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journal of paediatrics and child health

Manuela Deidda, Kathleen Anne Boyd, Helen Minnis, Julia Donaldson, Kevin Brown, Nicole R S Boyer, Emma McIntosh
INTRODUCTION: Children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of mental and physical health problems throughout life. This places an enormous burden on individuals, families and society in terms of health services, education, social care and judiciary sectors. Evidence suggests that early intervention can mitigate the negative consequences of child maltreatment, exerting long-term positive effects on the health of maltreated children entering foster care. However, evidence on cost-effectiveness of such complex interventions is limited...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Charlotte L Hall, Marilyn James, Sue Brown, Jennifer L Martin, Nikki Brown, Kim Selby, Julie Clarke, Hena Vijayan, Boliang Guo, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis, Madeleine J Groom
INTRODUCTION: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. To improve outcomes, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence ADHD guidelines recommend regular monitoring of symptoms when children commence medication. However, research suggests that routine monitoring rarely happens, and clinicians often rely on subjective information such as reports from parents and teachers to ascertain improvement...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Charlotte L Williams, Susie Weller, Lisa Roberts, Isabel Reading, Andrew Cook, Louisa Little, Wendy Wood, Louise Stanton, Andreas Roposch, Nicholas Mp Clarke
BACKGROUND: Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a very common congenital disorder, and late-presenting cases often require surgical treatment. Surgical reduction of the hip may be complicated by avascular necrosis (AVN), which occurs as a result of interruption to the femoral head blood supply during treatment and can result in long-term problems. Some surgeons delay surgical treatment until the ossific nucleus (ON) has developed, whereas others believe that the earlier the reduction is performed, the better the result...
October 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Ona McCarthy, Baptiste Leurent, Phil Edwards, Ravshan Tokhirov, Caroline Free
INTRODUCTION: Women in lower income countries experience unintended pregnancies at a higher rate compared with women in higher income countries. Unintended pregnancy is associated with numerous poorer health outcomes for both women and their children. In Tajikistan, an estimated 26% of married individuals aged 15-24 years have an unmet need for contraception. The strong cultural value placed on childbearing and oppositional attitudes towards contraception are major barriers to contraceptive uptake in the country...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
Eun Sook Park, In Young Cho
AIM: The concept of shared decision-making is poorly defined and often used interchangeably with related terms. The aim of this study was to delineate and clarify the concept of shared decision-making in the paediatric field. METHOD: Rodgers and Knafl's evolutionary concept analysis was used to delineate and clarify the concept. Following a search of the CINAHL, PubMed and MEDLINE databases and online journals between 1995 and 2016, we included a total of 42 articles that referred to shared decision-making in the paediatric field...
September 13, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
E Sciberras, M Mulraney, H Heussler, N Rinehart, T Schuster, L Gold, N Hayes, H Hiscock
INTRODUCTION: Up to 70% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems. We have demonstrated the efficacy of a brief behavioural intervention for children with ADHD in a large randomised controlled trial (RCT) and now aim to examine whether this intervention is effective in real-life clinical settings when delivered by paediatricians or psychologists. We will also assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children aged 5-12 years with ADHD (n=320) are being recruited for this translational cluster RCT through paediatrician practices in Victoria and Queensland, Australia...
April 4, 2017: BMJ Open
E Keane, A L Funk, Y Shimakawa
BACKGROUND: The risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been quoted as 70-90% among women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg), and 5-30% among HBsAg-positive HBeAg-negative women. These risks are derived from Asia; little is known about sub-Saharan Africa. AIM: To determine the risk of mother-to-child transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, according to maternal HBeAg and type of prophylaxis. METHODS: We searched Medline, Global Health, Embase, African Journals Online and African Index Medicus...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mufiza Z Kapadia, Lisa Askie, Lisa Hartling, Despina Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Roger Soll, David Moher, Martin Offringa
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric systematic reviews differ from adult systematic reviews in several key aspects such as considerations of child tailored interventions, justifiable comparators, valid outcomes and child sensitive search strategies. Available guidelines, including PRISMA-P (2015) and PRISMA (2009), do not cover all the complexities associated with reporting systematic reviews in the paediatric population. Using a collaborative, multidisciplinary structure, we aim to develop evidence-based and consensus-based PRISMA-P-C (Protocol for Children) and PRISMA-C (Children) Extensions to guide paediatric systematic review protocol and completed review reporting...
April 18, 2016: BMJ Open
Rosalind McDougall, Lauren Notini, Jessica Phillips
Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment...
September 2015: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Andrew Wolf, Andrew McKay, Catherine Spowart, Heather Granville, Angela Boland, Stavros Petrou, Adam Sutherland, Carrol Gamble
BACKGROUND: Children in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) require analgesia and sedation but both undersedation and oversedation can be harmful. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of intravenous (i.v.) clonidine as an alternative to i.v. midazolam. DESIGN: Multicentre, double-blind, randomised equivalence trial. SETTING: Ten UK PICUs. PARTICIPANTS: Children (30 days to 15 years inclusive) weighing ≤ 50 kg, expected to require ventilation on PICU for > 12 hours...
December 2014: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Damian K Francis, Joanne Smith, Tawab Saljuqi, Ruth M Watling
BACKGROUND: Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e...
May 27, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jolanda M Maaskant, Hester Vermeulen, Bugewa Apampa, Bernard Fernando, Maisoon A Ghaleb, Antje Neubert, Sudhin Thayyil, Aung Soe
BACKGROUND: Many hospitalised patients are affected by medication errors (MEs) that may cause discomfort, harm and even death. Children are at especially high risk of harm as the result of MEs because such errors are potentially more hazardous to them than to adults. Until now, interventions to reduce MEs have led to only limited improvements. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing MEs and related harm in hospitalised children...
March 10, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Katrina Williams, Amanda Brignell, Margot Prior, Lawrence Bartak, Jacqueline Roberts
Since the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health was first published, there has been substantial change in the field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with an exponential increase in the amount of funded and published research. In this paper, we focus on regression in children with ASD, a phenomenon that remains poorly understood. We discuss the implications of what we know about regression in ASD for the way we think about ASD more broadly and for paediatric practice.
January 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Lynn Gillam
In 1965, when the first issue of Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health appeared, medical ethics was just becoming established as a discipline. The sub-speciality of paediatric ethics did not make an appearance until the late 1980s, with the first key texts appearing in the 1990s. Professional concern to practice ethically in paediatrics obviously goes much further back than that, even if not named as such. In clinical areas of paediatrics, the story of the last 50 years is essentially a story of progress - better understanding of disease, better diagnosis, more effective treatment, better outcomes...
January 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
David Isaacs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Charlotte L Hall, Gemma M Walker, Althea Z Valentine, Boliang Guo, Catherine Kaylor-Hughes, Marilyn James, David Daley, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis
INTRODUCTION: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) state that young people need to have access to the best evidence-based care to improve outcome. The current 'gold standard' ADHD diagnostic assessment combines clinical observation with subjective parent, teacher and self-reports. In routine practice, reports from multiple informants may be unavailable or contradictory, leading to diagnostic uncertainty and delay...
December 1, 2014: BMJ Open
Eyal Cohen
Eco-paediatrics is an occasional feature in Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal. Our goal is to contribute to the worldwide discussion on reducing waste in health care. In each instalment, we will select a recent Cochrane review highlighting a practice, still in use, which the available evidence tells us should be discontinued.
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
Mostafa Altalibi, Humam Saltaji, Mary Roduta Roberts, Michael P Major, Joanna MacLean, Paul W Major
INTRODUCTION: Sleep disordered breathing in the paediatric population can manifest as an array of different systemic symptoms; among them is a distinct malocclusion and craniofacial phenotype. Emerging research suggests that the treatment of this malocclusion and/or craniofacial phenotype through orthodontic intervention may help with the symptoms of these patients. Selecting the patients who would benefit from orthodontic treatment can be a difficult task for the physician with minimal dental training...
2014: BMJ Open
Kevin Vézina, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Francine M Ducharme
BACKGROUND: Inhaled anticholinergics given in addition to β2-agonists are effective in reducing hospital admissions in children presenting to the emergency department with a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation. It seems logical to assume a similar beneficial effect in children hospitalised for an acute asthma exacerbation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of anticholinergics added to β2-agonists as inhaled or nebulised therapy in children hospitalised for an acute asthma exacerbation...
July 31, 2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Duncan Macrae, Richard Grieve, Elizabeth Allen, Zia Sadique, Helen Betts, Kevin Morris, Vithayathil John Pappachan, Roger Parslow, Robert C Tasker, Paul Baines, Michael Broadhead, Mark L Duthie, Peter-Marc Fortune, David Inwald, Paddy McMaster, Mark J Peters, Margrid Schindler, Carla Guerriero, Deborah Piercy, Zdenek Slavik, Claire Snowdon, Laura Van Dyck, Diana Elbourne
BACKGROUND: Early research in adults admitted to intensive care suggested that tight control of blood glucose during acute illness can be associated with reductions in mortality, length of hospital stay and complications such as infection and renal failure. Prior to our study, it was unclear whether or not children could also benefit from tight control of blood glucose during critical illness. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine if controlling blood glucose using insulin in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) reduces mortality and morbidity and is cost-effective, whether or not admission follows cardiac surgery...
April 2014: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
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