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journal of paediatrics and child health

E Keane, A L Funk, Y Shimakawa
BACKGROUND: The risk of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been quoted as 70-90% among women positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg), and 5-30% among HBsAg-positive HBeAg-negative women. These risks are derived from Asia; little is known about sub-Saharan Africa. AIM: To determine the risk of mother-to-child transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, according to maternal HBeAg and type of prophylaxis. METHODS: We searched Medline, Global Health, Embase, African Journals Online and African Index Medicus...
November 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mufiza Z Kapadia, Lisa Askie, Lisa Hartling, Despina Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Roger Soll, David Moher, Martin Offringa
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric systematic reviews differ from adult systematic reviews in several key aspects such as considerations of child tailored interventions, justifiable comparators, valid outcomes and child sensitive search strategies. Available guidelines, including PRISMA-P (2015) and PRISMA (2009), do not cover all the complexities associated with reporting systematic reviews in the paediatric population. Using a collaborative, multidisciplinary structure, we aim to develop evidence-based and consensus-based PRISMA-P-C (Protocol for Children) and PRISMA-C (Children) Extensions to guide paediatric systematic review protocol and completed review reporting...
April 18, 2016: BMJ Open
Rosalind McDougall, Lauren Notini, Jessica Phillips
Clinical ethics records offer bioethics researchers a rich source of cases that clinicians have identified as ethically complex. In this paper, we suggest that clinical ethics records can be used to point to types of cases that lack attention in the current bioethics literature, identifying new areas in need of more detailed bioethical work. We conducted an analysis of the clinical ethics records of one paediatric hospital in Australia, focusing specifically on conflicts between parents and health professionals about a child's medical treatment...
September 2015: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Andrew Wolf, Andrew McKay, Catherine Spowart, Heather Granville, Angela Boland, Stavros Petrou, Adam Sutherland, Carrol Gamble
BACKGROUND: Children in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) require analgesia and sedation but both undersedation and oversedation can be harmful. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of intravenous (i.v.) clonidine as an alternative to i.v. midazolam. DESIGN: Multicentre, double-blind, randomised equivalence trial. SETTING: Ten UK PICUs. PARTICIPANTS: Children (30 days to 15 years inclusive) weighing ≤ 50 kg, expected to require ventilation on PICU for > 12 hours...
December 2014: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Damian K Francis, Joanne Smith, Tawab Saljuqi, Ruth M Watling
BACKGROUND: Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. OBJECTIVES: To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e...
May 27, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jolanda M Maaskant, Hester Vermeulen, Bugewa Apampa, Bernard Fernando, Maisoon A Ghaleb, Antje Neubert, Sudhin Thayyil, Aung Soe
BACKGROUND: Many hospitalised patients are affected by medication errors (MEs) that may cause discomfort, harm and even death. Children are at especially high risk of harm as the result of MEs because such errors are potentially more hazardous to them than to adults. Until now, interventions to reduce MEs have led to only limited improvements. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing MEs and related harm in hospitalised children...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Katrina Williams, Amanda Brignell, Margot Prior, Lawrence Bartak, Jacqueline Roberts
Since the Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health was first published, there has been substantial change in the field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with an exponential increase in the amount of funded and published research. In this paper, we focus on regression in children with ASD, a phenomenon that remains poorly understood. We discuss the implications of what we know about regression in ASD for the way we think about ASD more broadly and for paediatric practice.
January 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Lynn Gillam
In 1965, when the first issue of Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health appeared, medical ethics was just becoming established as a discipline. The sub-speciality of paediatric ethics did not make an appearance until the late 1980s, with the first key texts appearing in the 1990s. Professional concern to practice ethically in paediatrics obviously goes much further back than that, even if not named as such. In clinical areas of paediatrics, the story of the last 50 years is essentially a story of progress - better understanding of disease, better diagnosis, more effective treatment, better outcomes...
January 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
David Isaacs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Charlotte L Hall, Gemma M Walker, Althea Z Valentine, Boliang Guo, Catherine Kaylor-Hughes, Marilyn James, David Daley, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis
INTRODUCTION: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) state that young people need to have access to the best evidence-based care to improve outcome. The current 'gold standard' ADHD diagnostic assessment combines clinical observation with subjective parent, teacher and self-reports. In routine practice, reports from multiple informants may be unavailable or contradictory, leading to diagnostic uncertainty and delay...
December 1, 2014: BMJ Open
Eyal Cohen
Eco-paediatrics is an occasional feature in Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal. Our goal is to contribute to the worldwide discussion on reducing waste in health care. In each instalment, we will select a recent Cochrane review highlighting a practice, still in use, which the available evidence tells us should be discontinued.
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
Mostafa Altalibi, Humam Saltaji, Mary Roduta Roberts, Michael P Major, Joanna MacLean, Paul W Major
INTRODUCTION: Sleep disordered breathing in the paediatric population can manifest as an array of different systemic symptoms; among them is a distinct malocclusion and craniofacial phenotype. Emerging research suggests that the treatment of this malocclusion and/or craniofacial phenotype through orthodontic intervention may help with the symptoms of these patients. Selecting the patients who would benefit from orthodontic treatment can be a difficult task for the physician with minimal dental training...
2014: BMJ Open
Kevin Vézina, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Francine M Ducharme
BACKGROUND: Inhaled anticholinergics given in addition to β2-agonists are effective in reducing hospital admissions in children presenting to the emergency department with a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation. It seems logical to assume a similar beneficial effect in children hospitalised for an acute asthma exacerbation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of anticholinergics added to β2-agonists as inhaled or nebulised therapy in children hospitalised for an acute asthma exacerbation...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Duncan Macrae, Richard Grieve, Elizabeth Allen, Zia Sadique, Helen Betts, Kevin Morris, Vithayathil John Pappachan, Roger Parslow, Robert C Tasker, Paul Baines, Michael Broadhead, Mark L Duthie, Peter-Marc Fortune, David Inwald, Paddy McMaster, Mark J Peters, Margrid Schindler, Carla Guerriero, Deborah Piercy, Zdenek Slavik, Claire Snowdon, Laura Van Dyck, Diana Elbourne
BACKGROUND: Early research in adults admitted to intensive care suggested that tight control of blood glucose during acute illness can be associated with reductions in mortality, length of hospital stay and complications such as infection and renal failure. Prior to our study, it was unclear whether or not children could also benefit from tight control of blood glucose during critical illness. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine if controlling blood glucose using insulin in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) reduces mortality and morbidity and is cost-effective, whether or not admission follows cardiac surgery...
April 2014: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Monica R Ordway, Lois S Sadler, Jane Dixon, Arietta Slade
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify the definitional elements of parental reflective functioning and develop a framework for nurses to apply this concept in their clinical work with families. BACKGROUND: In recent years, researchers have concluded that parental reflective functioning is a key mechanism in the development of child attachment security leading to lifelong mental and physical health benefits. Despite its clinical relevance, little has been published in the nursing literature on this concept...
December 2014: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Deborah Christie, Rebecca Thompson, Mary Sawtell, Elizabeth Allen, John Cairns, Felicity Smith, Elizabeth Jamieson, Katrina Hargreaves, Anne Ingold, Lucy Brooks, Meg Wiggins, Sandy Oliver, Rebecca Jones, Diana Elbourne, Andreia Santos, Ian C K Wong, Simon O'Neill, Vicki Strange, Peter Hindmarsh, Francesca Annan, Russell Viner
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children and young people is increasing worldwide with a particular increase in children under the age of 5 years. Fewer than one in six children and young people achieve glycosylated fraction of haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in the range identified as providing best future outcomes. There is an urgent need for clinic-based pragmatic, feasible and effective interventions that improve both glycaemic control and quality of life (QoL). The intervention offers both structured education, to ensure young people know what they need to know, and a delivery model designed to motivate self-management...
March 2014: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
N Waugh, E Cummins, P Royle, N-B Kandala, D Shyangdan, R Arasaradnam, C Clar, R Johnston
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common, and causes pain, bloating and diarrhoea and/or constipation. It is a troublesome condition that reduces the quality of life but causes no permanent damage. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises mainly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Both cause serious complications and may lead to sections of the bowel having to be removed, although this is more common with CD. The presenting symptoms of IBS and IBD can be similar...
November 2013: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Inger Brännström
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To reveal the prominent discourses and assigned social ordering given to women in paediatric research in Sweden concerning the subject of sudden infant death syndrome. BACKGROUND: There are no further studies in Sweden and elsewhere, regarding publishing portraits of women's social ordering in nursing research surrounding sudden infant death syndrome. DESIGN AND METHODS: The material encompassed all 55 articles/comments published by the Swedish Medical Journal 1980-2007 (7 March) as retrieved using selected keywords...
April 2014: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Brian J Morris, Aaron A R Tobian, Catherine A Hankins, Jeffrey D Klausner, Joya Banerjee, Stefan A Bailis, Stephen Moses, Thomas E Wiswell
In a recent issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics,Svoboda and Van Howe commented on the 2012 changein the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy on newborn male circumcision, in which the AAP stated that benefits of the procedure outweigh the risks. Svoboda and Van Howe disagree with the AAP conclusions. We show here that their arguments against male circumcision are based on a poor understanding of epidemiology,erroneous interpretation of the evidence, selective citation of the literature, statistical manipulation of data, and circular reasoning...
July 2014: Journal of Medical Ethics
Roslyn N Boyd, Rachel Jordan, Laura Pareezer, Anne Moodie, Christine Finn, Belinda Luther, Evyn Arnfield, Aaron Pym, Alex Craven, Paula Beall, Kelly Weir, Megan Kentish, Meredith Wynter, Robert Ware, Michael Fahey, Barry Rawicki, Lynne McKinlay, Andrea Guzzetta
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy (CP) results from a static brain lesion during pregnancy or early life and remains the most common cause of physical disability in children (1 in 500). While the brain lesion is static, the physical manifestations and medical issues may progress resulting in altered motor patterns. To date, there are no prospective longitudinal studies of CP that follow a birth cohort to track early gross and fine motor development and use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to determine the anatomical pattern and likely timing of the brain lesion...
2013: BMC Neurology
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