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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446872/does-selective-hormesis-impact-herbicide-resistance-evolution-in-weeds-accase-resistant-populations-of-alopecurus-myosuroides-huds-as-a-case-study
#1
Regina G Belz, Muhammad B Farooq, Jean Wagner
BACKGROUND: A field-evolved herbicide-resistant weed population can represent a heterogeneous composite of subpopulations that differ in their susceptibility and responsiveness to herbicide hormesis. Variable hormesis responsiveness can result in selection for and against certain subpopulations under low herbicide doses, and this has the potential to contribute to the evolution of resistance. The relevance of this hypothesis at practical field rates was studied for two field-collected acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) target-site resistant (TSR) biotypes of Alopecurus myosuroides Huds...
February 15, 2018: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446801/emergence-ecology-and-dispersal-of-the-pandemic-generating-vibrio-cholerae-lineage
#2
REVIEW
Mohammad T Islam, Munirul Alam, Yan Boucher
Although cholera is an ancient disease that first arose at least half a millennium ago, it remains a major health threat globally. Its pandemic form is caused by strains from a single lineage of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The ancestor of this lineage harbored several distinctive characteristics, the most notable being the O1 antigen polysaccharide. This lineage generated two biotypes, first Classical, responsible for six pandemics, and later El Tor, responsible for the seventh and ongoing pandemic. Just as El Tor replaced Classical as the main cause of outbreaks in the last fifty years, several variants of El Tor have evolved and displaced their predecessors worldwide...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#3
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428381/genetic-diversity-of-toxigenic-vibrio-cholerae-o1-from-sabah-malaysia-2015
#4
Myo Thura Zaw, Nor Amalina Emran, Mohd Yusof Ibrahim, Maria Suleiman, Tajul Ariffin Awang Mohd, Aza Sherin Yusuff, Khin Saw Naing, Than Myint, Muhammad Jikal, Mohd Azmi Salleh, Zaw Lin
BACKGROUND: Cholera is an important health problem in Sabah, a Malaysian state in northern Borneo; however, Vibrio cholerae in Sabah have never been characterized. Since 2002, serogroup O1 strains having the traits of both classical and El Tor biotype, designated as atypical El Tor biotype, have been increasingly reported as the cause of cholera worldwide. These variants are believed to produce clinically more severe disease like classical strains. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the genetic diversity of V...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425966/genotype-assembly-biological-activity-and-adaptation-of-spatially-separated-isolates-of-spodoptera-litura-nucleopolyhedrovirus
#5
Ghulam Ali, Marleen H C Abma-Henkens, Wopke van der Werf, Lia Hemerik, Just M Vlak
The cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous insect. It has recently made a comeback as a primary insect pest of cotton in Pakistan due to reductions in pesticide use on the advent of genetically modified cotton, resistant to Helicoverpa armigera. Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infects S. litura and is recognized as a potential candidate to control this insect. Twenty-two NPV isolates were collected from S. litura from different agro-ecological zones (with collection sites up to 600 km apart) and cropping systems in Pakistan to see whether there is spatial dispersal and adaptation of the virus and/or adaptation to crops...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425228/kshv-oral-shedding-and-plasma-viremia-result-in-significant-changes-in-the-extracellular-tumorigenic-mirna-expression-profile-in-individuals-infected-with-the-malaria-parasite
#6
Minako Ikoma, Soren Gantt, Corey Casper, Yuko Ogata, Qing Zhang, Ryan Basom, Michael R Dyen, Timothy M Rose, Serge Barcy
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Both KSHV and HIV infections are endemic in Uganda, where KS is among the most common cancers in HIV-infected individuals. Recent studies examined the use of small RNAs as biomarkers of disease, including microRNAs (miRNAs), with viral and tumor-derived miRNAs being detected in exosomes from individuals with KSHV-associated malignancies. In the current study, the host and viral extracellular mature miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in blood of KS-negative individuals in Uganda, comparing those with or without KSHV detectable from the oropharynx...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422351/comparison-of-the-identification-results-of-candida-species-obtained-by-bd-phoenix%C3%A2-and-maldi-tof-bruker-microflex-lt-biotyper-3-1
#7
Andrea P Marucco, Patricia Minervini, Gabriela V Snitman, Adriana Sorge, Liliana I Guelfand, Laura López Moral
In patients with invasive fungal infections, the accurate and rapid identification of the genus Candida is of utmost importance since antimycotic sensitivity is closely related to the species. The aim of the present study was to compare the identification results of species of the genus Candida obtained by BD Phoenix™ (Becton Dickinson [BD]) and Maldi-TOF MS (Bruker Microflex LT Biotyper 3.1). A total of 192 isolates from the strain collection belonging to the Mycology Network of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, were analyzed...
February 5, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421357/characterisation-of-ail-positive-yersinia-enterocolitica-of-different-biotypes-using-hrma
#8
Agata Bancerz-Kisiel, Anna Szczerba-Turek, Aleksandra Platt-Samoraj, Maria Michalczyk, Wojciech Szweda
Yersiniosis is one of the four most frequent foodborne zoonotic diseases in Europe, and Yersinia enterocolitica is the primary agent in human infections. The ail gene is an important chromosomal virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica which encodes Ail, a 17-kDa outer membrane protein that promotes attachment and invasion. In the present study, ail-positive Y. enterocolitica strains of different biotypes were examined using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and DNA sequencing. Genotype data relating to Y...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417342/morphofunctional-diversity-of-equine-of-varied-genetic-compositions-raised-in-the-pantanal-biome-of-brazil
#9
Marcos Paulo Gonçalves de Rezende, Julio Cesar de Souza, Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro, Riccardo Bozzi, Rodrigo Jose Delgado Jardim, Carlos Henrique Mendes Malhado
Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes...
February 7, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411645/application-of-the-maldi-biotyper-to-clinical-microbiology-progress-and-potential
#10
Markus Kostrzewa
The introduction of the MALDI Biotyper in laboratories substantially changed microbiology practice, this has been called a revolution. The system accelerated diagnostic while costs were reduced and accuracy was increased. In just a few years MALDI-TOF MS became the first-line identification tool for microorganisms. Ten years after its introduction, more than 2000 MALDI Biotyper systems are installed in laboratories which are performing routine diagnostic, and the number is still increasing. Areas covered: This article summarises changes in clinical microbiology introduced by the MALDI Biotyper and its effects, as it has been published in peer reviewed articles found in PubMed...
February 7, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410255/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy-and-light-activated-disinfection-on-contaminated-zirconia-implants-an-in-vitro-study
#11
Bleron Azizi, Ana Budimir, Ivona Bago, Blerim Mehmeti, Suzana Jakovljević, Jeta Kelmendi, Aleksandra Presecki Stanko, Dragana Gabrić
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and light-activated disinfection (LAD) on zirconia dental implants contaminated with three bacterial species and investigate if the PDT and LAD cause implant surface alterations. METHODS: Seventy-two zirconia dental implants were contaminated with a bacterial suspension of Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The implants were subsequently randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 dental implants/each) according to the decontamination protocol: Group 1 (PDT1) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with toluidine blue; Group 2 (PDT2) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with phenothiazine chloride dye; Group 3 (LAD) - light emitting diode (LED) with toluidine blue; and Group 4 (TB) - toluidine blue without the application of light...
February 1, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409566/brain-behavior-patterns-define-a-dimensional-biotype-in-medication-na%C3%A3-ve-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Luca Cocchi, Andrew Zalesky, Jinglei Lv, Alistair Perry, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Prantik Kundu, Michael Breakspear, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Childhood-onset attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is clinically heterogeneous and commonly presents with different patterns of cognitive deficits. It is unclear if this clinical heterogeneity expresses a dimensional or categorical difference in ADHD. METHODS: We first studied differences in functional connectivity in multi-echo resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) acquired from 80 medication-naïve adults with ADHD and 123 matched healthy controls...
February 7, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402927/salmonella-enteritidis-st183-emerging-and-endemic-biotypes-affecting-western-european-hedgehogs-erinaceus-europaeus-and-people-in-great-britain
#13
Becki Lawson, Lydia H V Franklinos, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Clare Wend-Hansen, Satheesh Nair, Shaheed K Macgregor, Shinto K John, Romain Pizzi, Alejandro Núñez, Philip M Ashton, Andrew A Cunningham, Elizabeth M de Pinna
The impacts of hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) Salmonella infection on public health and on animal welfare and conservation are unknown. We isolated Salmonella Enteritidis multi-locus sequence-type (ST)183 from 46/170 (27%) hedgehog carcasses (27 S. Enteritidis phage type (PT)11, 18 of a novel PT66 biotype and one with co-infection of these PTs) and from 6/208 (3%) hedgehog faecal samples (4 PT11, 2 PT66) from across Great Britain, 2012-2015. Whole genome phylogenetic analysis of the hedgehog isolates and ST183 from people in England and Wales found that PT11 and PT66 form two divergent clades...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402905/improved-tapaswini-having-four-bb-resistance-genes-pyramided-with-six-genes-qtls-resistance-tolerance-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses-in-rice
#14
Gitishree Das, Gundimeda J N Rao, M Varier, A Prakash, Dokku Prasad
Rice, a major food crop, is grown in a wide range of ecological conditions and suffers significant yield losses as it is constantly exposed to a wide range of environmental and biotic stresses. The prevalence of different biotypes/strains has necessitated assembling of numerous resistance genes/QTLs into elite genotypes to confer a broader scale of resistance. The current study reports successful pyramiding of genes/QTLs that confer tolerance/resistance to submergence (Sub1), salinity (Saltol), blast (Pi2, Pi9) and gall midge (Gm1, Gm4) to supplement the four bacterial blight resistance genes (Xa 4, xa5, xa13, Xa21) present in Improved Tapaswini, an elite cultivar...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396845/resistance-of-collard-green-genotypes-to-bemisia-tabaci-biotype-b-characterization-of-antixenosis
#15
G M Domingos, E L L Baldin, V F Canassa, I F Silva, A L Lourenção
Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of vegetable crops, including collard greens Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae). The use of resistant genotypes is an interesting option to reduce insect populations and can be used as an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM). This study evaluated 32 genotypes of collard greens against the attack of silver leaf whitefly, with the aim to characterize antixenosis. Initially, a multiple-choice trial was conducted using all genotypes, in which the adult attractiveness was assessed on two leaves per genotype at 24 and 48 h after infestation...
February 2, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391168/mapping-diet-induced-alternative-polyadenylation-of-hypothalamic-transcripts-in-the-obese-rat
#16
Julianna N Brutman, Xiang Zhou, Yangzi Zhang, Jennifer Michal, Bastian Stark, Zhihua Jiang, Jon F Davis
RNA biogenesis has emerged as a powerful biological event that regulates energy homeostasis. In this context insertion of alternative polyadenylation sites (APSs) dictate the fate of newly synthesized RNA molecules and direct alternative splicing of nascent transcripts. Thus APSs serve a mechanistic function by regulating transcriptome expression and function. In this study we employed a novel RNA-Seq Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach that utilized the power of Whole Transcriptome Termini Site Sequencing (WTTS-Seq) to simultaneously measure APS events on multiple RNA biotypes...
January 29, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390072/quantification-of-non-coding-rna-target-localization-diversity-and-its-application-in-cancers
#17
Lixin Cheng, Kwong-Sak Leung
Subcellular localization is pivotal for RNAs and proteins to implement biological functions. The localization diversity of protein interactions has been studied as a crucial feature of proteins, considering the protein-protein interactions take place in various subcellular locations. Nevertheless, the localization diversity of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) target proteins has not been systematically studied, especially its characteristics in cancers. In this study, we provide a new algorithm, non-coding RNA target localization coefficient (ncTALENT), to quantify the target localization diversity of ncRNAs based on the ncRNA-protein interaction and protein subcellular localization data...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386727/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms-for-rapid-identification-of-mycobacterium-abscessus
#18
Raghu Sriram, A K Sahni, Vaibhav L Dudhat, A K Pujahari
Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasingly being implicated in infections and have become an important cause of health care associated infections. Mycobacterium abscessus, a rapidly growing mycobacteria, is of particular concern as it tends to be resistant to commonly used therapeutic options. Conventional phenotypic methods for speciation of mycobacteria are time consuming, labor intensive and not always reliable. Molecular methods require expertise and are expensive. The study was used to evaluate the use of matrix associated laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a means of rapid identification of M...
January 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377452/papilla-crown-height-dimensions-around-zirconium-dioxide-implants-in-the-esthetic-area-a-3-year-follow-up-study
#19
Kim Kniha, Karl Andreas Schlegel, Heinz Kniha, Ali Modabber, Friedrich Neukam, Kristian Kniha
PURPOSE: Soft tissue interactions with ceramic dental implants have previously been shown to have favorable esthetic outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the papilla-crown proportion around zirconia implants in a 3-year follow-up study and the correlation between the gingival biotype and changes in papillary height. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study of 39 patients with 40 single-gap implants (Straumann PURE Ceramic ZLA Implant). The papilla-crown proportion was assessed after 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373960/gastric-bacterial-flora-in-patients-harbouring-helicobacter-pylori-with-or-without-chronic-dyspepsia-analysis-with-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectroscopy
#20
Verima Pereira, Philip Abraham, Sivaramaiah Nallapeta, Anjali Shetty
BACKGROUND: The gastric microbiota has recently been implicated in the causation of organic/structural gastroduodenal diseases (gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer) in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. We aimed to ascertain, in patients harbouring H. pylori, the role of the gastric microbiota in the causation of symptoms (chronic dyspepsia) in the absence of organic disease. METHODS: Seventy-four gastric biopsy samples obtained at endoscopy from patients with (n = 21) or without (n = 53) chronic dyspepsia, and that tested positive by the bedside rapid urease test for H...
January 26, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
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