based on well-established statistical sampling techniques such as cluster, stratification, and random selection, 2832, 1828, and 2277 elderly residents aged ≥60 years in Beijing in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively, were included. The trend in antihypertensive drug use by elderly patients with hypertension was analyzed...
September 21, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
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