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Chronic flexibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922936/the-effects-of-worry-and-relaxation-on-flexibility-during-cognitive-restructuring
#1
Elizabeth S Stevens, Alexander A Jendrusina, Alison C Legrand, Erica R Nahin, Michelle Goldwin Kaufman, Thomas D Borkovec, Evelyn Behar
Worry is associated with inflexibility in cognitive, emotional, and physiological functioning. In addition, worry's negative valence and abstract level of construal are rigid characteristics that contribute to its nonadaptive consequences. Relaxation and cognitive therapy aim to increase flexibility in chronic worriers, and may have greater efficacy when administered in combination. We examined the extent to which relaxation enhances and/or worry inhibits cognitive flexibility during a cognitive restructuring exercise in which participants generated alternative predictions for their worries...
September 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922081/clinical-outcomes-following-conservative-management-of-chronic-traumatic-cervical-myelopathy-a-case-report
#2
Justin Bridges, Roberto Sandoval
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is limited evidence supporting the conservative management of patients with cervical myelopathy. The purpose of this report is to describe the intervention and outcomes of conservative physical therapy interventions for one patient with chronic cervical myelopathy. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case was a 50-year-old male who sustained a neck injury following a rear-end collision 4 years prior to this therapeutic episode. The patient presented with decreased range of motion in the cervical spine and right upper extremity, strength deficits, altered sensation, poor posture, and reported chronic cervical region pain and difficulty sleeping...
September 18, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920179/review-of-virtual-reality-treatment-in-psychiatry-evidence-versus-current-diffusion-and-use
#3
REVIEW
Matthew C Mishkind, Aaron M Norr, Andrea C Katz, Greg M Reger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an overview of the current evidence base for and clinical applications of the use of virtual reality (VR) in psychiatric practice, in context of recent technological developments. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of VR in psychiatric practice shows promise with much of the research demonstrating clinical effectiveness for conditions including post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and phobias, chronic pain, rehabilitation, and addictions...
September 18, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916761/chronic-interfacing-with-the-autonomic-nervous-system-using-carbon-nanotube-cnt-yarn-electrodes
#4
Grant A McCallum, Xiaohong Sui, Chen Qiu, Joseph Marmerstein, Yang Zheng, Thomas E Eggers, Chuangang Hu, Liming Dai, Dominique M Durand
The ability to reliably and safely communicate chronically with small diameter (100-300 µm) autonomic nerves could have a significant impact in fundamental biomedical research and clinical applications. However, this ability has remained elusive with existing neural interface technologies. Here we show a new chronic nerve interface using highly flexible materials with axon-like dimensions. The interface was implemented with carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn electrodes to chronically record neural activity from two separate autonomic nerves: the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915842/towards-the-development-of-a-wellbeing-model-for-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-peoples-living-with-chronic-disease
#5
Carol Davy, Elaine Kite, Leda Sivak, Alex Brown, Timena Ahmat, Gary Brahim, Anna Dowling, Shaun Jacobson, Tania Kelly, Kaylene Kemp, Fiona Mitchell, Tina Newman, Margaret O'Brien, Jason Pitt, Kesha Roesch, Christine Saddler, Maida Stewart, Tiana Thomas
BACKGROUND: Re-defining the way in which care is delivered, to reflect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' needs and values, is essential for improving the accessibility of primary healthcare. This study focused on developing a Framework to support the quality of care and quality of life of, as well as treatment for, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples living with chronic disease. METHODS: A team of researchers, including thirteen experienced Aboriginal healthcare professionals, came together to undertake this important work...
September 15, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912012/the-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-depression-like-anxiety-like-and-cognition-like-behaviours-over-the-healthy-adult-lifespan-of-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Julie A Morgan, Gaurav Singhal, Frances Corrigan, Emily J Jaehne, Magdalene C Jawahar, Bernhard T Baune
Preclinical studies have demonstrated exercise improves various types of behaviours such as anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. However, these findings were largely conducted in studies utilising short-term exercise protocols, and the effects of lifetime exercise on these behaviours remain unknown. This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy aging C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups...
September 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906303/relationship-of-low-doses-of-alcohol-voluntarily-consumed-during-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-with-subsequent-behavioral-flexibility
#7
Hayley Fisher, Nicholas Bright, Mark Gallo, Alisa Pajser, Charles L Pickens
Previous alcohol use is associated with impaired decision-making and impulsivity in humans, but the relationship between alcohol use and decision-making/impulsivity is unclear. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol during adolescence and early adulthood would alter or be correlated with performance in a go/no-go reversal task, a devaluation task, or operant extinction. Rats received 6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol or water from postnatal day 26 to 66 and then behavioral testing was initiated 1...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899369/nursing-care-needs-and-services-utilised-by-home-dwelling-elderly-with-complex-health-problems-observational-study
#8
Gro Næss, Marit Kirkevold, Wenche Hammer, Jørund Straand, Torgeir Bruun Wyller
BACKGROUND: In Norway, as in many Western countries, a shift from institutional care to home care is taking place. Our knowledge is limited regarding which needs for nursing interventions patients being cared for in their home have, and how they are met. We aimed at assessing aspects of health and function in a representative sample of the most vulnerable home-dwelling elderly, to identify their needs for nursing interventions and how these needs were met. METHODS: In this observational study we included patients aged 75+ living in their own homes in Oslo, who received daily home care, had three or more chronic diagnoses, received daily medication, and had been hospitalized during the last year...
September 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893675/design-recruitment-outcomes-and-sample-characteristics-of-the-strategies-for-prescribing-analgesics-comparative-effectiveness-space-trial
#9
Erin E Krebs, Agnes C Jensen, Sean Nugent, Beth DeRonne, Indulis Rutks, David Leverty, Amy Gravely, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Matthew J Bair, Kurt Kroenke
This manuscript describes the study protocol, recruitment outcomes, and baseline participant characteristics for the Strategies for Prescribing Analgesics Comparative Effectiveness (SPACE) trial. SPACE is a pragmatic randomized comparative effectiveness trial conducted in multiple VA primary care clinics within one VA health care system. The objective was to compare benefits and harms of opioid therapy versus non-opioid medication therapy over 12months among patients with moderate-to-severe chronic back pain or hip/knee osteoarthritis pain despite analgesic therapy; patients already receiving regular opioid therapy were excluded...
September 8, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891836/feasibility-and-safety-of-flexible-bronchoscopy-performed-via-tracheal-tubes-in-patients-with-tracheostomies-a-retrospective-single-center-experience
#10
Gustavo Ferrer, Chi Chan Lee, Sameer Shaharyar, Osman Perez, Molly Moor, Frank Gomez, Fanny Tse, Hamid Feiz, Mauricio Danckers
BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is commonly performed to assess, diagnose, and treat patients with respiratory disease, and is typically performed via transnasal or transoral approaches. FB can be performed via tracheal tubes in patients with tracheostomies; however, the safety and technical feasibility has not been established. The present study evaluates the safety and feasibility of performing FB via tracheal tubes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 patients underwent 56 procedures involving FB via tracheal tubes at a single institution from November 2013 to November 2014 and were included in this retrospective case series...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887182/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-underlying-habitual-and-compulsive-drug-seeking
#11
REVIEW
Rachel J Smith, Lillian S Laiks
Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug use despite negative consequences. Here we review studies that indicate that compulsive drug use, and in particular punishment resistance in animal models of addiction, is related to impaired cortical control over habitual behavior. In humans and animals, instrumental behavior is supported by goal-directed and habitual systems that rely on distinct corticostriatal networks. Chronic exposure to addictive drugs or stress has been shown to bias instrumental response strategies toward habit learning, and impair prefrontal cortical (PFC) control over responding...
September 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877246/prosthetic-rehabilitation-of-oral-submucous-fibrosis-patients-a-systematic-review-of-published-case-reports-and-case-series
#12
Shankargouda Patil, Sachin Chakradhar Sarode, Gargi S Sarode, Shilpa Bhandi, Kamran Habib Awan, Marco Ferrari
BACKGROUND: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an insidious chronic condition characterized by restricted mouth opening. Prosthetic rehabilitation is challenging for OSF patients as obtaining a good impression requires adequate mouth opening. The aim of the present review is to systematically present the data from case reports published in the English-language literature. METHOD: A comprehensive search of the literature databases (PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar) along with the references of published articles on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients published to date was conducted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872745/neural-mechanisms-of-extinguishing-drug-and-pleasant-cue-associations-in-human-addiction-role-of-the-vmpfc
#13
Anna B Konova, Muhammad A Parvaz, Vladimir Bernstein, Anna Zilverstand, Scott J Moeller, Mauricio R Delgado, Nelly Alia-Klein, Rita Z Goldstein
The neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the resistance of drug cue associations to extinction in addiction remain unknown. Fear extinction critically depends on the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Here, we tested if this same region plays a role in extinction of non-fear, drug and pleasant cue associations. Eighteen chronic cocaine users and 15 matched controls completed three functional MRI scans. Participants first learned to associate an abstract cue (the conditioned stimulus, CS) with a drug-related (CSD+ ) or pleasant (CSP+ ) image...
September 5, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872189/vascular-inflammatory-and-metabolic-factors-associated-with-cognition-in-aging-persons-with-chronic-epilepsy
#14
Bruce P Hermann, Mark A Sager, Rebecca L Koscik, Kate Young, Keith Nakamura
We examined cognition in aging persons with chronic epilepsy; characterized targeted vascular, inflammatory, and metabolic risk factors associated with abnormal cognitive aging in the general population; and examined associations between cognition and vascular, inflammatory, and metabolic health. Participants included 40 persons with chronic localization-related epilepsy and 152 controls, aged 54.6 and 55.3, respectively. Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment, clinical examination, and fasting blood evaluation for quantification of vascular status (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, obesity/body mass index [BMI], total and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol level, and homocysteine), inflammatory markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], and interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and metabolic status (insulin resistance [Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)], glucose)...
September 4, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871318/-psychotherapy-with-older-caregivers
#15
REVIEW
G Wilz, K Pfeiffer
Nursing and caring for a relative can be regarded as an important developmental task, which mainly affects elderly people who provide care for their very old parents or their (spouse) partners. Being responsible for the care of someone can be associated with a severe caregiver burden and experienced as a crisis. Possible psychological consequences are pronounced depressive symptoms or maladaptive stress reactions. For these caregivers, psychotherapeutic counselling can be sensible and helpful in addition to other resources of caregiver support...
September 4, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869582/impaired-hippocampal-place-cell-dynamics-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-22q11-2-deletion
#16
Jeffrey D Zaremba, Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Nathan B Danielson, Andres D Grosmark, Patrick W Kaifosh, John C Bowler, Zhenrui Liao, Fraser T Sparks, Joseph A Gogos, Attila Losonczy
Hippocampal place cells represent the cellular substrate of episodic memory. Place cell ensembles reorganize to support learning but must also maintain stable representations to facilitate memory recall. Despite extensive research, the learning-related role of place cell dynamics in health and disease remains elusive. Using chronic two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in hippocampal area CA1 of wild-type and Df(16)A(+/-) mice, an animal model of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, one of the most common genetic risk factors for cognitive dysfunction and schizophrenia, we found that goal-oriented learning in wild-type mice was supported by stable spatial maps and robust remapping of place fields toward the goal location...
September 4, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868892/home-based-pulmonary-rehabilitation-for-people-with-copd-a-qualitative-study-reporting-the-patient-perspective
#17
Aroub Lahham, Christine F McDonald, Ajay Mahal, Annemarie L Lee, Catherine J Hill, Angela T Burge, Narelle S Cox, Rosemary Moore, Caroline Nicolson, Paul O'Halloran, Rebecca Gillies, Anne E Holland
This study aimed to document the perspective of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who underwent home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (HBPR) in a clinical trial. In this qualitative study, open-ended questions explored participants' views regarding HBPR. Thirteen semi-structured interviews were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Major themes from interviews included the positive impact of HBPR on physical fitness, breathing and mood. Participants valued the flexibility and convenience of the programme...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860122/exercise-induced-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-promote-physiologic-cardiac-growth
#18
Andrew A Gibb, Paul N Epstein, Shizuka Uchida, Yuting Zheng, Lindsey A McNally, Detlef Obal, Kartik Katragadda, Patrick J Trainor, Daniel J Conklin, Kenneth R Brittian, Michael T Tseng, Jianxun Wang, Steven P Jones, Aruni Bhatnagar, Bradford G Hill
Background -Exercise promotes metabolic remodeling in the heart, which is associated with physiologic cardiac growth; however, it is not known whether or how physical activity-induced changes in cardiac metabolism cause myocardial remodeling. In this study, we tested whether exercise-mediated changes in cardiomyocyte glucose metabolism are important for physiologic cardiac growth. Methods -We used radiometric, immunologic, metabolomic, and biochemical assays to measure changes in myocardial glucose metabolism in mice subjected to acute and chronic treadmill exercise...
August 31, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851900/cell-permeable-capsids-as-universal-antigen-carrier-for-the-induction-of-an-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-response
#19
Sami Akhras, Masako Toda, Klaus Boller, Kiyoshi Himmelsbach, Fabian Elgner, Marlene Biehl, Stephan Scheurer, Meike Gratz, Stefan Vieths, Eberhard Hildt
Vaccine platforms that can be flexibly loaded with antigens can contribute to decrease response time to emerging infections. For many pathogens and chronic infections, induction of a robust cytotoxic T lymphocytes-mediated response is desirable to control infection. Antigen delivery into the cytoplasm of antigen presenting cells favors induction of cytotoxic T cells. By fusion of the cell-permeable translocation motif (TLM)-peptide to the capsid-forming core protein of hepatitis B virus, and by insertion of the strep-tag in the spike tip (a domain that protrudes from the surface of the capsid), cell-permeable carrier capsids were generated that can be flexibly loaded with various antigens...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851421/engaging-and-staying-engaged-a-phenomenological-study-of-barriers-to-equitable-access-to-mental-healthcare-for-people-with-severe-mental-disorders-in-a-rural-african-setting
#20
Maji Hailemariam, Abebaw Fekadu, Martin Prince, Charlotte Hanlon
BACKGROUND: In low-and middle-income countries, integration of mental health into primary care is recommended to reduce the treatment gap. In this study we explored barriers to initial and ongoing engagement of people with severe mental disorders (SMD) in rural Ethiopia after implementing integrated primary mental healthcare services. METHODS: A qualitative approach was employed. In-depth interviews were conducted with 50 key informants: service users/caregivers engaged with care (n = 17), non-engagers and their caregivers (n = 10), those who had initiated treatment but disengaged and their caregivers (n = 12) and primary healthcare professionals (n = 11)...
August 29, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
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