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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098749/a-semipersistent-plant-virus-differentially-manipulates-feeding-behaviors-of-different-sexes-and-biotypes-of-its-whitefly-vector
#1
Shaohua Lu, Jingjing Li, Xueli Wang, Danyang Song, Rune Bai, Yan Shi, Qinsheng Gu, Yen-Wen Kuo, Bryce W Falk, Fengming Yan
It is known that plant viruses can change the performance of their vectors. However, there have been no reports on whether or how a semipersistent plant virus manipulates the feeding behaviors of its whitefly vectors. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae) is an emergent plant virus in many Asian countries and is transmitted specifically by B and Q biotypes of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique to investigate the effect of CCYV on the feeding behaviors of B...
January 13, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095770/the-unique-genomic-landscape-surrounding-the-epsps-gene-in-glyphosate-resistant-amaranthus-palmeri-a-repetitive-path-to-resistance
#2
William T Molin, Alice A Wright, Amy Lawton-Rauh, Christopher A Saski
BACKGROUND: The expanding number and global distributions of herbicide resistant weedy species threaten food, fuel, fiber and bioproduct sustainability and agroecosystem longevity. Amongst the most competitive weeds, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats has rapidly evolved resistance to glyphosate primarily through massive amplification and insertion of the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene across the genome. Increased EPSPS gene copy numbers results in higher titers of the EPSPS enzyme, the target of glyphosate, and confers resistance to glyphosate treatment...
January 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087646/wheat-genotypes-with-combined-resistance-to-wheat-curl-mite-wheat-streak-mosaic-virus-wheat-mosaic-virus-and-triticum-mosaic-virus
#3
Wen-Po Chuang, Lina Maria Aguirre Rojas, Luaay Kahtan Khalaf, Guorong Zhang, Allan K Fritz, Anna E Whitfield, C Michael Smith
The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, (WCM) is a global pest of bread wheat that reduces yields significantly. In addition, WCM carries Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, family Potyviridae, genus Tritimovirus), the most significant wheat virus in North America; High Plains wheat mosaic virus (HPWMoV, genus Emaravirus, formerly High plains virus); and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV, family Potyviridae, genus Poacevirus). Viruses carried by WCM have reduced wheat yields throughout the U.S. Great Plains for >50 yr, with average yield losses of 2-3% and occasional yield losses of 7-10%...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077757/biotypes-and-scm-types-of-isolates-of-streptococcus-canis-from-diseased-and-healthy-cats
#4
J F Timoney, S Velineni, B Ulrich, P Blanchard
Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060802/imaging-biomarkers-and-biotypes-for-depression
#5
Tor D Wager, Choong-Wan Woo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054667/yersinia-pestis-halotolerance-illuminates-plague-reservoirs
#6
Maliya Alia Malek, Idir Bitam, Anthony Levasseur, Jérôme Terras, Jean Gaudart, Said Azza, Christophe Flaudrops, Catherine Robert, Didier Raoult, Michel Drancourt
The plague agent Yersinia pestis persists for years in the soil. Two millennia after swiping over Europe and North Africa, plague established permanent foci in North Africa but not in neighboring Europe. Mapping human plague foci reported in North Africa for 70 years indicated a significant location at <3 kilometers from the Mediterranean seashore or the edge of salted lakes named chotts. In Algeria, culturing 352 environmental specimens naturally containing 0.5 to 70 g/L NaCl yielded one Y. pestis Orientalis biotype isolate in a 40 g/L NaCl chott soil specimen...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053215/improved-differentiation-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-other-s-mitis-group-streptococci-by-maldi-biotyper-using-an-improved-maldi-biotyper-database-content-and-a-novel-result-interpretation-algorithm
#7
Inka Harju, Christoph Lange, Markus Kostrzewa, Thomas Maier, Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Marjo Haanperä
Reliable distinction of Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci is important because of the different pathogenic properties of these organisms. Differentiation between S. pneumoniae and closely related S. mitis species group streptococci has always been challenging, even when using such modern methods as 16S rRNA gene sequencing or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. In this study, a novel algorithm combined with an enhanced database was evaluated for the differentiation between S...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045942/knock-down-of-whitefly-gut-gene-expression-and-mortality-by-orally-delivered-gut-gene-specific-dsrnas
#8
Meenal Vyas, Amir Raza, Muhammad Yousaf Ali, Muhammad Aleem Ashraf, Shahid Mansoor, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Judith K Brown
Control of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) agricultural pest and plant virus vector relies on the use of chemical insecticides. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent innate immune response in eukaryotes, including insects, which results in degradation of the corresponding transcript following its recognition by a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that shares 100% sequence homology. In this study, six whitefly 'gut' genes were selected from an in silico-annotated transcriptome library constructed from the whitefly alimentary canal or 'gut' of the B biotype of B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043335/a-high-throughput-modified-als-activity-assay-for-cyperus-difformis-and-schoenoplectus-mucronatus-seedlings
#9
Rafael M Pedroso, Kassim Al-Khatib, Bradley D Hanson, Albert J Fischer
Cyperus difformis L. (CYPDI) and Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla (SCHMU) are major weeds of California (CA) rice, where resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitors was identified in several CYPDI and SCHMU populations that have also evolved resistance to photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides. The mechanism of ALS resistance in these populations remains to be clarified but this information is crucial in a weed management program, especially in a scenario where resistance to multiple herbicides has been identified...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041734/identification-of-bovine-associated-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-using-a-direct-transfer-protocol
#10
M Cameron, H W Barkema, J De Buck, S De Vliegher, M Chaffer, J Lewis, G P Keefe
This study evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) for the identification of bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), a heterogeneous group of different species. Additionally, we aimed to expand the MALDI-ToF MS database with new reference spectra as required to fill the gaps within the existing commercial spectral library. A total of 258 isolates of CNS were used in the study, covering 16 different CNS species. The majority of the isolates were previously identified by rpoB gene sequencing (n = 219), and the remainder were identified by sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp60, or both rpoB and hsp60...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040157/monitoring-the-mycobiota-during-greco-di-tufo-and-aglianico-wine-fermentation-by-18s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#11
Francesca De Filippis, Antonietta La Storia, Giuseppe Blaiotta
Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of grape must is a complex process, carried out by indigenous yeast populations arising from the vineyard or the winery environment and therefore representing an autochthonous microbial terroir of the production area. Microbial diversity at species and biotype level is extremely important in order to develop the composite and typical flavour profile of DOCG (Appellation of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin) wines. In this study, we monitored fungal populations involved in spontaneous fermentations of Aglianico and Greco di Tufo grape must by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of 18S rRNA gene amplicons...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025225/the-effect-of-temperature-and-host-plant-resistance-on-population-growth-of-the-soybean-aphid-biotype-1-hemiptera-aphididae
#12
Ashley R Hough, James R Nechols, Brian P McCornack, David C Margolies, Brett K Sandercock, Donglin Yan, Leigh Murray
A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate direct and indirect effects of temperature on demographic traits and population growth of biotype 1 of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura. Our objectives were to better understand how temperature influences the expression of host plant resistance, quantify the individual and interactive effects of plant resistance and temperature on soybean aphid population growth, and generate thermal constants for predicting temperature-dependent development on both susceptible and resistant soybeans...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018405/modulation-of-legume-defense-signaling-pathways-by-native-and-non-native-pea-aphid-clones
#13
Carlos Sanchez-Arcos, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Grit Kunert
The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is a complex of at least 15 genetically different host races that are native to specific legume plants, but can all develop on the universal host plant Vicia faba. Despite much research, it is still unclear why pea aphid host races (biotypes) are able to colonize their native hosts while other host races are not. All aphids penetrate the plant and salivate into plant cells when they test plant suitability. Thus plants might react differently to the various pea aphid host races...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013236/comparing-genome-versus-proteome-based-identification-of-clinical-bacterial-isolates
#14
Valentina Galata, Christina Backes, Cédric Christian Laczny, Georg Hemmrich-Stanisak, Howard Li, Laura Smoot, Andreas Emanuel Posch, Susanne Schmolke, Markus Bischoff, Lutz von Müller, Achim Plum, Andre Franke, Andreas Keller
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is gaining importance in the analysis of bacterial cultures derived from patients with infectious diseases. Existing computational tools for WGS-based identification have, however, been evaluated on previously defined data relying thereby unwarily on the available taxonomic information.Here, we newly sequenced 846 clinical gram-negative bacterial isolates representing multiple distinct genera and compared the performance of five tools (CLARK, Kaiju, Kraken, DIAMOND/MEGAN and TUIT)...
December 24, 2016: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006700/detection-of-different-microenvironments-and-lactobacillus-sakei-biotypes-in-ventricina-a-traditional-fermented-sausage-from-central-italy
#15
Patrizio Tremonte, Elena Sorrentino, Gianfranco Pannella, Luca Tipaldi, Marina Sturchio, Armando Masucci, Lucia Maiuro, Raffaele Coppola, Mariantonietta Succi
The present study evaluated the physico-chemical and microbiological features of Ventricina, considering for the first time the presence of different compartments deriving from the technology of production. In fact meat pieces (pork muscle and fat cut into cubes of about 10-20cm(3)), mixed with other ingredients and then stuffed into pig bladder, are still distinguishable at the end of the ripening. They appear delimited on the outside by the casing and inside by thin layers consisting of spices (mainly red pepper powder), salt and meat juices...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003422/maldi-tof-for-combined-species-identification-and-drug-sensitivity-testing-in-mycobacteria
#16
Pieter-Jan Ceyssens, Karine Soetaert, Markus Timke, An Van den Bossche, Katrin Sparbier, Koen De Cremer, Markus Kostrzewa, Marijke Hendrickx, Vanessa Mathys
Species identification and drug susceptibility testing (DST) of mycobacteria is an important yet complex process, traditionally reserved for reference laboratories. Recent technical improvements in MALDI-TOF MS started to facilitate routine mycobacterial identifications in clinical laboratories. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to perform phenotypic MALDI-based DST in mycobacteriology, using the recently described MALDI Biotyper antibiotic susceptibility test rapid assay (MBT-ASTRA™). We randomly selected 72 clinical M...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994424/correlation-of-gingival-thickness-with-gingival-width-probing-depth-and-papillary-fill-in-maxillary-anterior-teeth-in-students-of-a-dental-college-in-navi-mumbai
#17
Jyotsna Singh, Varsha J Rathod, Prajakta R Rao, Aardra A Patil, Deepak G Langade, Roshan K Singh
CONTEXT: The gingival biotype is of utmost importance for esthetics and biologic function. Anatomical characteristic of periodontium such as gingival thickness (GT), width of keratinized gingiva, and alveolar bone morphology will determine the behavior of periodontium when subjected to physical, chemical, or bacterial insult or during therapeutic procedure. AIMS: The aim of this study was to correlate the GT with gingival width (GW), probing depth (PD), and papillary fill (PF) in relation to maxillary anterior region...
October 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981792/comparative-studies-on-the-fermentation-performance-of-autochthonous-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains-in-chinese-light-fragrant-liquor-during-solid-state-or-submerged-fermentation
#18
Yu Kong, Qun Wu, Yan Xu
AIM: To explore the metabolic characteristic of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Chinese light-fragrant liquor fermentation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inter-delta amplification analysis was used to differentiate the S. cerevisiae strains at strain level. Twelve biotypes (I-XII) were identified among the 72 S. cerevisiae strains preselected. A comparison was conducted between solid-state fermentation and submerged fermentation with S. cerecisiae strains had different genotype, with a focus on the production of ethanol and the volatile compounds...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981729/the-flagellar-master-operon-flhdc-is-a-pleiotropic-regulator-involved-in-motility-and-virulence-of-the-fish-pathogen-yersinia-ruckeri
#19
Anna K Snyder Jozwick, Joerg Graf, Timothy J Welch
AIMS: To investigate the function of the master flagellar operon flhDC in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri and compare the effect of a constructed flhD mutation to a naturally occurring fliR mutation causing loss-of-motility in emergent biotype 2 (BT2) strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Y. ruckeri flhD and fliR mutants were constructed in a motile strain. Both mutations caused loss-of-motility, ablation of flagellin synthesis and phospholipase secretion, similar to naturally occurring BT2 strains...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981408/erratum-to-complete-sequence-of-three-different-biotypes-of-tomato-spotted-wilt-virus-wild-type-tomato-sw-5-resistance-breaking-and-pepper-tsw-resistance-breaking-from-spain
#20
Diana E Debreczeni, Carmelo López, José Aramburu, José Antonio Darós, Salvador Soler, Luis Galipienso, Bryce W Falk, Luis Rubio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2016: Archives of Virology
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