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Oxidative stress epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077780/exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#1
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
November 15, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067964/cardiovascular-consequences-of-binge-drinking-an-integrative-review-with-implications-for-advocacy-policy-and-research
#2
Mariann R Piano, Adriana Mazzuco, Minkyung Kang, Shane A Phillips
Worldwide, binge drinking is a major public health problem. The popularized health risks associated with binge drinking include physical injury and motor vehicle crashes; less attention has been given to the negative effects on the cardiovascular (CV) system. The primary aims of this review were to provide a summary of the adverse effects of binge drinking on the risk and development of CV disease and to review potential pathophysiologic mechanisms. Using specific inclusion criteria, an integrative review was conducted that included data from human experimental, prospective cross-sectional, and cohort epidemiological studies that examined the association between binge drinking and CV conditions such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and arrhythmias...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066814/species-in-the-cryptococcus-gattii-complex-differ-in-capsule-and-cell-size-following-growth-under-capsule-inducing-conditions
#3
Kenya E Fernandes, Christine Dwyer, Leona T Campbell, Dee A Carter
Cryptococcus gattii causes invasive fungal infections that have been increasing in incidence and global distribution in recent years. The major molecular genotypes of C. gattii that were previously classified as VGI to VGIV have recently been described as four new species: C. gattii (VGI), C. deuterogattii (VGII), C. bacillisporus (VGIII), and C. tetragattii (VGIV). The main driver for their classification has been phylogeny, and phenotypic diversity has not yet been extensively characterized. This study examines variation in attributes related to virulence and pathogenicity, including capsule thickness, cell size, tolerance to temperature, oxidative and osmotic stress, and cell wall integrity...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065687/restless-legs-syndrome-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-research-roadmap
#4
REVIEW
Daniel J Gottlieb, Virend K Somers, Naresh M Punjabi, John W Winkelman
In this paper, we first critically appraise the epidemiologic literature examining the association of restless legs syndrome (RLS) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and then consider whether lessons learned from the study of cardiovascular consequences of other sleep disorders might inform a research agenda to examine the potential mechanisms of cardiovascular morbidity of RLS. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are both mixed as to whether there is a meaningful association of RLS and CVD. On the other hand, numerous cross-sectional and longitudinal observational studies have shown a strong association of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with CVD risk...
October 27, 2016: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057119/-impacts-of-airborne-particulate-matter-and-its-components-on-respiratory-system-health
#5
L M Cao, Y Zhou, Z Zhang, W W Sun, G Mu, W H Chen
Nowadays, particulate air pollution has been a global environmental problem. Numerous studies has shown that long-term exposure to high level of airborne particulate matter (PM) can damage human health. Respiratory system, as a direct portal to contact with particulate matter, can be more susceptible to airborne particulates. Summarizing latest five-year epidemiological research, the present review is focused on the effects of PM on respiratory system health in different age groups. In detail, we investigated the harmful effect of PM, or its components on three common respiratory diseases, including lung function decline, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma...
December 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041981/maternal-exposure-to-fine-particulate-air-pollution-induces-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-resulting-in-postnatal-pulmonary-dysfunction-mediated-by-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-smad3-signaling
#6
Wenting Tang, Lili Du, Wen Sun, Zhiqiang Yu, Fang He, Jingsi Chen, Xiaomei Li, Xiuying Li, Lin Yu, Dunjin Chen
Fine particles from air pollution, also called particulate matter, less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5), are a threat to child health. Epidemiological investigations have related maternal exposure to PM2.5 to postnatal respiratory symptoms, such as frequent wheezing, chronic cough, and lung function decrements. However, only few experimental animal studies have been performed to study the effects of PM2.5.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to PM2.5 on postnatal pulmonary dysfunction in a rat model and to examine the mechanism of PM2...
December 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039001/paliperidone-reverts-toll-like-receptor-3-signaling-pathway-activation-and-cognitive-deficits-in-a-maternal-immune-activation-mouse-model-of-schizophrenia
#7
Karina S MacDowell, Eva Munarriz-Cuezva, Javier R Caso, José L M Madrigal, Arantzazu Zabala, J Javier Meana, Borja García-Bueno, Juan C Leza
The pathophysiology of psychotic disorders is multifactorial, including alterations in the immune system caused by exogenous or endogenous factors. Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate that infections during the gestational period represent a risk factor to develop schizophrenia (SZ) along lifetime. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the antipsychotic paliperidone regulates immune-related brain effects in an experimental model of SZ. A well described prenatal immune activation model of SZ in mice by maternal injection of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) during pregnancy was used...
December 28, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026023/effects-of-long-term-ethanol-consumption-and-aldh1b1-depletion-on-intestinal-tumourigenesis-in-mice
#8
Mike F Müller, Ying Zhou, David J Adams, Mark J Arends
Ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde have been classified as carcinogens for the upper aerodigestive tract, liver, breast and colorectum. Whereas mechanisms related to oxidative stress and Cyp2e1 induction seem to prevail in the liver, and acetaldehyde has been proposed to play a crucial role in the upper aerodigestive tract, pathological mechanisms in the colorectum have not yet been clarified. Moreover, all evidence for a pro-carcinogenic role of ethanol in colorectal cancer is derived from correlations observed in epidemiological studies or from rodent studies with additional carcinogen application or tumour suppressor gene inactivation...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025108/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-could-disrupt-the-insulin-signaling-pathway-in-liver-of-sd-rats-and-l02-cells-via-ppar%C3%AE
#9
Wang Zhang, Xin-Yue Shen, Wen-Wen Zhang, Hao Chen, Wei-Ping Xu, Wei Wei
Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), a ubiquitous industrial pollutant in our daily life, has been reported to cause adverse effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in epidemiological studies previously. Recently, it has been reported to be an endocrine disrupter and ligand to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor, which could influence the homeostasis of liver metabolic systems and contribute to the development of type-2 diabetes. However, the potential mechanisms are not known yet. This study was designed to solve these problems with male SD rats and normal human hepatocyte line, L02 cells, exposed to DEHP for toxicological experiments...
December 23, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013216/diesel-exhaust-particles-contribute-to-endothelia-apoptosis-via-autophagy-pathway
#10
Jhih-Syuan Wang, Chia-Yi Tseng, Ming-Wei Chao
Epidemiological studies suggest that an increase of PM2.5 diesel exhaust particles (DEP) in ambient air corresponds to increased myocardial infarctions and atherosclerosis. When exposed to DEP, endothelial cells exhibit increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, but the role of autophagy in this DEP-induced cell death remains unclear. Here, we suggest that acute DEP exposure produces intracellular ROS leading to induction of DEP internalization, endothelial dysfunction, and pro-inflammation in an in vitro HUVEC model...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995696/prevention-of-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-by-the-phosphodiesterase-5a-inhibitor-vardenafil-in-rats-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Csaba Mátyás, Balázs T Németh, Attila Oláh, Marianna Török, Mihály Ruppert, Dalma Kellermayer, Bálint A Barta, Gábor Szabó, Gábor Kökény, Eszter M Horváth, Beáta Bódi, Zoltán Papp, Béla Merkely, Tamás Radovits
AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) has a great epidemiological burden. The pathophysiological role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signalling has been intensively investigated in HFpEF. Elevated levels of cGMP have been shown to exert cardioprotective effects in various cardiovascular diseases, including diabetic cardiomyopathy. We investigated the effect of long-term preventive application of the phosphodiesterase-5A (PDE5A) inhibitor vardenafil in diabetic cardiomyopathy-associated HFpEF...
December 19, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993081/contribution-of-persistent-organic-pollutant-exposure-to-the-adipose-tissue-oxidative-microenvironment-in-an-adult-cohort-a-multipollutant-approach
#12
Francisco Artacho-Cordón, Josefa León, José M Sáenz, Mariana F Fernández, Piedad Martin-Olmedo, Nicolás Olea, Juan P Arrebola
Despite growing in vitro and in vivo evidence of the putative role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the induction of oxidative damage in cell structures, this issue has been poorly addressed from an epidemiologic perspective. The aim of this study was to explore associations between adipose tissue POP concentrations and the in situ oxidative microenvironment. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a subsample (n = 271) of a previously established cohort, quantifying levels of eight POPs and four groups of oxidative stress biomarkers in adipose tissue...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976726/increased-levels-of-the-oxidative-stress-biomarker-8-iso-prostaglandin-f2%C3%AE-in-wastewater-associated-with-tobacco-use
#13
Yeonsuk Ryu, Emma Gracia-Lor, Richard Bade, J A Baz-Lomba, Jørgen G Bramness, Sara Castiglioni, Erika Castrignanò, Ana Causanilles, Adrian Covaci, Pim de Voogt, Felix Hernandez, Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern, Juliet Kinyua, Ann-Kathrin McCall, Christoph Ort, Benedek G Plósz, Pedram Ramin, Nikolaos I Rousis, Malcolm J Reid, Kevin V Thomas
Wastewater analysis has been demonstrated to be a complementary approach for assessing the overall patterns of drug use by a population while the full potential of wastewater-based epidemiology has yet to be explored. F2-isoprostanes are a prototype wastewater biomarker to study the cumulative oxidative stress at a community level. In this work, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) was analysed in raw 24 h-composite wastewater samples collected from 4 Norwegian and 7 other European cities in 2014 and 2015...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941615/mechanisms-of-body-weight-reduction-by-black-tea-polyphenols
#14
REVIEW
Haibo Pan, Ying Gao, Youying Tu
Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols...
December 7, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939360/cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-alcohol-induced-aggressiveness-of-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Yongchao Wang, Mei Xu, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo
Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Both Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a positive correlation between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer. While alcohol exposure may promote the carcinogenesis or onset of breast cancer, it may as well enhance the progression and aggressiveness of existing mammary tumors. Recent progress in this line of research suggests that alcohol exposure is associated with invasive breast cancer and promotes the growth and metastasis of mammary tumors...
January 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#16
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916702/chronic-kidney-disease-accelerates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-ii
#17
Takashi Nakagawa, Yu Hasegawa, Ken Uekawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor in the development of cognitive decline. However, the exact role of CKD in cognitive impairment or dementia is unclear. This work was performed to examine the potential impact of CKD on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on angiotensin II. (1) CKD was induced in 5XFAD mice, an AD model mouse, and wild-type mice by feeding an adenine-containing diet and the effect on cognitive function was compared between both strains...
January 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916655/allopurinol-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-cardiovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Osita N Okafor, K Farrington, Diana A Gorog
Epidemiological studies indicate that hyperuricaemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alongside uric acid formation, increased xanthine oxidase activity also results in the formation of oxidative free radicals and superoxide particles. Oxidative stress significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, including endothelial cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and impaired myocardial energetics. Allopurinol, a competitive xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in addition to reducing serum uric acid levels, can act as a free radical scavenger...
December 2, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908628/biomarkers-of-the-health-outcomes-associated-with-ambient-particulate-matter-exposure
#19
Lixin Yang, Xiang-Yu Hou, Yongjie Wei, Phong Thai, Fahe Chai
Epidemiologic evidence supports the positive association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, and lung cancer risk with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed to be the major causal factors involved in mediating PM effects on both cardiovascular and pulmonary health outcomes. However, the mechanism whereby PM causes the health effects is not fully elucidated. To evaluate and investigate human exposure to PM, it is essential to have a specific, sensitive and robust characterization of individual exposure to PM...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908234/sustained-early-disruption-of-mitochondrial-function-contributes-to-arsenic-induced-prostate-tumorigenesis
#20
B Singh, M Kulawiec, K M Owens, A Singh, K K Singh
Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen that affects millions of people worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Several epidemiological studies have suggested increased prostate cancer incidence and mortality due to exposure to arsenic. Due to lack of an animal model of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, we used a prostate epithelial cell culture model to identify a role for mitochondria in arsenic-induced prostate cancer. Mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential was impacted within a few hours of arsenic exposure of non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
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