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Stratification epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107120/treatment-of-diabetic-autonomic-neuropathy-in-older-adults-with-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Nataliya Scheinberg, Rebecca L Salbu, Gayotri Goswami, Kenneth Cohen
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, screening and diagnosis, and optimal treatment of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) and its implications in older adults. DATA SOURCES, STUDY SELECTION, DATA EXTRACTION, DATA SYNTHESIS: A search of PubMed using the Mesh terms "diabetes," "type 1," "insulin-dependent," "T1DM," and "diabetic autonomic neuropathy" was performed to find relevant primary literature. Additional search terms "epidemiology," "geriatric," and "risk" were employed...
November 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104602/happiness-rather-than-depression-is-associated-with-sexual-behaviour-in-partnered-older-adults
#2
Rosanne Freak-Poli, Gustavo De Castro Lima, Nese Direk, Loes Jaspers, Marian Pitts, Albert Hofman, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: the relation between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and sexual behaviour is understudied in older adult groups. OBJECTIVE: to examine the relation between PPWB (positive affect and life satisfaction) and sexual behaviour (sexual activity and physical tenderness) in older adults, and whether it is independent from depressive symptoms and uniform across older age groups. DESIGN: cross-sectional. SETTING: community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older, Rotterdam, The Netherlands...
October 25, 2016: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093420/incidence-of-venous-thromboembolism-in-care-homes-a-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Patricia N Apenteng, Fd Richard Hobbs, Andrea Roalfe, Usman Muhammad, Carl Heneghan, David Fitzmaurice
BACKGROUND: Care home residents have venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk profiles similar to medical inpatients; however, the epidemiology of VTE in care homes is unclear. AIM: To determine the incidence of VTE in care homes. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cohort study of 45 care homes in Birmingham and Oxford, UK. METHOD: A consecutive sample of care home residents was enrolled and followed up for 12 months. Data were collected via case note reviews of care home and GP records; mortality information was supplemented with Health and Social Care Information Centre (now called NHS Digital) cause of death data...
January 16, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073552/ciguatera-fish-poisoning-incidence-health-costs-and-risk-perception-on-moorea-island-society-archipelago-french-polynesia
#4
Ewen Morin, Clémence Gatti, Tamatoa Bambridge, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data...
December 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053228/diverse-evolutionary-patterns-of-pneumococcal-antigens-identified-by-pangenome-wide-immunological-screening
#5
Nicholas J Croucher, Joseph J Campo, Timothy Q Le, Xiaowu Liang, Stephen D Bentley, William P Hanage, Marc Lipsitch
Characterizing the immune response to pneumococcal proteins is critical in understanding this bacterium's epidemiology and vaccinology. Probing a custom-designed proteome microarray with sera from 35 healthy US adults revealed a continuous distribution of IgG affinities for 2,190 potential antigens from the species-wide pangenome. Reproducibly elevated IgG binding was elicited by 208 "antibody binding targets" (ABTs), which included 109 variants of the diverse pneumococcal surface proteins A and C (PspA and PspC) and zinc metalloprotease A and B (ZmpA and ZmpB) proteins...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035253/colon-adenoma-features-and-their-impact-on-risk-of-future-advanced-adenomas-and-colorectal-cancer
#6
Audrey H Calderwood, Karen E Lasser, Hemant K Roy
AIM: To review the evidence on the association between specific colon adenoma features and the risk of future colonic neoplasia [adenomas and colorectal cancer (CRC)]. METHODS: We performed a literature search using the National Library of Medicine through PubMed from 1/1/2003 to 5/30/2015. Specific Medical Subject Headings terms (colon, colon polyps, adenomatous polyps, epidemiology, natural history, growth, cancer screening, colonoscopy, CRC) were used in conjunction with subject headings/key words (surveillance, adenoma surveillance, polypectomy surveillance, and serrated adenoma)...
December 15, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011419/implications-of-the-new-sepsis-definition-on-research-and-practice
#7
EDITORIAL
Brian C Peach
INTRODUCTION: The Society of Critical-Care Medicine and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine recently announced a marked change in the sepsis definition. A task force of 19 sepsis clinicians and researchers made the change based on advances in the pathobiological understanding of the septic process. SUMMARY OF CHANGE: The task force determined that there were numerous justifications for a revision of the sepsis definition, which are outlined in this article...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986877/prevalence-and-incidence-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-international-studies
#8
Kirsten M Fiest, Khara M Sauro, Samuel Wiebe, Scott B Patten, Churl-Su Kwon, Jonathan Dykeman, Tamara Pringsheim, Diane L Lorenzetti, Nathalie Jetté
OBJECTIVE: To review population-based studies of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy worldwide and use meta-analytic techniques to explore factors that may explain heterogeneity between estimates. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were followed. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published on the prevalence or incidence of epilepsy since 1985. Abstract, full-text review, and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate...
December 16, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978785/the-five-pediatric-cancers-update-on-genetic-implications
#9
Stacy Cooper, Jeffrey Rubens, Joann Bodurtha
Pediatric cancer has undergone significant improvements in survival over the past several decades, in part due to a better understanding of the underlying genetic aberrations of each oncologic diagnosis, which has allowed for more effective targeted therapies. Pediatric brain tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, Wilms tumor, and retinoblastoma are exemplary pediatric cancers that each have specific epidemiology regarding children at risk as well as characteristic associated genetic lesions. These genetic features are more commonly being used to provide risk stratification, as well as to identify novel pathways for targeted therapy...
December 13, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964792/cardiovascular-disease-in-inflammatory-rheumatic-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Santos Castañeda, Michael T Nurmohamed, Miguel A González-Gay
Chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD), including rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis, are prevalent conditions worldwide, with a considerable burden on healthcare systems. They are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology, traditional CV risk factors, genetics, and the link between chronic inflammation, atherosclerosis, and CV disease. Remarkably, patients with IRD have higher vulnerability to atheromatous plaques...
October 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956451/chronic-kidney-disease-towards-a-risk-based-approach
#11
Maarten W Taal
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects 8-16% of adults worldwide and is associated with multiple adverse outcomes. It includes a heterogeneous group of conditions with widely varied associated risks; risk stratification is therefore vital for clinical management. Use of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) instead of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation will reduce, though not eliminate, over-diagnosis of CKD. Cystatin C is recommended as an alternative measure of GFR but is not yet widely used...
December 2016: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903497/association-between-screening-and-the-thyroid-cancer-epidemic-in-south-korea-evidence-from-a-nationwide-study
#13
Sohee Park, Chang-Mo Oh, Hyunsoon Cho, Joo Young Lee, Kyu-Won Jung, Jae Kwan Jun, Young-Joo Won, Hyun-Joo Kong, Kui Son Choi, You Jin Lee, Jin Soo Lee
OBJECTIVE:  To investigate whether screening for thyroid cancer led to the current "epidemic" in South Korea. DESIGN:  Review of the medical records of nationally representative samples of patients with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer in 1999, 2005, and 2008. SETTING:  Sample cases were randomly selected from South Korea's nationwide cancer registry, using a systematic sampling method after stratification by region. PARTICIPANTS:  5796 patients with thyroid cancer were included (891 in 1999, 2355 in 2005, and 2550 in 2008)...
November 30, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891577/statin-use-and-risk-of-endometrial-cancer-a-nationwide-registry-based-case-control-study
#14
Cecilie D Sperling, Freija Verdoodt, Søren Friis, Christian Dehlendorff, Susanne K Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling...
November 27, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882374/cancer-associated-venous-thromboembolism-burden-mechanisms-and-management
#15
Cihan Ay, Ingrid Pabinger, Alexander T Cohen
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant health problem in the general population but especially in cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and burden of the disease, the pathophysiology of cancer-associated VTE, and the clinical treatment options for both primary prevention and acute treatment. Overall, the development of VTE in cancer patients is related to increases in morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. However, the incidence of cancer-associated VTE varies due to patient-related factors (e...
November 24, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877218/vitamin-d3-intake-dose-and-common-cancer-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#16
Henry Wc Leung, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chung-Feng Liu, Agnes Lf Chan
Objectives: Epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D status is associated inversely with risk of common cancers in western populations. This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D is associated with risk of common cancers in Chinese population. Methods: A population-based retrospective case-control study was conducted analyzing data retrieved from the Catastrophic Illness Patient Databases (CIPD) and longitudinal health insurance database (LHID) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011and January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2011, respectively...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875712/urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternative-metabolites-and-isoprostane-among-couples-undergoing-fertility-treatment
#17
Haotian Wu, Alexandra Olmsted, David E Cantonwine, Shahin Shahsavari, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia Sites, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest associations between phthalate exposures to a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced sperm quality and reproductive success. While mechanisms of these associations are not fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential mediator. We examined associations of urinary metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternative plasticizers with oxidative stress among couples seeking fertility treatment. METHODS: Seventeen urinary plasticizer metabolites and 15-F2t isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, were quantified in spot samples from 50 couples seeking fertility treatment who enrolled in the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study during 2014-2015...
February 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872082/evolving-use-of-natriuretic-peptides-as-part-of-strategies-for-heart-failure-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Ken McDonald, Mark Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) remains one of the major cardiovascular challenges to the Western world. Once established, HF is characterized by compromised life expectancy and quality of life with considerable dependence on hospital care for episodic clinical deterioration. Much is understood about the risk factors that predispose to the development of HF. With such a broad range of factors, it is clear that there is a large population at risk, potentially in excess of 25% of the adult population...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860198/diabetes-mellitus-and-long-term-mortality-of-ovarian-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-12-cohort-studies
#19
Dongyu Zhang, Yuan Zhao, Tengteng Wang, Yuzhi Xi, Nan Li, Hongtai Huang
AIM: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer among women, and its prognosis is not favorable. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is hypothesized to be associated with a higher mortality in ovarian cancer patients, but evidence is inconsistent. Thus, we aim to investigate if DM is associated with the long-term all-cause and long-term cancer-specific mortality in ovarian cancer patients by synthesizing available epidemiologic evidences. METHODS: We used 4 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus) to search for eligible articles...
November 8, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857777/associations-between-anxiety-disorder-diagnoses-and-body-mass-index-differ-by-age-sex-and-race-a-population-based-study
#20
Ramona S DeJesus, Carmen R Breitkopf, Jon O Ebbert, Lila J Finney Rutten, Robert M Jacobson, Debra J Jacobson, Chun Fan, Jennifer St Sauver
BACKGROUND: Few large studies have examined correlations between anxiety and body mass index (BMI) by gender or racial groups using clinical data. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine associations between diagnosed anxiety disorders and BMI, and evaluate whether observed associations varied by demographic characteristics. METHOD: Data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) data linkage system were analyzed to examine associations between anxiety disorders and BMI among adults ages 18-85 residing in Olmsted County, MN in 2009 (n=103,557)...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
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