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Stratification epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532458/results-of-an-early-intervention-programme-for-patients-with-bacteraemia-analysis-of-prognostic-factors-and-mortality
#1
A Del Arco, J Olalla, J de la Torre, A Blázquez, N Montiel-Quezel, J L Prada, F Rivas, J García-Alegría, F Fernández-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Bacteraemia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to hospital. The aim of this study is to analyse the results of a two-year programme for the early optimisation of antibiotic treatment in patients admitted to the Costa del Sol Hospital (Marbella. Spain). METHODS: A prospective two-year cohort study was conducted, evaluating all episodes of bacteraemia at the Costa del Sol Hospital. Epidemiological and microbiological characteristics, any modification of the initial antibiotic treatment, prognostic risk stratification, early mortality related to the episode of bacteraemia, and mortality after the seventh day, were included in the analysis...
May 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506524/contemporary-incidence-and-cancer-control-outcomes-of-primary-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer-a-seer-database-analysis
#2
Emanuele Zaffuto, Raisa Pompe, Marc Zanaty, Helen Davis Bondarenko, Sami-Ramzi Leyh-Bannurah, Marco Moschini, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Giorgio Gandaglia, Nicola Fossati, Armando Stabile, Kevin C Zorn, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, Pierre I Karakiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate (NEPC) is a rare entity. We aimed at providing contemporary data on incidence and survival figures of de-novo NEPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 309 individuals with de-novo NEPC diagnosed between 2004 and 2013. We evaluated age-adjusted incidence rates over the study. Kaplan-Meier analyses assessed overall survival (OS) after stratification according to histologic subtype, metastatic status, and treatment...
April 13, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502494/association-of-fasting-triglyceride-concentration-and-postprandial-triglyceride-response-with-the-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-the-middle-aged-the-netherlands-epidemiology-of-obesity-study
#3
Tim Christen, Renée de Mutsert, Karin B Gast, Patrick C N Rensen, Eelco de Koning, Frits R Rosendaal, Stella Trompet, J Wouter Jukema
BACKGROUND: People are in a postprandial state for the majority of the day, postprandial triglyceride (TG) response may be more important in the etiology of atherosclerosis than fasting TGs. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the associations of fasting TG concentration (TGc) and postprandial TG response after a meal challenge with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by intima-media thickness (IMT) in a middle-aged population. METHODS: A total of 5574 participants (57% women) with a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 56 (6) years were included in this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486474/vitamin-d-levels-and-susceptibility-to-asthma-elevated-immunoglobulin-e-levels-and-atopic-dermatitis-a-mendelian-randomization-study
#4
Despoina Manousaki, Lavinia Paternoster, Marie Standl, Miriam F Moffatt, Martin Farrall, Emmanuelle Bouzigon, David P Strachan, Florence Demenais, Mark Lathrop, William O C M Cookson, J Brent Richards
BACKGROUND: Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE). These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482404/-research-advances-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-2016
#5
Y S Chen, B Y Wang, Y M Li
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most important liver disease in the world and its prevalence rate still tends to increase. However, there are still no effective drugs so far. The complex and dynamic interactions between multiple effects/mediators in the pathophysiology of NAFLD provide new insights and help with stratification and redefinition of clinical phenotypes and evaluation of disease susceptibility and multiplicity of progression. They may also provide new targets for future treatment...
March 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481680/modeling-the-hepatitis-a-epidemiological-transition-in-brazil-and-mexico
#6
Thierry Van Effelterre, Adrienne Guignard, Cinzia Marano, Rosalba Rojas, Kathryn H Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV...
May 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467795/survival-benefit-of-glioblastoma-patients-after-fda-approval-of-temozolomide-concomitant-with-radiation-and-bevacizumab-a-population-based-study
#7
Ping Zhu, Xianglin L Du, Guangrong Lu, Jay-Jiguang Zhu
Few population-based analyses have investigated survival change in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients treated with concomitant radiotherapy-temozolomide (RT-TMZ) and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) and then bevacizumab (BEV) after Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, respectively. We aimed to explore the effects on survival with RT-TMZ, adjuvant TMZ and BEV in general GBM population based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) databases. A total of 28933 GBM patients from SEER (N = 24578) and TCR (N = 4355) between January 2000 and December 2013 were included...
April 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453510/is-aspirin-associated-with-diabetic-retinopathy-the-singapore-epidemiology-of-eye-disease-seed-study
#8
Yuan Shi, Yih-Chung Tham, Ning Cheung, Jacqueline Chua, Gavin Tan, Paul Mitchell, Jie Jin Wang, Yin Bun Cheung, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien Yin Wong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine the association between aspirin use and diabetic retinopathy (DR) among persons with diabetes, in a population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Subjects with diabetes aged >40 years from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study were enrolled in this study. Retinal photographs were graded for DR according to the modified Airlie House classification system. Vision threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) was defined as the presence of severe non-proliferative DR, or proliferative DR, or clinically significant macular oedema...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447279/multi-modality-molecular-imaging-of-aortic-aneurysms
#9
Brian J Malm, Mehran M Sadeghi
Aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta are common and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality when complications, including dissection, rupture, or thrombosis, occur. Current approaches to diagnosis and risk stratification rely on measurements of aneurysm size and rate of growth, often using various imaging modalities, which may be suboptimal in identifying patients at the highest and lowest risk of complications. Targeting the biological processes underlying aneurysm formation and expansion with molecular imaging offers an exciting opportunity to characterize aortic aneurysms beyond size and address current gaps in our approach to diagnosis and treatment...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435306/pediatric-acute-kidney-injury-prevalence-impact-and-management-challenges
#10
REVIEW
Eileen Ciccia, Prasad Devarajan
The incidence of pediatric acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing globally, as are the associated morbidities and mortality. A recent standardization of the definition of AKI has allowed for a more accurate assessment of the epidemiology of pediatric AKI. Recent advances in leveraging electronic medical health record systems have allowed for real-time risk stratification and prevention of pediatric AKI in the hospital setting. Newly developed and validated clinical scores have improved our ability to predict AKI and provide a rational context for biomarker utilization in hospitalized children...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434837/metabolic-syndrome-components-and-diabetes-incidence-according-to-the-presence-or-absence-of-impaired-fasting-glucose-the-japan-epidemiology-collaboration-on-occupational-health-study
#11
Kayo Kurotani, Toshiaki Miyamoto, Takeshi Kochi, Masafumi Eguchi, Teppei Imai, Akiko Nishihara, Kentaro Tomita, Akihiko Uehara, Makoto Yamamoto, Taizo Murakami, Chii Shimizu, Makiko Shimizu, Satsue Nagahama, Tohru Nakagawa, Toru Honda, Shuichiro Yamamoto, Hiroko Okazaki, Naoko Sasaki, Ai Hori, Chihiro Nishiura, Keisuke Kuwahara, Reiko Kuroda, Shamima Akter, Ikuko Kashino, Akiko Nanri, Isamu Kabe, Tetsuya Mizoue, Naoki Kunugita, Seitaro Dohi
BACKGROUND: We prospectively examined the association of diabetes risk with the number of metabolic abnormalities, as well as their combinations, according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in a large-scale Japanese working population. METHODS: Participants included 55,271 workers at 11 companies who received periodic health check-ups between 2008 and 2013. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) components were defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429111/impact-of-serum-albumin-levels-on-long-term-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#12
Hideki Wada, Tomotaka Dohi, Katsumi Miyauchi, Jun Shitara, Hirohisa Endo, Shinichiro Doi, Ryo Naito, Hirokazu Konishi, Shuta Tsuboi, Manabu Ogita, Takatoshi Kasai, Shinya Okazaki, Kikuo Isoda, Satoru Suwa, Hiroyuki Daida
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between low serum albumin levels and both coronary artery disease (CAD) and mortality. However, the long-term clinical impact of low serum albumin level in patients with CAD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not yet been fully investigated. We studied 2860 all-comer patients with CAD who underwent their first PCI and had data available for pre-procedural serum albumin between 2000 and 2011. Patients were assigned to tertiles based on pre-procedural albumin levels...
April 20, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427805/confounding-causality-and-confusion-the-role-of-intermediate-variables-in-interpreting-observational-studies-in-obstetrics
#13
Cande V Ananth, Enrique F Schisterman
Both prospective and retrospective cohort, and case-control studies are some of the most important study designs in epidemiology because, under certain assumptions, they can mimic a randomized trial when done well. These assumptions include but not limited to properly accounting for two important sources of bias: confounding and selection bias. While not adjusting the causal association for an intermediate variable will yield an unbiased estimate of the exposure-outcome's total causal effect, it is often that obstetricians will want to adjust for an intermediate variable to assess if the intermediate is the underlying driver of the association...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415696/role-of-interleukin-12-gene-polymorphisms-in-the-onset-risk-of-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#14
Yi Zheng, Meng Wang, Tian Tian, Kang Liu, Xinghan Liu, Yajing Zhai, Shuai Lin, Pengtao Yang, Shanli Li, Zhijun Dai, Jun Lu
Many molecular epidemiologic studies have explored the possible links between interleukin-12 (IL-12) polymorphisms and various cancers. However, results from these studies remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed to shed light on the associations between three common loci (rs568408, rs2243115, rs3212227) of IL-12 gene and overall cancer risk. Our meta-analysis finally included 33 studies comprising 10,587 cancer cases and 12,040 cancer-free controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the cancer risk...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402398/the-health-system-and-policy-implications-of-changing-epidemiology-for-oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancers-in-the-united-states-from-1995-to-2016
#15
Charles W LeHew, Darien J Weatherspoon, Caryn E Peterson, Abigail Goben, Karolina Reitmajer, Herve Sroussi, Linda M Kaste
Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers are typically grouped under the general term, "oral cancer." Yet, the incidence of oropharyngeal cancers is increasing in the United States, while the incidence of oral cavity cancers has declined. These 2 distinct but conflated groups of oral cancers are attributed to different risk factors. Incidence and survival trends were examined across US population groups and by anatomical subsite. Disparities in incidence and survival by sex, race/ethnicity, and subsite were identified...
January 1, 2017: Epidemiologic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396072/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-antibiotic-use-in-septorhinoplasty-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#16
Gregory D Lohr, Brian Hollabaugh, Patrick Waters, Paul S Tiwana
Septorhinoplasty is a commonly performed procedure for facial aesthetics and obstructed nasal breathing. There have been only 4 reported cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated postoperative complications following septorhinoplasty reported in the literature across all specialties. In this article, we report a case of MRSA-associated infection after an uncomplicated septorhinoplasty. Risk stratification and outcome of treatment are described, followed by a review of the current literature...
January 24, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392547/chromium-exposure-and-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-high-cardiovascular-risk-subjects%C3%A3-nested-case-control-study-in-the-prevention-with-mediterranean-diet-predimed-study
#17
Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González, Carlos Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Alberto Mariscal, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Ramón Estruch, Dolores Corella, Fernando Arós, Monserrat Fito, José Lapetra, Lluís Serra-Majem, Xavier Pintó, Ángel Alonso-Gómez, Olga Portoles, Miquel Fiol, Mónica Bulló, Olga Castañer, Emilio Ros, Enrique Gómez-Gracia
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on chromium (Cr) exposure and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are still limited. Toenail Cr level (TCL) provides a time-integrated measure reflecting long-term Cr exposure. We measured TCL to assess the hypothesis that long-term Cr exposure was inversely associated with incident CVD in a population at high risk for CVD.Methods and Results:The associations between TCL and CVD were evaluated in a case-control study nested within the "PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea" (PREDIMED) trial...
April 8, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391526/trans-ethnic-fine-mapping-of-genetic-loci-for-body-mass-index-in-the-diverse-ancestral-populations-of-the-population-architecture-using-genomics-and-epidemiology-page-study-reveals-evidence-for-multiple-signals-at-established-loci
#18
Lindsay Fernández-Rhodes, Jian Gong, Jeffrey Haessler, Nora Franceschini, Mariaelisa Graff, Katherine K Nishimura, Yujie Wang, Heather M Highland, Sachiko Yoneyama, William S Bush, Robert Goodloe, Marylyn D Ritchie, Dana Crawford, Myron Gross, Myriam Fornage, Petra Buzkova, Ran Tao, Carmen Isasi, Larissa Avilés-Santa, Martha Daviglus, Rachel H Mackey, Denise Houston, C Charles Gu, Georg Ehret, Khanh-Dung H Nguyen, Cora E Lewis, Mark Leppert, Marguerite R Irvin, Unhee Lim, Christopher A Haiman, Loic Le Marchand, Fredrick Schumacher, Lynne Wilkens, Yingchang Lu, Erwin P Bottinger, Ruth J L Loos, Wayne H-H Sheu, Xiuqing Guo, Wen-Jane Lee, Yang Hai, Yi-Jen Hung, Devin Absher, I-Chien Wu, Kent D Taylor, I-Te Lee, Yeheng Liu, Tzung-Dau Wang, Thomas Quertermous, Jyh-Ming J Juang, Jerome I Rotter, Themistocles Assimes, Chao A Hsiung, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Ross Prentice, Lewis H Kuller, JoAnn E Manson, Charles Kooperberg, Paul Smokowski, Whitney R Robinson, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Rongling Li, Lucia Hindorff, Steven Buyske, Tara C Matise, Ulrike Peters, Kari E North
Most body mass index (BMI) genetic loci have been identified in studies of primarily European ancestries. The effect of these loci in other racial/ethnic groups is less clear. Thus, we aimed to characterize the generalizability of 170 established BMI variants, or their proxies, to diverse US populations and trans-ethnically fine-map 36 BMI loci using a sample of >102,000 adults of African, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, European and American Indian/Alaskan Native descent from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Study...
April 8, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386917/epidemiology-and-one-year-outcomes-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-and-preserved-mid-range-and-reduced-ejection-fraction-an-analysis-of-the-esc-heart-failure-long-term-registry
#19
Ovidiu Chioncel, Mitja Lainscak, Petar M Seferovic, Stefan D Anker, Maria G Crespo-Leiro, Veli-Pekka Harjola, John Parissis, Cecile Laroche, Massimo Francesco Piepoli, Candida Fonseca, Alexandre Mebazaa, Lars Lund, Giuseppe A Ambrosio, Andrew J Coats, Roberto Ferrari, Frank Ruschitzka, Aldo P Maggioni, Gerasimos Filippatos
AIMS: The objectives of the present study were to describe epidemiology and outcomes in ambulatory heart failure (HF) patients stratified by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and to identify predictors for mortality at 1 year in each group. METHODS AND RESULTS: The European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Long-Term Registry is a prospective, observational study collecting epidemiological information and 1-year follow-up data in 9134 HF patients. Patients were classified according to baseline LVEF into HF with reduced EF [EF <40% (HFrEF)], mid-range EF [EF 40-50% (HFmrEF)] and preserved EF [EF >50% (HFpEF)]...
April 6, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383806/socioeconomic-factors-and-survival-in-patients-with-non-metastatic-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#20
Cheng Xu, Yu-Pei Chen, Xu Liu, Ling-Long Tang, Lei Chen, Yan-Ping Mao, Yuan Zhang, Rui Guo, Guan-Qun Zhou, Wen-Fei Li, Ai-Hua Lin, Ying Sun, Jun Ma
The effect of socioeconomic factors on receipt of definitive treatment and survival outcomes in non-metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. Eligible patients (n = 37,995) were identified from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database between 2007 and 2012. Socioeconomic factors (i.e., median household income, education level, unemployment rate, insurance status, marital status and residence) were included in univariate/multivariate Cox regression analysis; validated factors were used to generate nomograms for cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS), and a prognostic score model for risk stratification...
April 6, 2017: Cancer Science
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