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Stratification epidemiology

Agnieszka Chmielarczyk, Monika Pobiega, Grzegorz Ziółkowski, Monika Pomorska-Wesołowska, Dorota Romaniszyn, Lech Krawczyk, Jadwiga Wójkowska-Mach
BACKGROUND: The impact of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), including non-fermentative bacilli (NFBs), is rising and underestimated, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). The growing prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive drug resistance (XDR) is challenging for clinicians, as the treatment options are limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent of the epidemiological problem of multidrugresistant, extensively drug-resistant and pandrug-resistant (PDR) non-fermentative bacilli isolated from pneumonia and bloodstream infections (BSIs) in patients hospitalized in southern Poland...
March 13, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Seung Yoon Yang, Min Soo Cho, Nam Kyu Kim
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and it exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways, and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. Differences in the microbiome, clinical characteristics, and chromosomal and molecular characteristics have been reported between the right and left side of the colon. Areas covered: This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and chromosomal and molecular studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunological differences between the right-sided colon and the left-sided colorectum in metastatic colorectal cancer...
February 19, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Jane G Pouzou, Solenne Costard, Francisco J Zagmutt
Random effect meta-regressions were constructed to estimate concentrations of two heterocyclic amines (HCA) and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in meat and breads. Eighteen HCA studies and nine PAH studies of food concentration were assembled. Concentration was computed for beef, poultry, pork, and seafood, and bread. Fixed effect predictors included cooking time, form of the food, cooking method, interaction between form and cooking method, temperature at which the food was cooked food, fuel of the flame source, percentage of fat, and other elements...
February 12, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mina Ha, Young Su Ju, Won Jin Lee, Seung Sik Hwang, Sang Chul Yoo, Kyung Hwa Choi, Eunae Burm, Jieon Lee, Yun Keun Lee, Sanghyuk Im
BACKGROUND: In 2011, two roads in a residential area in Seoul were found to be contaminated with the radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs). In response to public concerns, an epidemiological study was conducted. METHODS: The standardized cancer incidence ratios in the affected and neighboring regions were calculated based on the central cancer registry. Households in the region were sampled using the random stratified sampling technique, and questionnaires were administered to family members, via home visit and via students in elementary to high schools...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Ning Pu, Jianang Li, Yaolin Xu, Wanling Lee, Yuan Fang, Xu Han, Guochao Zhao, Lei Zhang, Abulimiti Nuerxiati, Hanlin Yin, Wenchuan Wu, Wenhui Lou
Background: The prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma (PC) remains poor and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 8th staging system for survival prediction in PC patients after curative resection is still limited. Thus, the aim of this study is to refine a valuable prognostic model and novel staging system for PC with curative resection. Methods: The data of 3,458 patients used in this study were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database registry of National Cancer Institute...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Giovambattista Desideri, Agostino Virdis, Edoardo Casiglia, Claudio Borghi
The relevance of cardiovascular role played by levels of serum uric acid is dramatically growing, especially as cardiovascular risk factor potentially able to exert either a direct deleterious impact or a synergic effect with other cardiovascular risk factors. At the present time, it still remains undefined the threshold level of serum uric acid able to contribute to the cardiovascular risk. Indeed, the available epidemiological case studies are not homogeneous, and some preliminary data suggest that the so-called "cardiovascular threshold limit" may substantially differ from that identified as a cut-off able to trigger the acute gout attack...
February 9, 2018: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
Tammy R Dugas
To date, numerous clinical studies examining correlations between oxidative stress biomarkers and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have repeatedly suggested a role for oxidant injury in the pathogenesis of diseases such as atherosclerosis. Despite this, antioxidant supplementation trials have not demonstrated a reduction in disease progression. Nevertheless, small animal and epidemiological studies have linked exposures to certain toxicants with increased CVD risk involving putative oxidative stress mechanisms...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
Candace Haddock, Erik D Skarsgard
Gastroschisis is the commonest developmental defect of the anterior abdominal wall in both developed and developing countries. The past 30 years have seen transformational improvements in outcome due to advances in neonatal intensive care and enhanced integration between the disciplines of maternal fetal medicine, neonatology and pediatric surgery. A review of gastroschisis, which emphasizes its epidemiology, multidisciplinary care strategies and contemporary outcomes is timely. Areas covered: This review discusses the current state of knowledge related to prevalence and causation, and postulated embryopathologic mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroschisis...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kang-Ling Wang, Eng Soo Yap, Shinya Goto, Shu Zhang, Chung-Wah Siu, Chern-En Chiang
Although the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Asian populations is lower than in Western countries, the overall burden of VTE in Asia has been considerably underestimated. Factors that may explain the lower prevalence of VTE in Asian populations relative to Western populations include the limited availability of epidemiological data in Asia, ethnic differences in the genetic predisposition to VTE, underdiagnoses, low awareness toward thrombotic disease, and possibly less symptomatic VTE in Asian patients...
2018: Thrombosis Journal
Xuan V Nguyen, Kingshuk Roy Choudhury, Franklin N Tessler, Jenny K Hoang
<b>Background: </b>In many risk-stratification systems, the decision to biopsy thyroid nodules is determined by their sonographic features and size. Nevertheless, even small, low-suspicion nodules are often biopsied because it is assumed that larger malignant nodules are associated with poorer outcomes. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of thyroid cancer tumor size on survival and risk of T4 stage, nodal disease, and distant metastases. <b>Methods: </b>The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database was queried to obtain tumor size, staging information, and survival data for cases of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and non-differentiated thyroid cancer reported between 2004 and 2014...
January 26, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
A Mesut Erzurumluoglu, Denis Baird, Tom G Richardson, Nicholas J Timpson, Santiago Rodriguez
Y-chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroups are more widely used in population genetics than in genetic epidemiology, although associations between Y-DNA haplogroups and several traits, including cardiometabolic traits, have been reported. In apparently homogeneous populations defined by principal component analyses, there is still Y-DNA haplogroup variation which will result from population history. Therefore, hidden stratification and/or differential phenotypic effects by Y-DNA haplogroups could exist. To test this, we hypothesised that stratifying individuals according to their Y-DNA haplogroups before testing for associations between autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and phenotypes will yield difference in association...
January 22, 2018: Genes
Renée de Mutsert, Karin Gast, Ralph Widya, Eelco de Koning, Ingrid Jazet, Hildo Lamb, Saskia le Cessie, Albert de Roos, Jan Smit, Frits Rosendaal, Martin den Heijer
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, sex differences may exist. We aimed to investigate the associations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with insulin resistance and insulin secretion in men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, fasting and postprandial concentrations of glucose and insulin were measured and abdominal fat depots were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging in 2253 participants (53% women)...
February 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Jane Koziol-McLain, Alain C Vandal, Denise Wilson, Shyamala Nada-Raja, Terry Dobbs, Christine McLean, Rose Sisk, Karen B Eden, Nancy E Glass
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a human rights violation and leading health burden for women. Safety planning is a hallmark of specialist family violence intervention, yet only a small proportion of women access formal services. A Web-based safety decision aid may reach a wide audience of women experiencing IPV and offer the opportunity to prioritize and plan for safety for themselves and their families. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a Web-based safety decision aid (isafe) for women experiencing IPV...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Harindra D Sathkumara, Adam J Merritt, Enoka M Corea, Shivankari Krishnananthasivam, Mohan Natesan, Timothy J J Inglis, Aruna Dharshan De Silva
Melioidosis, a potentially fatal tropical infection, is said to be underdiagnosed in low-income countries. An increase in melioidosis cases in Sri Lanka allowed us to analyze the relationship among clinical outcome, bacteriology, epidemiology, and geography in the first 108 laboratory-confirmed cases of melioidosis from a nationwide surveillance program. The additional 76 cases of laboratory-confirmed melioidosis confirmed additional associations between Burkholderia pseudomallei multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and infection phenotype; ST1137/unifocal bacteremic infection (χ2 = 3...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Felix Preisser, Michele Marchioni, Sebastiano Nazzani, Marco Bandini, Zhe Tian, Raisa S Pompe, Francesco Montorsi, Fred Saad, Firas Abdollah, Thomas Steuber, Hans Heinzer, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Derya Tilki, Pierre I Karakiewicz
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that a cut-off in positive lymph node (LN) counts may discriminate between cancer-specific mortality (CSM) rates in clinically localized prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). OBJECTIVE: To test this relationship, we relied on different LN count cut-offs, as well as the continuously coded number of positive LNs (NPN). METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2014), we identified patients with D'Amico intermediate- or high-risk characteristics who underwent RP and pelvic LN dissection, regardless of pathologic LN stage...
January 3, 2018: European Urology Focus
Francesco M Labricciosa, Massimo Sartelli, Lilian M Abbo, Pamela Barbadoro, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, Fausto Catena
BACKGROUND: Patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) have been identified as being at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Prompt identification and stratification of these patients is essential in the clinical management, allowing the physician timely optimization of empiric antimicrobial therapy while awaiting results of intra-operative cultures to streamline antibiotic treatment. METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis from two prospective multi-center color surveillance studies...
January 3, 2018: Surgical Infections
Yinying Wu, Haiyang Liu, Xianglin L Du, Fan Wang, Jing Zhang, Xiaohai Cui, Enxiao Li, Jin Yang, Min Yi, Yunfeng Zhang
Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine whether neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy affected disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with rectal cancer and whether stratification by tumor stage affected the results. Results: 55.5% patients had neoadjuvant-radiotherapy (NRT), and 18.3% patients had adjuvant- radiotherapy (ART). Multivariable models showed that treatment type was independently associated with DSS. Patients with stages III/IV tumors who received ART plus chemotherapy had significantly worse DSS than did those who received NRT plus chemotherapy (NCRT) (P = 0...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
Shuai Wang, Ke Ma, Zongwei Chen, Xiaodong Yang, Fenghao Sun, Yulin Jin, Yu Shi, Wei Jiang, Qun Wang, Cheng Zhan
BACKGROUND: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare malignancy with heterogeneous outcomes. This study was aimed to develop a nomogram to precisely and visually predict survival of MPM patients. METHODS: Data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1973-2014) on MPM were screened and retrieved. The prognostic effects of variables, including age, sex, race, year of diagnosis, laterality, histology, tumor stage, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model...
December 28, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
Chuen Seng Tan, Nathalie C Støer, Ying Chen, Marielle Andersson, Yilin Ning, Hwee-Lin Wee, Eric Yin Hao Khoo, E-Shyong Tai, Shih Ling Kao, Marie Reilly
The control of confounding is an area of extensive epidemiological research, especially in the field of causal inference for observational studies. Matched cohort and case-control study designs are commonly implemented to control for confounding effects without specifying the functional form of the relationship between the outcome and confounders. This paper extends the commonly used regression models in matched designs for binary and survival outcomes (i.e. conditional logistic and stratified Cox proportional hazards) to studies of continuous outcomes through a novel interpretation and application of logit-based regression models from the econometrics and marketing research literature...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Pengfei Guo, Xiangru Sun, Xiufang Feng, Chaolong Zhang
Although several epidemiological studies have investigated the association of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-ß1) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to liver cirrhosis (LC), controversial results exist. Consequently, we performed a meta-analysis to accurately evaluate the relationship of TGF-ß1-509C/T and codon 10T/C polymorphisms with the risk of LC introduced by chronic hepatitis B/V virus (HBV/HCV) infection. A total of 9 case-control studies, involving 985 LC patients and 909 controls, were recruited for meta-analysis...
December 21, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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