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Stratification epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429111/impact-of-serum-albumin-levels-on-long-term-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#1
Hideki Wada, Tomotaka Dohi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Jun Shitara, Hirohisa Endo, Shinichiro Doi, Ryo Naito, Hirokazu Konishi, Shuta Tsuboi, Manabu Ogita, Takatoshi Kasai, Shinya Okazaki, Kikuo Isoda, Satoru Suwa, Hiroyuki Daida
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between low serum albumin levels and both coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. However, the long-term clinical impact of low serum albumin level in patients with CAD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not yet been fully investigated. We studied 2860 all-comer patients with CAD who underwent their first PCI and had data available for pre-procedural serum albumin between 2000 and 2011. Patients were assigned to tertiles based on pre-procedural albumin levels...
April 20, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427805/confounding-causality-and-confusion-the-role-of-intermediate-variables-in-interpreting-observational-studies-in-obstetrics
#2
Cande V Ananth, Enrique F Schisterman
Both prospective and retrospective cohort, and case-control studies are some of the most important study designs in epidemiology because, under certain assumptions, they can mimic a randomized trial when done well. These assumptions include but not limited to properly accounting for two important sources of bias: confounding and selection bias. While not adjusting the causal association for an intermediate variable will yield an unbiased estimate of the exposure-outcome's total causal effect, it is often that obstetricians will want to adjust for an intermediate variable to assess if the intermediate is the underlying driver of the association...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415696/role-of-interleukin-12-gene-polymorphisms-in-the-onset-risk-of-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#3
Yi Zheng, Meng Wang, Tian Tian, Kang Liu, Xinghan Liu, Yajing Zhai, Shuai Lin, Pengtao Yang, Shanli Li, Zhijun Dai, Jun Lu
Many molecular epidemiologic studies have explored the possible links between interleukin-12 (IL-12) polymorphisms and various cancers. However, results from these studies remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed to shed light on the associations between three common loci (rs568408, rs2243115, rs3212227) of IL-12 gene and overall cancer risk. Our meta-analysis finally included 33 studies comprising 10,587 cancer cases and 12,040 cancer-free controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the cancer risk...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402398/the-health-system-and-policy-implications-of-changing-epidemiology-for-oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancers-in-the-united-states-from-1995-to-2016
#4
Charles W LeHew, Darien J Weatherspoon, Caryn E Peterson, Abigail Goben, Karolina Reitmajer, Herve Sroussi, Linda M Kaste
Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are typically grouped under the general term, "oral cancer." Yet, the incidence of oropharyngeal cancers is increasing in the United States, while the incidence of oral cavity cancers has declined. These 2 distinct but conflated groups of oral cancers are attributed to different risk factors. Incidence and survival trends were examined across US population groups and by anatomical subsite. Disparities in incidence and survival by sex, race/ethnicity, and subsite were identified...
April 11, 2017: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396072/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-antibiotic-use-in-septorhinoplasty-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#5
Gregory D Lohr, Brian Hollabaugh, Patrick Waters, Paul S Tiwana
Septorhinoplasty is a commonly performed procedure for facial aesthetics and obstructed nasal breathing. There have been only 4 reported cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated postoperative complications following septorhinoplasty reported in the literature across all specialties. In this article, we report a case of MRSA-associated infection after an uncomplicated septorhinoplasty. Risk stratification and outcome of treatment are described, followed by a review of the current literature...
January 24, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392547/chromium-exposure-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-high-cardiovascular-risk-subjects%C3%A3-nested-case-control-study-in-the-prevention-with-mediterranean-diet-predimed-study
#6
Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Carlos Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Alberto Mariscal, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Ramón Estruch, Dolores Corella, Fernando Arós, Monserrat Fito, José Lapetra, Lluís Serra-Majem, Xavier Pintó, Ángel Alonso-Gómez, Olga Portoles, Miquel Fiol, Mónica Bulló, Olga Castañer, Emilio Ros, Enrique Gómez-Gracia
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on chromium (Cr) exposure and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are still limited. Toenail Cr level (TCL) provides a time-integrated measure reflecting long-term Cr exposure. We measured TCL to assess the hypothesis that long-term Cr exposure was inversely associated with incident CVD in a population at high risk for CVD.Methods and Results:The associations between TCL and CVD were evaluated in a case-control study nested within the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial...
April 8, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391526/trans-ethnic-fine-mapping-of-genetic-loci-for-body-mass-index-in-the-diverse-ancestral-populations-of-the-population-architecture-using-genomics-and-epidemiology-page-study-reveals-evidence-for-multiple-signals-at-established-loci
#7
Lindsay Fernández-Rhodes, Jian Gong, Jeffrey Haessler, Nora Franceschini, Mariaelisa Graff, Katherine K Nishimura, Yujie Wang, Heather M Highland, Sachiko Yoneyama, William S Bush, Robert Goodloe, Marylyn D Ritchie, Dana Crawford, Myron Gross, Myriam Fornage, Petra Buzkova, Ran Tao, Carmen Isasi, Larissa Avilés-Santa, Martha Daviglus, Rachel H Mackey, Denise Houston, C Charles Gu, Georg Ehret, Khanh-Dung H Nguyen, Cora E Lewis, Mark Leppert, Marguerite R Irvin, Unhee Lim, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand, Fredrick Schumacher, Lynne Wilkens, Yingchang Lu, Erwin P Bottinger, Ruth J L Loos, Wayne H-H Sheu, Xiuqing Guo, Wen-Jane Lee, Yang Hai, Yi-Jen Hung, Devin Absher, I-Chien Wu, Kent D Taylor, I-Te Lee, Yeheng Liu, Tzung-Dau Wang, Thomas Quertermous, Jyh-Ming J Juang, Jerome I Rotter, Themistocles Assimes, Chao A Hsiung, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Ross Prentice, Lewis H Kuller, JoAnn E Manson, Charles Kooperberg, Paul Smokowski, Whitney R Robinson, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Rongling Li, Lucia Hindorff, Steven Buyske, Tara C Matise, Ulrike Peters, Kari E North
Most body mass index (BMI) genetic loci have been identified in studies of primarily European ancestries. The effect of these loci in other racial/ethnic groups is less clear. Thus, we aimed to characterize the generalizability of 170 established BMI variants, or their proxies, to diverse US populations and trans-ethnically fine-map 36 BMI loci using a sample of >102,000 adults of African, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, European and American Indian/Alaskan Native descent from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Study...
April 8, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386917/epidemiology-and-one-year-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-and-preserved-mid-range-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-an-analysis-of-the-esc-heart-failure-long-term-registry
#8
Ovidiu Chioncel, Mitja Lainscak, Petar M Seferovic, Stefan D Anker, Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Veli-Pekka Harjola, John Parissis, Cecile Laroche, Massimo Francesco Piepoli, Candida Fonseca, Alexandre Mebazaa, Lars Lund, Giuseppe A Ambrosio, Andrew J Coats, Roberto Ferrari, Frank Ruschitzka, Aldo P Maggioni, Gerasimos Filippatos
AIMS: The objectives of the present study were to describe epidemiology and outcomes in ambulatory heart failure (HF) patients stratified by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and to identify predictors for mortality at 1 year in each group. METHODS AND RESULTS: The European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry is a prospective, observational study collecting epidemiological information and 1-year follow-up data in 9134 HF patients. Patients were classified according to baseline LVEF into HF with reduced EF [EF <40% (HFrEF)], mid-range EF [EF 40-50% (HFmrEF)] and preserved EF [EF >50% (HFpEF)]...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383806/socioeconomic-factors-and-survival-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#9
Cheng Xu, Yu-Pei Chen, Xu Liu, Ling-Long Tang, Lei Chen, Yan-Ping Mao, Yuan Zhang, Rui Guo, Guan-Qun Zhou, Wen-Fei Li, Ai-Hua Lin, Ying Sun, Jun Ma
The effect of socioeconomic factors on receipt of definitive treatment and survival outcomes in non-metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. Eligible patients (n = 37,995) were identified from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database between 2007 and 2012. Socioeconomic factors (i.e., median household income, education level, unemployment rate, insurance status, marital status and residence) were included in univariate/multivariate Cox regression analysis; validated factors were used to generate nomograms for cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS), and a prognostic score model for risk stratification...
April 6, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379306/anal-neoplasia-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-classification-proposal-epidemiology-carcinogenesis-and-risk-management-perspectives
#10
Andrew Wisniewski, Jean-Francois Fléjou, Laurent Siproudhis, Laurent Abramowitz, Magali Svrcek, Laurent Beaugerie
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] may develop, similarly to individuals from general population, rare cases of human papilloma virus [HPV]-related anal canal squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and intra-epithelial precursor lesions, as well as very rare cases of anal canal adenocarcinoma. Patients with chronic perianal Crohn's disease [CD] are at substantial risk of developing SCC or adenocarcinoma from the fistula-lining epithelium, as well as SCC or adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal ulcerations or strictures...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356445/diagnosis-treatment-and-long-term-management-of-kawasaki-disease-a-scientific-statement-for-health-professionals-from-the-american-heart-association
#11
REVIEW
Brian W McCrindle, Anne H Rowley, Jane W Newburger, Jane C Burns, Anne F Bolger, Michael Gewitz, Annette L Baker, Mary Anne Jackson, Masato Takahashi, Pinak B Shah, Tohru Kobayashi, Mei-Hwan Wu, Tsutomu T Saji, Elfriede Pahl
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is an acute vasculitis of childhood that leads to coronary artery aneurysms in ≈25% of untreated cases. It has been reported worldwide and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries. METHODS AND RESULTS: To revise the previous American Heart Association guidelines, a multidisciplinary writing group of experts was convened to review and appraise available evidence and practice-based opinion, as well as to provide updated recommendations for diagnosis, treatment of the acute illness, and long-term management...
March 29, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356197/risk-factors-for-depression-following-traumatic-injury-an-epidemiological-study-from-a-scandinavian-trauma-center
#12
Rebecka Ahl, Rickard Lindgren, Yang Cao, Louis Riddez, Shahin Mohseni
INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of patients suffer depression following traumatic injuries. Once manifested, major depression is challenging to overcome and its presence risks impairing the potential for physical rehabilitation and functional recovery. Risk stratification for early detection and intervention in these instances is important. This study aims to investigate patient and injury characteristics associated with an increased risk for depression. METHODS: All patients with traumatic injuries were recruited from the trauma registry of an urban university hospital between 2007 and 2012...
March 19, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347497/diabetes-and-ramadan-practical-guidelines
#13
REVIEW
Mohamed Hassanein, Monira Al-Arouj, Osama Hamdy, Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar, Abdul Jabbar, Abdulrazzaq Al-Madani, Wasim Hanif, Nader Lessan, Abdul Basit, Khaled Tayeb, Mak Omar, Khalifa Abdallah, Abdulaziz Al Twaim, Mehmet Akif Buyukbese, Adel A El-Sayed, Abdullah Ben-Nakhi
Ramadan fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam and is compulsory for all healthy Muslims from puberty onwards. Exemptions exist for people with serious medical conditions, including many with diabetes, but a large number will participate, often against medical advice. Ensuring the optimal care of these patients during Ramadan is crucial. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Diabetes and Ramadan (DAR) International Alliance have come together to deliver comprehensive guidelines on this subject...
March 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345619/impact-of-molecular-subtypes-on-metastatic-breast-cancer-patients-a-seer-population-based-study
#14
Yue Gong, Yi-Rong Liu, Peng Ji, Xin Hu, Zhi-Ming Shao
To investigate the significance and impact of molecular subtyping stratification on metastatic breast cancer patients, we identified 159,344 female breast cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database with known hormone receptor (HoR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status. 4.8% of patients were identified as having stage IV disease, and were more likely to be HER2+/HoR-, HER2+/HoR+, or HER2-/HoR-. Stage IV breast cancer patients with a HER2+/HoR+ status exhibited the highest median overall survival (OS) (44...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333258/anal-neoplasia-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-classification-proposal-epidemiology-carcinogenesis-and-risk-management-perspectives
#15
Andrew Wisniewski, Jean-Francois Fléjou, Laurent Siproudhis, Laurent Abramowitz, Magali Svrcek, Laurent Beaugerie
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may develop, similarly to individuals from general population, rare cases of HPV-related anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and their intra-epithelial precursor lesions, as well as very rare cases of anal canal adenocarcinoma. Patients with chronic perianal Crohn's disease (CD) are at substantial risk of developing SCC or adenocarcinoma from the fistula-lining epithelium, as well as SCC or adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal ulcerations or strictures...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325597/relationships-between-acrylamide-and-glycidamide-hemoglobin-adduct-levels-and-allergy-related-outcomes-in-general-us-population-nhanes-2005-2006
#16
Jing Guo, Dongdong Yu, Na Lv, Rongpan Bai, Chunjing Xu, Guangdi Chen, Weiming Cao
BACKGROUND: Acrylamide-induced immunotoxicity and allergic dermatitis have been reported in animal experiments and clinical reports, respectively. However, epidemiological evidence from the general population is limited. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to estimate the associations between acrylamide exposure and allergy-related outcomes in the general US population. METHODS: A total of 6982 subjects were selected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 (NHANES)...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323666/febrile-infant-update
#17
Kate Dorney, Richard G Bachur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The approach to febrile young infants remains challenging. This review serves as an update on the care of febrile infants less than 90 days of age with a focus on the changing epidemiology of serious bacterial infection (SBI), refinement of management strategies based on biomarkers, and the development of novel diagnostics. RECENT FINDINGS: There is high variability in the emergency department management of febrile young infants without significant differences in outcomes...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306673/hypertensive-crisis-an-update-on-clinical-approach-and-management
#18
Emrah Ipek, Ahmet Afşin Oktay, Selim R Krim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we review current concepts on hypertensive crisis (HTN-C) with a focus on epidemiology, causes, pathophysiology and prognosis. We also offer a practical approach to the management of HTN-C. RECENT FINDINGS: HTN-C is characterized by a severe and abrupt increase in blood pressure (BP) with impending or progressive acute end-organ damage (EOD). HTN-C can be divided into hypertensive emergency (HTN-E) and hypertensive urgency (HTN-U) based on the presence or absence of acute EOD, respectively...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306628/pediatric-spinal-cord-injury-without-radiographic-abnormality-in-the-era-of-advanced-imaging
#19
Caitlin A Farrell, Megan Hannon, Lois K Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review describes the current evidence on pediatric spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) with attention to the definition, epidemiology, and clinical presentation of the condition, as well as common MRI findings, management strategies, and outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature demonstrates that with more widespread MRI use, our understanding of SCIWORA has improved. The new literature, although still limited, provides a more granular conceptualization of patterns of injury as well as potential prognostic stratification of patients based on MRI findings...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306572/neuromyelitis-optica-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#20
Romain Marignier, Alvaro Cobo Calvo, Sandra Vukusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of highly specific auto-antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 was a quantum leap in the definition, classification and management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Herein, we propose an update on epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic advances in the field, underlining unmet needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently provided a more precise evaluation of NMO prevalence and a better stratification regarding ethnicity and sex...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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