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Stratification epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914655/crohn-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Joana Torres, Saurabh Mehandru, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, with increasing incidence worldwide. Crohn's disease might result from a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, and altered gut microbiota, leading to dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. The typical clinical scenario is a young patient presenting with abdominal pain, chronic diarrhoea, weight loss, and fatigue. Assessment of disease extent and of prognostic factors for complications is paramount to guide therapeutic decisions...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903497/association-between-screening-and-the-thyroid-cancer-epidemic-in-south-korea-evidence-from-a-nationwide-study
#2
Sohee Park, Chang-Mo Oh, Hyunsoon Cho, Joo Young Lee, Kyu-Won Jung, Jae Kwan Jun, Young-Joo Won, Hyun-Joo Kong, Kui Son Choi, You Jin Lee, Jin Soo Lee
OBJECTIVE:  To investigate whether screening for thyroid cancer led to the current "epidemic" in South Korea. DESIGN:  Review of the medical records of nationally representative samples of patients with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer in 1999, 2005, and 2008. SETTING:  Sample cases were randomly selected from South Korea's nationwide cancer registry, using a systematic sampling method after stratification by region. PARTICIPANTS:  5796 patients with thyroid cancer were included (891 in 1999, 2355 in 2005, and 2550 in 2008)...
November 30, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891577/statin-use-and-risk-of-endometrial-cancer-a-nationwide-registry-based-case-control-study
#3
Cecilie Dyg Sperling, Freija Verdoodt, Søren Friis, Christian Dehlendorff, Susanne K Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (± 1 month) using risk-set sampling...
November 27, 2016: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882374/cancer-associated-venous-thromboembolism-burden-mechanisms-and-management
#4
Cihan Ay, Ingrid Pabinger, Alexander T Cohen
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant health problem in the general population but especially in cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and burden of the disease, the pathophysiology of cancer-associated VTE, and the clinical treatment options for both primary prevention and acute treatment. Overall, the development of VTE in cancer patients is related to increases in morbidity, mortality, and medical costs. However, the incidence of cancer-associated VTE varies due to patient-related factors (e...
November 24, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877218/vitamin-d3-intake-dose-and-common-cancer-a-population-based-case-control-study-in-a-chinese-population
#5
Henry Wc Leung, Chih-Hsin Muo, Chung-Feng Liu, Agnes Lf Chan
Objectives: Epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D status is associated inversely with risk of common cancers in western populations. This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D is associated with risk of common cancers in Chinese population. Methods: A population-based retrospective case-control study was conducted analyzing data retrieved from the Catastrophic Illness Patient Databases (CIPD) and longitudinal health insurance database (LHID) from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2011and January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2011, respectively...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875712/urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternative-metabolites-and-isoprostane-among-couples-undergoing-fertility-treatment
#6
Haotian Wu, Alexandra Olmsted, David E Cantonwine, Shahin Shahsavari, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia Sites, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest associations between phthalate exposures to a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced sperm quality and reproductive success. While mechanisms of these associations are not fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential mediator. We examined associations of urinary metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternative plasticizers with oxidative stress among couples seeking fertility treatment. METHODS: Seventeen urinary plasticizer metabolites and 15-F2t isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, were quantified in spot samples from 50 couples seeking fertility treatment who enrolled in the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study during 2014-2015...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872082/evolving-use-of-natriuretic-peptides-as-part-of-strategies-for-heart-failure-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Ken McDonald, Mark Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) remains one of the major cardiovascular challenges to the Western world. Once established, HF is characterized by compromised life expectancy and quality of life with considerable dependence on hospital care for episodic clinical deterioration. Much is understood about the risk factors that predispose to the development of HF. With such a broad range of factors, it is clear that there is a large population at risk, potentially in excess of 25% of the adult population...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860198/diabetes-mellitus-and-long-term-mortality-of-ovarian-cancer-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-12-cohort-studies
#8
Dongyu Zhang, Yuan Zhao, Tengteng Wang, Yuzhi Xi, Nan Li, Hongtai Huang
AIM: Ovarian cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer among women, and its survival is not favorable. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is hypothesized to be associated with a higher mortality in OC patients, but evidences are inconsistent. Thus, we aim to investigate if DM is associated with the long-term all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in OC patients by synthesizing available epidemiologic evidences. METHODS: We utilized 4 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus) to search for eligible articles...
November 8, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857777/associations-between-anxiety-disorder-diagnoses-and-body-mass-index-differ-by-age-sex-and-race-a-population-based-study
#9
Ramona S DeJesus, Carmen R Breitkopf, Jon O Ebbert, Lila J Finney Rutten, Robert M Jacobson, Debra J Jacobson, Chun Fan, Jennifer St Sauver
BACKGROUND: Few large studies have examined correlations between anxiety and body mass index (BMI) by gender or racial groups using clinical data. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine associations between diagnosed anxiety disorders and BMI, and evaluate whether observed associations varied by demographic characteristics. METHOD: Data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) data linkage system were analyzed to examine associations between anxiety disorders and BMI among adults ages 18-85 residing in Olmsted County, MN in 2009 (n=103,557)...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852270/inequalities-in-healthy-life-expectancy-by-brazilian-geographic-regions-findings-from-the-national-health-survey-2013
#10
Célia Landmann Szwarcwald, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza Júnior, Aline Pinto Marques, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Dalia Elena Romero Montilla
BACKGROUND: The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. METHODS: In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over)...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844137/-clinical-importance-of-hdl-cholesterol
#11
REVIEW
W März, M E Kleber, H Scharnagl, T Speer, S Zewinger, A Ritsch, K G Parhofer, A von Eckardstein, U Landmesser, U Laufs
BACKROUND: Each year 16-17 million determinations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are conducted and interpreted in Germany. Recently acquired data have led to a fundamental reassessment of the clinical significance of HDL-C. METHOD: This review article is based on a selective literature search. RESULTS: Low HDL‑C levels usually indicate an increased cardiovascular risk, particularly in primary prevention but the epidemiological relationship between HDL‑C and the risk is complex...
November 14, 2016: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825465/monoclonal-gammopathy-of-undetermined-significance-and-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinemia
#12
REVIEW
Sham Mailankody, Ola Landgren
Since the initial identification of patients with monoclonal elevation of gamma globulin and associated clinical symptoms in 1944 by Jan Waldenström, several new insights have been gained using a range of approaches. For example, IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering Waldenström's macroglobulinemia are defined clinical precursor states to symptomatic Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. Epidemiologic studies have established the prevalence of these conditions and the estimated risk of progression to symptomatic disease...
June 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803367/management-of-post-operative-acute-kidney-injury
#13
S Bell, V C Ross, K A Zealley, F Millar, C Isles
Post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of surgery with significant short- and long-term adverse consequences. The adoption of diagnostic criteria for AKI (RIFLE, AKIN and KDIGO) has facilitated comparison of data reported by different centres, confirming that even mild AKI is associated with excess mortality. It remains unclear whether this is caused by the kidney injury itself or whether AKI is simply a marker of underlying disease severity. There is no trial evidence to support the use of any specific therapeutic intervention in post-operative AKI...
October 18, 2016: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799170/troponin-elevations-after-non-cardiac-non-vascular-surgery-are-predictive-of-major-adverse-cardiac-events-and-mortality-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
S Ekeloef, M Alamili, P J Devereaux, I Gögenur
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing non-cardiac, non-vascular surgery are at risk of major cardiovascular complications. In non-cardiac surgery, troponin elevation has previously been shown to be an independent predictor of major adverse cardiac events and postoperative mortality; however, a majority of studies have focused on vascular surgery patients. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether troponin elevation is a predictor of major adverse cardiac events and mortality within 30 days and 1 yr after non-cardiac, non-vascular surgery...
November 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788183/angle-closure-scoring-system-acss-a-scoring-system-for-stratification-of-angle-closure-disease
#15
Aparna Rao, Debananda Padhy, Sarada Sarangi, Gopinath Das
PURPOSE: To evaluate the angle closure scoring system (ACSS) for stratifying primary angle course disease. METHODS: This observational cross sectional institutional study included patients with primary open angle glaucoma suspects (n = 21) and primary angle closure disease (primary angle closure, PAC, n = 63 and primary angle course glaucoma, PACG, n = 58 (defined by International society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology, ISGEO). Two independent examiners blinded to clinical details, graded good quality pre-laser goniophotographs of the patients incorporating quadrants of peripheral anterior synechieae (PAS), non-visibility of posterior trabecular meshwork (PTM) and blotchy pigments (ranging from 1-4 quadrants), iris configuration, angle recess (sum of above depicting ACSSg) and lens thickness/axial length ratio (LT/AL), cup disc ratio and baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) to give total score (ACSSt)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785420/why-are-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-two-different-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Tibor Szarvas, Orsolya Módos, András Horváth, Péter Nyirády
In the last few years growing evidence highlighted the differences between upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) which cannot be explained solely by their different anatomical location. The aim of this review was to summarize current progress in UTUC research and to underline the differences and similarities between UTUC and UBC by focusing on epidemiology, etiology, staging and risk factors as well as on surgical and medical management. UBC and UTUC sharing common risk factors such as smoking and aromatic amines, while aristolochic acid exposure or familiar Lynch syndrome are rather specific for UTUC...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766913/patient-specific-risk-stratification-for-antimicrobial-resistance-and-possible-treatment-strategies-in-gram-negative-bacterial-infections
#17
Matteo Bassetti, Alessia Carnelutti, Maddalena Peghin
The isolation of multi-drug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) pathogens has progressively increased worldwide and has been associated with important delays in the prescription of an adequate antibiotic treatment, resulting in increased mortality rates. Patient's stratification for MDRGN infections to optimize the prescription of an adequate empiric antimicrobial regimen is crucial. Areas covered: This article covers MDRGN epidemiology, with a specific focus on risk factors for harbouring infections sustained by extended-spectrum-Beta-lactamase (ESBL), carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriacae (CRE), MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MDR Acinetobacter baumanii...
November 7, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761786/post-pericardiotomy-syndrome
#18
Balaji K Tamarappoo, Allan L Klein
Post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) occurs in a subgroup of patients who have undergone cardiothoracic surgery and is characterized by fever, pleuritic pain, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion. It is associated with significant morbidity, and the leading complications include tamponade and constrictive pericarditis. Epidemiologic studies have found that PPS often occurs among younger patients; however, there is a lack of comprehensive risk stratification. It is therefore important to be able to identify patients who are at high risk for developing this disease...
November 2016: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759643/epidemiological-burden-estimates-for-pathologies-with-a-nonconstant-risk-an-application-to-hcv-in-italy-according-to-age-metavir-score-and-genotype-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Rossella Letizia Mancusi, Massimo Andreoni, Daniela d'Angela, Cesare Sarrecchia, Federico Spandonaro
Between western European countries, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic is highest in Italy. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the endemic diffusion of hepatitis C at the national level and by geographical area, with an extrapolation at the regional level and by uniform cohorts of subjects (by sex and year of birth). The secondary objective is a stratification by gravity of the estimated statistical figures to provide an overview of possible targets of the new anti-HCV treatments.PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant Italian populations studies regarding HCV prevalence...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759068/plasma-25-hydroxy-vitamin-d-and-subsequent-prostate-cancer-risk-in-a-nested-case-control-study-in-japan-the-jphc-study
#20
N Sawada, M Inoue, M Iwasaki, T Yamaji, T Shimazu, S Sasazuki, S Tsugane
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although vitamin D has been experimentally reported to inhibit tumorigenesis, cell growth and prostate cancer invasion, epidemiologic data regarding prostate cancer risk are inconsistent, and some studies have suggested positive but nonsignificant associations. Further, the impact of vitamin D on prostate cancer between Western and Japanese populations may differ due to different plasma vitamin D levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective (JPHC) Study in 14,203 men (40-69 years) who answered a self-administered questionnaire at baseline (1990-1994) and gave blood samples, and were followed until 2005...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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