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Oxidative stress epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#1
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916702/chronic-kidney-disease-accelerates-cognitive-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-through-angiotensin-ii
#2
Takashi Nakagawa, Yu Hasegawa, Ken Uekawa, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor in the development of cognitive decline. However, the exact role of CKD in cognitive impairment or dementia is unclear. This work was performed to examine the potential impact of CKD on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on angiotensin II. (1) CKD was induced in 5XFAD mice, an AD model mouse, and wild-type mice by feeding adenine-containing diet and the effect on cognitive function was compared between both strains...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916655/allopurinol-as-a-therapeutic-option-in-cardiovascular-disease
#3
REVIEW
Osita N Okafor, K Farrington, Diana A Gorog
Epidemiological studies indicate that hyperuricaemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Alongside uric acid formation, increased xanthine oxidase activity also results in the formation of oxidative free radicals and superoxide particles. Oxidative stress significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, including endothelial cell dysfunction, atherosclerosis, vascular calcification and impaired myocardial energetics. Allopurinol, a competitive xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in addition to reducing serum uric acid levels, can act as a free radical scavenger...
December 1, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908628/biomarkers-of-the-health-outcomes-associated-with-ambient-particulate-matter-exposure
#4
Lixin Yang, Xiang-Yu Hou, Yongjie Wei, Phong Thai, Fahe Chai
Epidemiologic evidence supports the positive association of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, and lung cancer risk with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM). Oxidative stress and inflammation have been proposed to be the major causal factors involved in mediating PM effects on both cardiovascular and pulmonary health outcomes. However, the mechanism whereby PM causes the health effects is not fully elucidated. To evaluate and investigate human exposure to PM, it is essential to have a specific, sensitive and robust characterization of individual exposure to PM...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908234/sustained-early-disruption-of-mitochondrial-function-contributes-to-arsenic-induced-prostate-tumorigenesis
#5
B Singh, M Kulawiec, K M Owens, A Singh, K K Singh
Arsenic is a well-known human carcinogen that affects millions of people worldwide, but the underlying mechanisms of carcinogenesis are unclear. Several epidemiological studies have suggested increased prostate cancer incidence and mortality due to exposure to arsenic. Due to lack of an animal model of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis, we used a prostate epithelial cell culture model to identify a role for mitochondria in arsenic-induced prostate cancer. Mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential was impacted within a few hours of arsenic exposure of non-neoplastic prostate epithelial cells...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894685/dna-damage-induced-by-occupational-and-environmental-exposure-to-miscellaneous-chemicals
#6
REVIEW
Juliana da Silva
Epidemiological studies for hazardous situations resulting from the risk of environmental and/or occupational exposure to miscellaneous chemicals present several difficulties. Biomonitoring of human populations can provide an early detection system for the initiation of cell dysregulation in the development of cancer, which would help develop an efficient prevention program. Recently, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay in lymphocyte cells has become an important tool for assessing DNA damage in exposed populations...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889689/osteoarthritis-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-what-are-the-links
#7
REVIEW
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most frequent joint disorder and one of the leading cause of disability. During a long time, it was considered as the consequence of aging and mechanical stress on cartilage. Recent advances in the knowledge of OA have highlighted that it is a whole joint disease with early modifications of synovium and subchondral bone but also that it is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome through systemic mechanisms. In the past year, type 2 diabetes has been described in two meta-analyzes as an independent risk factor for OA...
November 5, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888487/mycotoxins-as-human-carcinogens-the-iarc-monographs-classification
#8
Vladimir Ostry, Frantisek Malir, Jakub Toman, Yann Grosse
Humans are constantly exposed to mycotoxins (e.g. aflatoxins, ochratoxins), mainly via food intake of plant and animal origin. The health risks stemming from mycotoxins may result from their toxicity, in particular their carcinogenicity. In order to prevent these risks, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon (France)-through its IARC Monographs programme-has performed the carcinogenic hazard assessment of some mycotoxins in humans, on the basis of epidemiological data, studies of cancer in experimental animals and mechanistic studies...
November 25, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875712/urinary-phthalate-and-phthalate-alternative-metabolites-and-isoprostane-among-couples-undergoing-fertility-treatment
#9
Haotian Wu, Alexandra Olmsted, David E Cantonwine, Shahin Shahsavari, Tayyab Rahil, Cynthia Sites, J Richard Pilsner
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest associations between phthalate exposures to a variety of adverse reproductive outcomes including reduced sperm quality and reproductive success. While mechanisms of these associations are not fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential mediator. We examined associations of urinary metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternative plasticizers with oxidative stress among couples seeking fertility treatment. METHODS: Seventeen urinary plasticizer metabolites and 15-F2t isoprostane, a biomarker of oxidative stress, were quantified in spot samples from 50 couples seeking fertility treatment who enrolled in the Sperm Environmental Epigenetics and Development Study during 2014-2015...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845201/impaired-neurovascular-coupling-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease-contribution-of-astrocyte-dysfunction-and-endothelial-impairment-to-cognitive-decline
#10
REVIEW
Stefano Tarantini, Cam Ha T Tran, Grant R Gordon, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar
The importance of (micro)vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) in aging cannot be overemphasized, and the pathogenesis and prevention of age-related cerebromicrovascular pathologies are a subject of intensive research. In particular, aging impairs the increase in cerebral blood flow triggered by neural activation (termed neurovascular coupling or functional hyperemia), a critical mechanism that matches oxygen and nutrient delivery with the increased demands in active brain regions...
November 12, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834813/the-potential-of-non-provitamin-a-carotenoids-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
REVIEW
Ana Gabriela Murillo, Diana M DiMarco, Maria Luz Fernandez
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-associated spectrum of comorbidities defined by the presence of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. If left untreated, NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure, or hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is recognized as the most common liver disease in the United States, affecting around 30% of the population. Identification of dietary components capable of reducing or preventing NAFLD is therefore essential to battle this condition...
November 8, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832994/possible-involvement-of-inos-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-nutritional-intervention-against-nicotine-induced-pancreatic-islet-cell-damage
#12
Ankita Bhattacharjee, Shilpi Kumari Prasad, Swagata Pal, Bithin Maji, Arnab Banerjee, Debasmita Das, Ananya Bose, Nabanita Chatterjee, Sandip Mukherjee
Nicotine is the more abundant and most significant components of cigarette smoke. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests an association between cigarette smoking and pancreatic injury. Although effects of smoking on endocrine pancreas are still controversial Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of folic acid and vitamin B12 on nicotine induced damage in pancreatic islets of rats. Male Wistar rats were treated with nicotine (3mg/kg body weight/day, intraperitonealy) with or without folic acid (36μg/kg body weight/day, orally) and vitamin B12 (0...
November 7, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829985/potential-therapeutic-strategies-for-hypertension-exacerbated-cardiotoxicity-of-anticancer-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Robin K Kuriakose, Rakesh C Kukreja, Lei Xi
Despite their recognized cardiotoxic effects, anthracyclines remain an essential component in many anticancer regimens due to their superior antitumor efficacy. Epidemiologic data revealed that about one-third of cancer patients have hypertension, which is the most common comorbidity in cancer registries. The purpose of this review is to assess whether anthracycline chemotherapy exacerbates cardiotoxicity in patients with hypertension. A link between hypertension comorbidity and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) was first suggested in 1979...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829164/molecular-effects-of-1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate-and-solar-radiation-exposures-on-human-melanocytes
#14
Bianca Ferrucio, Manoela Tiago, Richard D Fannin, Liwen Liu, Kevin Gerrish, Silvya Stuchi Maria-Engler, Richard S Paules, Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros
Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-methylcarbamate), a broad-spectrum insecticide, has recently been associated with the development of cutaneous melanoma in an epidemiological cohort study with U.S. farm workers also exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the main etiologic factor for skin carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that carbaryl exposure may increase deleterious effects of UV solar radiation on skin melanocytes. This study aimed to characterize human melanocytes after individual or combined exposure to carbaryl (100μM) and solar radiation (375mJ/cm(2))...
November 6, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825840/environmental-toxicology-sensitive-periods-of-development-and-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Djai B Heyer, Rhiannon M Meredith
Development of the mammalian central nervous system is a complex process whose disruption may have severe and long-lasting consequences upon brain structure and function, potentially resulting in a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). Many NDDs are known to be genetic in origin, with symptom onset and their underlying mechanisms now known to be regulated during time-dependent windows or 'critical periods' during normal brain development. However, it is increasingly evident that similar disturbances to the developing nervous system may be caused by exposure to non-genetic, environmental factors...
November 4, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823571/caffeine-the-forgotten-potential-for-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Ahmed Negida, Mohamed Elfil, Attia Attia, Eslam Farahat, Mohamed Gabr, Ahmed Essam, Hussein Ahmed, Doaa Attia
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurological disorder characterized by loss of dopaminergic fibers in the basal ganglia and presence of Lewy bodies. The literature suggests that caffeine play multiple roles in PD. Epidemiological studies showed that caffeine intake was associated with less risk of developing PD, especially in genetically susceptible patients. On the level of Lewy bodies' formation, caffeine binds to α-synuclein protein inducing conformational changes and preventing their aggregation...
November 6, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820742/epidemiology-and-pathophysiology-of-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#17
Dana Y Fuhrman, John A Kellum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains a serious complication of cardiac surgery. An understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of AKI in cardiac surgery patients is crucial to early recognition and proper management. RECENT FINDINGS: The article will review the current criteria used for defining AKI and the most recently published incidence rates of AKI in the cardiac surgery population. Variables associated with AKI will be reviewed. The cause of cardiac surgery-associated AKI is multifactorial involving genetic factors as well as insults because of nephrotoxins, ischemia and reperfusion, cardiac dysfunction, venous congestion, inflammation, and oxidative stress...
November 4, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814598/associations-of-alzheimer-s-disease-with-macular-degeneration
#18
Leonardo Biscetti, Elisa Luchetti, Andrea Vergaro, Paola Menduno, Carlo Cagini, Lucilla Parnetti
There is growing evidence of epidemiological, genetic, molecular and clinical links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Major interest in the relationship between AD and AMD has derived from the evidence that beta-amyloid, the main component of senile plaques, the hallmark of AD, is also an important component of drusen, the hallmark of AMD. This finding has a great potential in the present era of anti-amyloid agents for the treatment of AD. The connection between AD and AMD is also supported by the evidence that the two diseases share other pathophysiological factors, such as oxidative stress and neuroinflammation...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801864/tocotrienol-affects-oxidative-stress-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-the-amyloidogenic-pathway-in-neuroblastoma-cells-consequences-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Marcus O W Grimm, Liesa Regner, Janine Mett, Christoph P Stahlmann, Pascal Schorr, Christopher Nelke, Olga Streidenberger, Hannah Stoetzel, Jakob Winkler, Shatha R Zaidan, Andrea Thiel, Kristina Endres, Heike S Grimm, Dietrich A Volmer, Tobias Hartmann
One of the characteristics of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is an increased amyloid load and an enhanced level of reactive oxidative species (ROS). Vitamin E has known beneficial neuroprotective effects, and previously, some studies suggested that vitamin E is associated with a reduced risk of AD due to its antioxidative properties. However, epidemiological studies and nutritional approaches of vitamin E treatment are controversial. Here, we investigate the effect of α-tocotrienol, which belongs to the group of vitamin E, on AD-relevant processes in neuronal cell lines...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797824/a-genome-wide-analysis-of-gene-caffeine-consumption-interaction-on-basal-cell-carcinoma
#20
Xin Li, Marilyn C Cornelis, Liming Liang, Fengju Song, Immaculata De Vivo, Edward Giovannucci, Jean Y Tang, Jiali Han
Animal models have suggested that oral or topical administration of caffeine could inhibit ultraviolet-induced carcinogenesis via the ataxia telangiectasia and rad3 (ATR)-related apoptosis. Previous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that increased caffeine consumption is associated with reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). To identify common genetic markers that may modify this association, we tested gene-caffeine intake interaction on BCC risk in a genome-wide analysis. We included 3383 BCC cases and 8528 controls of European ancestry from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
December 2016: Carcinogenesis
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