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Christoph König, Stephanie Tauchnitz, Heike Kunzelmann, Christian Horn, Frithjof Blessing, Matthias Kohl, Markus Egert
Despite its frequent use in many religious institutions, the microbiological quality of holy water is clearly underinvestigated. We analyzed the microbial load of 54 holy water samples, repeatedly taken in five Roman Catholic churches in the greater area of Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany, by means of aerobic colony counting and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALDI) Biotyping of representative isolates. Over all samples, colony counting indicated an average aerobic microbial load of 5.85 ± 3...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Hasan Gandomi, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Ali Misaghi, Ebrahim Rahimi
BACKGROUND: Pathogenic biotypes of the Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are considered to be one of the major cause of food-borne diseases in hospitals. The present investigation was done to study the pattern of antibiotic resistance and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes of different biotypes of the MRSA strains isolated from various types of hospital food samples. METHODS: Four-hundred and eighty-five raw and cooked hospital food samples were cultured and MRSA strains were identified using the oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion tests and mecA-based PCR amplification...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Mariyam Masood, Imran Amin, Ishtiaq Hassan, Shahid Mansoor, Judith K Brown, Rob W Briddon
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius; Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) is considered to be a cryptic (sibling) species complex, the members of which exhibit morphological invariability while being genetically and behaviorally distinct. Members of the complex are agricultural pests that cause direct damage by feeding on plants, and indirectly by transmitting viruses that cause diseases leading to reduced crop yield and quality. In Pakistan, cotton leaf curl disease, caused by multiple begomovirus species, is the most economically important viral disease of cotton...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Masatoshi Hori, Akifumi Nakayama, Daisuke Kitagawa, Hidetada Fukushima, Hideki Asai, Yasuyuki Kawai, Kazuo Okuchi
Introduction.Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) causes a severe infection that develops in the compromised host. Its pathophysiology is classified into three types: (1) primary septicaemia, (2) gastrointestinal illness pattern and (3) wound infection pattern. Of these, primary septicaemia is critical. V. vulnificus can be classified into three biotypes and two genotypes and its pathogenicity is type-dependent. Case presentation. A 47-year-old man presented to a local hospital with chief complaints of fever, bilateral lower limb pain and diarrhoea...
May 2017: JMM Case Reports
Aarati Nayak, Nami Rajpoot, Ranganath Nayak, Ramakant Nayak
An interdisciplinary approach to esthetics requires a comprehensive treatment plan formulated through evaluation of several restorative and periodontal parameters that influence the esthetic zone. A total of 25 subjects (13 women and 12 men, with an age range of 18 to 23 years) participated in the study. Parameters such as gingival biotype on the labial aspect, crown width to crown length ratio, and interdental papilla proportion, with respect to the maxillary anterior teeth, were determined. An attempt was made to establish a correlation between these components, and a positive correlation was found...
November 2017: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Alice A Wright, Rajkumar Sasidharan, Liisa Koski, Marianela Rodriguez-Carres, Daniel G Peterson, Vijay K Nandula, Jeffery D Ray, Jason A Bond, David R Shaw
Presented here is the first Echinochloa colona leaf transcriptome. Analysis of gene expression before and after herbicide treatment reveals that E. colona mounts a stress response upon exposure to herbicide. Herbicides are the most frequently used means of controlling weeds. For many herbicides, the target site is known; however, it is considerably less clear how plant gene expression changes in response to herbicide exposure. In this study, changes in gene expression in response to herbicide exposure in imazamox-sensitive (S) and- resistant (R) junglerice (Echinochloa colona L...
October 11, 2017: Planta
James T Rudrik, Marty K Soehnlen, Michael J Perry, Maureen Sullivan, Wanda Reiter-Kintz, Philip A Lee, Denise Pettit, Anthony Tran, Erin Swaney
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization -- time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) sample preparation methods including the direct, on-plate formic acid, and ethanol/formic acid tube extraction were evaluated for their ability to render highly pathogenic organisms non-viable and safe for handling in a Biosafety Level-2 laboratory. Of these, the tube extraction procedure was the most successful, with none of the tested strains surviving this sample preparation method. Tube extracts from several agents of bioterrorism and their near neighbors were analyzed in an eight laboratory study to examine the utility of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS MALDI-TOF MS systems and their IVD, research use only, and Security-Relevant databases, as applicable, to accurately identify these agents...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Marielle Babineau, Solvejg K Mathiassen, Michael Kristensen, Per Kudsk
Herbicide resistance is an example of plant evolution caused by an increased reliance on herbicides with few sites of action to manage weed populations. This micro-evolutionary process depends on fitness, therefore the assessment of fitness differences between susceptible and resistant populations are pivotal to establish management strategies. Loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti) is a serious weed in Eastern, Northern, and Central Europe with an increasing number of herbicide resistant populations. This study examined the fitness and growth characteristics of an ALS resistant biotype...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
H M Lopes, C S Bastos, L S Boiteux, J Foresti, F A Suinaga
Helicoverpa armigera is the most significant pest of agriculture in Asia, Europe, Africa, and Australasia, causing damage to crops greater than US$2 billion annually and until 2013 it was not detected in Brazil. Helicoverpa zea is restricted to the American continent and is important to corn and a secondary pest of cotton and tomatoes. The wide range of crops exploited by H. armigera (mainly cotton, soybeans, chickpea, and corn), the possible mating between these species can promote population shifts, that could be assessed by RAPD-PCR technique...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ahmed Ben Abdelkrim, Tarek Hattab, Hatem Fakhfakh, Mohamed Sadok Belkadhi, Faten Gorsane
Combining landscape ecology and genetics provides an excellent framework to appreciate pest population dynamics and dispersal. The genetic architectures of many species are always shaped by environmental constraints. Because little is known about the ecological and genetic traits of Tunisian whitefly populations, the main objective of this work is to highlight patterns of biodiversity, genetic structure and migration routes of this pest. We used nuclear microsatellite loci to analyze B. tabaci populations collected from various agricultural areas across the country and we determine their biotype status...
2017: PloS One
Seok-Jun Hong, Sofie L Valk, Adriana Di Martino, Michael P Milham, Boris C Bernhardt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with multiple biological etiologies and highly variable symptoms. Using a novel analytical framework that integrates cortex-wide MRI markers of vertical (i.e., thickness, tissue contrast) and horizontal (i.e., surface area, geodesic distance) cortical organization, we could show that a large multi-centric cohort of individuals with ASD falls into 3 distinctive anatomical subtypes (ASD-I: cortical thickening, increased surface area, tissue blurring; ASD-II: cortical thinning, decreased distance; ASD-III: increased distance)...
September 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
Franck E Dayan, Abigail Barker, Patrick J Tranel
Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides are effective tools to control a broad spectrum of weeds, including those that have evolved resistance to glyphosate. Their utility is being threatened by the appearance of biotypes that are resistant to PPO inhibitors. While the chloroplastic PPO1 isoform is thought to be the primary target of PPO herbicides, evolved resistance mechanisms elucidated to date are associated with changes to the mitochondrial PPO2 isoform, suggesting that the importance of PPO2 has been underestimated...
October 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
Anders Esberg, Nongfei Sheng, Lena Mårell, Rolf Claesson, Karina Persson, Thomas Borén, Nicklas Strömberg
Dental caries, which affects billions of people, is a chronic infectious disease that involves Streptococcus mutans, which is nevertheless a poor predictor of individual caries development. We therefore investigated if adhesin types of S.mutans with sucrose-independent adhesion to host DMBT1 (i.e. SpaP A, B or C) and collagen (i.e. Cnm, Cbm) match and predict individual differences in caries development. The adhesin types were measured in whole saliva by qPCR in 452 12-year-old Swedish children and related to caries at baseline and prospectively at a 5-year follow-up...
September 21, 2017: EBioMedicine
Georgina A Boamponsem, David W M Leung, Carolyn Lister
Iron (Fe) deficiency induces chlorosis (IDC) in plants and can result in reduced plant productivity. Therefore, development of Fe-efficient plants is of great interest. To gain a better understanding of the physiology of Fe-efficient plants, putative novel plant variants were regenerated from potato (Solanum tubersosum L. var. 'Iwa') callus cultures selected under Fe deficient or low Fe supply (0-5 μM Fe). Based on visual chlorosis rating (VCR), 23% of callus-derived regenerants were classified as Fe-efficient (EF) and 77% as Fe-inefficient (IFN) plant lines when they were grown under Fe deficiency conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Pierre H Boyer, Nathalie Boulanger, Amira Nebbak, Elodie Collin, Benoit Jaulhac, Lionel Almeras
Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for tick identification at the species level. More recently, this tool has been successfully applied for the detection of bacterial pathogens directly in tick vectors. The present work has assessed the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus tick vector by MALDI-TOF MS. To this aim, experimental infection model of I. ricinus ticks by B. afzelii was carried out and specimens collected in the field were also included in the study...
2017: PloS One
Vikas Gautam, Megha Sharma, Lipika Singhal, Sunil Kumar, Parvinder Kaur, Rupinder Tiwari, Pallab Ray
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been instrumental in revolutionizing microbiological identification, especially in high-throughput laboratories. It has enabled the identification of organisms like non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), which has been a challenging task using conventional methods alone. In this study an attempt was made to validate MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of clinical isolates of each of the three most common NFGNB, other than Pseudomonas spp...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Justine Fri, Roland Ndip Ndip, Henry Akum Njom, Anna Maria Clarke
Background: Seafood-borne Vibrio infections, often linked to contaminated seafood and water, are of increasing global public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of human pathogenic vibrios and their associated virulence genes isolated from fish and water samples from 2 commercial dusky kob farms and Kareiga estuary, South Africa. Methods: A total of 200 samples including dusky kob fish (n = 120) and seawater (n = 80) were subjected to Vibrio screening on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar (TCBS)...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Cinzia Porru, Francisco Rodríguez-Gómez, Antonio Benítez-Cabello, Rufino Jiménez-Díaz, Giacomo Zara, Marilena Budroni, Ilaria Mannazzu, Francisco Noé Arroyo-López
Directly brined black table olives of Bosana variety are a traditional food product of Sardinia island (Italy), spontaneously fermented by yeasts among other microorganisms. However, as far as we know, the identification, biotechnological and probiotic potential of this yeast community has not been investigated yet. In this work, a total of 72 yeast isolates previously obtained from Bosana olive brines were first genotyped by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis with primer M13, and then identified by sequencing of D1/D2 domains of rDNA 26S gene...
February 2018: Food Microbiology
Elise G Zuiderveld, Henny J A Meijer, Laurens den Hartog, Arjan Vissink, Gerry M Raghoebar
AIM: To assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial esthetic zone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and provisionalized implant. During implant placement, patients randomly received either a connective tissue graft from the maxillary tuberosity (n=30, test group) or no graft (n=30, control group)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Christopher A Dunlap, Gabriel M Mascarin, Emiliana M Romagnoli, Mark A Jackson
The current study evaluates the potential of using high resolution DNA melting assays to discriminate species in the genus Isaria. The study utilizes a previously identified 103 base pair PCR amplicon, which was reported to be selective for Isaria fumosorosea. Our study finds the amplicon selective for Isaria javanica and Isaria poprawskii when assayed against all members of the genus. In addition, the high resolution melting profile of this amplicon can be used to discriminate between I. javanica, I. poprawskii and a 1:1 mixture of the two species...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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